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Journal Articles: 24 results
Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper  Mark Mascal and Richard Scown
In this experiment, waste newspaper is pulped with acid and its cellulose hydrolyzed to produce glucose syrup that is fermented and distilled to yield ethanol. In doing so, students are introduced to carbohydrate chemistry and the use of fermentation in organic synthesis.
Mascal, Mark; Scown, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Chemistry of Popcorn: Polymers of Glucose  William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules this month are all polymers of glucose and include cellobiose, maltose, 10-mer of cellulose, 40-mer of amylose, and an amylopectin fragment.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 413.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Glycosyltransferases A and B: Four Critical Amino Acids Determine Blood Type  Natisha L. Rose, Monica M. Palcic, and Stephen V. Evans
Human A, B, and O blood type is determined by the presence or absence of distinct carbohydrate structures on red blood cells. In this review the chemistry of the blood group ABO system and the role of glycosyltransferase A, glycosyltransferase B, and the four amino acids critical to determining blood group status are discussed.
Rose, Natisha L.; Palcic, Monica M.; Evans, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1846.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Biology |
X-ray Crystallography |
Amino Acids
Demonstrating Encapsulation and Release: A New Take on Alginate Complexation and the Nylon Rope Trick  Andrienne C. Friedli and Inge R. Schlager
Three variations on a classroom demonstration of the encapsulation of droplets and evidence for release of the interior solution are described. The first two demonstrations mimic biocompatible applications of encapsulation. A third encapsulation exercise exploits the irreversible interfacial polymerization of diamine and diacid chloride to form membranes and illustrates the detection of diamine release from the capsule using an indicator.
Friedli, Andrienne C.; Schlager, Inge R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1017.
Biotechnology |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Consumer Chemistry |
Membranes
Tensile Strength Measurements on Biopolymer Films  Eugene S. Stevens and Mark D. Poliks
Measuring the tensile strength of biopolymer films using a simple student apparatus; results are compared with data obtained from industry-standard equipment.
Stevens, Eugene S.; Poliks, Mark D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 810.
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Industrial Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Materials Science |
Proteins / Peptides
Enzymatic Spectrophotometric Reaction Rate Determination of Glucose in Fruit Drinks and Carbonated Beverages. An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Food Science-Oriented Students  Argyro-Maria G. Vasilarou and Constantinos A. Georgiou
This laboratory experiment demonstrates the implementation of reaction rate kinetic methods of analysis, the use of enzymes as selective analytical reagents for the determination of substrates, the kinetic masking of ascorbic acid interference, and the analysis of glucose in drinks and beverages.
Vasilarou, Argyro-Maria G.; Georgiou, Constantinos A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1327.
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates
The Other Double Helix--The Fascinating Chemistry of Starch  Robert D. Hancock and Bryon J. Tarbet
The chemistry of starch, particularly the structure of starch and starch granules.
Hancock, Robert D.; Tarbet, Bryon J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 988.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Stereochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Sugar Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 29 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe sugars and their polymers.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 480.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Identifying Softwoods and Hardwoods by Infrared Spectroscopy  Brady Barker and Noel L. Owen
Infrared spectra of 45 softwoods and hardwoods have been recorded. The wavenumber values of the carbonyl stretching vibration and one of the ring-breathing modes of lignin are used to distinguish softwoods from hardwoods. The differences between the absorption bands for the softwoods and hardwoods in each instance are shown to be statistically significant.
Barker, Brady; Owen, Noel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1706.
Carbohydrates |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Demonstration of Optical Rotatory Dispersion of Sucrose  S. M. Mahurin, R. N. Compton, and Richard N. Zare
A method for demonstrating and measuring the optical activity of chiral molecules in solution is described in which the rotation of linearly polarized light is directly observed at right angles to the propagation of light in the liquid.
Mahurin, S. M.; Compton, Robert N.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1234.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates
A New Method To Convert the Fischer Projection of Monosaccharide to the Haworth Projection  Qing-zhi Zhang and Shen-song Zhang
The D,L-configuration of a sugar in Haworth projection can be directly determined by designating the R,S-configuration of the highest-numbered asymmetric carbon; that is, the most distant carbon from the anomeric carbon. The R-configuration at this carbon corresponds to the D-family, and S- to the L-family.
Zhang, Qing-zhi; Zhang, Shen-song. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 799.
Carbohydrates |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar  Natalie Hershlag, Ian Hurley, and Jonathan Woodward
In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter.
Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1270.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry
Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry  Sigthór Pétursson
The most important protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry are reviewed. The paper is aimed at those beginning to specialize in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry and at teachers with other specialties who wish to go beyond the content of general organic chemistry textbooks.
Petursson, Sigthor. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1297.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis
A Handy Reagent for Testing the Reducing Power of Sugars  Sandell, Arvid
Using the reduction of copper(II) as a semi-quantitative test for reducing sugars.
Sandell, Arvid J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 346.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
The howling gummy bear   Sullivan, Dan M.
This demonstration illustrates the fact that we consume high-energy foods in order to obtain the reduced carbon they contain.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 326.
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Carbohydrate stereochemistry  Shallenberger, Robert S.; Wienen, Wanda J.
A progress in the development of general stereochemical principles has been significantly influenced by studies that led to determination of the crystalline and solution structures of sugars, the subject of carbohydrate chemistry is developed here in historical fashion.
Shallenberger, Robert S.; Wienen, Wanda J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 67.
Carbohydrates |
Stereochemistry
Biochemistry off the shelf  Wilson, Jerry L.
Rather than using animal sources for biochemistry experiments, non-animal sources are inexpensive, readily available, and require no special storage.
Wilson, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 796.
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates |
Lipids |
Metabolism
Cycloamyloses  Bergeron, Raymond J.
Examines an unusual carbohydrate system of current interest in the hope of generating some enthusiasm for the topic.
Bergeron, Raymond J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 204.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of chemical principles and their solutions.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 128.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letter to the editor  Bhatnagar, Vijay Mohan
Distinguishes between alpha- and beta-amylose and their mixtures, particular with respect to iodimetric titrations.
Bhatnagar, Vijay Mohan J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 771.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Carbohydrates
Polyethylene and pipecleaner models of biological polymers  Pollard, Harvey Bruce
An accurate method for modeling polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins involves the use of pipecleaners, polyethylene tubing, and proteins.
Pollard, Harvey Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 327.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Effect of liquid NH3 on wood: A demonstration of the alcohol structure of cellulose  Hirsch, Phillis R.
A lecture demonstration of the plasticization of wood with liquid ammonia can be a very effective tool for teaching the alcohol structure of cellulose to any class studying basic organic chemistry.
Hirsch, Phillis R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 605.
Carbohydrates |
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The geometry of giant molecules  Price, Charles C.
The author examines a variety of specific examples of natural and synthetic polymer molecules and describes how their geometric molecular arrangements influence their properties.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 160.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Schematic models of biochemical polymers  Blackwell, R. Quentin
Demonstrates the use of plastic necklace beads to represent polysaccharides, peptides and proteins, and nucleotides.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 500.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates