TIGER

Journal Articles: 167 results
Designing and Conducting a Purification Scheme as an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Practical  Kate J. Graham, Brian J. Johnson, T. Nicholas Jones, Edward J. McIntee, and Chris P. Schaller
Describes an open-ended laboratory practical that challenges students to evaluate when different purification techniques are appropriate.
Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Schaller, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1644.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
A Non-Mercury Thermometer Alternative for Use in Older Melting Point Apparatuses  Lois K. Ongley, Clayton S. Kern, and Barry W. Woods
This work demonstrates that lab-calibrated thermocouples are a statistically accurate and economically reasonable substitute for mercury thermometers to measure the melting point temperature for organic compounds in older Mel-Temp devices.
Ongley, Lois K.; Kern, Clayton S.; Woods, Barry W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1263.
Calibration |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation To Reinforce Student Understanding of Intermolecular Forces  Phillip R. Burkholder, Gordon H. Purser, and Renee S. Cole
This article presents a series of experiments incorporating molecular dynamics simulations which predict the motion of chemical species based on the application of empirical rules and a physical analysis of the forces that act between the species. These motions can then be shown in vivid graphical form.
Burkholder, Phillip R.; Purser, Gordon H.; Cole, Renee S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1071.
Computational Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Dancing Crystals: A Dramatic Illustration of Intermolecular Forces  Donald W. Mundell
Crystals of naphthalene form on the surface of an acetone solution and dance about in an animated fashion illustrating surface tension, crystallization, and intermolecular forces. Additional experiments reveal the properties of the solution and previous demonstrations of surface motion are explored.
Mundell, Donald W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1773.
Aromatic Compounds |
Liquids |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Surface Science |
Noncovalent Interactions
Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC  Gregory T. Rushton, William G. Burns, Judi M. Lavin, Yong S. Chong, Perry Pellechia, and Ken D. Shimizu
After the synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, students estimate the rotational barrier about a CarylNimidesingle bond by studying the reequilibration of the two resulting isomers using two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, followed by a more accurate determination through a 1H NMR time study.
Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1499.
Alcohols |
Chromatography |
Conformational Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Hydrophilic Inorganic Macro-Ions in Solution: Unprecedented Self-Assembly Emerging from Historical "Blue Waters"  Tianbo Liu, Ekkehard Diemann, and Achim Müller
The behavior of supramolecular structures in solution is different from that of simple ions, polymers, surfactant micelles, and colloids. New research involving polyoxometalates, which are fully hydrophilic but tend to self-associate into macro-ionic structures, may change our understanding of inorganic ionic solutions.
Liu, Tianbo; Diemann, Ekkehard; Müller, Achim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 526.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Colloids |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Physical Properties
Teaching Structure–Property Relationships: Investigating Molecular Structure and Boiling Point  Peter M. Murphy
The boiling points for 392 organic compounds are tabulated by carbon chain length and functional group to facilitate a wide range of inquiry-based activities that correlate the effects of chemical structure on physical properties.
Murphy, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 97.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
A Developmental History of Polymer Mass Spectrometry  Matthew J. Vergne, Robert P. Lattimer, and David M. Hercules
This review provides a historical perspective of the development of polymer mass spectrometry, divided into three eras: the small molecule era (1950s and 1960s); the macromass era (1970s and 1980s); and the modern era (the late 1980s to the present).
Vergne, Matthew J.; Lattimer, Robert P.; Hercules, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 81.
Mass Spectrometry |
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Popcorn—What's in the Bag?  Marissa B. Sherman and Thomas A. Evans
Three independent activities explore microwave popcorn, the nature of the packaging, and the popcorn produced.
Sherman, Marissa B.; Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 416A.
Carbohydrates |
Nutrition |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
A Discovery-Learning 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone Experiment  Bruno M. Vittimberga and Ben Ruekberg
Selections of liquid aldehydes and ketones are proposed for students to determine what property is the best predictor of the color (yellow to red) of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative. Students may use a computer (spreadsheet or word processor) to analyze their results.
Vittimberga, Bruno M.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1661.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Vapor Pressure Measurements in a Closed System  Mark Iannone
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for vapor pressure measurements in a closed system and the procedure for its use.
Iannone, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 97.
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Further Analysis of Boiling Points of Small Molecules, CHwFxClyBrz  Guy Beauchamp
Multiple linear regression analysis has proven useful in selecting predictor variables that could significantly clarify the boiling point variation of the CHwFxClyBrz molecules.
Beauchamp, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1842.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
An Engaging Illustration of the Physical Differences among Menthol Stereoisomers  Edward M. Treadwell and T. Howard Black
The differences and similarities in the physical behavior of enantiomers and diastereomers can easily be demonstrated using the commercial stereoisomers (-)-menthol, (+)-menthol, (+)-isomenthol, and (+)-neomenthol. Thin-layer chromatography and melting point determinations clearly show that diastereomers have different physical properties from enantiomers and each other, but that enantiomers have identical physical properties in achiral environments. By obtaining a mixed melting point and optical rotations the difference in enantiomers can be observed.
Treadwell, Edward M.; Black, T. Howard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1046.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Physical Properties
N,N-Dimethylformamide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of N,N-dimethylformamide are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 632.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chloroacetic acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of chloroacetic acid are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 631.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calcium  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for calcium.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 479.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Silver  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for silver.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 478.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Sodium Iodide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium iodide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 330.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 187.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chlorine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for chlorine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 186.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Using a Disposable Pipet for Preparing Air-Sensitive Compounds for Melting Point Determinations or Storage  Martial Sanz
An inexpensive disposable Pasteur pipet can be transformed into a capillary tube, which, once correctly coupled with a Quickfit adapter with a side arm by means of a rubber septum, can receive under a dried and inert atmosphere air-sensitive samples from a Schlenk-type vessel.
Sanz, Martial. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 106.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Stearic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for stearic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 25.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties
Triethanolamine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for triethanolamine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 24.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Physical Properties |
Alcohols
Lead Acetate Trihydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for lead acetate trihydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1374.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Mercury(II) Nitrate Monohydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for mercury(I) nitrate monohydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Dichromate Dihydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium dichromate dihydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1251.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydrogen carbonate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1250.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Nitrogen, Liquid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for liquid nitrogen.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1133.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Cyanide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium cyanide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 998.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Cyanide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium cyanide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 997.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Dichromate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium dichromate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 874.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potassium Permanganate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium permanganate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Diethyl Phthalate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for diethyl phthalate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 736.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Carbon Disulfide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for carbon disulfide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 735.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Antimony(III) Chloride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for antimony(III) chloride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 611.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Cobalt(II) Chloride Hexahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 610.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Isopropyl Ether  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for isopropyl ether.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 609.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Citric Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for citric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 480.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calcium Carbide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for calcium carbide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 378.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chromium(VI) Oxide, CrO3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for chromium(VI) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 259.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Aluminum Oxide, Al2O3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 258.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Copper(I) Oxide, Cu2O  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for copper(I) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 257.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Iron(II) Sulfate Heptahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 141.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Zirconium(IV) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for zirconium(IV) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 140.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
CLIP: Glycerol  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for glycerol.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 25.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
CLIP: Ammonia, aqueous  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for ammonia.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 24.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Sodium Nitrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium nitrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1414.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Nitric Acid (approx. 70%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for nitric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1413.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Sodium Carbonate (anhydrous) Na2CO3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for anhydrous sodium carbonate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1315.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Spectroscopy for Schools and Colleges [CD-ROM] (by the Royal Society of Chemistry and GlaxoWellcome)  Thomas H. Eberlein
Interactive CR-ROM to assist in learning the fundamentals of interpreting spectroscopy in organic chemistry.
Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1204.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Sodium Fluoride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium fluoride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1197.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Hypochlorite Solution  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hypochlorite solution.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1196.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Chromate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium chromate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1065.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Osmium Tetroxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for osmium tetroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1064.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sulfur (S8)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sulfur.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1063.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Perchlorate: Chemical Laboratory Information Profile  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium perchlorate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 937.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Chlorate: Chemical Laboratory Information Profile  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium chlorate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 936.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Mercury(I) chloride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for mercury(I) chloride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 799.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Acetaldehyde  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetaldehyde.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 672.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 426.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 425.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Metals
Copper(II) Sulfate Pentahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 158.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Formic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for formic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 157.
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Oleic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for oleic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 24.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Arsenic(III) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for arsenic(III) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 23.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Petroleum Ether  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for petroleum ether.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1588.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Asbestos  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for asbestos.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1587.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules CHwFxClyBrz: How Are They Related to Molecular Mass?  Michael Laing
Investigating the role of molecular mass in determining boiling points of small molecules.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sucrose  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sucrose.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1460.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Carbohydrates
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Turpentine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for turpentine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1459.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Cobalt(II) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for cobalt(II) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1328.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Manganese(IV) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for manganese(IV) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1327.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Iron(III) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for iron(III) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1326.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Anhydride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic anhydride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1176.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetone  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetone.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1175.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Water  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for water.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 874.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Hydrochloric Acid (approx 36%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for hydrochloric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sulfuric Acid (approx. 98%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for concentrated sulfuric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 722.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Acid (glacial)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic acid (glacial).
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 721.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Carboxylic Acids
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Borax  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for borax.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 588.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: n-Hexane  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for n-hexane.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 587.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium Hydroxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Melting Point and Molecular Symmetry  R. J. C. Brown and R. F. C. Brown
In 1882 Thomas Carnelley observed that high molecular symmetry is associated with high melting point. The application of the rule to a number of different molecular crystals is discussed. The rule applies to different categories of crystal for different reasons, which can be explained by thermodynamic analysis.
Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, R. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 724.
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography
Reply to Inflection at the Triple Point  Myers, R. Thomas
Response to challenges in graphing the triple point of water and correction to original article.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Inflection at the Triple Point  Myers, R. Thomas
Challenges in graphing the triple point of water.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Letters  
Challenges in graphing the triple point of water.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Swift Measurement of Densities of Low Melting Point Compounds  Bruno Lunelli
For compounds that are solid at room temperature, the procedure described gives the density of the liquid near its melting point (similar to that quoted in the Aldrich catalog), and not that of the phase stable at room temperature.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 639.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Boiling Point and Molecular Weight  Rich, Ronald L.
No relationship between boiling points and molecular weight.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A294.
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Letters  
No relationship between boiling points and molecular weight.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A294.
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants  D. J. Adam, J. Mainwaring, Michael N. Quigley
A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity.
Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1171.
Separation Science |
Physical Properties
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Demonstration of the Effect of Impurities on Melting Point  Hardinger, Steven A.
Demonstration of melting point depression of a substance because of the presence of impurities.
Hardinger, Steven A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 250.
Rate Law |
Physical Properties
Put the Body to Them!  Perkins, Robert R.
Examples of chemistry demonstrations involving student participation, including quantized states and systems, boiling point trends, intermolecular vs. intramolecular changes, polar/nonpolar molecules, enantiomers and diastereomers, and chromatography.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 151.
Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Quantum Chemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Solving Nonlinear Simultaneous Equations by the Method of Successive Substitution: Applications to Equations of State  Eberhart, J. G.
Several student programming exercises based on the use of various equations of state to predict a variety of fluid properties are described.
Eberhart, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1038.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties of Metals: Experiments with Steel, Copper, Tin, Zinc, and Soap Bubbles  Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Penn, Rona L.; Lisensky, George C.; Stone, Donald S.
Annealing, hardening, and tempering of metals; using bubbles to model the crystalline structure of metals.
Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Penn, Rona L.; Lisensky, George C.; Stone, Donald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 254.
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Crystals / Crystallography
Collecting and Using the Rare Earths  Solomon, Sally; Lee, Alan
Prices, sources, handling tips, and specific suggestions about how to use the lanthanide elements in the classroom and the laboratory.
Solomon, Sally; Lee, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 247.
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Physical Properties
Polymer additives: Part I. Mechanical property modifiers  Stevens, Malcolm P.
Discussion of both organic and inorganic materials added to polymers to modify their properties.
Stevens, Malcolm P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 444.
Physical Properties |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Identifying polymers through combustion and density   Blumberg, Avrom A.
Using analytical chemistry class experiences as a way to not only quantitatively and qualitatively analyze substances, but also to gain practical experience with characteristic chemical reactions of those substances.
Blumberg, Avrom A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 399.
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Polymerization |
Quantitative Analysis
A Discussion of the Term "Polymorphism"  Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin
Authors propose an extended definition for the term "polymorphism", especially in low molecular weight compounds.
Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 101.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding
Viscosity of polymer solutions  Bertrand, Gary L.
This program contains three components: "Density of Liquids", "Viscosity of Liquids", and "Viscosity of Polymer Solutions".
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Studying odd-even effects and solubility behavior using alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids  Burrows, Hugh D.
Odd-even effect provides a satisfying way of introducing students to a large area of chemistry that encompasses both classical thermodynamics and applied aspects.
Burrows, Hugh D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 69.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Microscale resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine and chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in undergraduate chemistry   Krumpolc, Miroslav
A standard experiment has been modified to incorporate microscale techniques and employ chiral high performance liquid chromatography to determine enantiomeric purity.
Krumpolc, Miroslav J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A176.
Enantiomers |
Amides |
Diastereomers |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
Textile fiber identification: An organic-polymer laboratory  Flachskam, Robert L., Jr.; Flachskam, Nancy W.
A laboratory that introduces student to an important application of polymers-textile fibers.
Flachskam, Robert L., Jr.; Flachskam, Nancy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1044.
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties |
Materials Science
A laboratory study of 1,3-dipole-dipolarophile addition: An extension of the Diels Alder reaction  Gingrich, Henry L.; Pickering, Miles
Some easy organic reactions that can also be used as the basis for puzzles, or as facile heterocyclic syntheses: an area neglected in the student experiment literature.
Gingrich, Henry L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 614.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Physical Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy
A computer-aided optical melting point device  Masterov, Michael; Pierre-Louis, Bredy; Chuang, Raymond
The device should improve the precision of these determinations by eliminating human judgement from the process.
Masterov, Michael; Pierre-Louis, Bredy; Chuang, Raymond J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A75.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Identification of unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography in combination  Levine, Samuel G.
Identification from among 12 unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 972.
Physical Properties |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
A suggested improvement for the computer-aided optical melting-point device  Masterov, Michael; Sylvestre, Jude
This addition will allow the original device to analyze several samples overnight without human intervention.
Masterov, Michael; Sylvestre, Jude J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 963.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Ice under pressure  Chang, Raymond; Skinner, James F.
A piece of steel music wire pulled through a block of ice by weights on either side.
Chang, Raymond; Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 789.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Physical Properties
A reusable apparatus for the convenient determination of the molecular weight of air- or moisture-sensitive compounds  Zoellner, Robert W.
Construction and application of an apparatus for the determination of the apparent molecular weight of air- or moisture sensitive compounds employing Singer's method of isothermal distillation.
Zoellner, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 714.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Distillation and the Macintosh: PT Nomograph, an "in-lab" utility  Simon, R.; Senecal, T.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. This program duplicates the generic pressure-temperature nomograph, found in a variety of sources, for the detection of the boiling point of a liquid under reduced pressure.
Simon, R.; Senecal, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 505.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Identification of polymers in university class experiments  Bowen, Humphry J. M.
