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Journal Articles: 31 results
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of trans-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates  James E. Christensen, Matthew G. Huddle, Jamie L. Rogers, Herbie Yung, and Ram S. Mohan
Presents a microscale, green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates, especially bismuth triflate, as a Lewis acid catalyst. Bismuth compounds are especially attractive for use as catalysts in organic synthesis because of their low toxicity, low cost, and ease of handling.
Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1274.
Catalysis |
Epoxides |
Green Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy
Acylation of Ferrocene: A Greener Approach  Kurt R. Birdwhistell, Andy Nguyen, Eric J. Ramos, and Robert Kobelja
This article describes an acylation of ferrocene that is more eco-friendly than the conventional experiment, which has been modified by replacing mineral acid with a polymeric acid catalyst and using microwave instead of conventional heating.
Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Nguyen, Andy; Ramos, Eric J.; Kobelja, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 261.
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Concerning Lewis Acid–Base Theory for Proton Transfer  Lawrence J. Sacks
Counterpoint commentary in response to a suggestion that the Lewis acidbase approach be applied to reactions such as ammoniawater and HClwater.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1415.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
J. Chem Ed. 2007, 84, 1056–1061  
The article Getting the Weights of Lewis Structures out of Hckel Theory: HckelLewis Configuration Interaction (HL-CI) has an incorrectly printed table on p. 1059.
J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1277.
Lewis Acids / Bases
Astrochemistry Examples in the Classroom  Reggie L. Hudson
In this article some recent developments in astrochemistry are suggested as examples for the teaching of acid-base chemistry, molecular structure, and chemical reactivity. Suggestions for additional reading are provided, with an emphasis on readily-accessible materials.
Hudson, Reggie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1611.
Acids / Bases |
Astrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance  William H. Miles and Katelyn B. Connell
Describes the synthesis of a family of fragrances, including the commercially important Methyl Diantilis, and provides an excellent introduction to intellectual property laws.
Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 285.
Alcohols |
Food Science |
Catalysis |
Ethers |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Reaction to "Chemistry Is Not a Laboratory Science"  Lawrence J. Sacks
Stephen Hawkes has stirred us to reconsider whether, in fact, chemistry is a laboratory science by positing that lab work does not enhance students understanding of chemistrys centrality, but makes chemistry an irrelevance. This sweeping generalization of what some (maybe even most) labs do is further confounded by a fallacious premise; hence, the major thrust of the proposition likely will beand well should beviewed with utmost skepticism.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 997.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nonmajor Courses |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
Reaction to "Chemistry Is Not a Laboratory Science"  Lawrence J. Sacks
In response to Stephen Hawkes Commentary, I think the crucial point is whether the students learn to appreciate the intellectual beauty of science and understand the relatively small number of simple yet profound scientific principles which govern so much of our everyday experiences. Many non-science majors are obviously disinterested in the laboratory work in introductory courses.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 997.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Student-Centered Learning |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nonmajor Courses |
Theoretical Chemistry
Lewis Acid–Base, Molecular Modeling, and Isotopic Labeling in a Sophomore Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Chip Nataro, Michelle A. Ferguson, Katherine M. Bocage, Brian J. Hess, Vincent J. Ross, and Daniel T. Swarr
Computational methods can be introduced to simulate IR spectra and to view the HOMO of the Lewis base and the LUMO of the Lewis acid. In addition to the computational exercise, NaBD4 can be used in the synthesis of the adduct in place of NaBH4. This allows the students to observe the effect of isotopic labeling on IR spectra.
Nataro, Chip; Ferguson, Michelle A.; Bocage, Katherine M.; Hess, Brian J.; Ross, Vincent J.; Swarr, Daniel T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 722.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Molecular Modeling |
Isotopes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Acid–Base Titrations in Nonaqueous Solvents and Solvent Mixtures  Lajos Barcza and Ágnes Buvári-Barcza
Discussion of acid-base theory, the role of hydrogen bonding in acid-base reactions, and promoting, leveling, and differentiating effects.
Barcza, Lajos; Buvári-Barcza, Ágnes. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 822.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Mechanism of Aqueous Hydrolysis of Nitro Derivatives of Phenyl Phenylmethanesulfonate. An Organic Laboratory Experiment  S. D. Mulder, B. E. Hoogenboom, and A. G. Splittgerber
Synthesis, purification, and characterization of three esters.
Mulder, S. D.; Hoogenboom, B. E.; Splittgerber, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 218.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Reactive Intermediates |
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Aromatic Compounds |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Teaching Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory in a Direct Comprehensive Way  Jamie L. Adcock
Unifying all the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base concepts in a quantitative way.
Adcock, Jamie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1495.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Do pH in Your Head  Addison Ault
Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 936.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Organic Chemistry (by Maitland Jones, Jr. )  Michael S. Holden
The general framework that Jones uses is that of Lewis acids reacting with Lewis bases, with an emphasis on the interaction of filled and empty orbitals. Again and again, as you work your way through the text, there are examples of reactions being explained by the overlap of orbitals.
Holden, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 291.
Lewis Acids / Bases
The Synthesis, Characterization, and Lewis Acidity of SnI2 and SnI4  Richard W. Schaeffer, Benny Chan, Michael Molinaro, Susan Morissey, Claude H. Yoder, Carolyn S. Yoder, and Stephanie Shenk
In this project the student has the opportunity to learn about: a) the direct synthesis of compounds from the elements, b) stoichiometry and limiting reagent, c) isolation by recrystallization, d) use of inert atmosphere, e) identification by melting point, gravimetric analysis, powder x-ray diffraction, and NMR spectroscopy, and f) at least one method for determination of relative Lewis acidity.
Schaeffer, Richard W. ; Chan, Benny ; Molinaro, Michael; Morissey, Susan ; Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.; Shenk, Stephanie. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 575.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Stoichiometry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy
Optical Basicity: A Practical Acid-Base Theory for Oxides and Oxyanions  J. A. Duffy
The optical basicity concept relies on the Lewis approach to acids and bases and was developed for dealing with chemical problems in non-aqueous, non-protonic media such as silicates, phosphates and borates which are important in glass making and (as slags) for refining steel.
Duffy, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1138.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases
Hard and Soft Acid-Base Behavior in Aqueous Solution: Steric Effects Make Some Metal Ions Hard: A Quantitative Scale of Hardness-Softness for Acids and Bases  Robert D. Hancock and Arthur E. Martell
The idea of hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB), developed by R. G. Pearson some 30 years ago, has been used as a unifying principle in several texts. In this article, the behaviour of HSAB in aqueous solution is addressed. A quantitative scale of hardness-softness for acids and bases is presented also.
Robert D. Hancock and Arthur E. Martell. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 654.
Quantitative Analysis |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds
Epoxidation of Alpha-Methylstyrene and its Lewis Acid Rearrangement to 2-Phenylpropanal  David L. Garin, Melissa Gamber, and Bradley J. Rowe
This undergraduate organic lab experiment includes procedures for the peracid epoxidation of an olefin and the Lewis acid rearrangement of an epoxide to a carbonyl compound.
Garin, David L.; Gamber, Melissa; Rowe, Bradley J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 555.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Standard states for water equilibrium (author response).  Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A.
For the purposes of comparison only the unconventionally derived Ka values should be used to compare equilibrium constants for other acids to determine relative acid strengths.
Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 256.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Standard states for water equilibrium.  Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene.
The authors consider that Ka and Kb values for Bronsted acids and bases in aqueous solution represent one data set describing the properties of solutes in dilute aqueous solution.
Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 255.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Beta-keto esters from tin(II) chloride catalyzed reactions of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate: An undergraduate laboratory experiment drawn from the current literature  Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R.
This is an experimental procedure for producing longer-chain keto esters from unconjugated aldehydes on reaction with ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by Lewis acids for use in an undergraduate laboratory.
Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 68.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters
Zinc enzymes  Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R.
The role played by catalytic and noncatalytic zinc in biochemical systems. From the "State of the Art Symposium: Bioinorganic Chemistry", held at the ACS meeting, Miami, 1985.
Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 924.
Enzymes |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Proteins / Peptides
Metal complexes as color indicators for solvent parameters  Soukup, Rudolf W.; Schmid, Roland
Review of the use of metal ions as color indicators for both the sigma-donor and sigma-acceptor abilities of solvents; briefly describes several experiments involving such metal complexes.
Soukup, Rudolf W.; Schmid, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 459.
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Lewis Acids / Bases
Lewis acid-base equilibria. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Brice, L. K.
Describes an experiment involving the spectrophotometric determination of formation constants of Lewis adducts formed between metal halides and organic bases in diethyl ether as a solvent.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 430.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part II: Underlying theories  Pearson, Ralph G.
Explores possible explanations for and presents applications of the principles of hard and soft acids and bases.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 643.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part 1: Fundamental principles  Pearson, Ralph G.
Using the principles of hard and soft acids and bases to estimate the strength and softness of an acid or base.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 581.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds
Lewis acid-base titration in fused salts  Schlegel, James M.
Dichromate ion, a Lewis acid, is titrated with carbonate ion, a Lewis base, in a fused KNO3-NaNO3 solvent.
Schlegel, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 362.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Letter to the editor  Onwood, D. P.
Discusses variations in the usage of the terms "acid" and "base," including Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis systems.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 335.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching ionic equilibrium: Use of log chart transparencies  Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus
The use of graphical methods brings the problem of significance of various terms in complicated expressions into proper focus. Furthermore, a pictorial representation permits the student to see at a glance how the concentrations of various species in a system at equilibrium change with conditions.
Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 35.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The hydrated hydronium ion  Clever, H. Lawrence
It is the purpose of this brief review to cite and discuss some of the evidence for the existence of the trihydrated hydronium ion.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 637.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Acidity measurements with indicators in glacial acetic acid  Kolling, Orland W.
In the measurement of acidity in glacial acetic acid solutions of acids as strong as perchloric, the color change of a basic indicator may be used.
Kolling, Orland W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 452.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases