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Journal Articles: 1,000 results
[#99] Clip Clues: Discovering Chemical Formulas  Carmen Fies and Diana Mason
Students use deductive reasoning skills as they identify formulas of unknown elements and compounds modeled by paperclips. The activity supports formation of a basic understanding of elements and compounds, including allotropes, oxidation states, and diatomic elements.
Fies, Carmen; Mason, Diana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1648A.
Covalent Bonding |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Student-Centered Learning
Ionic Blocks  Richard S. Sevcik, Rex Gamble, Elizabet Martinez, Linda D. Schultz, and Susan V. Alexander
"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery.
Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1631.
Ionic Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Stoichiometry
Experimental Design and Optimization: Application to a Grignard Reaction  Naoual Bouzidi and Christel Gozzi
This 5-week project, which systematically investigates optimizing the synthesis of benzyl-1-cyclopentan-1-ol, constitutes an initiation into research methodology and experimental design to prepare the student-engineer for an industry internship. Other pedagogical goals include experience in synthetic techniques, obtaining reproducible yields, and using quantitative analysis methods.
Bouzidi, Naoual; Gozzi, Christel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1544.
Addition Reactions |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chemometrics |
Gas Chromatography |
Organometallics |
Synthesis
Borohydride Reduction of Estrone  Animesh Aditya, David E. Nichols, and G. Marc Loudon
This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity using chiral hindered ketones that undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride. The resulting diastereomeric estradiols can be analyzed and differentiated by thin-layer chromatography and melting point.
Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1535.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Steroids |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A One-Pot, Asymmetric Robinson Annulation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  Kiel E. Lazarski, Alan A. Rich, and Cheryl M. Mascarenhas
Describes a one-pot, enantioselective, Robinson annulation geared towards the second-year organic chemistry major and demonstrating aspects of green chemistry.
Lazarski, Kiel E.; Rich, Alan A.; Mascarenhas, Cheryl M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1531.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry
Communicating about Matter with Symbols: Evolving from Alchemy to Chemistry  Luigi Fabbrizzi
Alchemists used a secret language and arcane symbols to indicate substances and procedures. When alchemy became quantitative and evolved into the discipline of chemistry, those symbols were supplanted by abbreviations and formulas. However, chemical communication can remain mysterious to the uninitiated.
Fabbrizzi, Luigi. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1501.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
French Mnemonics for the Periodic Table  Gilles Olive and David Riffont
Memorizing chemical names and symbols can be relatively easy with the help of mnemonics. In this letter, we continue the international trend of a previous letter by providing French mnemonics (in the form of sentences) to help young chemists.
Olive, Gilles; Riffont, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1489.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Representing Fractional Distributions in Chemistry  Addison Ault
The purpose of this paper is to present a common approach to the representation of all forms of fractional distributions. Using a common approach is simple, easy to understand, and can reveal otherwise hidden relationships between phenomena.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1432.
Acids / Bases |
Amino Acids |
Carboxylic Acids |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Quantitative Analysis of Nail Polish Remover Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Revisited  Markus M. Hoffmann, Joshua T. Caccamis, Mark P. Heitz, and Kenneth D. Schlecht
Substantial modifications intended for a second- or third-year laboratory course in analytical chemistry are presented for a previously described procedure using NMR spectroscopy to quantitatively determine analytes in commercial nail polish remover. The revised experiment introduces student collaboration to critically interpret a relatively large set of data.
Hoffmann, Markus M.; Caccamis, Joshua T.; Heitz, Mark P.; Schlecht, Kenneth D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1421.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Elemental Chem Lab  Antonio Joaquín Franco Mariscal
Three puzzles use the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs.
Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1370.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Polymer-Supported Reagents and 1H–19F NMR Couplings: The Synthesis of 2-Fluoroacetophenone  Nicola Pohl and Kimberly Schwarz
Describes an experiment in which 2-bromoacetophenone is converted to 2-fluoroacetophenone using a solid-phase nucleophilic fluorine source. The experiment introduces students to the utility of solid-phase reagents in organic synthesis, to NMR-active nuclei other than 1H without the requirement of a special NMR probe, and to the unique uses of fluorine in molecular design.
Pohl, Nicola; Schwarz, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 834.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Acid-Catalyzed Enolization of β-Tetralone  Brahmadeo Dewprashad, Anthony Nesturi, and Joel Urena
This experiment allows students to use 1H NMR to compare the rates of substitution of benzylic and non-benzylic a hydrogens of -tetralone and correlate their findings with predictions made by resonance theory.
Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Nesturi, Anthony; Urena, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 829.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Isotopes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactive Intermediates |
Resonance Theory |
Synthesis
The Baeyer–Villiger Oxidation with Trifluoroacetic Acid and Household Sodium Percarbonate  Richard A. Kjonaas and Anthony E. Clemons
Reports a method for carrying out the BaeyerVilliger oxidation of cyclopentanone to d-valerolactone in a large-section introductory organic chemistry laboratory course.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Clemons, Anthony E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The Science Teacher: Spring 2008  Steve Long
This article reviews chemistry-related articles published between Summer 2007 and February 2008 in The Science Teacher. Supplementary JCE articles and topics are also referenced.
Long, Steve. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 772.
Electrophoresis |
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student / Career Counseling
Chemistry Taboo: An Active Learning Game for the General Chemistry Classroom  Ken Capps
This paper presents an effective and entertaining way to teach and reinforce central chemistry concepts by incorporating chemical terms into the board game Taboo.
Capps, Ken. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 518.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Biochemistry Wordsearches  Terry L. Helser
Presents two matrix puzzles containing names, terms, acronyms, and abbreviations describing amino acid and nucleotide synthesis, respectively. When completed, the letters remaining describe 1) a genetic disease that students are asked to explain, and 2) a sentence describing the pathways of nucleic acid anabolism.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 515.
Amino Acids |
Biosynthesis |
Metabolism |
Molecular Biology |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Synthesis
Elements—A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols  Richard S. Sevcik, O'Dell Hicks, Linda D. Schultz, and Susan V. Alexander
"Elements" is a card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student constructs his or her own playing cards and competes against classmates in a mini-tournament.
Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 514.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Why Tungsten Instead of Wolfram?  William B. Jensen
Traces the reason that American and British chemical literature use the name tungsten for element 74, while northern European literature uses the name wolfram.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 488.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Synthesis and Characterization of 9-Hydroxyphenalenone Using 2D NMR Techniques  Benjamin Caes and Dell Jensen Jr.
The synthesis of 9-Hydroxyphenalenone produces a planar multicyclic beta-ketoenol, the tautomerization of which results in C2v symmetry on the NMR time scale, thus simplifying the spectra and providing a unique structure for teaching 2D NMR spectroscopy.
Caes, Benjamin; Jensen, Dell, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 413.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Why Are 1H NMR Integrations Not Perfect? An Inquiry-Based Exercise for Exploring the Relationship Between Spin Dynamics and NMR Integration in the Organic Lab  Haim Weizman
When FT-NMR is used to collect data without a sufficient delay time between subsequent pulses, the integrated area under certain peaks may result in a lower value than should be observed under appropriate conditions. This exercise is designed to raise awareness of this issue in students and to serve as an inquiry-based stepping-stone into basic FT-NMR.
Weizman, Haim. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 294.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy
Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis in the Organic Teaching Lab: A Simple, Greener Wittig Reaction  Eric Martin and Cynthia Kellen-Yuen
A microwave-assisted Wittig reaction has been developed for the organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this technique, a variety of styrene derivatives have been synthesized from aromatic aldehydes in good yields. The mixture of cis and trans alkenes produced also provides instructors with opportunities to emphasize the spectroscopic analysis of product mixtures.
Martin, Eric; Kellen-Yuen, Cynthia. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2004.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  Bruce M. Branan, Joshua T. Butcher, and Lawrence R. Olsen
This organic laboratory involves the ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil) followed by a reductive workup that generates an aldehyde easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra.
Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1979.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Glyoxal Clock Reaction  Julie B. Ealy, Alexandra Rodriguez Negron, Jessica Stephens, Rebecca Stauffer, and Stanley D. Furrow
The glyoxal clock reaction has been adapted to a general chemistry kinetics lab to determine the order of the reacting species using a Calculator Based Laboratory or LabPro equipment.
Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1965.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Determination of Solvent Effects on Keto—Enol Equilibria of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds Using NMR  A. Gilbert Cook and Paul M. Feltman
Expands the classic physical chemistry experiment using of proton NMR to determine the equilibrium position of tautomeric 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in various solvents.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Feltman, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Equilibrium |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Probing the Rate-Determining Step of the Claisen–Schmidt Condensation by Competition Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Wing-Fat Chan, Ka-Ying Lung, Wai-Yee Lam, Weng-Cheong Ng, and Siu-Fung Lee
This article describes a physical organic experiment to identify the rate-determining step of the ClaisenSchmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and acetophenone by studying the linear free energy relationship.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Chan, Wing-Fat; Lung, Ka-Ying; Lam, Wai-Yee; Ng, Weng-Cheong; Lee, Siu-Fung. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1819.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gas Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones  Nicholas G. Angelo, Laura K. Henchey, Adam J. Waxman, James W. Canary, Paramjit S. Arora, and Donald Wink
Describes an experiment in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and ketone and make use of TLC, column chromatography, recrystallization, and characterization by 1H NMR, GCMS, and FTIR.
Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1816.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Biodiesel from Used Oil  Roland Stout
Recently three papers have appeared in this Journal discussing the properties of biodiesel fuels and their production from biological oils, either new or used. We will frustrate students if we do not discuss why laboratory scale productions of biodiesel from used oil may produce significant amounts of emulsion.
Stout, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1765.
Esters |
Fatty Acids
Hydration of Acetylene: A 125th Anniversary  Dmitry A. Ponomarev and Sergey M. Shevchenko
The discovery the hydration of alkynes catalyzed by mercury ions by Mikhail Kucherov made possible industrial production of acetaldehyde from acetylene and had a profound effect on the development of industrial chemistry in the 1920th centuries.
Ponomarev, Dmitry A.; Shevchenko, Sergey M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1725.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkynes |
Catalysis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Reactions
Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalysis: Roles of Keto, Hydrated, and Enol Pyruvate  J. E. Meany
Considers the reduction of pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase in the presence of NADH. This reaction is inhibited by high concentrations of pyruvate, the physiological significance of which has long been controversial. This article summarizes the literature regarding the interactions of keto, hydrated, and enol pyruvate with lactate dehydrogenase.
Meany, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1520.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics
A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions  A. Gilbert Cook
The product of a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction is identified through a guided prelab exercise of the synthesis of the Hagemann ester, and then through the analysis of GCMS, NMR, and IR spectra. The stereochemistry of the product is determined through the NMR spectrum and Karplus curve, and the student is required to write a mechanism for the reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1477.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
A Guided-Inquiry Approach to the Sodium Borohydride Reduction and Grignard Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds  Robert E. Rosenberg
Students teams identify unknowns and their reaction products and use their data to deduce that esters are less electrophilic than the other carbonyl compounds present, that Grignard reagents are more nucleophilic than sodium borohydride, and that carboxylic acid derivatives do not undergo the nucleophilic addition reactions that are characteristic of aldehydes and ketones.
Rosenberg, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1474.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
The Penny Experiment Revisited: An Illustration of Significant Figures, Accuracy, Precision, and Data Analysis  Joseph Bularzik
In this general chemistry laboratory the densities of pennies are measured by weighing them and using two different methods to measure their volumes. The average and standard deviation calculated for the resulting densities demonstrate that one measurement method is more accurate while the other is more precise.
Bularzik, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1456.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Physical Properties
Vanillin Synthesis from 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde  Douglass F. Taber, Shweta Patel, Travis M. Hambleton, and Emma E. Winkel
Describes a simple and safe preparation of vanillin from 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde appropriate for undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories.
Taber, Douglass F.; Patel, Shweta; Hambleton, Travis M.; Winkel, Emma E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1158.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Food Science |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
CARBOHYDECK: A Card Game To Teach the Stereochemistry of Carbohydrates  Manuel João Costa
This paper describes CARBOHYDECK, a card game that may replace or complement lectures identifying and differentiating monosaccharide isomers.
Costa, Manuel João. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 977.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Student-Centered Learning
Communicating Chemical and Mathematical Equations in Email  Carl W. David
MathCast is a program that can be used to communicate technical materials, especially complex mathematical formulas and chemical equations, using email.
David, Carl W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 932.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Professional Development
The Origin of the Names Malic, Maleic, and Malonic Acid  William B. Jensen
Explores the origins of the terms malic, maleic, and malonic acid.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 924.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation  J. F. Ogilvie and M. B. Monagan
The authors explain how the use of mathematical software improves the teaching and understanding of mathematics to and by chemistry students while greatly expanding their abilities to solve realistic chemical problems.
Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 889.
Chemometrics |
Computational Chemistry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Making Molecular Borromean Rings  Cari D. Pentecost, Nicholas Tangchaivang, Stuart J. Cantrill, Kelly S. Chichak, Andrea J. Peters, and J. Fraser Stoddart
Presents an experimental procedure for the synthesis of molecular Borromean rings in an organic chemistry laboratory course that incorporates several important topics, including synthetic organic, physical organic, inorganic and metallo-organic chemistry, as well as supramolecular, and dynamic covalent chemistry.
Pentecost, Cari D.; Tangchaivang, Nicholas; Cantrill, Stuart J.; Chichak, Kelly S.; Peters, Andrea J.; Stoddart, J. Fraser. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 855.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Metals |
Molecular Recognition |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Synthesis
Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone  Rajani Gandhari, Padma P. Maddukuri, and Thottumkara K. Vinod
Describes an eco-friendly procedure for the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids in water or a water-ethanol mixture using Oxone as the oxidant. The use of eco-friendly solvents, a non-toxic reagent, and the elimination of extraction solvents in the procedure demonstrate important green chemistry themes to students.
Gandhari, Rajani; Maddukuri, Padma P.; Vinod, Thottumkara K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 852.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Short History of Three Chemical Shifts  Shin-ichi Nagaoka
Regrettably, the term "chemical shift" to designate the position of a spectral signal has a poor reputation as a technical term. Nevertheless, the "chemical" environment around an atom of interest influences the electronic environment and hence, leads to spectral shifts, making the prefix "chemical" appropriate.
Nagaoka, Shin-ichi. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 801.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The GC–MS Observation of Intermediates in a Stepwise Grignard Addition Reaction  Devin Latimer
This article describes a three-hour laboratory experiment for the third-year organic chemistry lab whereby the stable organic intermediates and final product of the Grignard addition of 3 equivalents of phenylmagnesium bromide to diethyl carbonate are observed.
Latimer, Devin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 699.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Grignard Reagents |
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Spoonful of C12H22O11 Makes the Chemistry Go Down: Candy Motivations in the High School Chemistry Classroom  Fanny K. Ennever
Describes sixteen motivations that combine food with measurement, nomenclature, stoichiometry, distillation, the periodic table, polarity, boiling point, rate of solution, catalysis, entropy, acids, redox, and organic compounds.
Ennever, Fanny K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 615.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students  Alice L. Perez and G. Lamoureux
Sudoku puzzles are used to help the students learn the correspondence between the names of amino acids, their abbreviations, and codes; and the correspondence between the names of functional groups, their structures, and abbreviations.
Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 614.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkylation |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Amino Acids |
MO Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student-Centered Learning |
Alkynes |
Amides
Sudoku Puzzles as Chemistry Learning Tools  Thomas D. Crute and Stephanie A. Myers
Sudoku puzzles that use a mixture of chemical terms and symbols serve as a tool to encourage the necessary repetition and attention to detail desired for mastering chemistry. The classroom-ready examples provided use polyatomic ions, organic functional groups, and strong nucleophiles. Guidelines for developing additional puzzles are described.
Crute, Thomas D.; Myers, Stephanie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 612.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student-Centered Learning
Using a Premade Grignard Reagent To Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment  Michael A. G. Berg and Roy D. Pointer
Describes the use of a commercially available Grignard reagent in a Grignard synthesis that avoided the failures typically associated with the Grignard reaction.
Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 483.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Synthesis
The Aldol Addition and Condensation: The Effect of Conditions on Reaction Pathway  R. David Crouch, Amie Richardson, Jessica L. Howard, Rebecca L. Harker, and Kathryn H. Barker
Describes an experiment offering the opportunity for students to observe the critical role that reaction temperature and base strength have in determining the product of the base-mediated addition of a ketone to an aldehyde.
Crouch, R. David; Richardson, Amie; Howard, Jessica L.; Harker, Rebecca L.; Barker, Kathryn H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 475.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Green Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
How and When Did Avogadro's Name become Associated with Avogadro's Number?  William B. Jensen
Traces the process by which Avogadro's name became associated with Avogadro's number in American college and high school chemistry texts.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 223.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Greening Wittig Reactions: Solvent-Free Synthesis of Ethyl trans-Cinnamate and trans-3-(9-Anthryl)-2-Propenoic Acid Ethyl Ester  Kim Chi Nguyen and Haim Weizman
Presents solvent-free alternatives to published procedures of Wittig reactions. Spectral data provide a basis for an inquiry-based discussion of (i) the factors influencing the chemical shifts of alkenyl proton, (ii) the analysis of NMR spectrum containing a mixture, and (iii) the role of strong dipoledipole interactions in dictating the stereochemical outcome of the Wittig reaction.
Nguyen, Kim Chi; Weizman, Haim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 119.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Green Chemistry
A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  George D. Bennett
The proline-catalyzed aldol condensation between acetone and isobutyraldehyde proceeds in good yield and with high enantioselectivity at room temperature. This multi-week experiment also illustrates a number of principles and trade-offs of green chemistry.
Bennett, George D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1871.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Precision in Stereochemical Terminology  LeRoy G. Wade, Jr.
This article recommends that instructors use the precise terms asymmetric carbon atom and chirality center when they apply, and use the broader term stereocenter only when there is a need to include stereogenic atoms that are not chirality centers.
Wade, LeRoy G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1793.
Chemical Technicians |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity
The Origin of the Term "Hypervalent"  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the term hypervalent, the various debates surrounding its usage, and the resulting implications for introductory textbooks.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1751.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis of meso-Diethyl-2,2′-dipyrromethane in Water. An Experiment in Green Organic Chemistry  Abilio J. F. N. Sobral
In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to the synthesis of dipyrromethanes important precursors for porphyrin and calix[4]pyrrolethrough the acid-catalyzed condensation of pyrrole and 3-pentanone to produce meso-diethyl-2,2'-dipyrromethane.
Sobral, Abilio J. F. N. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1665.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis
Using a Simulated Industrial Setting for the Development of an Improved Solvent System for the Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid: A Student-Centered Project  Timothy R. Hightower and Jay D. Heeren
Presents a peer-led, problem-solving organic laboratory exercise that provide students with an opportunity to produce a more efficient recrystallization solvent in an industrial environment.
Hightower, Timothy R.; Heeren, Jay D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1663.
Carboxylic Acids |
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
A Discovery-Learning 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone Experiment  Bruno M. Vittimberga and Ben Ruekberg
Selections of liquid aldehydes and ketones are proposed for students to determine what property is the best predictor of the color (yellow to red) of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative. Students may use a computer (spreadsheet or word processor) to analyze their results.
Vittimberga, Bruno M.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1661.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Microwave-Mediated Synthesis of Lophine: Developing a Mechanism To Explain a Product   R. David Crouch, Jessica L. Howard, Jennifer L. Zile, and Kathryn H. Barker
Describes the microwave-mediated preparation of lophine (2,4,5-triphenylimidazole). The experiment also provides an opportunity for students to employ the principles of carbonyl chemistry in devising a mechanism to explain the formation of the product.
Crouch, R. David; Howard, Jessica L.; Zile, Jennifer L.; Barker, Kathryn H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1658.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Modeling |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy
Developing Critical Thinking Skills: The "Sabotaged" Synthesis of Methyl p-Bromobenzoate  Eric J. Mahan and Mary Alice Nading
Before beginning an experiment, students are told that someone might have sabotaged their experiment to produce other-than-expected results. The objective is to perform the experiment, determine if any sabotage has occurred, and, if so, identify the changes that were made to the reagents as well as the person responsible.
Mahan, Eric J.; Nading, Mary Alice. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1652.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis
Ruthenium(VI)-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols by Hexacyanoferrate(III): An Example of Mixed Order  Antonio E. Mucientes and María A. de la Peña
The absorbance decay of hexacyanoferrate(III) as a function of time shows a progressive deviation from zero to first order. This variation follows an experimental rate law that has been analyzed and explained.
Mucientes, Antonio E,; de la Peña, María A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1643.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
The IUPAC Rules for Naming Organic Molecules  Stanislaw Skonieczny
A systematic approach to naming polyfunctional organic compounds is presented. Latest IUPAC rules are incorporated and the table of order of precedence for the major functional groups is assembled.
Skonieczny, Stanislaw. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1633.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Use of Dots in Chemical Formulas  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins and uses of dots in chemical formulas.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1590.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Concentration Scales for Sugar Solutions  David W. Ball
Examines several special scales used to indicate the concentration of sugar solutions and their application to industry.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Food Science |
Solutions / Solvents
The New Measurement Concept Explained by Using an Introductory Example  Bruno Wampfler, Matthias Rösslein, and Helene Felber
Presents the implementation of measurement uncertainty in lectures on analytical chemistry and compares the measurement concept published in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement with the current state-of-practice.
Wampfler, Bruno; Rösslein, Matthias; Felber, Helene. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1382.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Professional Development
The Hammett Equation: Probing the Mechanism of Aromatic Semicarbazone Formation  Glenn K. Ikeda, Karen Jang, Scott O. C. Mundle, and Andrew P. Dicks
An organic class project is described where upper-level undergraduates measure kinetic rate constants for semicarbazone formation by reacting semicarbazide with a meta- or para-substituted benzaldehyde.
Ikeda, Glenn K.; Jang, Karen; Mundle, Scott O. C.; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1341.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Asymmetric Aldol Reaction Induced by Chiral Auxiliary  Jorge Pereira and Carlos A. M. Afonso
Describes an asymmetric aldol reaction based on the use of (4R,5S)-1,5-dimethyl-4-phenylimidazolidin- 2-one as a chiral auxiliary in a three-step procedure.
Pereira, Jorge; Afonso, Carlos A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1333.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Diastereomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry
Classifying Matter: A Physical Model Using Paper Clips  Bob Blake, Lynn Hogue, and Jerry L. Sarquis
By using colored paper clips, students can represent pure substances, mixtures, elements, and compounds and then discuss their similarities and differences. This model is advantageous for the beginning student who would not know enough about the detailed composition of simple materials like milk, brass, sand, and air to classify them properly.
Blake, Bob; Hogue, Lynn; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1317.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solids |
Student-Centered Learning
More on the Nature of Resonance  Robert C. Kerber
The author continues to find the use of delocalization preferable to resonance.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1291.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
More on the Nature of Resonance  William B. Jensen
Supplements a recent article on the interpretation of resonance theory with three additional observationsone historical and two conceptual.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Principles of Solution Thermodynamics: Demonstration of Nonideal Behavior of Henry's Law. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Luke Chandler Short and Thorsten Benter
Presents a technique to sample both the gas and liquid phases of a solution of HCHO(aq), permitting the quick and direct determination of the partition coefficient for a nonideal, solutesolvent mixture. Two scenarios are presented to demonstrate factors that influence this thermodynamic ratio: (i) concentration effects and (ii) temperature effects.
Short, Luke Chandler; Benter, Thorsten. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1233.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Green Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Synthesis and Analysis of a Versatile Imine for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Jacqueline Bennett, Kristen Meldi, and Christopher Kimmell II
In this experiment students prepare and analyze N-p-methoxyphenyl (N-PMP) alpha-imino ethyl glyoxalate, an imine that has been used in the synthesis of biologically active molecules. The stability and versatility of this imine allow it to be used in subsequent reactions, offering a variety of possible multistep synthetic strategies.
Bennett, Jacqueline; Meldi, Kristen; Kimmell, Christopher, II. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1221.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Weak Acid pKa Determination Using Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Mike Solow
In this experiment, students use capillary zone electrophoresis to determine the effective mobility of benzoic acid at two different hydrogen ion concentrations. A plot of these data yields the pKa of benzoic acid.
Solow, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1194.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods
Borodin  E. J. Behrman
Borodin made the first synthetic organic fluorine compound by reacting potassium hydrogen fluoride with benzoyl chloride to form benzoyl fluoride, a process known generally today as the Hunsdiecker reaction.
Behrman, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1138.
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Nutrition
The Origin of the Term "Base"  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the term base as used in acid-base chemistry.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1130.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
The Synthesis of Copper(II) Carboxylates Revisited  Kevin Kushner, Robert E. Spangler, Ralph A. Salazar, Jr., and J. J. Lagowski
Describes an electrochemical synthesis of copper(II) carboxylates for use in the general chemistry laboratory course for chemistry majors.
Kushner, Kevin; Spangler, Robert E.; Salazar, Ralph A., Jr.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1042.
Carboxylic Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
Transition Elements |
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis
Acid–Base Chemistry According to Robert Boyle: Chemical Reactions in Words as well as Symbols  David E. Goodney
Examples of acidbase reactions from Robert Boyle's The Sceptical Chemist are used to illustrate the rich information content of chemical equations. Boyle required lengthy passages of florid language to describe what can be done quite simply with a chemical equation.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Mannich Reactions in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs): An Advanced Undergraduate Project of Green Chemistry and Structural Elucidation  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Jane Siu, Y. M. Lai, and Pak-kei Chan
This experiment describes the synthesis of a commonly used ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, and the application of this ionic liquid as a recyclable medium for Mannich reactions.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Siu, Jane; Lai, Y. M.; Chan, Pak-kei. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 943.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research
An Exploration of a Photochemical Pericyclic Reaction Using NMR Data  Sara M. Hein
This inexpensive, small-scale experiment for advanced organic students describes the unambiguous identification of a photochemical dimerization product from eleven possible candidates.
Hein, Sara M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 940.
Addition Reactions |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Conformational Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Synthesis
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
A Simple Combinatorial Experiment Based on Fischer Esterification. An Experiment Suitable for the First-Semester Organic Chemistry Lab  Peter A. Wade, Susan A. Rutkowsky, and Daniel B. King
Describes a combinatorial experiment for the synthesis of esters by Fischer esterification in which a total of eight esters are prepared as six mixtures.
Wade, Peter A.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; King, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 927.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis
Iodolactonization of 4-Pentenoic Acid   R. David Crouch, Alexander Tucker-Schwartz, and Kathryn Barker
Describes an experiment in which 4-pentenoic acid is converted into a lactone via iodolactonization.
Crouch, R. David; Tucker-Schwartz, Alexander; Barker, Kathryn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 921.
Alkenes |
Carboxylic Acids |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Octachem Model: Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Companion  Joaquin Palacios
The Octachem model is an educational physical model designed to guide students in the identification, classification, and naming of the chemical structures of organic compounds. In this article the basic concepts of Octachem model are presented, and the physical model and contents are described.
Palacios, Joaquin. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 890.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Ethers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Origin of the Term Allotrope  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the concept of allotropism and its changing meaning over time.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 838.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Valence, Oxidation Number, and Formal Charge: Three Related but Fundamentally Different Concepts  Gerard Parkin
The purpose of this article is to clarify the terms valence, oxidation number, coordination number, formal charge, and number of bonds and illustrate how the valence of an atom in a molecule provides a much more meaningful criterion for establishing the chemical reasonableness of a molecule than does the oxidation number.
Parkin, Gerard. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 791.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Oxidation State |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Vocabulary and Concepts of Organic Chemistry, Second Edition (Milton Orchin, Roger S. Macomber, Allan R. Pinhas, R. Marshall Wilson)  R. David Crouch
As the title implies, this book serves as a reference for someone who needs to answer a question such as What is a carbene? or Whats the difference between a sulfenate and a sulfinate?
Crouch, R. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 706.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Rainbow Wheel and Rainbow Matrix: Two Effective Tools for Learning Ionic Nomenclature  Joseph S. Chimeno, Gary P Wulfsberg, Michael J. Sanger, and Tammy J. Melton
This study compared the learning of ionic nomenclature by three different methods, one traditional and the other two using game formats. The game formats were found to be more effective in helping students develop a working knowledge of chemical nomenclature.
Chimeno, Joseph S.; Wulfsberg, Gary P.; Sanger, Michael J.; Melton, Tammy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 651.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses
An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment Using Laccase for General Chemistry   Yaqi Lin and Patrick M. Lloyd
This article describes the use of laccase, an oxidoreductase enzyme, to study the effects of enzyme catalysts on reaction rates.
Lin, Yaqi; Lloyd, Patrick M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 638.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Revisiting Molar Mass, Atomic Mass, and Mass Number: Organizing, Integrating, and Sequencing Fundamental Chemical Concepts  Stephen DeMeo
It is often confusing for introductory chemistry students to differentiate between molar mass, atomic mass, and mass number as well as to conceptually understand these ideas beyond a surface level. One way to improve understanding is to integrate the concepts, articulate their relationships, and present them in a meaningful sequence.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 617.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Ozonolysis Problems That Promote Student Reasoning  Ray A. Gross Jr.
The structural features inherent in acyclic monoterpenes that follow the isoprene rule often lead to unique sets of ozonolysis products from which their structures, excluding stereochemistry, can be determined from molecular formulas only. This article shows how students may elucidate the structures of these compounds by analysis of the oxidative and reductive workup products.
Gross, Ray A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 604.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Student-Centered Learning
Nomenclature Made Practical: Student Discovery of the Nomenclature Rules  Michael C. Wirtz, Joan Kaufmann, and Gary Hawley
Presents a method to teach chemical nomenclature to students in an introductory chemistry course that utilizes the discovery-learning model. Inorganic compounds are grouped into four categories and introduced through separate activities interspersed throughout the first semester to provide context and avoid confronting the student with all of the nomenclature rules at once.
Wirtz, Michael C.; Kaufmann, Joan; Hawley, Gary. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 595.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmetals |
Student-Centered Learning
Acrostic Puzzles in the Classroom  Dorothy Swain
Acrostic puzzles are an effective vehicle to expose students to the history and philosophy of science without lecturing.
Swain, Dorothy. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Facing the Music: How Original Was Borodin's Chemistry?  Michael D. Gordin
A return to the original sources demonstrates that the evidence for Borodin's reputation as a great chemist, as opposed to a merely good one, is exaggerated.
Gordin, Michael D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 561.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nonmajor Courses
The Origins of the Ortho-, Meta-, and Para- Prefixes in Chemical Nomenclature  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the prefixes "ortho-", "meta-", and "para-" in both inorganic and organic chemical nomenclature.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 356.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
If It's Resonance, What Is Resonating?  Robert C. Kerber
This article reviews the origin of the terminology associated with the use of more than one Lewis-type structure to describe delocalized bonding in molecules and how the original usage has evolved to reduce confusion
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 223.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Diastereoselectivity in the Reduction of α-Hydroxyketones. An Experiment for the Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  David B. Ball
Describes a research type, inquiry-based project where students synthesize racemic ahydroxyketones using umpolung, a polarity-reversal approach; investigate chelating versus non-chelating reducing agents; and determine the diastereoselectivity of these reducing processes by NMR spectroscopy.
Ball, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 101.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Conferences |
Constitutional Isomers |
Enantiomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Conformational Analysis
Are Some Elements More Equal Than Others?  Ronald L. Rich
Presents a new periodic chart with 18 columns but no interruptions of atomic numbers at Lanthanum or Actinum, and no de-emphasis of elements 57-71 or 89-103 by seeming to make footnotes of them. It shows some elements more than once in order to illuminate multiple relationships in chemical behavior.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Inner Transition Elements |
Main-Group Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 6. Selective Reduction in Organic Chemistry: Reduction of Aldehydes in the Presence of Esters Using Sodium Borohydride  Ashvin R. Baru and Ram S. Mohan
Describes two discovery oriented lab experiments involving the chemoselective reduction of vanillin acetate and methyl 4-formylbenzoate in the presence of esters using sodium borohydride, followed by product identification using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
Baru, Ashvin R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1674.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
The Symbolism of Chemical Equations   Jensen, William B.
Traces the origins of the equal sign and double arrow symbolism in balanced chemical equations.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1461.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated 13C Chemical Shifts and pKa Values of para-Substituted Benzoic Acids  Hongyi Wang
An application of ChemDraw NMR Tool was demonstrated by correlation of program-generated 13C NMR chemical shifts and pKa values of para-substituted benzoic acids. Experimental 13C NMR chemical shifts were analyzed in the same way for comparison. The project can be used as an assignment at the end of the first-year organic chemistry course to review topics or explore new techniques: Hammett equation, acidbase equilibrium theory, electronic nature of functional groups, inductive and resonance effects, structurereactivity relationship, NMR spectroscopy, literature search, database search, and ChemDraw software.
Wang, Hongyi. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1340.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Improving Conceptions in Analytical Chemistry: ci Vi = cf Vf  Margarita Rodríguez-López and Arnaldo Carrasquillo Jr.
A common misconception related to analytical chemistry, which may be generalized as the failure to recognize and to account analytically for changes in substance density, is discussed. A cautionary example is made through the use of mass-based units of composition during volumetric dilution. The correct application of the volumetric dilution equation ci Vi = cf Vf is discussed. A quantitative description of the systematic error introduced by incorrect use of the volumetric dilution equation is also specified.
Rodríguez-López, Margarita; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1327.
Industrial Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Using Building-Block Puzzles To Practice Drawing Organic Mechanisms  Ender Erdik
This pencil-and-paper activity is designed to test the ability of students in writing intermediates and products in the reactions of ketones. An undergraduate student who is successful in organic chemistry at the sophomore level is expected to fill in empty boxes with the appropriate "building blocks", which are atoms and atom groups (neutral or ionic). Solving the puzzle will give the formulas of reactants, reactive intermediates, and products. Students test their understanding of reaction mechanisms while having fun.
Erdik, Ender. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1325.
Reactive Intermediates |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Improved Preparation of 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine Reagent  Ben Ruekberg and Eric Rossoni
In the analysis of aldehydes and ketones (both for characterizing the functional group and identifying such compounds by the melting points of their derivatives), 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent is often used. Of the several formulations of this reagent, the most popular uses sulfuric acid. The method involves making a paste of 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazine in concentrated sulfuric acid, dispersion of the paste in ethanol, addition of water, and the filtration of the reagent. This improvement uses milder conditions, which may obviate the need for the final filtration. Those responsible for preparation of stock reagent solutions for classes should note that this method facilitates scaling up the preparation.
Ruekberg, Ben; Rossoni, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1310.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A Microwave-Assisted Reduction of Cyclohexanone Using Solid-State-Supported Sodium Borohydride  Lori L. White and Kevin W. Kittredge
We report a microwave-assisted reduction of cyclohexanone by sodium borohydride that is supported on SiO2. The reaction was completed in less than 3 minutes. Workup and analysis by GCMS, IR, and 1H NMR was possible in a two and half-hour laboratory session. This reduction was used successfully in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory. Students were exposed to a green chemistry reaction using solid-state-supported reactants in the absence of solvent.
White, Lori L.; Kittredge, Kevin W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1055.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Formation of α-Tetralone by Intramolecular Friedel–Crafts Acylation  Michael S. Holden, R. David Crouch, and Kathryn A. Barker
A microscale procedure is described for the formation of the industrially-important compound alpha-tetralone. This is an example of an intramolecular FriedelCrafts acylation, utilizing 4-phenylbutanoic acid and a proton source. The title reaction demonstrates the concept of ring-forming reactions and highlights the use of carboxylic acids as an electrophile precursor in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions.
Holden, Michael S.; Crouch, R. David; Barker, Kathryn A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 934.
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
"In Yeast" Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 31 names, terms and acronyms that describe enzyme catalysis in a 15-by-14 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find. When all are found, the 15 letters remaining in the matrix complete a sentence describing what enzymes do. This wordsearch puzzle is suitable for any course that introduces enzyme nomenclature.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 552.
Enzymes |
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Water Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 36 names and terms from water chemistry in a 14-by-13 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find. When all are found, the 16 letters remaining in the matrix complete a sentence describing a reason to learn these terms. It is suitable for any course that introduces the unique properties of water.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 551.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Designing Element T-shirts: Spelling with the Periodic Table  Julie Palmer and Lisa Brosnick
As an enrichment activity for the periodic table unit, students used element symbols to spell their name or a common word. These element "words" were typed into a template using proper element notation, atomic mass, and atomic number. The resulting templates were then printed on iron-on t-shirt transfer papers using an inkjet printer. Students ironed the transfers onto t-shirts and wore the shirts to school in celebration of National Chemistry Week.
Palmer, Julie; Brosnick, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 517.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Introducing JCE ChemInfo: Organic  Hans J. Reich
JCE ChemInfo: Organic is a collection of Web pages containing information useful to teachers, researchers, and students in organic chemistry, biochemistry, and medicinal chemistry. The pages have been selected for ease of use, broad applicability, and quality of coverage. Topics will include structural information, organic reactions, nomenclature, physical properties, and spectroscopic data. These Web pages will be updated when possible and additional Web pages will be added as they become available.
Reich, Hans J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 495.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
NMR Spectroscopy
Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen  Liliana Haim
We present a series of cooking activities to be carried out as a starting point of a chemistry course in the elementary school. This "kitchen course" is intended for students ages 911 who are new to chemistry. The main purpose is to allow students to practice transferrable skills by handling concrete kitchen materials; they learn classification, ordering, unit conversion, and conservation. The kitchen activities also introduce anchors for chemistry-specific skills such as periodic table conformation and manipulation, chemical equation and chemical formula use, relative mass, and element and compound differentiation.
Haim, Liliana. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 228.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Kilogram and the Mole Redux  Paul J. Karol
Freemans reply to my letter on the kilogram and the mole misses the point, perhaps because I was not sufficiently clear. Of his substantive criticisms, Freeman first states (correctly) I define NAAvogadros numberand that I then define the kilogram (incorrect). Defining NA in conjunction with the existing undebatable definition of a mass scale based on 12C mandates, ipso facto, the kilogram metric.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 212.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Empirical Formulas and the Solid State: A Proposal  William B. Jensen
This brief article calls attention to the failure of most introductory textbooks to point out explicitly the fact that nonmolecular solids do not have molecular formulas and suggests some practical remedies for improving textbook coverage of this subject. The inadequacies of the terms "empirical formula" and "molecular formula" are also discussed, and the terms "relative compositional formula" and "absolute compositional formula" are proposed as more appropriate alternatives.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1772.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Sam H. Leung and Stephen A. Angel
In this experiment (E)- and (Z)-1-(4-bromophenyl)-2-phenylethene are synthesized by a solvent-free Wittig reaction. The reaction is effected by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle. Both the E and Z isomers of the product are produced as evidenced by thin-layer chromatography and 1H NMR analysis. The E isomer is isolated by crystallization with ethanol in this experiment. In addition to learning about the Wittig reaction, students are also introduced to the ideas of mechanochemistry and green chemistry.
Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1492.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes
Etymology as an Aid to Understanding Chemistry Concepts  Nittala S. Sarma
Recognition of word roots and the pattern of evolution of scientific terms can be helpful in understanding chemistry concepts (gaining knowledge of new concepts represented by related terms). The meaning and significance of various etymological roots, occurring as prefixes and suffixes in technical terms particularly of organic chemistry, are explained in a unified manner in order to show the connection of various concepts vis  vis the terms in currency. The meanings of some special words and many examples are provided.
Sarma, Nittala S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1437.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Origin of the Mole Concept  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader query, the column traces the origins of the mole concept in chemistry.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1409.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery  John W. Nicholson and Alan Wilson
This article describes the history of the reaction converting carboxylic acids to ketones. The reaction has been rediscovered several times, yet has actually been known for centuries.
Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1362.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students  Robert Duarte, Janne T. Nielsen, and Veljko Dragojlovic
In this laboratory exercise, a peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence experiment has been integrated with a combinatorial synthesis experiment.
Duarte, Robert; Nielsen, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1010.
Esters |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Why Helium Ends in "-ium"  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader query, the reasons are traced for helium having the ending "-ium", usually reserved for metals.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 944.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: A Modification  Robert D. Freeman
To correct my original blunder, I recommend that the name "amount of substance" be replaced by "quant" (rather than posos). The word "quant" is in standard dictionaries and has a single meaning related to boating.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 802.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: Another Position  Tomislav Cvitas
I must say that I agree neither with what was said in the original commentary by R. D. Freeman, nor with the letter by P. Karol.
Cvitas, Tomislav. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 801.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions; SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Robert D. Freeman
Karols letter is a prime example of the type of article about which he complains in his first paragraph. There are four major flaws in Karols suggestions.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions. SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Paul J. Karol
The persistent perceived problem with the base units kilogram and mole addressed in those journal articles is resolvable once it is finally recognized that we have been using a double standard: the international platinumiridium kilogram prototype and 12C.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions. SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Paul J. Karol
The persistent perceived problem with the base units kilogram and mole addressed in those journal articles is resolvable once it is finally recognized that we have been using a double standard: the international platinumiridium kilogram prototype and 12C.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
The Darzens Condensation: Structure Determination through Spectral Analysis and Understanding Substrate Reactivity  R. David Crouch, Michael S. Holden, and Candice A. Romany
The Darzens condensation involves two steps that are typically included in the sophomore organic curriculum: an aldol reaction followed by an intramolecular nucleophilic substitution.
Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S.; Romany, Candice A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 711.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Methyl Ethyl Ketone  Jay A. Young
The hazards of methyl ethyl ketone are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 630.
Laboratory Management |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Functional Group Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 24 names and terms from organic chemistry in a 12 ? 12 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 517.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Organic Chemistry Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 27 names and terms from organic chemistry in a 13 ? 13 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 515.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Caveman Chemistry: 28 Projects, from the Creation of Fire to the Production of Plastics (Kevin M. Dunn)  Michael S. Matthews
In Caveman Chemistry, Kevin Dunn presents a historically oriented hands-on introduction to chemistry and chemical technology that is tremendously entertaining.
Matthews, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 490.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Natural Products |
Nonmajor Courses
Conformational Analysis in an Advanced Integrated Laboratory Course  David B. Ball and Randy M. Miller
An interdisciplinary project is described that requires students to synthesize conformationally mobile and static a-bromocyclohexanones and to assess, qualitatively and quantitatively, and validate, using several spectroscopic tools, solvent effects on the conformational preferences of these molecules. The project exposes students to a variety of experimental and theoretical techniques that include organic synthesis, product purification, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, GCMS, molecular modeling, and IR and UV spectroscopy.
Ball, David B.; Miller, Randy M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 121.
Equilibrium |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Acid–Base and Precipitation Equilibria in Wine  Miguel Palma and Carmelo G. Barroso
A simple but effective experiment demonstrates the interactions between simultaneous equilibria involving hydrogen tartrate and helps students realize the importance of multiple equilibria in real-world systems.
Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 94.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids
Stearic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for stearic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 25.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties
Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems  Brian M. Patterson, Neil D. Danielson, Gary A. Lorigan, and André J. Sommer
This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UVvis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material.
Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1460.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Raman Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters |
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols
A Solvent-Free Claisen Condensation Reaction for the Organic Laboratory  John J. Esteb and Matthew B. Stockton
An experiment involving the Claisen condensation reaction for a first-year organic chemistry laboratory is presented. In this experiment, potassium tert-butoxide and ethyl phenylacetate are heated to 100 C for 30 minutes under solvent-free conditions to produce 2,4-diphenyl acetoacetate in 80% yield.
Esteb, John J.; Stockton, Matthew B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1446.
Synthesis |
Esters
Reactions (→) vs Equations (=)  S. R. Logan
A recent chemical kinetics text uses an equals sign for an overall reaction, whereas an arrow is used in each of the reaction steps that are proposed to constitute the mechanism, and for any elementary process.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1258.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Organic Nomenclature  David B. Shaw and Laura R. Yindra
Organic Nomenclature is a drill-and-practice exercise in naming organic compounds (using both common and IUPAC names) and identifying structural formulas. It consists of multiple-choice questions where a name or formula is given and the correct formula or name is chosen from a list of five possible answers.
Shaw, David B.; Yindra, Laura R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1223.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Base-Induced Reaction of Salicylaldehyde with 1-Bromobutane in Acetone: Two Related Examples of Chemical Problem Solving  Holly D. Bendorf and Chriss E. McDonald
Each student performs his or her own experimental work, running one of the two reactions, and acquiring the proton and carbon NMR, IR, and mass spectra. The students work in groups to propose structures for the products and mechanisms for their formation. The students are also asked to address why the reactions take different courses.
Bendorf, Holly D.; McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1185.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Phenols |
IR Spectroscopy
Inorganic Nomenclature   David Shaw
Drill-and-practice exercises in naming and writing formulas for ionic and covalent inorganic compounds.
Shaw, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 711.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  William F. Coleman and Randall J. Wildman
Fully manipulable Chime versions of ascorbic acid and methylene blue, for the articles "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?"; "Out of the Blue"; "Greening the Blue Bottle"; and "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist"
Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 584.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carboxylic Acids
Trivial, Common, and Systematic Chemical Names  Giovanni Lentini
Call for clear distinction to be made between trivial / common / generic names, international nonproprietary names (INN), and systematic (IUPAC) names for compounds (in reference to adrenaline / suprarenine / epinephrine).
Lentini, Giovanni. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 487.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
The Name Game: Learning the Connectivity between the Concepts  Marina C. Koether
Game in which students review words (names of elements and compounds, instrumentation, types of reactions) using an ice-breaker-type activity; each student given a word that they can't see but everyone else can; must learn their name by asking as few yes-no questions as possible.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 421.
Instrumental Methods |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Electron Transport Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 30 words that describe electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 419.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Genetic Code Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 30 words that describe the nucleotide sequences used to produce proteins.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 417.
Biotechnology |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Terminology: Four Puzzles from One Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Tips for constructing multiple wordsearch puzzles; example of a lab safety wordsearch provided.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Find the Symbols of Elements Using a Letter Matrix Puzzle  V. D. Kelkar
Letter matrix puzzle using chemical symbols.
Kelkar, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 411.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Elemental ZOO  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle using the symbols of 39 elements to spell the name of 25 animals found in zoos.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 409.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Review of "The Ingredients: A Guided Tour of the Elements" (Philip Ball)  Linda H. Doerrer
Chronologic tour of our understanding of matter, from Hellenic civilization to the present.
Doerrer, Linda H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 387.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Review of "The Ingredients: A Guided Tour of the Elements" (Philip Ball)  Linda H. Doerrer
Chronologic tour of our understanding of matter, from Hellenic civilization to the present.
Doerrer, Linda H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 387.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
"Chiral Acetate": The Preparation, Analysis, and Applications of Chiral Acetic Acid  Addison Ault
Production of chiral acetic acid using deuterium and tritium and its application to understanding stereochemistry and the specificity of enzymatic reactions.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 333.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enzymes |
Isotopes |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Carboxylic Acids |
Enantiomers |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
C–H and C–D Bonds: An Experimental Approach to the Identity of C–H Bonds by Their Conversion to C–D Bonds  Alex T. Rowland
Three experiments that allow students to determine the relative reactivity of C-H bonds that are aliphatic, alpha, benzylic, or aromatic by the ease of substitution of deuterium for oxygen.
Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 311.
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Mole, Mole per Liter, and Molar: A Primer on SI and Related Units for Chemistry Students  George Gorin
A brief historical overview of the SI system, the concept of the mole and the definition of mole unit, the status of the liter in the metric and SI systems, and the meaning of molar and molarity.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 103.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Enrichment / Review Materials
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions  Robert D. Freeman
Problems with SI units for mass (the kilogram) and amount of material (the mole) and recommendations for changes.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 16.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
What's in a Name?   Robert M. Hanson
Quiz that asks questions that are helpful in determining what is happening in an aqueous solution.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1380.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Chemical Name Game  Robert M. Hanson
Provides practice in learning about names and properties of chemical species.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1380.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions  Jonathan Mitschele
Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English- and metric-unit thermometers.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Preparing Students for Research: Synthesis of Substituted Chalcones as a Comprehensive Guided-Inquiry Experience  James R. Vyvyan, Donald L. Pavia, Gary M. Lampman, and George S. Kriz Jr.
An aldol condensation of substituted benzaldehydes with substituted acetophones to produce substituted benzalacetophenones (chalcones) in a guided-inquiry approach.
Vyvyan, James R.; Pavia, Donald L.; Lampman, Gary M.; Kriz, George S., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1119.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Measurements for a Rainy Day  Erica K. Jacobsen and Nancy S. Gettys
Students collect data on a rainy day and use the information to calculate the rate of rainfall.
Jacobsen, Erica K.; Gettys, Nancy S. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1104A.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemistry Formatter Add-ins for Microsoft Word and Excel  Christopher King
MS Word and Excel add-ins that automatically convert chemistry symbols and notations.
King, Christopher. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 896.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On the Stereochemistry of 'Natural' a-Amino Acids (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48-49)  Sam H. Leung

Leung, Sam H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 559.
Amino Acids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
On the Stereochemistry of 'Natural' a-Amino Acids (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48-49)  Giovanni Lentini

Lentini, Giovanni. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 558.
Amino Acids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
The Cis-Trans Equilibrium of N-Acetyl-L-Proline. An Experiment for the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory  Kathryn R. Williams, Bhavin Adhyaru, Igor German, and Eric Alvarez
A cis-trans equilibrium system that demonstrates the effect of solvent polarity and aqueous pH.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin; German, Igor; Alvarez, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 372.
Amino Acids |
Biophysical Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Equilibrium |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438)  Moreno Paolini, Giovanni Cercignani, and Carlo Bauer
Alternative units in which to express atomic weight.
Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438)  George Gorin
Alternative units in which to express atomic weight.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Formic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for formic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 157.
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids
Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Marcio C. S. de Mattos and David E. Nicodem
A sequence of experiments in which trimyristin is extracted, isolated, and purified from nutmeg, then converted to a soap (sodium myristate) and acidified to produce myristic acid.
de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 94.
Natural Products |
Carboxylic Acids |
Consumer Chemistry |
Fatty Acids
The Vitamin C Clock Reaction  Stephen W. Wright
Clock reaction using supermarket materials (vitamin C, hydrogen peroxide, tincture of iodine, and starch).
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 41.
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Vitamins |
Carboxylic Acids
pH of Sodium Acetate Solutions  Guy Schmitz
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Schmitz, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Combined Effects of pH and Percent Methanol on the HPLC Separation of Benzoic Acid and Phenol  Seema M. Joseph and John A. Palasota
Investigating the combined effects of pH and percent methanol on the HPLC separation of benzoic acid and phenol.
Joseph, Seema M.; Palasota, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1381.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols
Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success  Shannon Byrd and David P. Hildreth
Classification activity and scheme for learning functional groups.
Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1355.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Second Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  Werner Fischer
Etymology of the term "chalcogen".
Fischer, Werner. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1333.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Second Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  Werner Fischer
Etymology of the term "chalcogen".
Fischer, Werner. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1333.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Discovery-Oriented Approach To Organic Synthesis: Tandem Aldol Condensation-Michael Addition Reactions. Identifying Diastereotopic Hydrogens in an Achiral Molecule by NMR Spectroscopy  Nanette Wachter-Jurcsak and Kendra Reddin
Procedure illustrating aldol condensation and Michael addition reactions.
Wachter-Jurcsak, Nanette; Reddin, Kendra. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1264.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The TCICA Test for Distinguishing Aldehydes and Ketones  Gene A. Hiegel, Christine Juska, and Michelle Kim
Distinguishing aldehydes from ketones through their reaction with TCICA (trichloroisocyanuric acid).
Hiegel, Gene A.; Juska, Christine; Kim, Michelle. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1105.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Acid (glacial)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic acid (glacial).
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 721.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Carboxylic Acids
Determination of Lipophilicity Constants of Sulfonamide Substituents  Maria Auxiliadôra Fontes Prado
This article describes a simple laboratory activity using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (a stationary nonpolar phase and a mobile polar phase); the Rf values determined for sulfonamides by means of reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography are used to calculate the chromatographic parameter Rm and the lipophilicity constants (pi) of different substituent groups of sulfonamides.
Prado, Maria Auxiliadôra Fontes. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 533.
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Amides
Diastereoselective Synthesis of (+/-)-1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-propanediol. A Discovery-Based Grignard Reaction Suitable for a Large Organic Lab Course  James A. Ciaccio, Roxana P. Bravo, Antoinette L. Drahus, John B. Biggins, Rosalyn V. Concepcion, and David Cabrera
An experiment that probes the diastereoselectivity of the reaction between a Grignard reagent and a common, inexpensive alpha-chiral ketone; introduces students to pi-facial discrimination by having them establish the stereochemical course of kinetically controlled nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl.
Ciaccio, James A.; Bravo, Roxana P.; Drahus, Antoinette L.; Biggins, John B.; Concepcion, Rosalyn V.; Cabrera, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 531.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Grignard Reagents |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Simulating How a Virus Spreads through a Population: An Introduction to Acid-Base Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Ronald M. Jarret
The traditional lab exercise that achieves separation of a mixture of 4-aminoacetophenone and benzoic acid by chemically active extraction has been expanded to include an exercise that uses materials from the extraction experiment to simulate how a virus spreads through a population.
Jarret, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 525.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Krebs Cycle Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 46 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe the citric acid (Krebs) cycle.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 515.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Glycolysis Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 30 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe glycolysis and fermentation.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 503.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
b-Oxidation Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 36 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe lipid metabolism.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 483.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
Protein Structure Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 37 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe protein structure.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 474.
Proteins / Peptides |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of a Cyclic Acetal: A Dehydration Performed in Aqueous Solution  David M. Collard, Adolphus G. Jones, and Robert M. Kriegel
Treatment of pentaerythritol with benzaldehyde in aqueous acid to produce the monoacetal, 5,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-phenyl-1,3-dioxane. The reaction has a number of interesting features: the isolated product is the monobenzal not the dibenzal, and the reaction, a dehydration, is performed in water.