With a certain amount of skill and experience, most students can learn how to identify common polymers.
Bowen, Humphry J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 75.
Physical Properties |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
The direct relation between altitude and boiling point  Earl, Boyd L.
Since the physical parameter whose variation is responsible for the change in boiling point due to altitude is atmospheric pressure, one must make the connection between boiling point and altitude via the pressure, which is directly connected to both.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 45.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Identifying polar and nonpolar molecules  Tykodi, R. J.
A scheme based on the ideas of molecular symmetry for determining the polar / nonpolar nature of simple molecules.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1007.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
KC? Discoverer: A computer program for descriptive inorganic chemistry  Kotz, John C.
106. Teaching sophomore inorganic chemistry using "KC? Discoverer: Exploring the Periodic Table".
Kotz, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 750.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Determination of the density of crystalline solids in the undergraduate laboratory  Craig, Rhoda E. R.
Using the flotation method for determining the density of crystalline solids.
Craig, Rhoda E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 599.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Physical Properties
A simple demonstration of the activation energy concept   Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.
A demonstration based on the high coefficient of thermal expansion of organic liquid substances.
Rocha-Filho, Romeu C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 157.
Physical Properties
Organic lecture demonstrations  Silversmith, Ernest F.
Organic chemistry may not be known for its spectacular, attention getting chemical reactions. Nevertheless, this author describes a few organic chemistry reactions that put points across and generate interest. This article provides a convenient sources of demonstrations and urges others to add to the collection. Demonstrations concerning: carbohydrates, spectroscopy, proteins, amines, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and much more.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 70.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
On the boiling points of the alkyl halides  Correla, John
Most textbooks spend some time discussing the relationship between boiling point and molecular structure, however, their reasons behind this relationship differ. This variation among textbooks warrants further investigation and discussion in order to uncover which of the factors are the major contributors to the variation of boiling point.
Correla, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 62.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Physical Properties |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Quantitative application of thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of organic compounds: Determining the molecular weights of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones and dicarboxylic acids  Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul
This simple, easy, and inexpensive method provides a good illustration of the importance of polarity on solubility and a unique demonstration of the effectiveness of TLC as a quantitative tool.
Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 625.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Microscale organic laboratory: III: A simple procedure for carrying out ultra-micro boiling point determinations  Mayo, Dana W.; Pike, Ronald M.; Butcher, Samuel S.; Meredith, Marcia L.
Reproducible and reasonably accurate boiling points can be observed on 3-4 microliters of many liquids using a modified Wiegand procedure.
Mayo, Dana W.; Pike, Ronald M.; Butcher, Samuel S.; Meredith, Marcia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1114.
Microscale Lab |
Physical Properties
Molecular size and Raoult's Law  Kovac, Jeffrey
An additional cause for deviations from Raoult's Law that is rarely, if ever, mentioned in freshman chemistry texts.
Kovac, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1090.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases
The dependence of strength in plastics upon polymer chain length and chain orientation, an experiment emphasizing the statistical handling and evaluation of data  Spencer, R. Donald
Experiment to give students a practical understanding of how statistics can be applied to the evaluation of experimental results and greatly enhance the ability to solve scientific problems.
Spencer, R. Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 555.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Analysis of alcohols  McCullough, Brother Thomas
Identifying unknown alcohols using boiling point and viscosity measurements.
McCullough, Brother Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 68.
Alcohols |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide  Gigure, Paul A.
The typical textbook treatment of molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide, and the implications of these concepts for the physical properties of hydrogen peroxide tend to be oversimplified and inaccurate.
Gigure, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Hydrogen Bonding
Boiling points and small volumes: An apparatus and a method  Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D.
The authors describe a convenient apparatus that can be used with thousands of students to perform qualitative analysis of organic substances using boiling points.
Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1029.
Qualitative Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Preparation of solid derivatives by differential scanning calorimetry  Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine
Derivatives of alcohols, amines, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, and haloalkanes are prepared and their phase transitions observed using a differential scanning calorimeter.
Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 824.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Efficient use of the Kofler Heizbank melting point apparatus  Brown, W. H.
Using of the Kofler Hotbench as a micro drying oven.
Brown, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 231.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
Chemical origins of color  Orna, Mary Virginia
Color is one of the few disciplines that cuts across the boundaries of art, biology, physics, psychology, chemistry, geology, mineralogy, and many other fields. There is hardly an object or a substance in nature that is not colored and virtually every commercially marketed item today is either deliberately colored or de-colored.
Orna, Mary Virginia J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 478.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Molecular weight determination of weak acids  Wilson, Stephen A.; Weber, James H.
The use of virial equations for the calculation of molecular weights of weak acids from colligative property experiments.
Wilson, Stephen A.; Weber, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 513.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The latent heat of vaporization of an organic solid: An undergraduate experiment  Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O.
A series of experiments based on a mass spectrometer to help students visualize the latent heat of vaporization for a relatively involatile solid.
Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 730.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
The nitric oxide dimer - Blue, with rectangular molecules?  Mason, Joan
122. Confusion regarding the properties of the N2O2 dimer.
Mason, Joan J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 445.
Physical Properties
Phase changes of hexachloroethane  Shavitz, Richard
A demonstration of the sublimation of hexachloroethane.
Shavitz, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 231.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Micro hot stage  Klimis, Dorothy J.; Tibbetts, Donald L.
A micro hot stage for determining the melting points of very small quantities.
Klimis, Dorothy J.; Tibbetts, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 576.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
Critical temperature of elements and the periodic system  Horvath, A. L.
Presents the critical temperatures of the elements and relates this to their position in the periodic table.
Horvath, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 335.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nonmetals |
Metals |
Physical Properties
Molecular weight determination of aldehydes and ketones. A quantitative organic experiment  Steinhaus, Ralph K.
The reaction between semicarbazide and an unknown ketone is used to determine molecular weight.
Steinhaus, Ralph K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 293.
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
A modified Rast method for molecular weights  Wawzonek, Stanley
Avoiding problems associated with the Rast method for determining molecular weights.
Wawzonek, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Density gradients in chemistry teaching  Miller, P. J.
Outlines experiments in which a density gradient may be used to advantage, including the analysis of organic compounds, aqueous solutions, binary mixtures of organic compounds, solids, and solvent extractions.
Miller, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 278.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
An introduction to principles of the solid state  Weller, Paul F.
One basic analogy is used to consider electrical conductivity; variations in conductivity between metals, semiconductors, and insulators; and conductivity temperature dependencies.
Weller, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 501.
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals |
Semiconductors |
Physical Properties
Approximate boiling points of submilligram samples  McCullough, Thomas; Braun, Werner H.; Reidinger, Philip A.
The lower limit of the capillary tube method for determining the boiling point of a small liquid sample can be extended to even smaller samples by using a U-shaped capillary.
McCullough, Thomas; Braun, Werner H.; Reidinger, Philip A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 57.
Microscale Lab |
Physical Properties
An attachment for semiautomatic melting point determination  Vogel, George
This simple yet rugged device notifies the experimenter when a small crystalline sample in a capillary tube first begins to melt.
Vogel, George J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 789.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Purification of low-melting compounds  Kaye, Irving Allan
Presents a procedure that addresses difficulties to purification by recrystallization caused by the tendency of some low-melting compounds to precipitate from solution as oils.
Kaye, Irving Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 696.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management |
Precipitation / Solubility
Basic organic laboratory techniques and problem solving: The nitration of 4-nitrophenol  Pearson, Robert E.
The experiment described requires application of melting point data and the technique of recrystallization to identify the product of a simple chemical reaction.
Pearson, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 692.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Qualitative Analysis |
Phenols
A bonding parameter and its application to chemistry  Elson, Jesse
In this study, single bond dissociation energies are combined with the associated bond distances to yield additional information about chemical bonding.
Elson, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 564.
Covalent Bonding |
Physical Properties
An apparatus for large-scale sublimation  Walter, Robert I.
Presents an apparatus that is faster than the standard cold-finger type apparatus for vacuum sublimation.
Walter, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 538.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Microboiling point determination at atmospheric pressure  Chaco, M. C.
This microboiling point determination uses a melting-point capillary
Chaco, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 474.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab |
Physical Properties
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
The structure and properties of materials. Volume 1, Structure (Moffat, William G.; Pearsall, George W.; Wulff, John)  Livingston, Robert L.

Livingston, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A832.
Materials Science |
Physical Properties
Melting point depression  Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam
The eutectic temperature of the piperonal / resorcinol system is well below room temperature.
Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A413.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Melting point apparatus  Brown, Richard K.
Describes a simple melting point apparatus that relies on a soldering iron element for heat.
Brown, Richard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 433.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Melting point tables of organic compounds (Utermark, Walter; Schicke, Walter)  Reinheimer, John D.

Reinheimer, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A590.
Physical Properties
A constant-level oil-bath melting point apparatus  Powell, H. B.; Mellon, E. K., Jr.; Burow, D. F.
Presents a modification of the Theile-Denis melting point apparatus.
Powell, H. B.; Mellon, E. K., Jr.; Burow, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 345.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Semimicro modification of the Rast method for determining molecular weights  Cowles, E. J.; Pike, M. T.
Describes a semimicro modification of the Rast method for determining molecular weights that eliminates some of the drawbacks of some usual methods.
Cowles, E. J.; Pike, M. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 422.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
Boiling point and molecular weight  Rich, Ronald
This short note points out that molecular weight, by itself, has negligible influence on boiling point.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 454.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Inexpensive and convenient method for powdering solids for melting point determinations  Pinkus, A. G; Waldrop, P. G.
Recently a new mulling technique for preparing samples for infrared spectra was reported which makes use of ground glass plates.
Pinkus, A. G; Waldrop, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 618.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Physical Properties
The solubility product constant for copper iodate: An experiment  Peterson, B. H.
Copper iodate is a salt of moderate solubility, and a titrimetric analysis of an aliquot portion of saturated solution provides the data necessary for the calculation of the solubility product.
Peterson, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 612.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
A nomograph for correction of boiling points  Myers, R. Thomas
Provides a nomograph for the correction of boiling points at elevations above sea level.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 58.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Hydrogen bonding and physical properties of substances  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
Physical properties influenced by hydrogen bonding considered in this paper include transition temperatures, vapor pressure, water solubility, the ionization of carboxylic acids, stereoisomerism, adsorption, and infrared spectra.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 267.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
Semimicro cryoscopic molecular-weight determinations  Pinkus, A. G.; Barron, B. G.
These suggestions eliminate two sources of difficulty encountered by students in carrying out cryoscopic (Rast) molecular-weight determinations.
Pinkus, A. G.; Barron, B. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 138.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple melting-point apparatus  Gero, Alexander
The melting-point apparatus described in this paper is distinguished by extreme simplicity of construction and negligible cost.
Gero, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 645.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
The allotropy of sulfur: A demonstration  Butler, S. B.
Demonstrates that the allotropic forms of sulfur have different physical properties.
Butler, S. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 187.
Physical Properties
A cheap hot stage  Kiplinger, C. C.
Describes an inexpensive air bath and its use in melting point determinations.
Kiplinger, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 33.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A rapid method for routine checking of melting points  Hughes, Virgil E.
Offers a device and procedure for checking the melting points of ten samples simultaneously.
Hughes, Virgil E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 479.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An improved melting point apparatus  Nickels, J. E.
Describes an improved form of the Hershberg precision melting point apparatus.
Nickels, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 303.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A method of estimating the boiling points of organic liquids  Pearson, D. E.
Discusses the relationship between the molecular structure of organic liquids and their boiling point.
Pearson, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 60.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure