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Journal Articles: 45 results
Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle  Terry L. Meek and Leah D. Garner
The dependence of bond type on two parameters, electronegativity difference (??) and average electronegativity (?av), is examined. It is demonstrated that ionic character is governed by the partial charges of the bonded atoms, and metallic character by the HOMO¬ĚLUMO band gap.
Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
How We Teach Molecular Structure to Freshmen  Michael O. Hurst
Examination of how textbooks discuss various aspects of molecular structure; conclusion that much of general chemistry is taught the way it is for historical and not pedagogical reasons.
Hurst, Michael O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 763.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
The Use of Molecular Modeling and VSEPR Theory in the Undergraduate Curriculum to Predict the Three-Dimensional Structure of Molecules  Brian W. Pfennig and Richard L. Frock
Despite the simplicity and elegance of the VSEPR model, however, students often have difficulty visualizing the three-dimensional shapes of molecules and learning the more subtle features of the model, such as the bond length and bond angle deviations from ideal geometry that accompany the presence of lone pair or multiple bond domains or that result from differences in the electronegativity of the bonded atoms, partial charges and molecular dipole moments, and site preferences in the trigonal bipyramidal electron geometry.
Pfennig, Brian W.; Frock, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1018.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
Lewis Structures Are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure  Gordon H. Purser
This article argues against a close relationship between Lewis dot structures and electron structure obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. Lewis structures are a powerful tool for structure prediction, though they are classical models of bonding and do not predict electronic structure.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1013.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling
Hydrogen Bonds Involving Transition Metal Centers Acting As Proton Acceptors  Antonio Martín
A short review of the most remarkable results which have recently reported M----H-X hydrogen bonds, along with a systematization of their structural and spectroscopic properties, is provided in this paper. These M----H interactions are substantially different from the "agostic" M----H ones, and their differences are commented on, setting up criteria that permit their clear differentiation in order to avoid some of the misidentifications that occurred in the past.
Tello, Antonio Martín. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 578.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Hydrogen Bonding
A Simple Qualitative Molecular-Orbital/Valence-Bond Description of the Bonding in Main Group "Hypervalent" Molecules  Owen J. Curnow
A multicenter valence-bond/molecular-orbital bonding scheme for main group "hypervalent" molecules is proposed which extends the 3-center-4-electron (3c-4e) bonding model of Rundle and Pimentel to include 4c-6e, 5c-8e, and 6c-10e bonds. This model allows the determination of bond orders and a rationalisation of bond distances.
Curnow, Owen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 910.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Pi-Electron Delocatlization in Organic Molecules with C-N Bonds  Vernon G. S. Box and Hing Wan Yu
Molecular modeling can provide great stimulation to the pedagogical process if students and teachers use this tool to examine the structural aspects of organic molecules whose structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography. An example of this is provided by one of our undergraduate research projects that examined delocalization in p-systems.
Box, Vernon G. S.; Yu, Hing Wan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1293.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
X-ray Crystallography
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Role of Electrostatic Effects in Organic Chemistry  Kenneth B. Wiberg
Electrostatic effects on the properties of organic compounds are reviewed to demonstrate the importance of electronegativity differences between the atoms forming a bond. Bond dissociation energies are generally found to increase as the electronegativity difference increases, and the bonds have increased ionic character.
Wiberg, Kenneth B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1089.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Isomers of Benzene  Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H.
Summary of isomers and valence isomers of benzene.
Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 222.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Covalent Bonding
The nature of the chemical bond - 1992  Pauling, Linus
Commentary on errors in an earlier article on the nature of the chemical bond.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 519.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The significance of the bond angle in sulfur dioxide  Purser, Gordon H.
Discussion of the bonding in and structure of SO2.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 710.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
A colorful demonstration to simulate orbital hybridization  Emerson, David W.
A simple, colorful demonstration involving nothing more than several beakers of colored water can speed up student comprehension of hybrid orbitals at the introductory level.
Emerson, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 454.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Models to depict hybridization of atomic orbitals  Stubblefield, C. T.
Six models of hybridization: linear, trigonal, tetrahedral, planar, trigonal bipyrimidal, and octahedral.
Stubblefield, C. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 158.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds
Bent bonds and multiple bonds  Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.
Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of the bent bond model first proposed by Pauling in 1931.
Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 329.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
The valence bond interpretation of molecular geometry  Smith, Derek W.
Shows that the valence bond theory not only provides an attractive means of describing the bonding in a molecule but can also explain its geometry.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 106.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Bond free energies  Amador, Alberto
Provides standard free energies for the formation of common single and multiple bonds.
Amador, Alberto J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 453.
Covalent Bonding |
Thermodynamics
Electrons, bonding, orbitals, and light: A unified approach to the teaching of structure and bonding in organic chemistry courses  Lenox, Ronald S.
A suggested list of topics and methods for teaching introductory organic students bonding concepts.
Lenox, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 298.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
The LMO description of multiple bonding and multiple lone pairs  England, Walter
Examines localized molecular orbitals and the description of multiple bonds and lone pairs.
England, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 427.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Molecular geometry: Bonded versus nonbonded interactions  Bartell, L. S.
Proposes simplified computational models to facilitate a comparison between the relative roles of bonded and nonbonded interactions in directed valence.
Bartell, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 754.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part II: Underlying theories  Pearson, Ralph G.
Explores possible explanations for and presents applications of the principles of hard and soft acids and bases.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 643.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
Letter to the editor (the author replies)  Luder, W. F.
Replies to the concerns raised by the cited letter.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letter to the editor  Sementsov, A.
Questions the configuration of benzene supported by the theory discussed in the cited paper.
Sementsov, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A unified theory of bonding for cyclopropanes  Bernett, William A.
Examines various models for bonding in cyclopropanes.
Bernett, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 17.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
IV - Isoelectronic systems  Bent, Henry A.
A detailed consideration of the principles of isoelectric systems.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 170.
Gases |
Nonmetals |
Covalent Bonding
Models for the double bond  Walters, Edward A.
Examines several models for the double bond, including the Baeyer model and bent-bond method.
Walters, Edward A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 134.
Covalent Bonding
III - Bond energies  Benson, Sidney W.
Examines bond dissociation energies , methods for measuring such energies, some representative values of such energies, structural aspects of bond dissociation energies, and bond energies in ionized species.
Benson, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 502.
Covalent Bonding
Reaction heats and bond strengths (Mortimer, C. T.)  Lacher, John R.

Lacher, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A130.
Thermodynamics |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Atomic structure and chemical bonding (Seel, F.; Greenwood, N. N.; Stadler, H. P.)  Murmann, R. Kent

Murmann, R. Kent J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 518.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
An atomic and molecular orbital models kit  Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin
The models presented here allows one to see the overlap that constitutes covalent bonds.
Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 395.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Bonding in xenon hexafluoride  Kaufman, Joyce J.
Examines empirical evidence and hypotheses regarding the bonding of xenon hexafluoride.
Kaufman, Joyce J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 183.
Nonmetals |
Covalent Bonding
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. II. Uses in Teaching  Bent, Henry A.
Tangent-sphere models can be used to represent highly strained bonds and multicentered bonds, atoms with expanded and contracted octets, inter- and intramolecular interactions, and the effects of electronegative groups, lone pairs, and multiple bonds on molecular geometry, bond properties, and chemical reactivity.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 523.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Relationship of exothermicities of compounds to chemical bonding  Siegel, Bernard
The sign and magnitude of the standard heat of formation of a chemical compound is often used incorrectly to characterize its relative stability compared to other compounds.
Siegel, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 308.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Stable gaseous species at high temperatures  Siegel, Bernard
Presents a systematic correlation of the bonding in the gaseous elements with the strengths of their respective bonds.
Siegel, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 304.
Gases |
Carbocations |
Covalent Bonding
Intrinsic bond energies  Siegel, S.; Siegel, B.
Examines intrinsic bond energies drawn from spectroscopic data and focusses on beryllium hydride as an example.
Siegel, S.; Siegel, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 143.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The uses and abuses of bond energies  Knox, Bruce E.; Palmer, Howard B.
The author argues that the concepts of bond energy and bond-dissociation energy be presented to undergraduate physical and organic chemistry students in enough detail that some real understanding results.
Knox, Bruce E.; Palmer, Howard B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 292.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Distribution of atomic s character in molecules and its chemical implications  Bent, Henry A.
Explains the shape of simple molecules using the distribution of atomic s character.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 616.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Some recent developments in the theory of bonding in complex compounds of the transition metals  Sutton, Leslie E.
Examines the ligand field and the molecular orbital theories of complexes, particularly involving transition metals.
Sutton, Leslie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 498.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
The contributions of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory  Campaigne, E.
Examines the contribution of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory and his work regarding the nature of bonds in pyrone ring systems.
Campaigne, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 336.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Comparative organic chemistry: Carbon and silicon  Wilk, I. J.
Contrasts silicone chemistry with that of regular organic compounds.
Wilk, I. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 463.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
The coordinate bond and the nature of complex inorganic compounds. I. The formation of single covalent bonds  Busch, Daryle H.
The factors determining the stabilities of complex inorganic compounds are considered in terms of thermochemical cycle; it is pointed out that the stabilities of complexes increase as the percent covalent character in their bonds increases, and weak covalent bonds will occur in any given instance.
Busch, Daryle H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 376.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The evolution of valence theory and bond symbolism  Mackle, Henry
Traces the historic evolution of valence theory and bond symbolism, including numerical aspects of chemical bonding, the mechanism of chemical bonding and its origins, chemical bonding in organic compounds, stereochemical aspects of chemical bonding, residual valence of unsaturated compounds, and electronic theories of valence.
Mackle, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 618.
Covalent Bonding
An unconventional representation of multiple bonds  Gillis, Richard G.; Nelson, Peter F.
There are several advantages to differentiating between sigma and pi electrons in representing multiple bonds.
Gillis, Richard G.; Nelson, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 546.
Covalent Bonding