TIGER

Journal Articles: 108 results
Orbital Exponent Optimization in Elementary VB Calculations of the Chemical Bond in the Ground State of Simple Molecular Systems  Valerio Magnasco
Orbital exponent optimization in the elementary ab-initio VB calculation of the ground states of H2+, H2, He2+, and He2 gives a fair description of the exchange-overlap component of the interatomic interaction that is important in the bond region.
Magnasco, Valerio. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1686.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Valence Bond Theory
The Periodic Table at a Glance (M. A. Beckett and A. W. G. Platt)  L. L. Pesterfield
The Periodic Table at a Glance is a good choice for the student who needs a quick review of the basics of inorganic chemistry but does not have the time to wade through a standard textbook.
Pesterfield, L. L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1110.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Probing the Orbital Energy of an Electron in an Atom  James L. Bills
This article answers an appeal for simple theoretical interpretations of atomic properties. A theoretical snapshot of an atom, showing the screened nuclear charge and the electron to be ionized at its radius of zero kinetic energy, enables anyone to approximate its ionization energy.
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 473.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Relativistic Effects and the Chemistry of the Heaviest Main-Group Elements  John S. Thayer
The heaviest main-group elements often show markedly different chemical properties than their lighter counterparts. Most of these differences arise from changes in the relative energies of the outer-shell atomic orbitals that can be explained by application of Einstein's theory of special relativity to electrons in atoms.
Thayer, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1721.
Main-Group Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Measurement of the Isotopic Ratio of 10B/11B in NaBH4 by 1H NMR  Murray Zanger and Guillermo Moyna
A simple and remarkably accurate method for estimating the isotopic ratio between 10B and 11B through the use of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented. The experiment relies on the splitting caused by 10B (I = 3) and 11B (I = 3/2) on the 1H signal of a proton directly bound to boron, a phenomenon readily observed on an aqueous sample of NaBH4. In combination with a brief lecture or prelaboratory presentation, this laboratory can serve to introduce students to magnetic properties as well as theoretical and experimental aspects of NMR spectroscopy as early as the freshman-level chemistry.
Zanger, Murray; Moyna, Guillermo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1390.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle  Terry L. Meek and Leah D. Garner
The dependence of bond type on two parameters, electronegativity difference (??) and average electronegativity (?av), is examined. It is demonstrated that ionic character is governed by the partial charges of the bonded atoms, and metallic character by the HOMO¬ĚLUMO band gap.
Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
The Place of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Periodic Table  William B. Jensen
Explanation for why the zinc group belongs with the main group elements; includes several versions of periodic tables.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 952.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Ionization Energies of Atoms and Atomic Ions  Peter F. Lang and Barry C. Smith
Explanations for the apparently irregular first and second ionization energies of transition and inner transition elements.
Lang, Peter F.; Smith, Barry C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 938.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Inner Transition Elements
The Noble Gas Configuration—Not the Driving Force but the Rule of the Game in Chemistry  Roland Schmid
Explains the covalent and ionic bonding behavior of main-group elements in terms of electromagnetic forces rather than the supposed "stability" of noble-gas configurations.
Schmid, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 931.
Molecular Modeling |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Atomic Scale Imaging: A Hands-On Scanning Probe Microscopy Laboratory for Undergraduates  Chuan-Jian Zhong, Li Han, Mathew M. Maye, Jin Luo, Nancy N. Kariuki, and Wayne E. Jones Jr.
A combination scanning tunneling microscope (STM) - atomic force microscope (AFM) laboratory exercise aimed at enhancing understanding of atomic and molecular scale concepts and providing hands-on experience to help undergraduates grasp the basic theory and operation of scanning probe microscopy (SPM).
Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Han, Li; Maye, Mathew M.; Luo, Jin; Kariuki, Nancy N.; Jones, Wayne E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 194.
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
Nanotechnology |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Visualizing Atoms, Molecules, and Surfaces by Scanning Probe Microscopy  Kimberly Aumann, Karen J. C. Muyskens, and Kumar Sinniah
Examples of applications of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in an undergraduate curriculum; includes investigating DNA, analysis of microchip memory arrays and circuitry, and visualizing filamentous actin.
Aumann, Kimberly; Muyskens, Karen J. C.; Sinniah, Kumar. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Periodic Table Live! 3rd Edition: Abstract of Special Issue 17  Nicholas B. Adelman, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, Alton J. Banks, John C. Kotz, William R. Robinson, and Susan Young
CD-ROM containing an interactive journey through the periodic table; includes information about each element, biographies of discoverers, videos of reactions, sources and uses, macro and atomic properties, and crystalline structures.
Adelman, Nicholas B.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Banks, Alton J.; Kotz, John C.; Robinson, William R.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1487.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solid State Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography
Understanding and Interpreting Molecular Electron Density Distributions  C. F. Matta and R. J. Gillespie
A simple introduction to the electron densities of molecules and how they can be analyzed to obtain information on bonding and geometry.
Matta, C. F.; Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
How We Teach Molecular Structure to Freshmen  Michael O. Hurst
Examination of how textbooks discuss various aspects of molecular structure; conclusion that much of general chemistry is taught the way it is for historical and not pedagogical reasons.
Hurst, Michael O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 763.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models  Lowe, John P.
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 429.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Mendeleev-Seaborg Periodic Table: Through Z = 1138 and Beyond  Paul J. Karol
Extending the periodic table to very large atomic numbers and its implications for the organization of the periodic table, consideration of relativistic effects, and the relative stability of massive and supermassive atomic nuclei.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 60.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Astrochemistry
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Structure and Bonding (by Jack Barrett)  Michael Laing
Tutorial chemistry text.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1600.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules CHwFxClyBrz: How Are They Related to Molecular Mass?  Michael Laing
Investigating the role of molecular mass in determining boiling points of small molecules.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Screening Percentages Based on Slater Effective Nuclear Charge as a Versatile Tool for Teaching Periodic Trends  Kimberley A. Waldron, Erin M. Fehringer, Amy E. Streeb, Jennifer E. Trosky, and Joshua J. Pearson
Using charge shielding to identify and explain trends within the periodic table.
Waldron, Kimberley A.; Fehringer, Erin M.; Streeb, Amy E.; Trosky, Jennifer E.; Pearson, Joshua J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 635.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
Comments on Kinetic, Potential, and Ionization Energies  John P. Lowe
Despite the importance of kinetic energy changes in ionization processes, it is not necessary to explicitly include them when modeling ionization energies: the virial theorem allows one to use potential-energy-only models. A simple potential-energy-only model calculation of the ionization energies of sulfur illustrates the shell structure of this atom.
Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Genius of Slater's Rules  James L. Reed
With only a few modifications a procedure has been developed that yields the one-electron energies for atoms and ions with a level of detail very well suited for instruction in the structure and properties of atoms. It provides for the computation of very reasonable values for such properties as ionization energies, electron affinities, promotion energies, electronic transitions, and even XPS and ESCA spectra.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 802.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Letters  
Consideration of kinetic energy in interpreting atomic ionization energies is redundant.
Richman, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 605.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The Ubiquitous Metaphors of Chemistry Teaching  Herbert Beall
The understanding and the confusion resulting from any scientific metaphor thus have to be considered when it is used. For example, a common chemical metaphor for the electron distribution about an atom is a cloud. Some of the entailments of this metaphor are apt, such as the diffuse nature of a cloud. Others, such as the ability of a cloud to evaporate, are not appropriate.
Beall, Herbert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 366.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Experimental 4s and 3d Energies in Atomic Ground States  James L. Bills
A new definition is given for the effective charge Zf. HF orbital energies e4s and e3d are used in concert with I4s and I3d to answer four questions: Why does the 4s sublevel fill before 3d? Why is ionization easier for 4s than 3d? When 4s23dn has e3d < e4s, why doesn't 4s23dn -> 4s13dn+1? Why are Cr and Cu each 4s13dn+1 instead of 4s23dn?
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Deducing the Shell Model from Ionization Energies and the Use of Models in Introductory Chemistry  Ronald J. Gillespie, Richard S. Moog, and James N. Spencer
A major objection of Rioux and DeKock is the statement in the authors' earlier paper that electron repulsion is responsible for the relative ionization energies of H and He. The commentators work clearly shows that a quantum mechanical treatment of this problem reveals that kinetic energy considerations play a crucial role in these values. However, although their criticism is appropriate in the context of this more sophisticated QM treatment, it does not in any way invalidate the authors original paper, the goal of which was to provide a model, namely the shell model, for the electronic structure of atoms that is consistent with experimental ionization energies.
Gillespie, Ronald J.; Moog, Richard S.; Spencer, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 539.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Crucial Role of Kinetic Energy in Interpreting Ionization Energies  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
The experimental ratio of the ionization energies of H and He is 1.81. The authors show that it is not correct to interpret this ratio using a classical Coulombic potential energy model. Rather a quantum mechanical model is required in which both kinetic and potential energy play a role.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 537.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Atomic and Molecular Structure in Chemical Education: A Critical Analysis from Various Perspectives of Science Education  Georgios Tsaparlis
The perspectives employed in this paper are (i) the Piagetian developmental perspective, (ii) the Ausbelian theory of meaningful learning, (iii) the information processing theory, and (iv) the alternative conceptions movement. The implications for teaching and curriculums are discussed.
Tsaparlis, Georgios. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 922.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Constructivism
A Coordination Geometry Table of the d-Block Elements and Their Ions  D. Venkataraman, Yuhua Du, Scott R. Wilson, Keith A. Hirsch, Peng Zhang, Jeffrey S. Moore
Quantitative data on the frequency with which a particular d-block element or ion adopts certain coordination geometries organized within a single table.
Venkataraman, D.; Du, Yuhua; Wilson, Scott R.; Hirsch, Keith A.; Zhang, Peng; Moore, Jeffrey S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 915.
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  R. J. Gillespie, J. N. Spencer, R. S. Moog
Rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Gillespie, R. J.; Spencer, J. N.; Moog, R. S. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  Eric Scerri
Errors and questionable rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Scerri, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron Affinities of the Alkaline Earth Metals and the Sign Convention for Electron Affinity  John C. Wheeler
It has been known since 1987, both theoretically and experimentally, that the ion Ca- is stable. It is now certain that Sr-, Ba-, and Ra- are also stable, and accurate values for the electron affinities of Ca-, Sr-, and Ba- have been determined. Recommended values for these electron affinities, in the units commonly employed in introductory texts and with the sign convention used here, are 2.37, 5.03, and 13.95 kJ/mol for Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively.
Wheeler, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 123.
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Role of Electrostatic Effects in Organic Chemistry  Kenneth B. Wiberg
Electrostatic effects on the properties of organic compounds are reviewed to demonstrate the importance of electronegativity differences between the atoms forming a bond. Bond dissociation energies are generally found to increase as the electronegativity difference increases, and the bonds have increased ionic character.
Wiberg, Kenneth B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1089.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Examining the Shapes of Atomic Orbitals Using Mathcad  Ramachandran, B.
180. Bits and pieces, 55. Describes how three-dimensional contour plots of spherical harmonics may be generated using MathCad.
Ramachandran, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1082.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
The Periodic Table of Atoms: Arranging the Elements by a Different Set of Rules  Treptow, Richard S.
The periodic table found in this paper is based on the properties of free gaseous atoms rather than atoms in a chemical environment.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1007.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Nuclear Shapes: From the Mundane to the Exotic  Yates, Steven W.
The shape and stability of atomic nuclei.
Yates, Steven W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 837.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Simulations and Interactive Resources  Martin, John S.
12 Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) including Periodic Table Displays, Electron Orbits and Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Barometers and Manometers, Vapor Pressure, Ideal Gas Behavior, Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction, Approach to Equilibrium, The Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Titration Curves, Electrochemical Cells, and Rate of Reaction.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 667.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Rate Law
Transition Metals and the Aufbau Principle  Vanquickenborne, L. G.; Pierloot, K.; Devoghel, D.
Explanation of why the ground state configuration of the neutral transition metals is in most cases 3dn4s2, and why the ground state configuration of the corresponding ions is obtained by preferentially removing the 4s electrons.
Vanquickenborne, L. G.; Pierloot, K.; Devoghel, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 469.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity and atomic charge  Reed, James L.
Because electronegativity is such a fundamental concept, it should be continually developed in sophistication throughout the curriculum; considers the energy function, atomic charges, and chemical reactivities.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 785.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The nature of the chemical bond - 1992  Pauling, Linus
Commentary on errors in an earlier article on the nature of the chemical bond.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 519.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Experiment in quantization: Atomic line spectra  Shields, George C.; Kash, Michael M.
This experiment offers a simple and visual method for determining the wavelength of spectral lines.
Shields, George C.; Kash, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 329.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
More about the particle-in-a-box system: The confinement of matter and the wave-particle dualism  Volkamer, Klaus; Lerom, Michael W.
Since the particle-in-a-box system (PIB model) is mathematically so simple, it can be used to provide illustrations of many important quantum mechanical concepts without obscuring the principles with mathematical details.
Volkamer, Klaus; Lerom, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 100.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry  Finster, David C.
The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners.
Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
There are no such things as orbitals-Act two!  Simons, Jack
What is the role of molecular orbital theory in chemistry instruction?
Simons, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 131.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Periodic chart pedagogy  Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.
Questions based upon a hypothetical set of quantum numbers and their relationships; includes answers.
Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 759.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Lattice enthalpies of ionic halides, hydrides, oxides, and sulfides: Second-electron affinities of atomic oxygen and sulfur  Holbrook, Jack B.; Sabry-Grant, Ralph; Smith, Barry C.; Tandel, Thakor V.
These simple empirical relationships which allow lattice enthalpies of ionic compounds to be determined readily from observed internuclear separations are investigated here.
Holbrook, Jack B.; Sabry-Grant, Ralph; Smith, Barry C.; Tandel, Thakor V. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 304.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ionic Bonding
The nature of the chemical bond--1990: There are no such things as orbitals!  Ogilivie, J. F.
The author discusses the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the laws and theories, and the relationship of quantum-mechanics to atomic and molecular structure, as well as their relevance to chemical education.
Ogilivie, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 280.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A formula for calculating atomic radii of metals  Ping, Mei; Xiubin, Lei; Yuankai, Wen
In this paper, the authors present a theoretical formula for calculating metallic radii.
Ping, Mei; Xiubin, Lei; Yuankai, Wen J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 218.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals
From "electrum" to positronium  Kragh, Helge
The present paper outlines the early history of the positronium concept, roughly from 1934 to the discovery in 1951.
Kragh, Helge J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 196.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Transition metal configurations and limitations of the orbital approximation  Scerri, Eric R.
Points out a misconception concerning the "building up" of the transition elements and their first ionization energies that is reinforced by many chemistry texts.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 481.
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Periodic contractions among the elements: Or, on being the right size  Mason, Joan
Contraction across the row, irregularities in the build up of the periodic table, the second row anomaly relativistic contraction and expansion among the heavier elements, post-transition anomaly, periodicities of physicochemical properties.
Mason, Joan J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 17.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Reexamining the diagonal relationships  Hanusa, Timothy P.
Li(I) and Mg(II) are better paired with / compared to other ions rather than one another.
Hanusa, Timothy P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 686.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron spectroscopic methods in teaching  Allan, Michael
Presents several spectra in a format suitable for teaching applications with the intention of promoting the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in teaching the electronic structure of atoms and molecules at an elementary level.
Allan, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 418.
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
An upward view of the periodic table: Getting to the bottom of it  Guenther, William B.
Develops the 18-group basis of the periodic table; shows that, while the 1-18 designations can give unambiguous information to students, no printed designations are needed for teaching; and shows how to obtain unique, physical group definitions that avoid the problems of conflicting and changeable chemical interpretations.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 9.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Revised atomic form periodic table  Strong, Frederick C., III
A circular periodic table.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 456.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Orbital shape representations  Kikuchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Keizo
The use of two-dimensional polar plots and three-dimensional contour surfaces to represent atomic orbitals.
Kikuchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Keizo J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronic structure prediction for transition metal ions  Nance, Lewis E.
A useful mnemonic for the electronic structure for M (II) elements.
Nance, Lewis E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 339.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic volume and allotropy of the elements  Singman, Charles N.
Presents reliable values of atomic volumes determined through X-ray methods, as well as allotropic forms of the elements under nonstandard temperatures and pressures.
Singman, Charles N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 137.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Transition Elements
Presenting the Bohr atom  Haendler, Blanca L.
A more significant consideration of the role of the Bohr theory in the development of quantum mechanics would have many benefits for introductory and advanced chemistry classes.
Haendler, Blanca L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 372.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The negatively-charged nitrogen in ammonium ion and derived concepts of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics  Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F.
The concept of atomic charges is intimately related to those of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics; among the plethora of numbers derived by calculation and experiment lie simple and useful rules for the understanding and prediction of chemical behavior.
Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 367.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Illustrating the problem described by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle  Cosser, Ronald C.
A simple overhead projector demonstration illustrating Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.
Cosser, Ronald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 300.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electrons, bonding, orbitals, and light: A unified approach to the teaching of structure and bonding in organic chemistry courses  Lenox, Ronald S.
A suggested list of topics and methods for teaching introductory organic students bonding concepts.
Lenox, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 298.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
Elemental evolution and isotopic composition  Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R.
Reviews elemental abundances and the processes of elemental creation.
Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 742.
Astrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Geochemistry
Novel pictorial approach to teaching MO concepts in polyatomic molecules  Hoffman, D. K.; Ruedenberg, K.; Verkade, J. G.
Methods used in a one-quarter course to familiarize students with the general applicability of delocalized and localized molecular orbitals to polyatomic systems; includes examples of delocalized and localized molecular orbitals of XeF2, C3H3+, CH4, and CO2.
Hoffman, D. K.; Ruedenberg, K.; Verkade, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 590.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
303-308. Six practical, environmental chemistry application questions and their answers. Q303 submitted by Jerry Ray Dias.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 369.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Metals |
Toxicology |
Coordination Compounds |
Membranes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemical aspects of Bohr's 1913 theory  Kragh, Helge
The chemical content of Bohr's 1913 theory has generally been neglected in the treatises on the history of chemistry; this paper regards Bohr as a theoretical chemist and discusses the chemical aspects of his atomic theory.
Kragh, Helge J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 208.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
Simple models for tough concepts  Cavagnol, Richard M.; Barnett, Thomas
One of the most challenging aspects of instructional interaction is the presentation of dynamic chemical concepts interaction is the presentation of dynamic chemical concepts in a way that is both believable and understandable. The authors have devised a series of models that are simple, inexpensive, and require very little time or skill to construct. They allow students to visualize a whole spectrum of phenomena from atomic structure to enzyme-substrate interactions.
Cavagnol, Richard M.; Barnett, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 643.
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transport Properties
LXXXVI. Atomic spectroscopy atomization systems (Continued)  Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W.
Reviews recent advances in electrically heated non-flame atomizers.
Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, A451.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
d orbitals in main group elements  Brill, T. B.
An exposition on some of the reasons there are questions regarding the involvement of d orbitals in bonding among the main group elements and several alternative explanations for using d orbitals in this respect.
Brill, T. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 392.
Main-Group Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Transparent 3-D models of electron probability distributions  McClellan, A. L.
The authors describe transparent, three-dimensional models in which regions of high electron probability seem to float in space, without definite boundaries and with the "internal" variations of probability density clearly visible.
McClellan, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The periodic systems of D. I. Mendeleev and problems of nuclear chemistry  Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter
Examines the acquisition and identification of new chemical elements and the structure of the eighth period of the periodic table.
Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 406.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals
On the discovery of the electron  Morrow, B. A.
Thomson's experiment resolved the controversy concerning the corpuscular or wave nature of cathode rays, while Millikan's experiment resolved the controversy concerning the continuous or discrete nature of electrical phenomena.
Morrow, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 584.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Increased-valence theory of valence  Harcourt, R. D.
Describes several "increased valence" formulas for molecular systems with one or more sets of pour electrons distributed among three atomic orbitals of three atoms.
Harcourt, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 779.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Valence Bond Theory
The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. I. New models of atomic structure  Luder, W. F.
Describes the electron repulsion theory of electron configuration and applies it to representative elements.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals
Some aspects of d-orbital participation in phosphorus and silicon chemistry  Bissey, Jack Edwin
Investigates several aspects of d-orbital participation in phosphorus and silicon chemistry.
Bissey, Jack Edwin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 95.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Flame spectroscopy. Parts 1-3 (Mavrodineanu, Radu; Boiteux, Henri)  West, Allen C.

West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A176.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativities and group IVA chemistry  Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall
The teacher of inorganic chemistry should present the representative elements of group IVA and their properties as an intellectual and empirical form of investigation rather than as a mere collection of information.
Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 654.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
V - Atomic orbitals  Berry, R. Stephen
Examines atomic orders of magnitude and the Bohr atom, matter waves, one- and many-electron systems, and the correlation problem.
Berry, R. Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 283.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Atomic orbitals: Limitations and variations  Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas
The three most widely used methods of arriving at a set of atomic orbitals afford respective hydrogen-like orbitals, self-consistent field orbitals, and various analytical approximations such as the Slater or Morse orbitals, all of which may differ greatly in shape and size from each other.
Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. III. Chemical implications of inner-shell electrons  Bent, Henry A.
While a study of atomic core sizes might seem to hold little promise of offering interesting insights into the main body of chemical theory, it is demonstrated here that from such a study emerges a picture of chemical bonding that encompasses as particular cases covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 302.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Behavior of electrons in atoms: Structure, spectra, and photochemistry of atoms (Hochstrasser, Robin M.)  Gregory, N. W.

Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 62.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Emission spectroscopy. Part two  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H.
Examines commercial monochromators.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A5.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Atomic orbital molecular models  Martins, George
Atomic orbital molecular models are constructed using molded white expanded polystyrene in the form of spheres and teardrops.
Martins, George J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 658.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Precise atomic and molecular models  Adler, Alan D.; Steele, William J.
Presents designs for skeletal or lattice and space-filling models
Adler, Alan D.; Steele, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 656.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Letters  Gates, Henry S.
Brings the reader's attention to work done by Petit and Dulong in revising a large number of atomic weights in order to bring all of their reported atomic heat capacities into agreement with the hypothesis that atomic heat capacity is the same for all elements.
Gates, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 575.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Atomic structure and chemical bonding (Seel, F.; Greenwood, N. N.; Stadler, H. P.)  Murmann, R. Kent

Murmann, R. Kent J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 518.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
An atomic and molecular orbital models kit  Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin
The models presented here allows one to see the overlap that constitutes covalent bonds.
Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 395.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Electronic structure, properties, and the periodic law (Sisler, Harry H.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 172.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals  Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B.
Describes the determination of and illustrates contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals.
Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 256.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Atomic spectra (Kuhn, H. G.)  Strickler, S. J.

Strickler, S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A918.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Molecular models featuring molecular orbitals  Brumlik, George C.
Molecular models have been constructed that attempt to represent atomic and molecular orbitals as accurately as the current theories of valence and pertinent experimental evidence permit.
Brumlik, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 502.
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Paddle-wheel Crookes tube  Campbell, J. A.
The effect in the Crookes paddle-wheel tube is the same as in the light radiometer and should be interpreted in the same way.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Distribution of atomic s character in molecules and its chemical implications  Bent, Henry A.
Explains the shape of simple molecules using the distribution of atomic s character.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 616.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The structure of the nucleus  Flowers, B. H.
Describes the liquid drop, shell, and optical models of the atomic nucleus.
Flowers, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 610.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
The coordinate bond and the nature of complex inorganic compounds. I. The formation of single covalent bonds  Busch, Daryle H.
The factors determining the stabilities of complex inorganic compounds are considered in terms of thermochemical cycle; it is pointed out that the stabilities of complexes increase as the percent covalent character in their bonds increases, and weak covalent bonds will occur in any given instance.
Busch, Daryle H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 376.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A jig for making atomic models  Decker, Beulah F.; Asp, E. T.
Presents a simple hand-operated instrument for boring holes in cork balls at positions of interatomic bonds and examples of models constructed using this device.
Decker, Beulah F.; Asp, E. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 75.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The Lanthanide contraction  Douglas, Bodie E.
The discussions of the nature and magnitude of the lanthanide contraction and its relationship to size changes in the periodic table as a whole are usually misleading to the student.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 598.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry. III  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the practical applications of electronegativities and charge distribution.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Acids / Bases
Atomic structure and the photoelectric effect  Brockett, Clyde P.
The ubiquitous and inexpensive 110-volt, 2-watt neon glow lamp appears to have been overlooked as a device well suited to a brief but telling demonstration of a few key principles of atomic structure that underlie the study of electrovalence and comparative chemistry.
Brockett, Clyde P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 498.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry  Sanderson, R. T.
This is the first of a series of short papers intended to demonstrate the application of a broadened concept of electronegativity toward explaining chemistry.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 539.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A space model of the periodic system of elements  Clauson, Jennie E.
Illustrates a three-dimensional model of the periodic system of elements.
Clauson, Jennie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 250.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The periodic table: The 6d-5f mixed transition group  Coryell, Charles D.
With relatively few modifications, the Bohr-type periodic table presented by Glocker and Popov can be made to reflect more instructively the rather complex relationships obtained in the neighborhood of the 4f or gadolinium transition group and, more importantly, in the 6d-5f sequence extending from actinium through the region of uranium and the synthetic earths to element 103.
Coryell, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 62.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic structure models for clay minerals  Perkins, Alfred T.
Describes the use of ceramic clay to produce atomic structure models for clay minerals.
Perkins, Alfred T. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 388.
Atomic Properties / Structure