TIGER

Journal Articles: 282 results
Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis  Miranda L. Cheney, Michael J. Zaworotko, Steve Beaton, and Robert D. Singer
Describes experiments that can easily be adapted to a typical undergraduate organic chemistry course and are inexpensive, relatively safe, require little or no solvent, have high atom economy, make use of non-toxic or low toxicity compounds, and generate negligible quantities of waste.
Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1649.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Solid State Chemistry |
Synthesis
Student Learning and Evaluation in Analytical Chemistry Using a Problem-Oriented Approach and Portfolio Assessment   Mary C. Boyce and Kuki Singh
This paper describes a student-focused activity that promotes effective learning in analytical chemistry (chromatography) by providing an environment where students are responsible for their own learningfrom designing the problem to be addressed and planning the laboratory work to presenting evidence of their learning in the form of a portfolio.
Boyce, Mary C.; Singh, Kuki. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1633.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Representing Fractional Distributions in Chemistry  Addison Ault
The purpose of this paper is to present a common approach to the representation of all forms of fractional distributions. Using a common approach is simple, easy to understand, and can reveal otherwise hidden relationships between phenomena.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1432.
Acids / Bases |
Amino Acids |
Carboxylic Acids |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Biochemistry Wordsearches  Terry L. Helser
Presents two matrix puzzles containing names, terms, acronyms, and abbreviations describing amino acid and nucleotide synthesis, respectively. When completed, the letters remaining describe 1) a genetic disease that students are asked to explain, and 2) a sentence describing the pathways of nucleic acid anabolism.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 515.
Amino Acids |
Biosynthesis |
Metabolism |
Molecular Biology |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Synthesis
Research Advances: Printing with Enzymes Instead of Ink; New Way to Watch the Lipid Flip—Flippases, Flopases, and Scramblases; Fast, Accurate Sensor to Detect Food Spoilage  Angela G. King
Inkless printing. Timing the lipid flip. Supramolecular freshness assay.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 478.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Enzymes |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Materials Science |
Membranes |
Molecular Recognition |
Synthesis
Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts of Tricyclic Cationic Drugs: A One-Pot Synthesis for the Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Linda S. Brunauer, Abid C. Mogannam, Won B. Hwee, and James Y. Chen
Describes a one-pot conversion of tricyclic cationic drugs to their quaternary ammonium forms for a widely used bioactive drug, chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine-based antipsychotic. The conversion of parent drug to the methylated form was evaluated by qualitatively measuring its ability to induce alterations in the shape of mammalian erythrocytes.
Brunauer, Linda S.; Mogannam, Abid C.; Hwee, Won B.; Chen, James Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1992.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Laboratory Preparation of Aspartame Analogs Using Simultaneous Multiple Parallel Synthesis Methodology  Nir Qvit, Yaniv Barda, Chaim Gilon, and Deborah E. Shalev
This experiment provides a unique opportunity for students to synthesize three analogues of aspartame. The students are introduced to the powerful and useful method of parallel synthesis while synthesizing three dipeptides in parallel using solid-phase peptide synthesis and simultaneous multiple parallel synthesis methodologies.
Qvit, Nir; Barda, Yaniv; Gilon, Chaim; Shalev, Deborah E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1988.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
HPLC |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Biochemical View: A Web Site Providing Material for Teaching Biochemistry Using Multiple Approaches  Fernanda C. Dórea, Higor S. Rodrigues, Oscar M. M. Lapouble, Márcio R. Pereira, Mariana S. Castro, and Wagner Fontes
Biochemical View is a free, full access Web site whose main goals are to complement existing biochemistry instruction and materials, provide material to teachers preparing conventional and online courses, and popularize the use of these resources in undergraduate courses.
Dórea, Fernanda C.; Rodrigues, Higor S.; Lapouble, Oscar M. M.; Pereira, Márcio R.; Castro, Mariana S.; Fontes, Wagner. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1866.
Amino Acids |
Bioenergetics |
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Glycolysis |
Lipids |
Metabolism |
Fatty Acids
A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent  Christopher J. Fenk, Nathan Kaufman, and Donald G. Gerbig, Jr.
Presents a new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of aspartame that incorporates a less caustic biuret reagent and visible spectroscopic analysis for selective detection in aqueous solutions using readily available instrumentation.
Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1676.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Food Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids
Formation of a Ruthenium–Arene Complex, Cyclometallation with a Substituted Benzylamine, and Insertion of an Alkyne  Michael J. Chetcuti and Vincent Ritleng
Describes a three-part experiment that includes the synthesis of an arene complex, its cyclometallation, and an insertion reaction with the cyclometallated product. The sequence provides an excellent example of metal-mediated functionalization of a CH bond and an opportunity for students to learn standard schlenk techniques.
Chetcuti, Michael J.; Ritleng, Vincent. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1014.
Alkynes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Synthesis
Synthesis and NMR Spectral Analysis of Amine Heterocycles: The Effect of Asymmetry on the 1H and 13C NMR Spectra of N,O-Acetals  Shahrokh Saba, James A. Ciaccio, Jennifer Espinal, and Courtney E. Aman
Describe an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment in which students prepare two N,O-acetals that differ only in a single ring substituent that introduces asymmetry, giving each compound a distinct 1H and 13C NMR spectral pattern that must be explained by students.
Saba, Shahrokh; Ciaccio, James A.; Espinal, Jennifer; Aman, Courtney E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1011.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Green Chemistry |
Heterocycles |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
Triethylamine  Jay A. Young
The hazards of triethylamine are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 926.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
Making Molecular Borromean Rings  Cari D. Pentecost, Nicholas Tangchaivang, Stuart J. Cantrill, Kelly S. Chichak, Andrea J. Peters, and J. Fraser Stoddart
Presents an experimental procedure for the synthesis of molecular Borromean rings in an organic chemistry laboratory course that incorporates several important topics, including synthetic organic, physical organic, inorganic and metallo-organic chemistry, as well as supramolecular, and dynamic covalent chemistry.
Pentecost, Cari D.; Tangchaivang, Nicholas; Cantrill, Stuart J.; Chichak, Kelly S.; Peters, Andrea J.; Stoddart, J. Fraser. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 855.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Metals |
Molecular Recognition |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Synthesis
Synthesis of Bis(1,2-dimethylimidazole)copper(I) Hexafluorophosphate: An Experiment Using a Glove Box  J. H. Niewahner and Keith A. Walters
Provides laboratory instructions for a glove box experiment involving the synthesis of bis(1,2-dimethylimidazole)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate.
Niewahner, James; Walters, Keith A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 702.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Coordination Compounds |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students  Alice L. Perez and G. Lamoureux
Sudoku puzzles are used to help the students learn the correspondence between the names of amino acids, their abbreviations, and codes; and the correspondence between the names of functional groups, their structures, and abbreviations.
Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 614.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkylation |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Amino Acids |
MO Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student-Centered Learning |
Alkynes |
Amides
Microwave-Mediated Synthesis of Lophine: Developing a Mechanism To Explain a Product   R. David Crouch, Jessica L. Howard, Jennifer L. Zile, and Kathryn H. Barker
Describes the microwave-mediated preparation of lophine (2,4,5-triphenylimidazole). The experiment also provides an opportunity for students to employ the principles of carbonyl chemistry in devising a mechanism to explain the formation of the product.
Crouch, R. David; Howard, Jessica L.; Zile, Jennifer L.; Barker, Kathryn H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1658.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Modeling |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy
Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Andri L. Smith and Paula Tan
Describes the synthesis of creatine monohydratea popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energyfor introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. The synthesis illustrates the electrophilic nature of nitriles, as well as the nucleophilic nature of amines.
Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1654.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Research Advances: Floating Metals; Oxalate Fights Phytotoxin; A Taste of Success in the Search for an Electronic Tongue  Angela G. King
Ultra-low density metal foams; chemical warfare in plants; tasting enantiomers.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1578.
Amino Acids |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Nanotechnology |
Materials Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Enantiomers
Using Physical Models of Biomolecular Structures To Teach Concepts of Biochemical Structure and Structure Depiction in the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory  Gordon A. Bain, John Yi, Mithra Beikmohamadi, Timothy M. Herman, and Michael A. Patrick
Custom-made physical models of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, the zinc finger moiety, beta-globin, and green fluorescent protein are used to introduce students in first-year chemistry to the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins.
Bain, Gordon A.; Yi, John; Beikmohamadi, Mithra; Herman, Timothy M.; Patrick, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1322.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Copper and Nickel Complex Ions  William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules this month include all eight isomeric forms of [Ni(en)3]2+, demonstrating the effects of ligand backbone conformation.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1248.
Amino Acids |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Colorful Chemical Demonstrations on the Extraction of Anionic Species from Water into Ether Mediated by Tricaprylylmethylammonium Chloride (Aliquat 336), a Liquid–Liquid Phase-Transfer Agent  Anil Joseph Pezhathinal, Kerensa Rocke, Louis Susanto, Derek Handke, Roch Chan-Yu-King, and Patrick Gordon
Provides a list of safe and easy experiments to demonstrate the extraction of colorful, water-soluble reagents by Aliquat 336 into ether. The demonstrations simulate the preliminary extractive step of an ionic species in liquidliquid phase transfer-catalyzed reactions and introduce various undergraduate chemistry concepts and principles to students.
Pezhathinal, Anil Joseph; Rocke, Kerensa; Susanto, Louis; Handke, Derek; Chan-Yu-King, Roch; Gordon, Patrick. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1161.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Amino Acids  William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard alpha-amino acids found in proteins. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1103.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
Nonfood Applications of Proteinaceous Renewable Materials  Justin R. Barone and Walter F. Schmidt
While there are many current and future nonfood uses for proteins, it is the intent of this review to concentrate on recent advances focusing on uses as polymers and biomaterials, which have enormous commercial potential.
Barone, Justin R.; Schmidt, Walter F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1003.
Amino Acids |
Biotechnology |
Natural Products |
Polymerization |
Proteins / Peptides
Mannich Reactions in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs): An Advanced Undergraduate Project of Green Chemistry and Structural Elucidation  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Jane Siu, Y. M. Lai, and Pak-kei Chan
This experiment describes the synthesis of a commonly used ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, and the application of this ionic liquid as a recyclable medium for Mannich reactions.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Siu, Jane; Lai, Y. M.; Chan, Pak-kei. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 943.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Octachem Model: Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Companion  Joaquin Palacios
The Octachem model is an educational physical model designed to guide students in the identification, classification, and naming of the chemical structures of organic compounds. In this article the basic concepts of Octachem model are presented, and the physical model and contents are described.
Palacios, Joaquin. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 890.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Ethers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Facing the Music: How Original Was Borodin's Chemistry?  Michael D. Gordin
A return to the original sources demonstrates that the evidence for Borodin's reputation as a great chemist, as opposed to a merely good one, is exaggerated.
Gordin, Michael D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 561.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nonmajor Courses
Fluorous Compounds and Their Role in Separation Chemistry  Maria Angeles Ubeda and Roman Dembinski
Reviews fluorous technology and outlines strategies towards organic synthesis.
Ubeda, Maria Angeles; Dembinski, Roman. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 84.
Amino Acids |
Catalysis |
Esters |
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Synthesis
Glycosyltransferases A and B: Four Critical Amino Acids Determine Blood Type  Natisha L. Rose, Monica M. Palcic, and Stephen V. Evans
Human A, B, and O blood type is determined by the presence or absence of distinct carbohydrate structures on red blood cells. In this review the chemistry of the blood group ABO system and the role of glycosyltransferase A, glycosyltransferase B, and the four amino acids critical to determining blood group status are discussed.
Rose, Natisha L.; Palcic, Monica M.; Evans, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1846.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Biology |
X-ray Crystallography |
Amino Acids
Monitoring the Rate of Solvolytic Decomposition of Benzenediazonium Tetrafluoroborate in Aqueous Media Using a pH Electrode  Floyd L. Wiseman
This article discusses the use of pH electrodes to monitor the aqueous solvolysis of the benzenediazonium ion and shows that the results are in reasonable agreement with literature values.
Wiseman, Floyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1841.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
pH |
Rate Law
Cotton Effect in Copper–Proline Complexes in the Visible Region  Victor Volkov and Rolf Pfister
This article suggests taking advantage of the visible dd electronic transition of Cu2+, which allows one to contrast the normal optical rotatory dispersion response of d- and l-proline in aqueous solution with the strong Cotton effect observed when these amino acids are complexed with a metal cation.
Volkov, Victor; Pfister, Rolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1663.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air  Dan Xiao, Lianzhi Lin, Hongyan Yuan, Martin M. F. Choi, and Winghong Chan
This article describes the use of a passive sampler for detecting and collecting nitrogen dioxide, NO2, in ambient air. This device is based on microporous PTFE membranes that allow air samples to diffuse through and subsequently react with an absorbing reagent solution. The absorbance value of this reagent is proportional to the NO2 concentration in ambient air. It has been successfully applied to determine the NO2 concentrations in various sampling sites.
Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1231.
Calibration |
Membranes |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Coordination Compounds |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses |
Quantitative Analysis
Measuring Gas-Phase Basicities of Amino Acids Using an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer. A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Lee S. Sunderlin, Victor Ryzhov, Lanea M. M. Keller, and Elizabeth R. Gaillard
A new experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory has been developed that uses an ion trap mass spectrometer to measure the relative gas-phase basicities of amino acids. This experiment is based on the kinetic method, which connects kinetics measurements on two competing reaction rates to the thermodynamic properties of the reaction products. This method gives high precision on properties that are difficult to measure through other means. The experiment also introduces students to an active area of research in mass spectrometry and demonstrates the application of physical chemistry techniques to biochemistry.
Sunderlin, Lee S.; Ryzhov, Victor; Keller, Lanea M. M.; Gaillard, Elizabeth R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1071.
Kinetics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Thermodynamics |
Amino Acids
Amino Acid Complementarity: A Biochemical Exemplar of Stoichiometry for General and Health Sciences Chemistry  Ed Vitz
Calculations demonstrating amino acid complementarity are presented as an interesting application of stoichiometry. Food proteins are said to have complementary amino acids when the proteins combine to provide amino acids in the proper stoichiometric ratios to synthesize human protein. Implications for vegetarian diet, efficiency of food production, and diet adaptations in various cultures are explored briefly.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1013.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Stoichiometry |
Food Science
A Green Starting Material for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  T. Michelle Jones-Wilson and Elizabeth A. Burtch
Traditional experiments in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory involve the use of hazardous organic materials. Substitution of alternative green procedures wherever possible reduces organic waste and allows students to consider the need for environmentally sound chemistry. A green electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction (EAS), nitration of tyrosine, has been developed for use in the undergraduate laboratory. This reaction allows students to consider the varied aspects of EAS including activating and deactivating groups and o, p, m directors in a green environment.
Jones-Wilson, T. Michelle; Burtch, Elizabeth A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 616.
Amino Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Electrophilic Substitution
Chemical Modification of Papain and Subtilisin: An Active Site Comparison. An Undergraduate Biochemistry Experiment   Mireille St-Vincent and Michael Dickman
This experiment demonstrates the specific chemistry of cysteine and serine residues in the active sites of papain and subtilisin.
St-Vincent, Mireille; Dickman, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1048.
Amino Acids |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Enzymes
Classroom Demonstration of a Spot Test for Phenylpyruvic Acid and Its Relationship to Phenylketonuria  Christopher J. Halkides
A classroom demonstration of a spot test for phenylketonuria using ferric chloride is discussed. The chemistry is similar to that used in Phenistix test strips. Some background information on screening infants for phenylketonuria is also given.
Halkides, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 366.
Amino Acids |
Enzymes |
Biotechnology |
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids  Addison Ault
Examples of the industrial synthesis of pure amino acids are presented. The emphasis is on the synthesis of (S)-glutamic acid and, to a lesser extent, (S)-lysine and (R,S)-methionine. These amino acids account for about 90% of the total world production of amino acids.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 347.
Amino Acids |
Biotechnology |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Consumer Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Natural Products |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Food Science
Microscale Synthesis of 1-Bromo-3-chloro-5-iodobenzene: An Improved Deamination of 4-Bromo-2-chloro-6-iodoaniline  Michael W. Pelter, Libbie S.W. Pelter, Dusanka Colovic, and Regina Strug
Overall, we find this procedure to be advantageous to the published methods owing to its requirement of less starting material, higher product yields, and a greatly simplified procedure.
Pelter, Michael W.; Pelter, Libbie S.W.; Colovic, Dusanka; Strug, Regina. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 111.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Triethanolamine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for triethanolamine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 24.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Physical Properties |
Alcohols
Mass Spectra  JCE Editorial Staff
Activity in which students solve puzzles analogous to finding the amino acid sequence of a peptide using mass spectrometry.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 176A.
Amino Acids |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides
Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Heterogeneous Catalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Ammonia  Jonathan D. Fischer and James E. Whitten
A 2.2 micron light-emitting diode and photodiode detector have been used to detect gaseous ammonia by infrared spectroscopy. A linear plot of absorbance versus pressure is observed when a stainless steel chamber, constructed from off-the-shelf vacuum hardware and fitted with two glass windows, is filled with ammonia. By installing a tungsten filament in the chamber, the heterogeneous catalytic decomposition of ammonia by a hot metal surface may be monitored.
Fischer, Jonathan D.; Whitten, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1451.
Catalysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Surface Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases
Protein Design Using Unnatural Amino Acids  Basar Bilgiçer and Krishna Kumar
Using examples from the literature, this article describes the available methods for unnatural amino acid incorporation and highlights some recent applications including the design of hyperstable protein folds.
Bilgiçer, Basar; Kumar, Krishna. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1275.
Amino Acids |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simple Recipes for Prebiotic Soup: A High School or Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Marisol Martinez-Meeler, Nika Aljinovic, and Dorothy Swain
Replicating Stanley Miller's prebiotic soup experiment for introductory chemistry; includes experimental apparatus and analysis of the products.
Martinez-Meeler, Marisol; Aljinovic, Nika; Swain, Dorothy. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 665.
Amino Acids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry
Chemical Equilibria Involving Copper(II) Ethylenediamine Complexes  Roberto Zingales
Demonstration illustrating the formation of two different complexes when copper(II) ions react with ethylenediamine.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 535.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Determination of a Diffusion Coefficient by Capillary Electrophoresis. An Experiment for the Physical and Biophysical Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams, Bhavin Adhyaru, Igor German, and Thomas Russell
Determination of the diffusion coefficient of dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) through capillary electrophoresis.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin; German, Igor; Russell, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1475.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Transport Properties |
Electrophoresis |
Transport Properties |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications  Joseph E. Saavedra and Larry K. Keefer
Nitric oxide and drug design, physical and chemical properties of nitric oxide, and biochemical reactions involving nitric oxide and diazeniumdiolates.
Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1427.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Free Radicals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Physical Properties |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Microwave-Assisted Reflux in Organometallic Chemistry: Synthesis and Structural Determination of Molybdenum Carbonyl Complexes. An Intermediate-Level Organometallic–Inorganic Experiment  Michael Ardon, Philip D. Hayes, and Graeme Hogarth
Modifying a conventional microwave oven to carry out an organometallic synthesis through reflux.
Ardon, Michael; Hayes, Philip D.; Hogarth, Graeme. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1249.
IR Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Graphical Approach to Determine the Isoelectric Point and Charge of Small Peptides from pH 0 to 14  Gabriele D'Andrea and Giuseppe Di Nicolantonio
A graphical method for determining the isoelectric point and charge of small peptides from pH 0 to 14.
D'Andrea, Gabriele; Di Nicolantonio, Giuseppe. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 972.
Amino Acids |
pH
On the Stereochemistry of 'Natural' a-Amino Acids (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48-49)  Sam H. Leung

Leung, Sam H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 559.
Amino Acids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
On the Stereochemistry of 'Natural' a-Amino Acids (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48-49)  Giovanni Lentini

Lentini, Giovanni. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 558.
Amino Acids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
Experimental Design and Polyelectrolyte Effects on Ligand Binding to Nucleic Acids. An Undergraduate Biochemistry Lab  Matthew A. Fisher, Danielle Johnston, and Daniel A. Ritt
Investigation involving the binding of the polyamine spermine to DNA as a function of cations in solution.
Fisher, Matthew A.; Johnston, Danielle; Ritt, Daniel A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 374.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
The Cis-Trans Equilibrium of N-Acetyl-L-Proline. An Experiment for the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory  Kathryn R. Williams, Bhavin Adhyaru, Igor German, and Eric Alvarez
A cis-trans equilibrium system that demonstrates the effect of solvent polarity and aqueous pH.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin; German, Igor; Alvarez, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 372.
Amino Acids |
Biophysical Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Equilibrium |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
Use of 15N Label in Organic Synthesis and Spectroscopy. Part I: Preparation of 15N-Labeled tert-Butylamine  Erach R. Talaty, Christopher A. Boese, Sanni M. Adewale, Mohammed S. Ismail, Frank A. Provenzano, and Melissa J. Utz
Procedure for preparation of 15N-labeled tert-butylamine through the Ritter reaction followed by hydrolysis.
Talaty, Erach R.; Boese, Christopher A.; Adewale, Sanni M.; Ismail, Mohammed S.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Utz, Melissa J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 221.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Synthesis and Analysis of a Solvatochromic Dye, 1-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-2-nitroethylene. An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Dana L. Richter-Egger, Aaron Tesfai, Spencer J. Flamm, and Sheryl A. Tucker
Synthesis and analysis of 1-(p-dimethylaminophenyl)-2-nitroethylene.
Richter-Egger, Dana L.; Tesfai, Aaron; Flamm, Spencer J.; Tucker, Sheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1375.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes
Thin-Layer Electrophoresis  Tom Lyons Fisher, Tara Leslie Fitzsimmons, and I. David Reingold
Thin-layer electrophoresis apparatus.
Fisher, Tom Lyons; Fitzsimmons, Tara Leslie; Reingold, I. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1241.
Amino Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
HPLC Determination of Taurine in Sports Drinks  Dale L. Orth
An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in sports drinks using a pre-column derivatization.
Orth, Dale L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 791.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Applications of Chemistry
An Indexed Combinatorial Library: The Synthesis and Testing of Insect Repellents  William H. Miles, Kathy A. Gelato, Kristen M. Pompizzi, Aislinn M. Scarbinsky, Brian K. Albrecht, and Elaine R. Reynolds
An indexed combinatorial library of amides was prepared by the reaction of amines and acid chlorides; a simple test for insect repellency using fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) allowed the determination of the most repellent sublibraries.
Miles, William H.; Gelato, Kathy A.; Pompizzi, Kristen M.; Scarbinsky, Aislinn M.; Albrecht, Brian K.; Reynolds, Elaine R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 540.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The Acid-Base Chemistry of Nicotine: Extensions, Analogies, and a Generalization  Addison Ault
This paper shows how to express the fractional concentrations of the two or more forms in which some substances can be present in an aqueous solution and how to determine under what conditions any one form will be the major form present; nicotine, amino acids, and enzymes serve as examples.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 500.
Acids / Bases |
Amino Acids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
The Application of Electrodialysis to Desalting an Amino Acid Solution  Vicente García-García, Vicente Montiel, José González-García, Eduardo Expósito, Jesús Iniesta, Pedro Bonete, and Marina Inglés
A novel method, electrodialysis, is presented together with its application to the desalting of an industrial effluent comprising an amino acid with a high salt content. It is possible to remove more than 70% of the initial salt content. From this solution with a low salt content, it is possible to isolate the amino acid with a higher purity.
García-García, Vicente; Montiel, Vicente; González-García, Jos; Expósito, Eduardo; Iniesta, Jesús; Bonete, Pedro; Inglés, Marina. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1477.
Amino Acids |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Teaching Noncovalent Interactions in the Biochemistry Curriculum through Molecular Visualization: The Search for p Interactions  James R. Cox
Biochemistry textbooks have not recognized the ability of aromatic amino acids to participate in p interactions with other amino acids and the role of these interactions in protein stability. To introduce these ideas, RasMol, a molecular visualization program, was used by students to search for specific examples of noncovalent interactions in a variety of protein structures.
Cox, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1424.
Amino Acids |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Acid-Base Titration of (S)-Aspartic Acid: A Circular Dichroism Spectrophotometry Experiment  Ana M. V. Cavaleiro and Júlio D. Pedrosa de Jesus
This laboratory experiment consists of the circular dichroism spectrophotometric acid-base titration of (S)-aspartic acid in dilute aqueous solutions, and the use of the resulting data to determine the ionization constant of the protonated amino group. The work familiarizes students with circular dichroism and illustrates the possibility of performing titrations using a less usual instrumental method of following the course of a reaction.
Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.; de Jesus, Júlio D. Pedrosa. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1218.
Acids / Bases |
Amino Acids |
Instrumental Methods |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Complete Analysis of a Biologically Active Tetrapeptide: A Project Utilizing Thin-Layer Chromatography and Tandem Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry  Joseph W. LeFevre and David W. Dodsworth
The biologically active tetrapeptide d-Ala-Gly-l-Phe-d-Leu ([des-Tyr1-d-Ala2-d-Leu5]enkephalin) is analyzed for its amino acid content and stereochemistry by normal and reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and its sequence is determined by tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.
LeFevre, Joseph W. ; Dodsworth, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 503.
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Stereochemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab
Microwave Irradiation Reactions: Synthesis of Analgesic Drugs  Gholam A. Mirafzal and Jolene M Summer
Over-the-counter analgesics such as aspirin, acetanilide, phenacetin, and acetaminophen are conveniently prepared in a microwave at 30% power for five minutes. Recrystallization from appropriate solvents results in solid products in good to excellent yields.
Mirafzal, Gholam A.; Summer, Jolene M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 356.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters
A Simple Secondary Amine Synthesis: Reductive Amination Using Sodium Triacetoxyborohydride  Merle W. Carlson, James T. Ciszewski, Micah M. Bhatti, Wesley F. Swanson, and Anne M. Wilson
A reductive amination experiment for a second-semester organic chemistry class. It utilizes an imine intermediate and sodium triacetoxyborohydride, a mild reducing agent. The progress of the reaction is followed by TLC as the starting materials (the aldehyde and primary amine), the imine intermediate, and the secondary amine product are visible under ultraviolet light.
Carlson, Merle W.; Ciszewski, James T.; Bhatti, Micah M.; Swanson, Wesley F.; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 270.
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Dipeptide Sequence Determination: Analyzing Phenylthiohydantoin Amino Acids by HPLC  Janice S. Barton, Chung-Fei Tang, and Steven S. Reed
This experiment presents improved, fundamental methods of sequence analysis for an upper-division biochemistry laboratory. Working in pairs, students use the Edman reagent to prepare phenylthiohydantoin derivatives of amino acids for determination of the sequence of an unknown dipeptide.
Barton, Janice S.; Tang, Chung-Fei; Reed, Steven S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 268.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography
Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?  Sam H. Leung
This article provides a brief survey of the origins of the common names of some amino acids, aromatic compounds, and carboxylic acids.
Leung, Sam H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48.
Amino Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
Chemistry of Natural alpha-Amino Acids: A Surprising "One-Pot Four-Step" Conversion of Polyfunctional Enones into Cyclic Imines  Sonia Amigoni, Christophe Penverne, Caroline Nugier-Chauvin, and Yves Le Floch
This project is aimed at introducing graduate students to multistep organic synthesis. The elaboration of the proposed retrosynthetic scheme involved the use of natural a-amino acids as starting materials. The synthesis of the target polyfunctional enones allowed students to understand the importance of protective groups.
Amigoni, Sonia; Penverne, Christophe; Nugier-Chauvin, Caroline; Le Floch, Yves. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1247.
Natural Products |
Amino Acids |
Synthesis
Micellular Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Separation and Identification of the Amino Acid Residues in an Unknown Dipeptide Using FMOC Derivatization  Timothy G. Strein, James L. Poechmann, and Mark Prudenti
The experiment described herein includes a comparison of MEKC, employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the micelle-forming species, with reverse-phase HPLC. Both methods are used to determine the amino acid residues in an unknown dipeptide.
Strein, Timothy G.; Poechmann, James L.; Prudenti, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 820.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Amino Acids
Amino Acid Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This is a short puzzle with all 20 genetically encoded amino acids embedded in the matrix. The unused letters form a sentence describing them.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 494.
Amino Acids
A Simple Method for Determining the Absolute Configuration of a-Amino Acids  María Dolores Díaz-de-Villegas and Esteban P. Urriolabeitia
The reaction of [Pd(dmba)(acac)] (dmba = C6H4CH2NMe2-2 or 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl-C1,N; acac = C5H7O2 or acetylacetonate) with optically pure a-amino acids (HAa, 1:1 molar ratio) [HAa = S-alanine, S-2-amino butyric acid, R-2-amino butyric acid, (2S,3S)-isoleucine, (2S,3R)-threonine and S-asparagine] in refluxing MeOH results in the formation of the corresponding neutral complexes [Pd(dmba)(Aa)] in good yield. The CD (circular dichroism) spectra of these complexes can be used as analytical tools in the assignment of absolute configurations of a-amino acids.
Diaz-de-Villegas, Maria Dolores; Urriolabeitia, Esteban P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 77.
Organometallics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers
A Maple Program That Illustrates the Effect of pH on Peptide Charge  Charles W. Sokolik
The program described in this paper, written for Maple V, release 3, uses the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the partial charges of individual amino acids and the net charge of a peptide over the pH range 0 to 14.
Sokolik, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1500.
Acids / Bases |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Resolution of trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-diamine and Determination of the Enantiopurity Using Chiral Solid-Phase HPLC Techniques and Polarimetry  Patrick J. Walsh, Diane K. Smith, and Chris Castello
The experiment is designed to reinforce and broaden the students' understanding of the relationship between enantiomers and diasteriomers and of diasteriomeric interactions. Additionally, it illustrates the differences in physical properties (solubility and melting range) between a racemic mixture and the same compound in highly resolved form.
Walsh, Patrick J.; Smith, Diane K.; Castello, Chris. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1459.
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
HPLC |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Determination of the Enantiomeric Purity of Commercial L-[U-14C] Valine: An Experiment Utilizing Reversed-Phase Thin-Layer Chromatography and Liquid Scintillation Counting  Joseph W. LeFevre
The enantiomeric purity of commercial L-[U-14C]valine was determined. The process involved sequential dilution with nonradioactive DL-valine, N-dansylation using dansyl chloride, and resolution using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography in the presence of b-cyclodextrin, a chiral mobile phase additive.
LeFevre, Joseph W. . J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1287.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Microscale Lab |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Amino Acids |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Enantiomers
Detection of Non-B-DNA Secondary Structures by S1 Nuclease Digestion  Marcel.li del Olmo, Agustin Aranda, Jose E. Perez-Ortin, and Vicente Tordera
Two cheap and simple laboratory experiments to analyze the different topological states of DNA and, simultaneously, to detect denatured regions and cruciforms in vitro, using the single-strand specific S1 nuclease.
del Olmo, Marcel.l; Aranda, Agustn; Perez-Ortn, Jos E.; Tordera, Vicente. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 762.
Electrophoresis |
Enzymes |
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure
What Is the Geometry at Trigonal Nitrogen?  K. P. Sudlow and A. A. Woolf
The geometry of trigonal nitrogen is discussed from VSEPR, crystallographic, and computational studies. The VSEPR theory is valid unless hydrogen bonding is strong enough or dispersal of nitrogen lone pair density is possible over receptive groups.
Sudlow, K. P.; Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 108.
Learning Theories |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Computational Chemistry |
VSEPR Theory |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Catalytic Transfer Hydogenation Reactions for Undergraduate Practical Programs  R. W. Hanson
A brief review of catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) reactions is given. Attention is drawn, particularly, to the utility of ammonium formate as the hydrogen donor in this type of reaction.
Hanson, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 430.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemistry behind the News: Sick Cows, Protein Geometry, and Politics  Carol Steinhart
Ten years ago in Great Britain, the first reports of a mysterious disease of the central nervous system in cattle marked the quiet start of one of the century's most catastrophic livestock epidemics. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). It has focused attention on a group of infectious, genetic, and sporadic mammalian diseases attributed to most unorthodox disease agents called prions.
Steinhart, Carol. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A232.
Consumer Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Amino Acids |
Applications of Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioorganic Chemistry
An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment  John M. Risley
Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell.
Risley, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1181.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Consumer Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Nonmajor Courses |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Phenols
A Convenient Synthesis of the Tetrasubstituted Pyrrole: An Undergraduate Heterocyclic Laboratory Experiment  Patrik Kolar, Miha Tisler
A two-step synthesis of tetrasubstituted pyrroles from esters of a-amino acids has been applied as a simple undergraduate laboratory experiment, which illustrates the utility of amino acids in heterocyclic synthesis.
Kolar, Patrik; Tisler, Miha. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 986.
Amino Acids |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Esters
A Simplified Procedure for Dipeptide Sequence Analysis in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Paul W. Rogers
This short article reports two simplifications in the standard sequence analysis of dipeptides by the Sanger method.
Rogers, Paul W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 189.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography
Computer-Modelling of Metal Speciation in Human Blood Serum  Peter Letkeman
182. This paper briefly describes two computer programs, BEST and ECCLES, both available on disc, that can generate distribution diagrams for various metal-complexes in human blood plasma.
Letkeman, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 165.
Metals |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Amino Acids
Diffusion Rates on the Overhead Projector: Amines Compared to HCl  Sally Solomon, Chinhyu Hur, and Alan Lee
Diffusion rates of selected amines are compared to that of HCl using a method very similar to those described for NH3 versus HCl diffusion.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 81.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Transport Properties
Microscale Ninhydrin Test Applied to Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis  Vilaseca, Lluis; Bardaji, Eduard
A modification of the ninhydrin test that allows the use of very small portions of peptide-resins and reagents and employs melting point tubes.
Vilaseca, Lluis; Bardaji, Eduard J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A99.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Synthesis
NMR Spectroscopy Using a Chiral Lanthanide Shift Reagent to Assess the Optical Purity of 1-Phenylethylamine  Tito Viswanathan and Alan Toland
An experiment to exemplify the use of NMR in determining the resolution of a racemic mixture separation.
Viswanathan, Tito; Toland, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 945.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Using Copper sulfate as a Classification Test for Amino Acids and Amines  Christine K. F. Hermann
Using copper sulfate to test for amino acids and amines that do not dissolve well in water.
Hermann, Christine K. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 940.
Amino Acids |
Laboratory Management |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Pyrrole: From Dippel to Du Pont   Hugh J. Anderson
Outline of the discovery, isolation, and development of uses for pyrrole.
Anderson, Hugh J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 875.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Multiple Burning Heaps of Color-- An Elegant Variation of a Flame Test  Eugene T. Smith
Making the ammonia fountain demonstration faster and more reliable using a common syringe.
Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 828.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
"Crack" - A High-Interest Compound Illustrating Important Concepts in General Chemistry  Hoyt, William
Using crack and cocaine as examples of amine acid-base chemistry.
Hoyt, William J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 322.
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters
Nucleophilic and Enzymic Catalysis of p-Nitrophenylacetate Hydrolysis  Head, Michael B.; Mistry, Kalpna S.; Ridings, Bernard J.; Smith, Christopher A.; Parker, Mark J.
Experimental procedure for determining the relative effectiveness of several amino acids and enzymes in catalyzing the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate; sample data and analysis included.
Head, Michael B.; Mistry, Kalpna S.; Ridings, Bernard J.; Smith, Christopher A.; Parker, Mark J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 184.
Amino Acids |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Catalysis
The Ritter Reaction: Trapping a Carbocation with a Nitrile  Crouch, R. David
An organic experiment involving the Ritter reaction that yields an unpredictable product.
Crouch, R. David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A200.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Microwave Synthesis of Tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and Dimethyl Tetraphenylphthalate  Elder, John W.
Procedure for using a microwave to synthesize tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and dimethyl tetraphenylphthalate.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A142.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Glycine: A Simple Zwitterion: Analysis of Its Proton-Binding Isotherm  Saroff, Harry A.
Analysis of the experimental data for the binding of protons to glycine using data from chemically modified derivatives and data from individual-site isotherms.
Saroff, Harry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 637.
Amino Acids
Capillary Electrophoresis: A Fast and Simple Method for the Determination of the Amino Acid Composition of Proteins  Weber, Paul L.; Buck, Daniel R.
Experiments using capillary electrophoresis to determine the amino acid composition of proteins.
Weber, Paul L.; Buck, Daniel R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 609.
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
The Resolution of (+-)-alpha-Methylbenzylamine-A Safer Way  Krause, Josef G.
Preventing boil over during the resolution of (+/-)-alpha-methylbenzylamine.
Krause, Josef G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 596.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
Kinetic demonstration of chemospecific reactions involving salicylate esters and amines: An experiment for advanced undergraduate/postgraduate students   Lajis, Nordin H.; Khan, Mohammad Niyaz
An experiment that demonstrates chemical reactivity.
Lajis, Nordin H.; Khan, Mohammad Niyaz J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A264.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Reactions
Representation of the stereochemistry of amino acids in textbooks  Behrman, E. J.; Means, G. E.; Zhang, H.
Authors recommend either a return to the standard Fischer convention or the amino-carboxyl linear (AC linear) projection to represent amino acids. Current textbook conventions lead to confusion among readers.
Behrman, E. J.; Means, G. E.; Zhang, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 282.
Amino Acids
On the Formation of Peptide Bonds  Stojanoski, Kiro; Zdravkovski, Zoran
In an attempt to simplify the concept of peptide bond formation, many textbooks misrepresent the energy requirement that is necessary for peptide bonds to form.
Stojanoski, Kiro; Zdravkovski, Zoran J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 134.
Amino Acids |
Biosynthesis |
Equilibrium |
Bioenergetics
Identification of amino acids in unknown dipeptides: A derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate and HPLC   Clapp, Charles H.; Swan, James S.; Poechmann, James L.
This paper describes a biochemistry experiment in which students use HPLC to identify the amino acids in unknown dipeptides.
Clapp, Charles H.; Swan, James S.; Poechmann, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A122.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
HPLC
Ammonia balloon  Mattson, Bruce
Demonstrating ammonia's aqueous solubility using a container whose volume changes.
Mattson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1029.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Amino acid discovery  Helser, Terry L.
A biochemical quotation rebus puzzle.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 970.
Amino Acids
Schiff base puzzle project.  Todd, David.
Students pick an unknown substituted aniline and a substituted benzaldehyde, produces the corresponding Schiff base from them, and compares its melting point to those of 25 possible Schiff bases (their structures and melting points being given).
Todd, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 584.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Analogical demonstrations   Fortman, John J.
By illustrating an analogy with a visual demonstration, a student is aided in both understanding and remembering a lesson.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 323.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases
Inclass interactive worksheets for organic chemistry  Ostercamp, Daryl L.
The author has designed two in-class worksheets for use near the end of a two semester organic chemistry course, one dealing with mono- and disaccharides and the second dealing with alpha-amino acids and dipeptides.
Ostercamp, Daryl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 318.
Carbohydrates |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
An ammonia fountain in a micropipet   Epp, Dianne, N.
A variation on the traditional demonstration of ammonia solubility in water.
Epp, Dianne, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A297.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Microscale Lab
Isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate: An undergraduate experiment illustrating amine-catalyzed alkene isomerization, stereochemical principles, sublimation, and product identification by spectroscopic methods  Fryhle, Craig B.; Rybak, Carol M.; Pulley, Kenneth E.
An undergraduate experiment illustrating amine-catalyzed alkene isomerization, stereochemical principles, sublimation, and product identification by spectroscopic methods.
Fryhle, Craig B.; Rybak, Carol M.; Pulley, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1050.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Catalysis
The chemistry of modern petroleum product additives   Vartanian, Paul F.
This paper discusses modern petroleum product additives: raw materials, fuels, petroleum gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel and kerosene, residual fuels, lubricants, and more.
Vartanian, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1015.
Applications of Chemistry |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Surface Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A simple, experimental illustration of the LeChatelier principle  Plaza del Pino, Isabel; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose
This report describes a simple equilibrium experiment using an aqueous solution of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, n-hexylamine, and the Schiff's base they form.
Plaza del Pino, Isabel; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 944.
Equilibrium |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The malonic ester synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D.
The versatile reactions of diethyl malonate represent an important lecture topic in introductory organic courses, but are only rarely performed in the lab because of several problems associated with performing these reactions. These authors present a lab the circumvents some of the typical problems.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 689.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amino Acids |
Heterocycles |
Amides
Quantitative determination of the amino acid composition of a protein using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  Hamann, Christian S.; Myers, David P.; Rittle, Karla J.; Wirth, Edward F.; Moe, Owen A., Jr.
The experiment presented here uses GC-MS analysis of volatile N-trifluoroacetyl-n-butyl ester derivatives of amino acids to determine amino acid composition of a protein.
Hamann, Christian S.; Myers, David P.; Rittle, Karla J.; Wirth, Edward F.; Moe, Owen A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 438.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Development of an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course with NSF-CSIP support  Burgess, Sybil K.
The rapid progress in biochemistry requires a teaching laboratory that can meet the challenges of preparing students to be proficient with contemporary laboratory techniques.
Burgess, Sybil K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 46.
Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An inherited ailment that affects 100 million people  Senozan, N. M.; Thielman, C. A.
How red blood cells cope with oxidative stress; glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fava beans; the genetics of G6PD.
Senozan, N. M.; Thielman, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 7.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Amino Acids |
Enzymes
Organic Nomenclature (Lampman, Gary)  Damey, Richard F.
An interactive tutorial / drill for naming organic compounds.
Damey, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A220.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols
Color reactions and thin-layer chromatography of amino acids: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment for students in the allied health sciences  Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith
Students identify unknowns by determining Rf's and applying color reagents to the chromatograms.
Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 978.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Amino acid chromatography: The "best" technique for student labs  Helser, Terry L.
Comparisons of linear, conical, and circular chromatograms, as well as media and elutants.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 964.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Qualitative amino acid analysis of small peptides by GC/MS  Mabbott, Gary A.
Besides being appealing to students the exercise described here gives them experiences in derivation methods that are often necessary in order to make nonvolatile samples amenable to gas chromatography separation.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 441.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Preparation, analysis, and reactivity of bis[N,N-bis(trimethylsilyl)amino]tin(II): An advanced undergraduate laboratory project in organometallic synthesis  Schaeffer, Charles D., Jr.; Myers, Lori K.; Coley, Suzanne M.; Otter, Julie C.; Yoder, Claude H.
As a part of the authors continuing series on advanced undergraduate laboratory projects involving synthesis and multimuclear NMR spectroscopy, they offer a project that explores the preparation and analysis of tin(II) amine.
Schaeffer, Charles D., Jr.; Myers, Lori K.; Coley, Suzanne M.; Otter, Julie C.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 347.
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
A chemiluminescent ammonia fountain   Thomas, Nicholas C.
Two popular and dramatic demonstrations offered to student audiences that virtually guarantee their undivided attention are the ammonia fountain and chemiluminescence experiments.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 339.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Photohydration of pyridine: Modification of an undergraduate kinetics experiment  Morine, Gerald H.
In a previous article in this Journal an undergraduate experiment on photochemical kinetics was presented. This author is offering modifications to the original experiment.
Morine, Gerald H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 266.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Heterocycles
Oxidation of cysteine to cystine using hydrogen peroxide  Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E.
This synthesis has several advantages as an undergraduate laboratory exercise.
Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 172.
Amino Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction
Nitric acid, nitrates, and nitro compounds: Energetic servants, but overwhelming masters  Bretherick, Leslie
The history, synthesis, properties, uses, and dangers of nitric acid, inorganic and organic nitrate salts, alkyl nitrates, acyl nitrates, aliphatic nitro compounds, and aromatic nitro compounds.
Bretherick, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A220.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Microscale synthesis and analysis of a dipeptide  Blatchly, Richard A.; Allen, Timothy R.; Bergstrom, Dirk T.; Shinozaki, Yuji
The synthesis of a dipeptide from its component amino acids and its analysis by chiral-phase thin-layer chromatography.
Blatchly, Richard A.; Allen, Timothy R.; Bergstrom, Dirk T.; Shinozaki, Yuji J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 965.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids
A study in enzyme kinetics using an ion-specific electrode  Turchi, Sandra L.; David, Craig M.; Edwards, John R.
The D-amino oxidase system is used to study enzyme kinetics in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory by applying an NH3, ion-specific electrode.
Turchi, Sandra L.; David, Craig M.; Edwards, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 687.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Amino Acids
Selective reductions in the teaching laboratory  Jones, Alan G.
Reductions of nitrophenylethanone, aminophenylethanone, and nitrophenylethanol.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 611.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
The synthesis of methyl salicylate: Amine diazotization.  Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R.
Unlike many organic chemistry labs, this experiment does not expose students to carcinogenics, nor does it smell bad.
Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1106.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds
Stoichiometry to the rescue (a calculation challenge)   Ramette, Richard W.
Presentation of a question that would be suitable for a take-home exam or a problem set in a general or analytical chemistry course.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 800.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Microcomputer analyzed initial rate kinetics of the benzene enhanced unfolding of myoglobin: A biophysical chemistry experiment  Schuh, Merlyn D.
This paper descries an inexpensive biophysical chemistry experiment, designed to be completed in one lab period, that introduces students to the subject of globular protein conformation and microcomputer analysis of initial rate data for the unfolding of proteins appropriate for an upper-division physics or biochemistry lab.
Schuh, Merlyn D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 740.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
pH
Lecture demonstrations for organic/ biochemistry allied health courses  Deavor, James P.
Simple demonstrations on enantiomeric pairs and protein structure.
Deavor, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 622.
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Proteins / Peptides |
Nonmajor Courses |
Amino Acids
Shedding a new light on solubility calculations   Stolzberg, Richard J.
Precipitate formation, fractional precipitation and precipitate dissolution can be investigated in a series of lecture demonstrations suitable for general chemistry or quantitative analysis.
Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 621.
Quantitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
To the editor   Friedmann, Herbert C.
This author defends his article titled, "Energetics of polymerization".
Friedmann, Herbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 558.
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Synthesis |
Polymerization |
Bioenergetics
Energetics of polymerization: A contribution to an understanding of protein synthesis   Spivack, Jay
A letter attempts to point out inconsistencies in the article "Energetics of polymerization".
Spivack, Jay J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 558.
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioenergetics |
Synthesis |
Amino Acids
Acid pickling with amines: an experiment in applied chemistry for high school or freshman chemistry   Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C.
A brief description of the removal of corrosion products and millscale from the surface of ferrous metals by acid pickling.
Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 457.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Electrochemistry
An elementary discussion of chemical equilibrium  David, Carl W.
This article uses thermodynamic concepts to study the equilibria between hydrogen/nitrogen and ammonia.
David, Carl W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 407.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Thermodynamics
The spectrum of a dissociation intermediate of cysteine: a biophysical chemistry experiment  Splittgerber, A. G.; Chinander, L. L.
An elegant experiment that integrates the basic concepts of physical and biological chemistry in the study of cysteine.
Splittgerber, A. G.; Chinander, L. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 167.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Amino Acids
Asymmetric Synthesis: Construction of Chiral Molecules Using Amino Acids (Coopola, Gary M.; Schuster, Herbert F.)  Berlin, K. Darrell
Nine chapters, each headed by an amino acid: alanine, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, hydroxy amino acids, sulfur-containing amino acids, difunctional amino acids, proline, and tryptophan.
Berlin, K. Darrell J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A248.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Synthesis |
Amino Acids
Analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R.
Separating and identifying the amino acids found in aspartame.
Conklin, Alfred R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1065.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The synthesis of an amino acid derivative and spectroscopic monitoring of dipeptide formation  Simmonds, Richard J.
L-alanine is converted to its crystalline N-benzyloxycarbonyl derivative and then esterfied using p-nitrophenol and either dicyclohexylcarbodiimide or ethyl chloroformate.
Simmonds, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 966.
Amino Acids |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Kinetics
A project lab for an advanced general chemistry course featuring the amino acid, glycine  Dudek, Emily P.
Synthesis of glycine, measurement of its nitrogen content by eudiometry, and the estimation of its Rf value as compared to other amino acids using paper chromatography.
Dudek, Emily P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 899.
Amino Acids |
Synthesis
Spectroscopic analysis using the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum  Crandall, Elbert W.
Review of the use of near-IR to study simple compounds (amines, hydroxyl, and carbonyl compounds) and polymers.
Crandall, Elbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 466.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A safe, convenient method of generating bromine for qualitative analysis  Slayden, Suzauee W.; Do, Thuy H.; Smiley, Kimberly Y.; Nelson, Donna J.
A safe, convenient method of generating bromine used as a qualitative test for unsaturation, active methylene groups, phenols, and amines.
Slayden, Suzauee W.; Do, Thuy H.; Smiley, Kimberly Y.; Nelson, Donna J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 368.
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes |
Phenols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
Chemical modification of catalytically essential amino acid residues in enzymes  Roig, Manuel G.
Using ADH from horse liver as a working model on which to conduct a series of experiments concerning the chemical modification of proteins with the aim of familiarizing students in biochemistry with the chemical reactivity of amino acid residues and research into the nature of active sites in enzymes.
Roig, Manuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 77.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Haber-Tech: A simulation of the industrial synthesis of ammonia (Bauder, Donald)  Bailey, David N.; Sievers, Dennis
Two reviews of a slickly done program with good, colorful graphics which treats a subject rarely given much coverage.
Bailey, David N.; Sievers, Dennis J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A178.
Industrial Chemistry |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Ammonia: Confronting a primal trend  Arena, Blaise J.
The richness of ammonia chemistry and its impact on natural history and human events will become evident to readers of this article, which presents an overview on this topic.
Arena, Blaise J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1040.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Thermodynamic parameters involved in hydrophobic interaction  Aerts, Tony; Clauwaert, Julius
Some simple experiments for graduate students in biochemistry that demonstrate the basic properties of hydrophobic interactions and allow quantitative conclusions about the thermodynamic principles of the hydrophobic effect.
Aerts, Tony; Clauwaert, Julius J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 993.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Amino Acids |
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics
Getting the acid out of your 2,4-DNPH  Behforouz, Mohammad
A method for getting the acid out of a sample of 2,4-DNPH.
Behforouz, Mohammad J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 723.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
The synthesis of 5,5'-diphenylhydantoin: A novel benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement  Pankaskie, Marvin C.; Small, Laverne
A novel benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement.
Pankaskie, Marvin C.; Small, Laverne J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 650.
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The enzymatic resolution of aromatic amino acids  Sheardy, Riehard; Liotta, L.; Steinhart, E.; Champion, R.; Rinker, J.; Planutis, M.; Salinkas, J.; Boyer, T.; Carcanague, D.
This article presents an experiment that can demonstrate as many principles of steroisomersim as possible and is also efficient in terms of time and preparation.
Sheardy, Riehard; Liotta, L.; Steinhart, E.; Champion, R.; Rinker, J.; Planutis, M.; Salinkas, J.; Boyer, T.; Carcanague, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 646.
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amino Acids |
Enzymes
L-Cysteine: The (R)-amino acid from protein  Carter, Kenneth Nolan
Most texts do not treat the topic of this brief note accurately.
Carter, Kenneth Nolan J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 602.
Amino Acids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Assigning the pKa's of polyprotic acids  Bodner, George M.
This article makes transparent the problem solving process behind the pKa's of amino acids and finds an interesting conclusion.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 246.
Acids / Bases |
Amino Acids |
pH
Selective oxidation and ammoxidation of olefins by heterogeneous catalysis  Grasselli, Robert K.
In this symposium paper, the author shows how the complex process of the ammoxidation of olefins can be understood in terms of free radicals and surface bound organometallic intermediates.
Grasselli, Robert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 216.
Organometallics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The preparation and reactions of phenyl-substituted pyrylium and pyridinium salts: Nucleophilic substitution of an amino group by pyridine  Awartani, Radi; Sakizadeh, Kumars; Gabrielsen, Bjarne
This article makes a much needed contribution in the area of laboratory experiment for heterocyclic chemistry.
Awartani, Radi; Sakizadeh, Kumars; Gabrielsen, Bjarne J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 172.
Amino Acids |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Molecular Biology |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Heterocycles
A simple demonstration of a gas evolution oscillator  Kaushick, A.M.; Yuan, Zhi; Noyes, Richard M.
A demonstration is suggested that demonstrates the decomposition of aqueous ammonium nitrate into nitrogen gas and water.
Kaushick, A.M.; Yuan, Zhi; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 76.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases |
Reactions |
Transport Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Mechanisms of Reactions
L-amino acid ethyl ester hydrochlorides: Derivatives for qualitative organic analysis  Borders, C. L., Jr.; Blech, Dianne M.; McElvany, Karen D.
Results in the attempted synthesis of the ethyl ester hydrochlorides for 21 common L-amino acids to be provided to students for determination as unknowns.
Borders, C. L., Jr.; Blech, Dianne M.; McElvany, Karen D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 814.
Amino Acids |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis
Synthesis and testing of the insecticide carbaryl  Thadeo, Peter F.; Mowery, Dwight F.
Carbaryl, 1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate, is synthesized from alpha-naphthol and triethylamine.
Thadeo, Peter F.; Mowery, Dwight F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 742.
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Chemical modifications that affect nutritional and functional properties of proteins  Richardson, T.; Kester, J. J.
Intentional and unintentional chemical modifications of amino acids and amino acid residues that can alter the nutritional quality of food proteins and that may result in change of their functional characteristics. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Richardson, T.; Kester, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 325.
Nutrition |
Proteins / Peptides |
Biotechnology |
Food Science |
Amino Acids
Biosynthesis of plant and animal foods  Dunne, C. Patrick
A biochemical overview of key events in the chain of biosynthesis of plant and animal foods, including components of the biosynthetic chain for foods, the major chemical components of foodstuff, steps in the biosynthesis of biopolymers, and opportunities for enhanced production. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Dunne, C. Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 271.
Plant Chemistry |
Bioenergetics |
Polymerization |
Photosynthesis |
Carbohydrates |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Chloramine   Sisler, Harry H.
Chloramine is an unusually versatile synthetic intermediate which, in spite of its thermodynamic instability can in dilute solutions or in the gas phase at moderate pressures, be utilized without major hazard.
Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1002.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Gases
Chromium ammines and acidoammines: A case study  Kirk, A. D.
The objectives of this article are to contrast the thermal and photochemical processes of these compounds, to describe their behavior on irradiation, the influences of solvent, temperature, and wavelength, to expand on their interesting stereochemistry and finally, to address the question of the photophysical pathways and the nature of the excited states that participate in reaction as far as they are known. From the State-of-the-Art Symposium: Inorganic Photochemistry, held at the ACS meeting, Seattle, 1983.
Kirk, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 843.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Diastereomers
The photosubstitution reactions of rhodium(III) ammine complexes: A case study  Ford, Peter C.
This article reviews investigations focused on elucidating the photosubstitution mechanism of the ammine complexes of rhodium (III) in solution. From the State-of-the-Art Symposium: Inorganic Photochemistry, held at the ACS meeting, Seattle, 1983.
Ford, Peter C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 829.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Coordination Compounds |
Photochemistry
NH4HC03: a stimulant for learning  Richards, R. Ronald
Students, professors, and the literature have all been confused by the unusual dissociation equilibrium of NH4HCO3.
Richards, R. Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 555.
Equilibrium |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases
Drawing a protein alpha-helix  Jeffreys, J. A. D.
Rather than viewing a-helix across the axis of the coil, it is more convenient to view the helix from the N-terminal end.
Jeffreys, J. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 549.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Fritz Haber   Feldman, Martin R.; Tarver, Monica L.
As the scientist's role in modern society is examined, the life of Fritz Haber provides many lessons.
Feldman, Martin R.; Tarver, Monica L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 463.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Enrichment / Review Materials
An application of trimethylsilyl derivatives with temperature programmed gas chromatography to the senior analytical laboratory  Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.
In this instrumental analysis program, the authors describe how they have devised an experimental procedure to teach students about TPGC and the importance of derivatizing many classes of substrates that need to be separated.
Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 437.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Gases |
Amino Acids |
Fatty Acids
Highly stereoselective synthesis and rearrangement of beta-amino alpha-bromo chalcones  Arnould, J. C.; Feigenbaum, A.; Henin, F.
The authors propose an experiment for advanced students which involves a sequence of easy steps illustrating important reactions and concepts of organic chemistry.
Arnould, J. C.; Feigenbaum, A.; Henin, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 82.
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Amino Acids |
Phenols |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
An experiment on isomerism in metal-amino acid complexes: Preparation and characterization of cobalt(III) complexes containing N-bonded monodentate, O-bonded monodentate and N,O-chelated glycine ligands  Harrison, R. Graeme; Nolan, Kevin B.
Synthesis of three cobalt(III) complexes that illustrate three possible modes of bonding of glycine to a metal ion, as well as methods for distinguishing among the products.
Harrison, R. Graeme; Nolan, Kevin B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1054.
Stereochemistry |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
The synthesis of a dipeptide from its component amino acids: Protecting groups in the elementary organic laboratory  Young, Paul E.; Campbell, Andrew
A three-step procedure for synthesizing a dipeptide from its component amino acids.
Young, Paul E.; Campbell, Andrew J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 701.
Synthesis |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Comparison of formation constants for nucleotide-polymine and nucleotide-magnesium complexes  Voige, William H.; Elliot, Robert I.
An experiment in which a modification is used to compare the apparent formation constants for ADP-Mg and ADP-polyamine complexes.
Voige, William H.; Elliot, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 257.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Coordination Compounds
The analysis of an amine mixture: An introductory analysis experiment  Williams, T. R.
Analysis of a binary mixture of amines in which students are asked to identify each component and determine the weight percentage of each compound.
Williams, T. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 202.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The danger of natural carcinogens  Monroe, Dan
Nitrosamines might be the perfect murder weapon.
Monroe, Dan J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 80.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Toxicology
An inexpensive zone refining apparatus  Needham, Gregory F.; Boehme, Gerald; Willett, Roger D.; Swank, Duane D.
A circuit diagram for a zone refiner used to purify long chain aliphatic amines.
Needham, Gregory F.; Boehme, Gerald; Willett, Roger D.; Swank, Duane D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 63.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Ag(NH3)2 + Hazard  Haight, G. P., Jr.
The authors shed light on a seldom mentioned hazard.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 972.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
A white ammonia fountain  Cates, Charles R.; Moore, John T.
Red, white, and blue ammonia fountains are a stunning addition to chemistry magic shows.
Cates, Charles R.; Moore, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 498.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Acids / Bases
Ammonia   Miller, Gregory C.
This month the journal profiles ammonia: the history, physical properties, occurrence, structure, chemistry, uses, and general comments.
Miller, Gregory C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 424.
Physical Properties |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Applications of Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Free radical reactions with simple biochemical systems  Redpath, Leslie J.
This article briefly surveys the topic of free radicals and biological systems.
Redpath, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 131.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Free Radicals |
Enzymes |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Filtering technique: A quantitative evaluation  Meloan, C. E.
A set of experiments are presented to integrate more quantitative aspects to the filtering process.
Meloan, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 73.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The "chemical fountain": An old experiment in a new setting  Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Silberstein, Judith
A new teaching sequence was developed for an introductory high school chemistry course. In this teaching sequence experiments are designed so as to capture student interest, enhance their motivation, and get them involved in the learning process.
Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Silberstein, Judith J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 68.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Acids / Bases
Preparation of solid derivatives by differential scanning calorimetry  Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine
Derivatives of alcohols, amines, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, and haloalkanes are prepared and their phase transitions observed using a differential scanning calorimeter.
Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 824.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Confusion over D and L Nomenclature  Yuan, Sun-Shine
The use of the (R,S) convention will eliminate (D,L) confusion.
Yuan, Sun-Shine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 528.
Amino Acids |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
What is the energy difference between H2NCH2CO2H and +H3NCH2CO2-?  Haberfield, Paul
Theoretical determination of the energy difference between H2NCH2CO2H and +H3NCH2CO2-.
Haberfield, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 346.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
The singly protonated structure of thiamine: Basicity of the heterocyclic nitrogen versus NH2 nitrogen  Panijpan, Bhinyo
138. Compares basicity of the ring nitrogen in four types of amino substituted N-heterocyclic compounds.
Panijpan, Bhinyo J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 805.
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Heterocycles |
Acids / Bases
Glutamic acid in pheromone synthesis: A useful chiral synthon  Smith, Leverett R.; Williams, Howard J.
Outlines synthetic routes for the formation of various pheromones from glutamic acid.
Smith, Leverett R.; Williams, Howard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 696.
Synthesis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Natural Products |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Amino Acids
An nmr protonation study of metal diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complexes: An integrated senior chemistry experiment  Letkeman, Peter
A protonation study of an aminocarboxylic acid and its metal complexes that can be expanded to cover topics from instrumental techniques to a study of the kinetics of metal-ligand bond formation.
Letkeman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 348.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Carboxylic Acids |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Chemical toxicology. Part I. Organic compounds  Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus
General principles of toxicology, and particular consideration of aliphatics, aromatic, and halogenated hydrocarbons; alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, and ketones; sulfides, mercaptans, and carbon disulfide; nitrogen-containing compounds; and carcinogens.
Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 284.
Toxicology |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Ethers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Lipids
Amides and hydrazides from amine and hydrazine hydrochlorides  Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuran L.
The Schotten-Baumann procedure is extensively used for the preparation of carboxylic acid derivatives in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory.
Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuran L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 816.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Synthesis
Ion exchange and thin layer chromatography separation of amino acids   Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Balka, Thomas J.
The authors have developed a rapid, useful ion exchange amino acid separation experiment and a rapid thin layer chromatography experiment for use in biochemistry laboratory.
Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Balka, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 794.
Amino Acids |
Ion Exchange |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
A case history of transmuting an idea into money  Orchin, Milton
A story about the patent for triethylenediamine.
Orchin, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 782.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Novel method for presenting the amino acids in an introductory biochemistry course  Kuehl, LeRoy
An approach to presenting amino acids is described and is assessed as quite effective in stimulating the students' interest in a topic which they usually find quite tedious.
Kuehl, LeRoy J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 711.
Amino Acids
Synthesis of poly([beta]-alanine) and [beta]-alanine   Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
A procedure for the synthesis of poly([beta]-alanine) and [beta]-alanine .
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 668.
Amino Acids |
Addition Reactions |
Bioorganic Chemistry
Colorimetric analysis for salicylate in urine: An experiment for nursing chemistry  Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A.
The iron-salicylate system provides a chemistry experiment is described here and is suitable for students majoring in nursing.
Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 464.
Nonmajor Courses |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Phase transfer catalysis: An interim project  Reeves, W. Preston
The authors have found that experiments in phase transfer catalysis provide students with a very profitable interim project.
Reeves, W. Preston J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 433.
Catalysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Separation Science
Sodium nitroprusside reagent II-A solvent modification  Dougherty, Charles M.; Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Markowska, Maria; Battey, York C.
The authors report an improvement classification test for aliphatic and aryl amines.
Dougherty, Charles M.; Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Markowska, Maria; Battey, York C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 341.
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis
The other photosynthesis  Heller, R. A.; Peirson, D. R.
There appears to be a growing tendency among science teachers at both the high school and freshman university levels to present their classes with the details of the Calvin-Benson photosynthetic cycle in spite of the fact that students at this stage rarely have a proper understanding of chemical energetics, biological oxidation-reduction processes, or structural organic chemistry.
Heller, R. A.; Peirson, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 233.
Photosynthesis |
Metabolism |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Quarternary ammonia salts: Some recent applications in organic synthesis  Varughese, Pothen
Presents a variety of applications for quarternary ammonia salts, including as reaction media, a reagent for mesylation, catalytic hydrogenation, and micellar and phase-transfer catalysis.
Varughese, Pothen J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 666.
Synthesis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Micelles |
Catalysis
Titration of alanine monitored by nmr spectroscopy. A biochemistry laboratory experiment  Waller, Francis J.; Hartman, Iclal S.; Kwong, Shirley T.
Demonstrates the application of proton nmr spectroscopy to the study of biological problems.
Waller, Francis J.; Hartman, Iclal S.; Kwong, Shirley T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 447.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids
Physical and chemical properties of the copper-alanine system. An advanced laboratory project  Farrell, John J.
This project is intended to introduce the student to various physical and chemical properties of metal-amino acid complexes using a copper(I)-alanine system.
Farrell, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 445.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds |
Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Amino Acids
Formation of nitrosamines in food and in the digestive system  Wishnok, John S.
The formation of nitrosamines in foods containing nitrites or nitrates; it is widely believed that nitrosamines are potentially hazardous.
Wishnok, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 440.
Toxicology |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Sodium perborate oxidation of an aromatic amine  Huestis, Laurence
Upon learning that the mechanism and even the nature of the oxidizing species is unknown, this reaction assumes new significance and provides an excellent opportunity for speculation on the nature of the reaction and a review of factors that affect the yield.
Huestis, Laurence J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 327.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Sodium nitroprusside reagent. A classification test for aliphatic and aryl amines  Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Dougherty, Charles M.; Nercessian, Ohannes
A modification of the Rimini and Simon tests for amines that allows the extension of these tests to aryl amines.
Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Dougherty, Charles M.; Nercessian, Ohannes J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 189.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Amino acid sequence diversity in proteins  Blackman, David
The number of unique proteins that can be generated from a small number of amino acids is truly enormous.
Blackman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 170.
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids
Computer simulation of the determination of amino acid sequences in polypeptides  Daubert, Stephen D.; Sontum, Stephen F.
A program that provides the experimental setting in which biochemistry students can apply the methodology of protein sequencing.
Daubert, Stephen D.; Sontum, Stephen F. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 35.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Simple apparatus for working with water-sensitive compounds  Bernstein, Stanley C.
This report describes the synthesis of a typical deliquescent substance, tri-n-butylamine hydrochloride, in the absence of air, using standard undergraduate laboratory kit apparatus and a few stopcocks.
Bernstein, Stanley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 694.
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
An enzyme-catalyzed resolution of amino acids  Mohrig, Jerry R.; Shapiro, Samuel M.
It is now possible to ask questions concerning the detailed molecular events of many enzymic catalyses with some hope of finding answers. The experiment the authors report uses papain, a reasonably stable hydrolytic enzyme, as a catalyst for the stereospecific formation of an insoluble anilide from a racemic benzoylamino acid.
Mohrig, Jerry R.; Shapiro, Samuel M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 586.
Enzymes |
Amino Acids |
Catalysis
The nitrous acid test for amines - A potentially hazardous reaction  Wishnok, John S.; Archer, Michael C.
In view of the known toxicological properties of nitrosamines with laboratory animals and the uncertainties concerning their danger toward humans, the authors feel the instructive value of this reaction probably does not warrant its continued use, especially in situations where special precautions cannot be employed.
Wishnok, John S.; Archer, Michael C. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 559.
Toxicology |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Photooxidation of methionine. An integrated organic-analytical-biochemistry laboratory experiment  Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H.
The experiments presented here familiarize the student with the organic reactions necessary to prepare the starting material; introduces the use of glass beads for immobilizing a catalyst; demonstrates the use of light and methylene blue as oxidizers; requires the implementation of an important analytical technique, thin layer chromatography; provides the student with a good example of the reactivity of one amino acid, methionine.
Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 395.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Catalysis
Simple fluorimetric analysis of glycine in dietetic beverages. A student experiment  Coppola, Elia D.; Hanna, J. Gordon
The objective of this paper is to present a simple fluorimetric experiment for the determination of as little as 0.02% glycine in commercially available dietetic beverages.
Coppola, Elia D.; Hanna, J. Gordon J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 322.
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Food Science |
Amino Acids
Ammonia synthesis. A simulated laboratory research project  Bayless, Philip L.
The authors document simulated experiments which are short enough to be programmed on calculators and require students to interpret the data for further interaction with the program and lead to conclusions of economic, environmental or historical significance.
Bayless, Philip L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 318.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Peptide hydrolysis and amino acid analysis. A first year organic or biochemistry experiment  Buchanan, Douglas N.; Kleinman, Roberta W.
In an effort to introduce the first-year organic student to the techniques involved in performing thin-layer chromatography separations, the authors have devised an experiment that introduces students to TLC plate preparation, demonstrates the effect of solvent compositions an polarity, and show the students how proteins, enzymes, and peptide fragments can be identified by their amino acid composition.
Buchanan, Douglas N.; Kleinman, Roberta W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 255.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Enzymes |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Solutions / Solvents
Non-covalent interactions: Key to biological flexibility and specificity  Frieden, Earl
Summarizes the types of non-covalent interactions found among biomolecules and how they facilitate the function of antibodies, hormones, and hemoglobin.
Frieden, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 754.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Hormones
The Gabriel synthesis of benzylamine: An undergraduate organic experiment  Nigh, W. G.
The Gabriel synthesis involves the reaction of the conjugate base of phthalimide and an alkyl halide to give an alkyl phthalimide which is subsequently hydrolyzed to the primary alkyl amine; the reaction is important historically for the synthesis of pure primary amines uncontaminated by secondary or tertiary by-products.
Nigh, W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 670.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The selective reduction of meta- (and para-) nitroacetophenone  Jones, Alan G.
By appropriate choice of reagent and reaction conditions a nitroketone can be selectively reduced to an aminoketone or a nitroalcohol; aromatic nitro groups can be reduced to primary arylamines using various chemical reducing agents.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 668.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
A space-filling model of the active site region of carboxypeptidase A  Sebastian, John F.; Butkus, John C.
A three-dimensional CPK space-filling model of the active site of carboxypeptidase A.
Sebastian, John F.; Butkus, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 660.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Enzymes |
Amino Acids
The hypothetical synthesis of adrenaline: The preparation and properties of amines  Schambach, Robert A.
Using an examination of several hypothetical ways to synthesize adrenaline as the basis of a lecture on the preparation and properties of amines.
Schambach, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 654.
Synthesis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Allied health chemistry laboratory. Amino acids, insulin, proteins, and skin  Dever, David F.
Describes an allied health chemistry laboratory involving amino acids, insulin, proteins and skin that begins with the construction of molecular models of amino acids and proteins.
Dever, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 338.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Applications of Chemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
184-187. Four chemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 327.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Metabolism |
Gases |
Amino Acids
Spatter shield  Wander, J. D.
A method for reducing spatter in the conversion of aniline to sulfanilamide.
Wander, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 127.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amino Acids |
Amides
A project-type general chemistry experiment  Thielmann, Vernon
An experiment is described in which students analyze for chloride, NH3, cobalt, and analysis of H2O.
Thielmann, Vernon J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 536.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Early theories of metal-ammines. A brief historical review from Graham to Claus (1837-1856)  Kauffman, George B.
This article considers the development of some earlier theories of the constitution of the most familiar coordination compounds: the metal-ammines-which led up to the classic paper of Carl Ernst Claus.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 522.
Coordination Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Metals
Linear plots in the determination of microscopic dissociation constants  Fung, Ho-Leung; Cheng, Lawrence
Materials presented in this report may be incorporated in a biochemistry course while discussing the physical properties of amino acids, or into a physical chemistry course in which solution and pKa measurements are discussed. The experiment described here also gives the students an appreciation of the application and limitations of data treatment using graphical techniques.
Fung, Ho-Leung; Cheng, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 106.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Amino Acids
Detection and separation of alkyl and aralkyl amines by carbamate formation  Bannister, William W.; Pennace, John R.; Smith, David W.; Chelton, Charles F.; Wareing, James A.; Curby, William A.
Using carbon dioxide as an entirely non-destructive means of detecting and often differentiating between primary and secondary aliphatic and arylaliphatic amines, and for the separation of such amines from other functionally substituted compounds or from tertiary or aromatic amines.
Bannister, William W.; Pennace, John R.; Smith, David W.; Chelton, Charles F.; Wareing, James A.; Curby, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 578.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Separation Science
Cystinuria: The relationship of pH to the origin and treatment of a disease  Minnier, Carl
The solubilities of four amino acids as a function of their pH and hence the origin of the symptoms of a genetic disease can be demonstrated as a laboratory exercise.
Minnier, Carl J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 427.
pH |
Amino Acids |
Precipitation / Solubility
A simple application device for paper chromatography and electrophoresis  Barbeau, Donald L.
The application holder presented eliminates the awkwardness of handling filter paper strips while applying either large quantities of unknown samples or smaller quantities of amino acid standards.
Barbeau, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 391.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Photochemical reactions of natural macromolecules. Photoreactions of proteins  Neckers, Douglas C.
Reviews salient features of protein destruction by ultraviolet radiation.
Neckers, Douglas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 164.
Photochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids
Experimental illustration of chemical principles in organic chemistry lectures  Haberfield, Paul
Lists a series of demonstrations used in the second semester of a one year organic chemistry course.
Haberfield, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 702.
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Quick paper chromatography of amino acids  Heimer, E. P.
Applies acetonitrile-buffer systems for the relatively rapid separation of amino acids.
Heimer, E. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 547.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
A unified apparatus for paper and gel electrophoresis  Racusen, David; White, Lee
Presents an apparatus that can be used for either paper and gel electrophoresis.
Racusen, David; White, Lee J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 439.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Benzenesulfonyl chloride does react with tertiary amines. The Hinsberg test in proper prospective  Gambill, C. R.; Roberts, T. D.; Shechter, H.
Addresses the long standing myths that tertiary amines do not react with nitrous acid or benzylsulfonyl chloride.
Gambill, C. R.; Roberts, T. D.; Shechter, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 287.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Fragmentation mechanisms in mass spectrometry  Campbell, M. M.; Runquist, O.
Presents a precise mechanistic notation that is useful in teaching fragmentation processes.
Campbell, M. M.; Runquist, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 104.
Mass Spectrometry |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Ethers |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Amides
Diazonium salts as spot test and synthetic reagents  Stone, DeWitt B.
The laboratory experiment outlined in this article includes the paper chromatography of phenols, the use of p-nitrobenzenediazonium chloride to locate and identify the phenols on the chromatogram, and the use of this diazonium salt in syntheses involving coupling or replacement of the diazonium functional group.
Stone, DeWitt B. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 413.
Chromatography |
Phenols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Determination of the microscopic ionization constants  Clement, G. E.; Hartz, T. P.
Because of cysteine's central role in biochemical processes, the author have devised this lab to specifically examine its properties.
Clement, G. E.; Hartz, T. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 395.
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chromatographic separation and identification of amino acids  Sae, S. W.; Cunningham, Bryce A.
A description of a chromatographic separation laboratory for the identification of amino acids.
Sae, S. W.; Cunningham, Bryce A. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 275.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
Demonstration of the relative nucleophilic properties of aromatic primary amines  Yeadon, Alan
It is possible to demonstrate this simple nucleophilic substitution by examining the initial stages of the methylation of aniline and other aromatic amines.
Yeadon, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 256.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Reduction of trichloroacetic acid to dichloroacetic acid. An organic electrosynthesis experiment  Iversen, Palle E.
This experiment has been designed to demonstrate the method of controlled, potential electrolysis (CPE) by selectively reducing trichloroacetic acid to dichlorioacetic acid on a mercury cathode in a divided cell at room temperature in an aqueous ammonia buffer.
Iversen, Palle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 136.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
The primary structure of proteins: Principles and practices for the determination of amino acid sequence (Schroeder, Walter)  Borders, Charles L., Jr.

Borders, Charles L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A310.
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Separation of leucine and isoleucine by thin-layer chromatography  Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr.
This experiment involves the separation of leucine and isoleucine through continuous ascending thin layer chromatography.
Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 840.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
Sickle-cell anemia - Where solubility becomes a matter of life or death!  Patton, A. R.
Sickle-cell is a disease in which as much as 85% of the hemoglobin in red blood cells crystallizes from solution.
Patton, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 691.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Applications of Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids
A short, intensive experiment in paper chromatography  McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre
A paper chromatographic system capable of separating a challenging mixture of components (amino acids) in less than three hours.
McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 141.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
The resolution of DL-histidine: An organic chemistry experiment using an ion exchange resin  Bosch, Arthur J.
This experiment involves the isolation of the amino acid, D-histidine, from DL-histidine, and gives a product with high optical purity while demonstrating the use of an ion exchange resin and mixed solvent recrystallization.
Bosch, Arthur J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 691.
Ion Exchange |
Amino Acids |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Tertiary ammonium chlorides: A problem in organic qualitative analysis  Rausch, G. W.; Christeck, R. P.
Examines some of the problems complicating the preparation of pure amine hydrochlorides.
Rausch, G. W.; Christeck, R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 517.
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The Eschweiler-Clark methylation of amines: An organic chemistry experiment  Pine, Stanley H.
In this procedure, benzylamine is converted to N,N-dimethylbenzylamine.
Pine, Stanley H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 118.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Synthesis
Is there a neutral ammonium radical?  Wan, J. K. S.
Examines theoretical considerations and experimental approaches regarding the generation of a neutral NH4 molecule.
Wan, J. K. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 40.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Group 1. The Alkali Metals B. The Alkali Metals. Ammonium ion  Young, James A.
Demonstration of the formation of an ammonium amalgam.
Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1005.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Biochemistry of the amino acids. Volumes 1 and 2 (Meister, Alton)  Bentley, Orville G.

Bentley, Orville G. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A260.
Amino Acids
Enamine reactions for the undergraduate organic laboratory: A student water separator  Darling, S. D.
This note describes the design and efficiency of a device that facilitates the removal of water in reactions such as enamine preparation or esterfications.
Darling, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 665.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Separation Science
Aliphatic deaminations in organic synthesis  Baumgarten, Ronald J.
The purpose of this article is to review aliphatic deaminations in organic synthesis.
Baumgarten, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 398.
Synthesis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction
Hormone structure and biological activity: Biochemical studies of three pituitary hormones  Papkoff, Harold; Li, Choh Hao
Presents results of biochemical studies examining growth hormone, adrenocorticotropin, and melanocyte stimulating hormone.
Papkoff, Harold; Li, Choh Hao J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 41.
Hormones |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids
Effect of amine structure on the relative acidity of conjugate acids  Griswold, Robert E.
the primary objectives of this experiment are to investigate the effect of structure of amines on the relative acidity of their conjugate acids and to study some of the factors affecting equilibrium constants.
Griswold, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 483.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Equilibrium |
pH
Resolution of D,L-alpha-phenylethylamine: An introductory organic chemistry experiment  Ault, Addison
This experiment clarifies several of the concepts of optical isomerism and introduces the techniques of recrystallization, extraction, and distillation.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 269.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
The amine catalyzed Perkin condensation: A class project  Ketcham, Roger
In this exercise students carry out the amine catalyzed Perkin condensations of substituted benzaldehydes with substituted phenylacetic acids to give alpha-phenyl-cis- and trans-cinnamic acids.
Ketcham, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 565.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Synthesis
The quinhydrone test for amines  Meek, Willoughby F.; Entrikin, John B.
Proposes modifications to the quinhydrone test for amines that allows for accurate classification.
Meek, Willoughby F.; Entrikin, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 420.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Limitation of the Hinsberg method for primary amines  Fanta, Paul E.; Wang, C. S.
An important exception to the Hinsberg procedure has been ignored to the present day.
Fanta, Paul E.; Wang, C. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 280.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
The use of the Perkin reaction in organic chemistry classes  Buckles, R. E.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Buckles, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Demonstration of radioautography and paper chromatography using a Polaroid camera  Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M.
Presents a simple combined demonstration of paper chromatography and radioautography illustrating the separation of two C-14 labeled amino acids.
Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 243.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
The chemistry of enamines  West, Joseph A.
Presents the properties, preparation, and important applications of enamines.
West, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 194.
Synthesis |
Reactive Intermediates |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The reaction of tertiary amines with nitrous acid  Hein, George E.
Examines the history of investigation into the reaction of tertiary amines with nitrous acid as an example of the inherently conservative nature of science and resistance to new concepts.
Hein, George E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 181.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemistry of the amino acids, 3 volumes (Greenstein, Jesse P.; Winitz, Milton)  Cornwell, David G.

Cornwell, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A217.
Amino Acids
Structural variety of natural products  Roderick, William R.
Classes of natural products examined includes alkynes; quinones; benzpyrones; small and large rings; sulfur, nitrogen, and halogen-containing compounds; and new amino acids.
Roderick, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 2.
Natural Products |
Amino Acids |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds
Amino acids, proteins, and cancer biochemistry (Edsall, John T., ed.)  Cornwell, David G.

Cornwell, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A428.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry
A biochemistry laboratory experiment  Scher, Irwin; Walsh, Edward; Kadis, Barney
This exercise is designed to simulate the Miller-Urey experiment.
Scher, Irwin; Walsh, Edward; Kadis, Barney J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 632.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Amino Acids
The nature of metal-in-amine solutions  Evers, E. Charles
Examines models for and the characteristics of metal-in-amine solutions over a range of concentrations.
Evers, E. Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 590.
Metals |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Magnetic Properties
Ion exchange paper chromatography  Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P.
Describes an experiment/demonstration in ion exchange paper chromatography separating amino acids.
Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 406.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis  Roth, Jay S.
Examines the role of nucleic acids in protein synthesis.
Roth, Jay S. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 217.
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Amino Acids
Student experiment with filter paper electrophoresis  Garvin, James E.
The effect of electrical charge in determining some of the properties of amino acids and proteins can be simply and convincingly demonstrated to the student by means of filter paper electrophoresis.
Garvin, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 36.
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Electrochemistry
Identification of amino acids in a protein hydrolysate by paper chromatography  Clapp, L. B.; Hansch, Corwin
By varying the number of amino acids to be identified, the difficulty of this procedure can be easily controlled.
Clapp, L. B.; Hansch, Corwin J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 293.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Chromatography
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
Chloramine  Drago, Russell S.
In this article, the chemistry of chloramine is reviewed by discussing its synthesis, analytical detection, structure, physical properties, and chemical reactions.
Drago, Russell S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 541.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Synthesis |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
Reactions in liquid ammonia  Watt, George W.
This article considers five classes of reaction in liquid ammonia: reaction in which participation of the solvent is either absent or incidental, ammoniation, ammonolysis, reactions of alkali and alkaline earth metal amides, and reactions of solutions of metals.
Watt, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 538.
Reactions |
Metals |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The chemical problem of spontaneous generation  Fox, Sidney W.
Examines research regarding the origin of life.
Fox, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 472.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Amino Acids |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Separation of some amino acids using ethanol-acetic acid-water: A student experiment in paper chromatography  Slaten, Lynore; Willard, Myra; Green, Sister Agnes Ann
This experiment utilizes cylinder-shaped filter paper, capillary pipets for spotting, the dipping or rolling method of applying the reagents, and the use of multiple dipping.
Slaten, Lynore; Willard, Myra; Green, Sister Agnes Ann J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 140.
Separation Science |
Amino Acids |
Chromatography
Monochloramine  Colton, Ervin; Jones, Mark M.
Examines the preparation, properties, analysis, and reactions of monochloramine.
Colton, Ervin; Jones, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 485.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Multiple chromatograms for detection of amino acids in blood serum  Ven Horst, Sister Helene; Carstens, Yolanda
A simple piece of equipment was constructed whereby 2 to 16 chromatograms could be run simultaneously and under identical conditions.
Ven Horst, Sister Helene; Carstens, Yolanda J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 576.
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potentialities of protein isomerism  Asimov, Isaac
The permutations generated by structural isomerism in proteins could be demonstrated more convincingly and realistically if the amino acid compositions of actual proteins were taken into consideration.
Asimov, Isaac J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 125.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
Ammonia and "ammonium hydroxide"  Davis, John B.
One of several reactions that needs reevaluation in the light of the modern theory of valence is the reaction between ammonia and water and the fiction of the ammonium hydroxide molecule.
Davis, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 511.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Versene complexes  Pecsok, Robert L.
Examines some of the analytical applications of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, with particular reference to polarography.
Pecsok, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 597.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Modified Hinsberg procedure  Ritter, Frank O.
Improves the Hinsberg method for differentiating between primary, secondary, and tertiary amines.
Ritter, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 506.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Peter Griess and the phenylene diamines  Smith, Manning A.; Gower, William R.
Contrary to the claim made by some textbooks, Peter Griess did not isolate and decarboxylate the six diaminobenzooic acids.
Smith, Manning A.; Gower, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 176.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Quantitative paper chromatography for students  Patton, A. R.
Students learn the elementary principles of quantitative paper chromatography by producing a standardized curve for alanine.
Patton, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 629.
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Amino Acids
A scheme for the qualitative identification of amino acids  Dunn, Max S.; Drell, William
This scheme of analysis has been used to successfully identify seventeen of the naturally occurring amino acids distributed in mixtures containing from two to five components.
Dunn, Max S.; Drell, William J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 480.
Qualitative Analysis |
Amino Acids
Teaching amino acid formulation  Patton, A. R.
Presents a device that aids in explaining the concept of dipolar ions necessary to an understanding of the behavior of amino acids and proteins.
Patton, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 471.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases |
pH
A simple method for the preparation of tertiary amines  Butler, George B.; Benjamin, Ben M.
Describes a simple method for the preparation of tertiary amines.
Butler, George B.; Benjamin, Ben M. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 191.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Synthesis
Paper chromatographic identification of the amino acids of glutathione. An experiment in biochemistry  Lionetti, Fabian
Describes a technique involving the extraction of the tripeptide glutathione from baker's yeast and paper chromatographic identification of the constituent amino acids.
Lionetti, Fabian J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 152.
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
A new derivative for the identification of primary aromatic amines  Lappin, Gerald R.
Describe an investigation into the products reactions between various primary aromatic amines and ethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate as a means of identifying primary aromatic amines.
Lappin, Gerald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 126.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Synthesis