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Journal Articles: 54 results
OMLeT—An Alternative Approach to Learning Metabolism: Glycolysis and the TCA Cycle as an Example  Charles M. Stevens, Dylan M. Silver, Brad Behm, Raymond J. Turner, and Michael G. Surette
Using PHP Hypertext Preprocessor scripting, the dynamic OMLeT (Online Metabolism Learning Tool) Web site is geared towards different learning styles and allows the student to process metabolic pathways (glycolysis and TCA cycle) via a user-defined approach.
Stevens, Charles M.; Silver, Dylan M.; Behm, Brad; Turner, Raymond J.; Surette, Michael G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2024.
Bioenergetics |
Enzymes |
Learning Theories |
Metabolism |
Proteins / Peptides
The A1c Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry  Robert C. Kerber
The glycated hemoglobin blood test is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1541.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioorganic Chemistry
Nature's Way To Make the Lantibiotics  Heather A. Relyea and Wilfred A. van der Donk
This article focuses on one class of antimicrobial compounds, the lantibiotics, and discusses their biosynthetic pathways as well as their molecular mode of action. In the course of the review, the meaning of the terms regio-, chemo-, and stereoselectivity are discussed.
Relyea, Heather A.; van der Donk, Wilfred A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1769.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Biosynthesis |
Catalysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Proteins / Peptides
Caught on Tape: Catalyst Recovery; Secondary Structure Switch; DNA-Based Chiral Catalysts   Angela G. King
Common lab tape aids catalyst delivery and recovery, DNA lends its chirality to organic reaction, and a model for studying the transformation of ahelices to ?sheets.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 10.
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Supramolecular Approach to Medicinal Chemistry: Medicine Beyond the Molecule  David K. Smith
This article emphasizes a conceptual view of medicinal chemistry, which has important implications for the future, as the supramolecular approach to medicinal-chemistry products outlined here is rapidly allowing nanotechnology to converge with medicine. In particular, this article discusses recent developments including the rational design of drugs such as Relenza and Tamiflu, the mode of action of vancomycin, and the mechanism by which bacteria develop resistance, drug delivery using cyclodextrins, and the importance of supramolecular chemistry in understanding protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer's and CreutzfieldJacob.
Smith, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 393.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides
The Proteomics Stock Market Project. A Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration in Biochemistry and Business Education  Heath Keller and James R. Cox
Students taking courses in different disciplines can work together to add unique elements to their educational experience. Stage I involved biochemistry students investigating the topic of proteomics and choosing companies for potential investment based only on scientific investigation. Marketing and management students completed Stage II and provided an investment analysis on the companies selected in Stage I.
Keller, Heath; Cox, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 519.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Proteins / Peptides
A Modular Laser Apparatus for Polarimetry, Nephelometry, and Fluorimetry in General Chemistry  Scott A. Darveau, Jessica Mueller, April Vaverka, Cheri Barta, Anthony Fitch, Jessica Jurzenski, and Yvonne Gindt
We present an apparatus suitable for multiple uses in the general chemistry laboratory including polarimetry, fluorescence, and nephelometry. The open design of the instrument also decreases the chance that students will contract the "black-box syndrome" that seems to develop when using instruments that only provide the final data in an experiment without showing how the measurements are obtained.
Darveau, Scott A.; Mueller, Jessica; Vaverka, April; Barta, Cheri; Fitch, Anthony; Jurzenski, Jessica; Gindt, Yvonne. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 401.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Water / Water Chemistry
LC–MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2. Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI–MS and UV–Vis  Helen Cleary Stynes, Araceli Layo, and Richard W. Smith
This article describes an experiment employing LCMS where metmyoglobin is denatured to apomyoglobin and heme in a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile H2O with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The apomyoglobin is separated from the heme group by reversed-phase chromatography.
Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 266.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Some Like It Cold: A Computer-Based Laboratory Introduction to Sequence and Tertiary Structure Comparison of Cold-Adapted Lactate Dehydrogenases Using Bioinformatics Tools  M. Sue Lowery and Leigh A. Plesniak
Students download sequences and structures from appropriate databases, create sequence alignments, and carry out molecular modeling exercises, and then form hypotheses about the mechanism of biochemical adaptation for function and stability. This laboratory is appropriate for biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory courses, special topics, and advanced biochemistry lecture courses, and can be adapted for honors high school programs.
Lowery, M. Sue; Plesniak, Leigh A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1300.
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Protein Design Using Unnatural Amino Acids  Basar Bilgiçer and Krishna Kumar
Using examples from the literature, this article describes the available methods for unnatural amino acid incorporation and highlights some recent applications including the design of hyperstable protein folds.
Bilgiçer, Basar; Kumar, Krishna. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1275.
Amino Acids |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Tensile Strength Measurements on Biopolymer Films  Eugene S. Stevens and Mark D. Poliks
Measuring the tensile strength of biopolymer films using a simple student apparatus; results are compared with data obtained from industry-standard equipment.
Stevens, Eugene S.; Poliks, Mark D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 810.
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Industrial Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Materials Science |
Proteins / Peptides
Collaboration between Chemistry and Biology to Introduce Spectroscopy, Electrophoresis, and Molecular Biology as Tools for Biochemistry  Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua, Jennifer L. Powers, Connie Tran, Swapan S. Jain, Reem Chabayta, Dale L. Vogelien, Ralph J. Rascati, Michelle Hall, and Kathleen Diehl
Program that integrates a variety of instrumental techniques across the biological and chemistry curricula, including biochemistry, plant physiology, genetics, and forensics.
Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H.; Powers, Jennifer L.; Vogelien, Dale L.; Rascati, Ralph J.; Hall, Michelle; Diehl, Kathleen; Tran, Connie; Jain, Swapan S.; Chabayta, Reem . J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1311.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Forensic Chemistry |
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Plant Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Factors Affecting Reaction Kinetics of Glucose Oxidase  Kristin A. Johnson
Demonstration based on a biochemical kinetics experiment in which the rate of reaction varies with the enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, substrate used in the reaction, and temperature.
Johnson, Kristin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 74.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Protein Structure Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 37 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe protein structure.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 474.
Proteins / Peptides |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An Inexpensive Gradient Maker for the Biochemistry Laboratory  William H. Flurkey
A gradient maker for use in the biochemistry laboratory was constructed out of plastic graduated cylinders or other easily obtained plastic items. Assembly of the gradient makers requires little time or expense. Details on construction and operation are given.
Flurkey, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1041.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Proteins / Peptides
Chromatin Isolation and DNA Sequence Analysis in Large Undergraduate Laboratory Sections  Ann E. Hagerman
One exercise is a simple laboratory experiment in which chromatin is isolated from chicken liver and is resolved into histone proteins and DNA by ion-exchange chromatography. The other is a series of computer simulations that introduce DNA sequencing, mapping, and sequence analysis to the students.
Hagerman, Ann E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1426.
Biotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise  Edwin F. Ullman
The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications.
Ullman, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 781.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Immunoassay, DNA Analysis, and Other Ligand Binding Assay Techniques: From Electropherograms to Multiplexed, Ultrasensitive Microarrays on a Chip  Roger P. Ekins
"Ligand" or "binding" assays have made a major impact on biomedical research and clinical diagnosis since their development in the late 1950s. Immunoassay techniques (relying on specific antibodies to bind the target analyte) represent the best-known example, but analogous DNA and RNA analysis methods (using oligonucleotides to recognize defined polynucleotide sequences) are rapidly gaining in importance and are likely to exert profound effects on human society.
Ekins, Roger P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 769.
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Recognition |
Nanotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Biotechnology
Showing Food Foams Properties with Common Dairy Foods  Carlos Bravo-Diaz and Elisa Gonzalez-Romero
Some easy to carry, inexpensive and safe experiments developed using familiar kitchen materials related with egg foams. Eggs's properties are not only limited to prepare excellent and delicious emulsions like mayonnaise but also makes excellent foams, increasing their volume significantly in two primary ways.
Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1133.
Learning Theories |
Food Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Applications of Chemistry
The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses  Paul J. Stein
A laboratory exercise to study the effect of aspartame concentration on sweetness has been developed. Class data is averaged and plotted on the same graph as absorbance and taste rating vs. [aspartame]. The absorbance plot follows Beer's law while the taste rating plot displays the hyperbolic response of protein-ligand binding plots.
Stein, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1112.
Food Science |
Nonmajor Courses |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry
In Focus. Protein Structure (Darb, N. J.; Creighton, T. E.; Rickwood, David; Male, David)  
Continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A94.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nucleophilic and Enzymic Catalysis of p-Nitrophenylacetate Hydrolysis  Head, Michael B.; Mistry, Kalpna S.; Ridings, Bernard J.; Smith, Christopher A.; Parker, Mark J.
Experimental procedure for determining the relative effectiveness of several amino acids and enzymes in catalyzing the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate; sample data and analysis included.
Head, Michael B.; Mistry, Kalpna S.; Ridings, Bernard J.; Smith, Christopher A.; Parker, Mark J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 184.
Amino Acids |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Catalysis
Use of Tangle Links To Show Globular Protein Structure  Marino, Francis
Using Tangle Links (a child's toy) to model the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of proteins.
Marino, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 741.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling
An inexpensive gel-filtration chromatography experiment: A simple biochemical laboratory exercise for high school and undergraduate students who make their own column and apply simple detection techniques  Rowe, H. Alan
The experiment described in this paper can be conducted with a minimum of supplies and equipment at the high school or undergraduate level thus lowering the usual barriers an exercise of this type presents.
Rowe, H. Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 415.
Chromatography |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Carbohydrates |
Proteins / Peptides
Teaching bioorganic chemistry: An introductory course  Dugas, Hermann
Bioorganic chemistry could be defined as a discipline that is essentially concerned with using the tools of organic chemistry to understand biochemical processes.
Dugas, Hermann J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 268.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Biological Cells |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry
Effects of "crowding" in protein solutions  Ralston, G. B.
The effects of macromolecular nonideality and crowding on chemical equilibria, association reactions, and enzyme kinetics.
Ralston, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 857.
Proteins / Peptides |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Enzymes |
Kinetics
Isolation of the active site of cytochrome c by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography  Kenigsberg, Paul A.; Blanke, Steven R.; Hager, Lowell P.
To serve as an introduction to research, an advanced-level graduate laboratory course should be challenging, incorporate currently relevant techniques, offer more responsibility to students, and contain a minimum of technical pitfalls. The following experiment meets all the aforementioned criteria.
Kenigsberg, Paul A.; Blanke, Steven R.; Hager, Lowell P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 177.
HPLC |
Proteins / Peptides
An enzyme immunoassay for human transferrin  Russo, Salvatore F.; Dahlberg, Judy Utter
The field of immunology provides a powerful method for detecting specific noncatalytic proteins.
Russo, Salvatore F.; Dahlberg, Judy Utter J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 175.
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Synthesis of an enkephalinase inhibitor, Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu, by continuous-flow peptide synthesizer  Iskander, Magdy N.; Jones, Paul A.
The assembly of the continuous flow peptide synthesizer was carried out in the author's laboratory with no difficulty and has generated great interest among their students.
Iskander, Magdy N.; Jones, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 170.
Synthesis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Azosulfonamides: Preparation and binding to carbonic anhydrase: A bioorganic chemistry experiment  Manalang, Mary G.; Bundy, Hallie F.
Preparation of azosulfonamide, visible absorption analysis of free and enzyme-bond azosulfonamide, and titration of BCA with azosulfonamide.
Manalang, Mary G.; Bundy, Hallie F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 609.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enzymes
A convenient synthesis of aspartame  Lindeberg, Gunnar
The one tube, enzymatic synthesis of the dipeptide sweetener aspartame.
Lindeberg, Gunnar J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1062.
Synthesis |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
Protein structure prediction in color  Davis, Lawrence C.; Radke, Gary A.
84. Implementing the Chuo and Faslar method for prediction of secondary structure and the Kyte and Doolittle method for predicting "hydropathic character" on an Apple IIe computer with color graphics.
Davis, Lawrence C.; Radke, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 582.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Use of the "cubic snake" as a molecular model  Gilon, Chaim
Using a "cubic snake" to model macromolecules.
Gilon, Chaim J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1074.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes
The catalytic function of enzymes  Splittgerber, Allan G.
Review of the structure, function, and factors that influence the action of enzymes.
Splittgerber, Allan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1008.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Zinc enzymes  Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R.
The role played by catalytic and noncatalytic zinc in biochemical systems. From the "State of the Art Symposium: Bioinorganic Chemistry", held at the ACS meeting, Miami, 1985.
Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 924.
Enzymes |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Proteins / Peptides
Methemoglobinemia: An illness caused by the ferric state  Senozan, N. M.
Hemoglobin's ability to carry oxygen depends on the iron being in the +2 state; methemoglobinemia involves the oxidation of hemoglobin iron to the +3 state.
Senozan, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 181.
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Perspectives in biochemistry: Methods for DNA sequencing  Wood, Anne T.
Describes how DNA is sequenced.
Wood, Anne T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 886.
Proteins / Peptides |
Biotechnology |
Electrophoresis
Isoenzymes  Daugherty, N. A.
The separation, identification, and measurement of isoenzymes is an appropriate topic for a special lecture in general chemistry.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 442.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The separation of chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen: An affinity chromatography experiment for biological chemistry students  Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney
An experiment that can be used as either a demonstration or a laboratory illustrating the principles of affinity chromatography to purify an enzyme.
Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 281.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Proteins / Peptides
Amino acid sequence diversity in proteins  Blackman, David
The number of unique proteins that can be generated from a small number of amino acids is truly enormous.
Blackman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 170.
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids
Bromolain. Experiments illustrating proteolytic enzyme action  Reigh, Darryel L.
The following set of exercises provides a simple visual method of demonstrations some of the characteristics of enzymes in general, such as heat and pH lability and inhibition, as well as some specific properties of bromelain intide hydrolysis. These experiments can be used with freshman in introductory courses and juniors in biochemistry.
Reigh, Darryel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 386.
Enzymes |
pH |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Proteins / Peptides
Non-covalent interactions: Key to biological flexibility and specificity  Frieden, Earl
Summarizes the types of non-covalent interactions found among biomolecules and how they facilitate the function of antibodies, hormones, and hemoglobin.
Frieden, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 754.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Hormones
Allied health chemistry laboratory. Amino acids, insulin, proteins, and skin  Dever, David F.
Describes an allied health chemistry laboratory involving amino acids, insulin, proteins and skin that begins with the construction of molecular models of amino acids and proteins.
Dever, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 338.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Applications of Chemistry
Sulfur compounds. Pollution, health effects, and biological function  Leh, F.; Chan, K. M.
Reviews the role of sulfur and its compounds in pollution and adverse health effects as well as biological functions.
Leh, F.; Chan, K. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 246.
Nonmetals |
Proteins / Peptides
Photochemical reactions of natural macromolecules. Photoreactions of proteins  Neckers, Douglas C.
Reviews salient features of protein destruction by ultraviolet radiation.
Neckers, Douglas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 164.
Photochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of chemical principles and their solutions.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 128.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A unified apparatus for paper and gel electrophoresis  Racusen, David; White, Lee
Presents an apparatus that can be used for either paper and gel electrophoresis.
Racusen, David; White, Lee J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 439.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Simple method for demonstrating an enzymatic reaction  Tang, Chung-Shih
Uses taste sensations of papaya seeds under varying conditions to demonstrate an enzymatic reaction.
Tang, Chung-Shih J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 692.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Food Science |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Models for tertiary structures: Myoglobin and lysozyme  Smith, Ivor; Smith, Margaret J.; Roberts, Lynne
Presents the design details for constructing three dimensional models of proteins, including myoglobin and lysozyme.
Smith, Ivor; Smith, Margaret J.; Roberts, Lynne J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 302.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Proteins / Peptides |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Disposable macromolecular model "kits"  Nicholson, Isadore
A brief note suggesting the use of colored pipe cleaners for the construction of three dimensional models of polymers, particularly enzymes and other proteins.
Nicholson, Isadore J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 671.
Molecular Modeling |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
Disc electrophoresis  Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B.
Describes the procedures involved in separating proteins or nucleic acids through disc electrophoresis.
Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 41.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Separation Science
Polyethylene and pipecleaner models of biological polymers  Pollard, Harvey Bruce
An accurate method for modeling polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins involves the use of pipecleaners, polyethylene tubing, and proteins.
Pollard, Harvey Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 327.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Ribonucleic acid: The simplest information-transmitting molecule  Fraenkel-Conrat, H.
Examines the chemical structure of nucleic acids, chemical modification of RNA and mutagenesis, role of RNA in protein structure, the mechanism of information transfer from RNA to protein, and mutants and coding.
Fraenkel-Conrat, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 216.
Proteins / Peptides
Schematic models of biochemical polymers  Blackwell, R. Quentin
Demonstrates the use of plastic necklace beads to represent polysaccharides, peptides and proteins, and nucleotides.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 500.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates