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Journal Articles: 62 results
Potassium Metal Is Explosive—Do Not Use It!  Andreas Grubelnik, Veronika R. Meyer, Peter Bützer, and Urban W. Schönenberger
The reaction of sodium with water is a spectacular and essential classroom demonstration. Many teachers want to show also the more violent reaction of potassium. We propose not to do so because explosions can happen even before the metal is in contact with water.
Grubelnik, Andreas; Meyer, Veronika R.; Bützer, Peter; Schönenberger, Urban W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 634.
Metals
A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent  Christopher J. Fenk, Nathan Kaufman, and Donald G. Gerbig, Jr.
Presents a new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of aspartame that incorporates a less caustic biuret reagent and visible spectroscopic analysis for selective detection in aqueous solutions using readily available instrumentation.
Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1676.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Food Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids
Primo Levi and The Periodic Table: Teaching Chemistry Using a Literary Text  Viktoria Klara Lakatos Osorio, Peter Wilhelm Tiedemann, and Paulo Alves Porto
Describes the use of a problem-solving activity with first-year undergraduate students based on an excerpt from Primo Levi's book The Periodic Table.
Osorio, Viktoria Klara Lakatos; Tiedemann, Peter Wilhelm; Porto, Paulo Alves. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 775.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
Potassium Iodide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of potassium iodide are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1286.
Laboratory Management
Measurement of the Isotopic Ratio of 10B/11B in NaBH4 by 1H NMR  Murray Zanger and Guillermo Moyna
A simple and remarkably accurate method for estimating the isotopic ratio between 10B and 11B through the use of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented. The experiment relies on the splitting caused by 10B (I = 3) and 11B (I = 3/2) on the 1H signal of a proton directly bound to boron, a phenomenon readily observed on an aqueous sample of NaBH4. In combination with a brief lecture or prelaboratory presentation, this laboratory can serve to introduce students to magnetic properties as well as theoretical and experimental aspects of NMR spectroscopy as early as the freshman-level chemistry.
Zanger, Murray; Moyna, Guillermo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1390.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
Potassium Nitrate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of potassium nitrate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1305.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Hydroxide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of potassium hydroxide are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1304.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Analysis of OxiClean: An Interesting Comparison of Percarbonate Stain Removers  Jeffrey D. Bracken and David Tietz
Several different brands of oxygen-based multipurpose stain removers consist of simple mixtures of sodium percarbonate and sodium carbonate. A small sample of each brand of stain remover is decomposed and then analyzed. The observed difference in mass allows students to accurately determine the percentages of each component of the stain remover. A back-titration experiment and a precipitation reaction are performed to confirm the complete decomposition of the original mixture.
Bracken, Jeffrey D.; Tietz, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 762.
Stoichiometry |
Consumer Chemistry
Lithium  Jay A. Young
The hazards of lithium are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 520.
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
How Radioactive Is Your Banana?  David W. Ball
This exercise uses a banana to illustrate the level of radioactivity (in this case, from K-40) in an everyday object.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1440.
Food Science |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Sodium Dichromate Dihydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium dichromate dihydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1251.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydrogen carbonate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1250.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Lithium Batteries: A Practical Application of Chemical Principles  Richard S. Treptow
In recent years batteries have emerged in the marketplace that take advantage of the unique properties of lithium. Lithium metal is an attractive choice to serve as a battery anode because it is easily oxidized and it produces an exceptionally high amount of electrical charge per unit-weight.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1015.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Potassium Dichromate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium dichromate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 874.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potassium Permanganate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium permanganate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Salt Crystals—Science behind the Magic  Charles F. Davidson and Michael R. Slabaugh
Discussion of sodium chloride and factors that influence the shape of the crystals it forms.
Davidson, Charles F.; Slabaugh, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 155.
Consumer Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Solids
Sodium Nitrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium nitrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1414.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Sodium Carbonate (anhydrous) Na2CO3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for anhydrous sodium carbonate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1315.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Acetate CH3COONa  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium acetate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1314.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Fluoride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium fluoride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1197.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Hypochlorite Solution  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hypochlorite solution.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1196.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Chromate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium chromate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1065.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Perchlorate: Chemical Laboratory Information Profile  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium perchlorate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 937.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Chlorate: Chemical Laboratory Information Profile  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium chlorate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 936.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 798.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 425.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Metals
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium Hydroxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Crystallization from a Supersaturated Solution of Sodium Acetate  Jamil Ahmad
An overhead projector demonstration is described, in which sodium acetate trihydrate crystallizes out from a supersaturated solution that has been poured on a transparency. When seeded with a crystal of the salt, crystallization starts, and its progress can be followed on the screen.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1446.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
Ionic Crystals: A Simple and Safe Lecture Demonstration of the Preparation of NaI from Its Elements  Zelek S. Herman
A simple and safe classroom demonstration showing the production of sodium iodide (NaI) crystals from elemental sodium and elemental (molecular) iodine is presented. The demonstration, which is quite impressive, naturally fits into the discussion of ionic bonding and the alkali halide crystals.
Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 619.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
The Sodium Rainbow  Miroslav Proksa
A new approach to the reaction of sodium with water to produce a "rainbow" of colors.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 942.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Manageable Measurement Method for Sodium  Mario Branca and Steven Loiselle
The use of sodium in chemical research is hampered by its reactivity in moist air, which leads to difficult handling and measurement methods. We describe a simple method using disposable microcapillary pipettes for small quantity applications.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 857.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Sodium Chloride Revisited  Robert V. Stick and Mauro Mocerino
This "Tested Demonstration" describes the preparation of sodium chloride from its elements, sodium and chlorine. Along the way, tests for chlorine, iodine, and the chloride ion are included.
Stick, Robert V.; Mocerino, Mauro. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 539.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Elementary Riddles  Eckley, Doris.
The riddles highlight some contradictory properties of elements and their compounds.
Eckley, Doris. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1051.
Avoiding the Downstream Hazard in an Ionic Solubility Study  McSwiney, H. D.
Using potassium chlorate rather than potassium dichromate in an ionic solubility experiment for improved waste disposal.
McSwiney, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 329.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
Recycling of sodium waste  Hubler-Blank, Bettina; Witt, Michael; Roesky, Herbert W.
Methods for handling and recycling a dangerous and costly chemical.
Hubler-Blank, Bettina; Witt, Michael; Roesky, Herbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 408.
Laboratory Management
Sodium D line emission from pickles  Appling, Jeffrey R.; Yonke, Fredrick J.; Edgington, Richard A.; Jacobs, Steve
Presentation of an alternate technique to generate visible atomic emission of sodium atoms that should be useful in a classroom demonstration.
Appling, Jeffrey R.; Yonke, Fredrick J.; Edgington, Richard A.; Jacobs, Steve J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 250.
Photochemistry
Argon-potassium atomic weight inversion in the periodic table.  Arnikar, H. J.
An explanation for the Ar-K inversion in terms of the nuclear characteristics of the naturally occurring isotopes of these elements.
Arnikar, H. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 687.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Geochemistry |
Isotopes
The use of potassium alum in demonstrating amphoterism  Tesh, Kris F.
Demonstrating amphoterism with aluminum hydroxide and universal indicator solution.
Tesh, Kris F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Acids / Bases
Electrochemical cells using sodium silicate   Rapp, Bernard, FSC
A procedure of assembly and execution of a demonstration of an electrochemical cell using sodium silicate.
Rapp, Bernard, FSC J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 358.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Start the term with a bang  Clare, Sheldon I.
The reaction of sodium in water is used to ignite a piece of filter paper.
Clare, Sheldon I. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 635.
Reactions
Determination of sodium in salt substitute by flame emission spectroscopy  Goodney, David E.
Using this procedure a student should be able to report the ppm Na in a salt substitute with an error of a few percent.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 875.
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A method for the determination of half-lives of long lived radioisotopes  Muse, Lowell A.; Safter, Warren J.
It is possible to obtain a rather accurate estimate of the half-life of long-lived radioisotopes by absolute counting of a sample of known mass.
Muse, Lowell A.; Safter, Warren J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 431.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Laboratory Management
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Bent thermometer  Smith, Douglas D.
Reducing the breakage of thermometers, using CO2 as an insecticide, and improving the demonstration of the reaction between sodium and water.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 742.
Laboratory Management |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Reactions
Solvay synthesis of sodium hydrogen carbonate. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Kirksey, H. Graden
There has been little in the undergraduate laboratory literature on the Solvay synthesis. This author shares an activity that can be done with introductory students.
Kirksey, H. Graden J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 272.
Synthesis
Determination of the percent Na4EDTA in bathroom cleaners  Kump, K. I.; Palocsay, F. A.; Gallaher, T. N.
There has been much publicity recently about the importance and virtues of relevant experiments in chemistry lab courses. This experiment is for the general chemistry student involving the analysis of bathroom cleaners and determining the concentration of active ingredients.
Kump, K. I.; Palocsay, F. A.; Gallaher, T. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 265.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Biochemical roles of some essential metal ions  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Summarizes the important biochemical roles played by ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 761.
Metals |
Organometallics |
Bioinorganic Chemistry
Display of sodium as a shiny metal  Davidson, Scott
Involves adding a few drops of a high molecular weight secondary alcohol to delay oxidation of the sodium while stored under kerosene.
Davidson, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Metals
The spectrum of atomic lithium. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Miller, Kenneth J.
The author gives a background on the theory and experimental procedure for the spectrum of atomic lithium.
Miller, Kenneth J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 805.
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Roadside salt pollution and the absorption-emission spectra of sodium: A general chemistry experiment  Tripp, Terrance B.; Nadeau, Jeanne L.
This experiment illustrates the absorption-emission spectra of atoms by analyzing soil samples for sodium. The experiment also stimulates an awareness of the environmental problems associated with the accumulation of common salt along roadsides resulting from ice removal operations.
Tripp, Terrance B.; Nadeau, Jeanne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 130.
Spectroscopy
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
13 demonstrations, including electrophoresis, electrolysis, corrosion inhibition, endothermic and exothermic reactions, crystals and crystallization, reactions with sodium, and the kinetics of H2O2 decomposition.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A387.
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Kinetics
Improving potassium flame tests  Strong, Frederick C., III
Describes ways for optimizing the classical flame test for potassium.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 178.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Group 1. The Alkali Metals. The Copper Group   Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations include the density and melting point of copper versus sodium, the conductivity of sodium, the reactivity with water of groups IA vs IB, and the stability of CO3--, HCO3-, and hydroxides of groups IA vs IB.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A919.
Metals |
Reactions |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Dodecyl sodium sulfate as a reagent for the detection of potassium  Neman, R. L.
The proposed test involves the addition of an aqueous solution of dodecyl sodium sulfate to precipitate dodecyl potassium sulfate.
Neman, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 479.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Metals
Qualitative tests for K+  McCoy, Robert E.
Flame tests of solid or concentrated cobaltnitrites produce results that are easily mistaken for potassium.
McCoy, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 444.
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The oxygen coordinations of lithium  Donnay, Gabrielle; Gryder, J. W.
The prevalent notion that lithium has only one coordination number with oxygen calls for revision - both tetrahedral and octahedral coordinations do occur.
Donnay, Gabrielle; Gryder, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 223.
Coordination Compounds
Demonstration of a parent-daughter radioactive equilibrium using 137Cs-137mBa  Choppin, Gregory R.; Nealy, Carson L.
Demonstrates the relationship between radioactive half life and both the rate of decay and growth of a radioactive daughter.
Choppin, Gregory R.; Nealy, Carson L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 598.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
Electrolysis of sodium through glass  Dutton, F. B.
Sodium is deposited on the inside of a light bulb immersed in molten NaNO3.
Dutton, F. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A313.
Electrochemistry
A reaction tube for sodium and chlorine  Barnard, W. Robert
Describes reacting sodium and chlorine in Pyrex tubing.
Barnard, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A49.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instability of sulfur-potassium chlorate mixture: A chemical view  Tanner, Herbert G.
Provides two experiments intended to display the chemistry of and safety guidelines associated with the ignition of sulfur-potassium chlorate mixtures, regularly used as a fuel by model rocket enthusiasts.
Tanner, Herbert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 58.
Oxidation / Reduction
Sodium through glass: A lecture demonstration experiment involving electrons, ions, and atoms  Alpern, D. K.
Sodium metal is deposited inside an incandescent bulb lowered into molten sodium nitrate.
Alpern, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 289.