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Journal Articles: 55 results
"As Simple as Possible, but Not Simpler"—The Case of Dehydroascorbic Acid  Robert C. Kerber
Textbooks routinely assign dehydroascorbic acid a tricarbonyl structure that is highly improbable in aqueous solution and inconsistent with its colorless appearance. Studies of oxidized forms of ascorbic acid are summarized here, and a plea is entered for accurate descriptions of chemical structures in this and other cases, even at the cost of some simplicity.
Kerber, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1237.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Vitamins
Radical Quenching of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl: A Spectrometric Determination of Antioxidant Behavior  John M. Berger, Roshniben J. Rana, Hira Javeed, Iqra Javeed, and Sandi L. Schulien
Describes a colorimetric assay using the persistent radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl to measure the activity of common antioxidants. This exercise is particularly appropriate for a course geared for nutrition or food science majors.
Berger, John M.; Rana, Roshniben J.; Javeed, Hira; Javeed, Iqra; Schulien, Sandi L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 408.
Food Science |
Free Radicals |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Vitamins
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation  Henry A. Carter
This article examines the applications of chemistry to paper preservation. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose accounts for the deterioration of paper in library books and other written records. To combat this threat to our written heritage, new permanent papers have been developed that are relatively chemically stable and undergo a very slow rate of deterioration.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1937.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
pH |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC–MS  A. E. Witter
An undergraduate experiment for the quantitative determination of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in chewing gum is described. A simple extraction procedure was used that did not require sample derivatization for analysis.
Witter, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1538.
Food Science |
Free Radicals |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
A Substitute for “Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride”  Joshua M. Daley and Robert G. Landolt
Benzotrifluoride (BTF) is a suitable solvent substitute for carbon tetrachloride in experiments requiring application of bromine (Br2) in free radical or addition reactions with organic substrates. A 1 M solution of Br2 in BTF may be used to distinguish hydrocarbons based on the ease of abstraction of hydrogen atoms in thermally or light-induced free radical substitutions. Efficacy of minimization of solvent use, by aliquot addition to neat samples, has been established.
Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 120.
Alkenes |
Free Radicals |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions
Small Scale Reactor for Ultraviolet Photochemistry  James E. Gano, Andrew J. Gano, Patricia Garry, and Padmanabhan Sekher
Apparatus for performing photochemical reactions at a variety of wavelengths.
Gano, James E.; Gano, Andrew J.; Garry, Patricia; Sekher, Padmanabhan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1361.
Free Radicals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Undergraduate Research |
Laboratory Management
Radioactivity, Radiation, and the Chemistry of Nuclear Waste  Nick Zevos
A course that emphasizes an understanding of the nuclear waste generated from the production of plutonium at sites such as Hanford, WA, and Savannah River, GA.
Zevos, Nick. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 692.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Solar Photocatalytic Destruction of p-Nitrophenol: A Pedagogical Use of Lab Wastes  J. A. Herrera-Melián, J. M. Doña-Rodríguez, E. Tello Rendón, A. Soler Vila, M. Brunet Quetglas, A. Alvera Azcárate, and L. Pascual Pariente
Using lab wastes to develop new chemistry experiments.
Herrera-Melián, J. A.; Doña-Rodríguez, J. M.; Rendón, E. Tello; Soler Vila, A.; Brunet Quetglas, M.; Azcárate, A. Alvera; Pascual Pariente, L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 775.
Catalysis |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Application of Hammond's Postulate. An Activity for Guided Discovery Learning in Organic Chemistry  J. E. Meany, Vicky Minderhout, and Y. Pocker
In this activity, students are given product distributions and other relevant experimental data concerning the free radical chlorination and bromination of propane. Students are guided in the use of Hammond's postulate to predict transition-state structures and to provide a rationale for the relationship between selectivity and reactivity in these and other reactions.
Meany, J. E.; Minderhout, Vicky; Pocker, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 204.
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Bromination, Elimination, and Polymerization: A 3-Step Sequence for the Preparation of Polystyrene from Ethylbenzene  Elizabeth M. Sanford and Heather L. Hermann
An organic chemistry lab that introduces students to polymer chemistry is presented. Students complete a radical bromination of ethylbenzene, which is followed by elimination to give styrene. A radical polymerization is then completed to produce polystyrene.
Sanford, Elizabeth M.; Hermann, Heather L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1343.
Free Radicals |
Synthesis |
Polymerization
Correction  
Word error in original article.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 830.
Nutrition |
Free Radicals |
Learning Theories
The Preparation of a UV-Light-Absorbing Polymer: A Project-Oriented Laboratory Experiment for the Introductory Organic Chemistry Curriculum  Thomas Poon, Jean P. McIntyre, Andrea Dorigo, Drew J. Davis, Matthew A. Davis, Crystal F. Eller, Leah R. Eller, Heather K. Izumi, Kenya M. Jones, Kurt H. Kelley, William Massello, Megan L. Melamed, Cynthia M. Norris, Jeffrey A. Oelrich, Thomas A. Pluim, Sarah E. Poplawski, Jason M. St. Clair, Matthew P. Stokes, Wells C. Wheeler, and Erin E. Wilkes
A laboratory experiment is described that combines organic synthesis, spectroscopy, and polymer chemistry and is suitable for the sophomore organic chemistry curriculum. In this three-week sequence, students synthesize and characterize the UV-absorber 2-(2',4'-dimethylbenzoyl)benzoic acid and incorporate it into films of polymethylmethacrylate.
Poon, Thomas; McIntyre, Jean P.; Dorigo, Andrea; Davis, Drew J.; Davis, Matthew A.; Eller, Crystal F.; Eller, Leah R.; Izumi, Heather K.; Jones, Kenya M.; Kelley, Kurt H.; Massello, William; Melamed, Megan L.; Norris, Cynthia M.; Oelrich, Jeffrey A.; Pluim, Thomas A.; Poplawski, Sarah E.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Stokes, Matthew P.; Wheeler, Wells C.; Wilkes, Erin E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1523.
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals
Motivating Students in Sophomore Organic Chemistry by Examining Nature's Way- Why Are Vitamins E and C Such Good Antioxidants?  Bruce D. Beaver
Motivating students in sophomore organic chemistry by integrating material from an area of contemporary research activity into the course. This article contains an overview of the antioxidant function of vitamins E and C.
Beaver, Bruce D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1108.
Nutrition |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Learning Theories |
Applications of Chemistry
Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise  Edwin F. Ullman
The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications.
Ullman, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 781.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
A Safe Simple Halogenation Experiment  Hilton M. Weiss and Lara Ganz
This experiment is designed to be a safe and experimentally simple procedure appropriate to the early weeks of a course when halogenation is the only reaction which has been discussed in the lecture. It can also provide some early experience with simple interpretation of NMR spectra.
Weiss, Hilton M.; Ganz, Lara. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 534.
Synthesis |
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy
Free Radical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Examples from Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater from the Chemistry in Airborne Water Droplets  N. Colin Baird
A common free radical reaction in aqueous solution is electron transfer, especially to the hydroxyl radical and to ozone. Hydrogen peroxide and free radicals related to it act as weak acids, so both their neutral and deprotonated forms must be considered in reactions. Free radical reactions also play an important role in the chemistry of water droplets suspended in air in clouds and fogs.
Baird, N. Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 817.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactive Intermediates |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Environmental Laboratory Exercise: Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide by Fluorescence Spectroscopy  Judith Weinstein--Lloyd and Jai H. Lee
Procedure in which students analyze precipitation samples for trace concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (a deleterious air pollutant) using fluorescence spectroscopy.
Weinstein-Lloyd, Judith; Lee, Jai H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1053.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Introducing Atmospheric Reactions: A Systematic Approach for Students  Baird, N. Colin
Outline of the dominant reactions that occur in air, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollutants.
Baird, N. Colin J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 153.
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Free-radical polymerization of acrylamide  Silversmith, Ernest F.
A rapid and foolproof thermal polymerization.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Free Radicals |
Polymerization |
Reactions
Free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons: Experiments for organic chemistry using the small-scale approach   Gilow, Helmuth M.
Better understanding of free radical halogenation can be gained by doing a laboratory experiment. The challenge, however, is that these experiments pose safety threats.
Gilow, Helmuth M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A122.
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab
Isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate: An undergraduate experiment utilizing high performance liquid chromatography  Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M.
Introduces students to liquid chromatography, the stereoisomerization of alkenes, certain aspects of free radical chemistry, and thermodynamics.
Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 781.
HPLC |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Esters |
Stereochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Thermodynamics
Undergraduate experiments with a long-lived radical (Fremy's salt): Synthesis of 1,4-benzoquinones by degradative oxidation of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohols  Morey, J.
The long-lived, stable radical described in this article can be prepared and stored for several months and therefore is an excellent basis for a series of experiments that the author designed for his class.
Morey, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 627.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
Consumer chemistry in an organic course   Miller, John A.
This paper looks at the main functional groups in organic chemistry and points out their appearance in consumer chemistry. These suggestions are especially useful for courses geared toward health science majors.
Miller, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 210.
Aromatic Compounds |
Free Radicals |
Hormones |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
A spectacular demonstration: 2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O  Skinner, James F.
Detonating hydrogen in a copper combustion chamber.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 545.
Reactions |
Free Radicals
Stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisomeric substance  Fulkroad, John E.
Examples of questions and solutions regarding stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisomeric substance.
Fulkroad, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 533.
Stereochemistry |
Free Radicals
The reactivity selectivity principle: Should it ever be used?  Buncel, Erwin; Wilson, Harold
Applications and failures of the reactivity selectivity principle; quantitative aspects of the reactivity selectivity principle; and rationalization of reactivity selectivity principle failures.
Buncel, Erwin; Wilson, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 475.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Carbocations |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Thioxanthone sulfone radical anion: A relatively stable ketyl  Castrillon, Jose
Thioxanthone sulfone is induced to produce a deep blue color upon standing that disappears on shaking.
Castrillon, Jose J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 352.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
The NBS reaction: A simple explanation for the predominance of allylic substitution over olefin addition by bromine at low concentrations  Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.
What factors govern the reaction of Br2 with an alkene to give either allylic substitution or double bond addition?
Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 650.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Alkenes
Catalysis of radical chain reactions  Bardsley, W. D.; Failes, R. L.; Hunter, R.; Stimson, V. R.
Examples where "catalysts" enter into reaction in a consistent manner, to increase the rate in one case and decrease it in the other.
Bardsley, W. D.; Failes, R. L.; Hunter, R.; Stimson, V. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 657.
Catalysis |
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Who is anti-Markovnikov?  Tedder, J. M.
What are the factors that control the rate and orientation of free radical addition to alkenes?
Tedder, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 237.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes
Aromatic substitution reactions: when you've said ortho, meta, and para you haven't said it all  Traynham, James G.
The author presents a range of examples for nucleophilic, electrophilic, and free-radical reactions where the ipso is an important, predominant, or even exclusive site of reaction.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 937.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Free Radicals |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry |
Reactions
Molecular formulas of organic compounds: the nitrogen rule and degree of unsaturation  Pellegrin, Valdo
This article wishes to demonstrate the nitrogen rule and the formula for calculating the number of rings plus double bonds of any common organic compound.
Pellegrin, Valdo J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 626.
Heterocycles |
Aromatic Compounds |
Free Radicals
Free radical chlorination of methane: A demonstration  Conklin, Alfred R.; Kramme, Alan
Free radical reactions are very important and often discussed in chemistry. One of the first such reactions encountered by students of organic chemistry is the free radical chlorination of methane. This reaction serves to introduce the student to free radical reactions and chain reaction. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of this reaction are uncommon.
Conklin, Alfred R.; Kramme, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 597.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals
An easily conducted free radical substitution for organic chemistry courses  Pavlis, Robert R.
The photobromination of 1,2-diphenylethane into its dibromo derivative, (2R) (3S) 1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane.
Pavlis, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 658.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Photochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds
A versatile chemical system for instruction in ESR spectroscopy  Darcy, Raphael
A radical precursor is sued to generate a number of interconvertible, long-lived free radicals whose spectra are observed at room temperature and show variations in detail that illustrate spectroscopic principles.
Darcy, Raphael J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 907.
Spectroscopy |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Reactive Intermediates |
Magnetic Properties |
Free Radicals
The effect of free radical stability on the rate of bromination of hydrocarbons  Doheny, Anthony J.; Loudon, G. Marc
The effect of alkyl free radical stability on the rate of free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons can be convincingly demonstrated by the comparative photobromination of the arenes toluene, ethylbenzene, and cumene.
Doheny, Anthony J.; Loudon, G. Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 507.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A modification of the free radical bromination of p-toluic acid  Olson, Edwin S.
The bromination of p-toluic acid proceeds well using less toxic chlorobenzene rather than carbon tetrachloride.
Olson, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 157.
Free Radicals
The perturbational MO method for saturated systems  Herndon, William C.
Outlines a molecular orbital approach to the problem of predicting and correlating bond dissociation energies in saturated hydrocarbons.
Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 448.
MO Theory |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Ethylene by naphtha cracking. Free radicals in action  Wiseman, Peter
Ethylene manufacture, the mechanism of ethylene formation, maximizing ethylene yield, the effect of feedstock composition, and secondary reactions.
Wiseman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 154.
Free Radicals |
Industrial Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Free-radical addition of tetrahalomethanes to [beta]-pinene. Experiments in organic chemistry  Kaye, Irving Allan; Odum, Robert A.
This laboratory provides a much needed learning opportunity about free-radicals.
Kaye, Irving Allan; Odum, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 60.
Free Radicals |
Addition Reactions
Polymerization as a model chain reaction  Morton, Maurice
The building of long chain macromolecules offers the best opportunity for the study of chain reactions and the free radical mechanism.
Morton, Maurice J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 740.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The gas phase free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons. An undergraduate experiment  Scala, Alfred A.
Investigates the photochemically initiated gas phase chlorination and bromination of lower hydrocarbons.
Scala, Alfred A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 573.
Free Radicals |
Alkylation |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry
Relative reactivates in free radical systems. An organic chemistry experiment  Hutchinson, Mary Jane; Mosha, Melvyn W.
An organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates the importance of reaction rates.
Hutchinson, Mary Jane; Mosha, Melvyn W. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 629.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Free-radical bromination of p-toluic acid. An experiment in organic chemistry  Tuleen, D. L.; Hess, B. A., Jr.
This paper describes the synthesis of a-bromo-p-toluic acid (II) and the subsequent displacement of bromide ion by three nucleophiles.
Tuleen, D. L.; Hess, B. A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 476.
Free Radicals |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Free radical chlorination  Adduci, Jerry M.; Dayton, Joseph H.; Eaton, David C.
The authors describe an experiment on free radical chlorination which is simple, nonhazardous, and well suited for a beginning student.
Adduci, Jerry M.; Dayton, Joseph H.; Eaton, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 313.
Free Radicals
Organic ion radical chemistry  Maler, Larry L.
This paper will briefly introduce ion radicals as a relatively new class of reactive intermediates.
Maler, Larry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 168.
Free Radicals |
Reactions
Demonstration of photochemistry and the dimerization and trapping of free radicals  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This demonstration uses simple equipment and involves a rapid, readily noticeable color change and also illustrates dimerization and the trapping of free radicals.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 315.
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactions
Chlorination of 2,3-dimethylbutane: A quantitative organic chemistry experiment  Markgraf, J. Hodge
This paper describes the quantitative study of a free radical chlorination in which the student determines the relative reactivity of selected hydrogens.
Markgraf, J. Hodge J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 610.
Quantitative Analysis |
Alkylation |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals
A modern look at Markovnikov's rule and the peroxide effect  Isenberg, Norbert; Grdinic, Marcel
Presents a "carbonium ion" definition of Markovnikov's Rule and examines the peroxide effect.
Isenberg, Norbert; Grdinic, Marcel J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 601.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions
Bromination of alkanes: Experiment illustrating relative reactivities and synthetic utility  Warkentin, J.
The radical halogenation of alkanes lend themselves well to the teaching of basic material such as bond dissociation energies, potential energy profiles, enthalpy of reaction, activation energy, and reaction rate.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 331.
Electrochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
The reactive intermediates of organic chemistry  Stewart, Ross
The purpose of this paper is to outline a logical presentation of the more important reactive intermediates the student is likely to encounter in organic chemistry.
Stewart, Ross J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 308.
Reactive Intermediates |
Free Radicals |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A convenient method for demonstration of stable carbanions  Landsbury, Peter T.
Highly colored pyridine solutions of carbanions are used as a convenient demonstration illustrating reactive intermediates.
Landsbury, Peter T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 307.
Reactive Intermediates |
Reactions |
Free Radicals
Balancing organic redox equations  Burrell, Harold P. C.
This paper presents a method for balancing organic redox equations based on the study of structural formulas and an artificial device - the use of hypothetical free radicals.
Burrell, Harold P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 77.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Free Radicals
Aromatic substitution by free radicals  Nelson, Peter F.
This article summarizes recent investigations upon orientation and reaction rates with respect to homolytic substitution.
Nelson, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 606.
Free Radicals |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The mechanisms of the reactions of aliphatic hydrocarbons  Schmerling, Louis
Examines the formation of carbonium ions and free radicals, the polymerization of olefins, hydrogen-halogen exchange, the condensation of haloalkanes with alkenes, the alkylation of paraffins, the condensation of paraffins with chloroolefins, the cracking of paraffins and olefins, and the isomerization of paraffins.
Schmerling, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 562.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals |
Polymerization