Collard, David M.; Jones, Adolphus G.; Kriegel, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 70.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Dog with Ball Joins Flying Bird
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1656)  Richard S. Treptow
Comparing structural models to simple figures.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 31.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carboxylic Acids |
Molecular Modeling
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights   Moreno Paolini, Giovanni Cercignani, and Carlo Bauer
Proposal on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.
Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Periplanar or Coplanar?  Saul Kane and William H. Hersh
The prefix peri, derived from the Greek for "near", was chosen to make the meaning "approximately planar". However, the current common usage of syn and antiperiplanar is planar, which is incorrect. In the interests of proper language, we suggest that future authors instead use "syn-coplanar" and "anti-coplanar".
Kane, Saul; Hersh, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1366.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Are We Taking Symbolic Language for Granted?   Paul Marais and Faan Jordaan
This study formed part of a broader investigation into the role of language in teaching and learning chemical equilibrium. Students were tested for their understanding of 25 words and five symbols commonly used in connection with chemical equilibrium. This test showed that most of the students had an inadequate grasp of the meaning of all five symbols. It also showed that, on the average, their understanding of symbols was more problematic than their understanding of words.
Marais, Paul; Jordaan, Faan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1355.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Acids without a Carboxylic Acid Functional Group  G. V. Perez and Alice L. Perez
This paper presents several organic molecules that have been labeled as acids but do not contain a carboxylic acid functional group. Various chemical principles such as pKa, tautomerization, aromaticity, conformation, resonance, and induction are explored.
Perez, G. V.; Perez, Alice L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 910.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Phenols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds
Elucidation of Molecular Structure Using NMR Long-Range Coupling: Determination of the Single Isomer Formed in a Regiospecific Reaction  Samuel Delagrange and Françoise Nepveu
The experiment presented in this article introduces students to the main concepts of two essential NMR techniques for investigating molecular structure. Heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC) and proton-coupled 13C NMR are used to determine which isomer, from a possible two, is formed by a regiospecific reaction. The demonstration, based on long-range coupling between quaternary carbons and protons on neighboring carbons, is presented step by step.
Delagrange, Samuel; Nepveu, Françoise. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 895.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Reactions |
Diastereomers
The R/S System: A New and Simple Approach to Determining Ligand Priority and a Unified Method for the Assignment and Correlation of Stereogenic Center Configuration in Diverse Stereoformulas  Dipak K. Mandal
A new approach providing an "at-a-glance" priority order of ligands attached to a stereogenic center in organic molecules and a unified method for assigning and correlating stereogenic center absolute configuration in diverse stereochemical representations is presented.
Mandal, Dipak Kumar. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 866.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
News from Online: Learning Communities  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Summary of a variety of online, chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 808.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Esters: Three Related Investigative Experiments  Chriss E. McDonald

McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 750.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Classroom Nomenclature Games--BINGO  Thomas D. Crute
The use of games in the chemistry classroom can provide instruction, feedback, practice, and fun. A modification of a BINGO game to chemical nomenclature and a specific application to alkanes are described. Tips on preparation of materials, and suggested variations including inorganic nomenclature are presented.
Crute, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 481.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses
Sugar Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 29 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe sugars and their polymers.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 480.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Lipid Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 37 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe lipids.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 479.
Lipids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An Unexpected Event When Chymotrypsin Performs Its Physiological Role  Ivan G. Darvey
One of the events that occur during the chymotrypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of proteins is an example of an exception to a rule of thumb taught in introductory organic chemistry courses, namely, that amides can't readily be converted to esters. If biochemistry teachers and the authors of textbooks of biochemistry commented on this unusual reaction, it would emphasize further the remarkable part chymotrypsin plays as a catalyst in carrying out its main perceived "physiological role".
Darvey, Ivan G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 422.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Amides |
Esters
From Past Issues: Contests Revisited  Metanomski, W.V.
Using the CAS registry to identify "corrosive sublimate" and "chlorazene".
Metanomski, W.V. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 310.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Let's Not Forget the Units!  Hillger, Don
History of movement toward metric in U.S.
Hillger, Don J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 310.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  
History of movement toward metric in U.S.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 310.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Introducing Chiroscience into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum  Kenny B. Lipkowitz, Tim Naylor, and Keith S. Anliker
"Chiroscience" is a young but robust industry linking science and technology with chemistry and biology; includes description of an asymmetric reduction of a ketone followed by an assessment of the enantiomeric excess by GC using a chiral stationary phase.
Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Naylor, Tim; Anliker, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 305.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones
How to Make Learning Chemical Nomenclature Fun, Exciting, and Palatable  Joseph Chimeno
One great challenge that introductory chemistry students have is learning the names of various chemical compounds. To make chemical nomenclature fun, exciting, and palatable, the "Rainbow Wheel" was developed at North Iowa Area Community College.
Chimeno, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 144.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Use of Extent of Reaction in Introductory Courses  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of the extent of reaction as an alternative to the traditional approach to stoichiometry in first-year chemistry. The method focuses attention on the reaction as a whole rather than on pairs of reagents as in the traditional approach. The balanced equation is used as the unit of change.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 52.
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?  Sam H. Leung
This article provides a brief survey of the origins of the common names of some amino acids, aromatic compounds, and carboxylic acids.
Leung, Sam H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48.
Amino Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
Synthesis of Derivatives of (1R)-(-)- and (1S)-(+)-10-Camphorsulfonic Acid  Steven C. Cermak and David F. Wiemer
The preparation of optically active (camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridines from commercially available (1R)-(-) and/or (1S)-(+)10-camphorsulfonic acid provides a clear demonstration of the lack of relationship between absolute configuration and optical rotation. The parent sulfonic acid can be converted to the corresponding acid chloride and then to the sulfonamide, sulfonylimine, and finally to an oxaziridine in a series of practical organic laboratory experiments.
Cermak, Steven C.; Wiemer, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1715.
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases
Applications of Biocatalysis to Industrial Processes  John T. Sime
The possibility of environmentally friendly chemical reactions carried out under mild conditions with high degrees of selectivity has proved attractive in developing manufacturing processes. A number of such reactions are discussed in the industrial context with examples of a variety of reaction types. All processes presented have been implemented in the production of commercial products and provide a feel for the versatility of this technology.
Sime, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1658.
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Amides |
Esters
A New Look at Reaction Rates  Tomislav Cvitas
The rate of reaction, as an intensive quantity characteristic of the process, is obtained by dividing the amount of chemical transformations per time by the volume of the reaction system. The practical definition of the reaction rate found in the literature can then be derived by defining the stoichiometric numbers as changes in the number of specific molecules taking part in the reaction per chemical transformation.
Cvitas, Tomislav. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1574.
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Rate Law
"New" Compounds from Old Plastics: Recycling PET Plastics via Depolymerization. An Activity for the Undergraduate Organic Lab  Don Kaufman, Geoff Wright, Ryan Kroemer, and Josh Engel
This paper describes work done to develop a meaningful undergraduate organic lab activity that illustrates chemistry of the real world while utilizing reactions typically included in the organic lecture and lab. We show how a common plastic can be converted into several compounds using ester hydrolysis and SN2 reactions.
Kaufman, Don; Wright, Geoff; Kroemer, Ryan; Engel, Josh. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1525.
Consumer Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Nucleophilic Substitution
A Simple Demonstration for Introducing the Metric System to Introductory Chemistry Classes  Clarke W. Earley
A simple demonstration is described for introducing metric system prefixes and conversion between different units. The width of the classroom is defined as an arbitrarily standard of length ("room") and measured using a paper streamer. By cutting this into ten equal pieces, a deciroom measure is obtained. Centiroom and milliroom pieces are obtained in a similar manner.
Earley, Clarke W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1215.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Evolution of the Celsius and Kelvin Temperature Scales and the State of the Art  Julio Pellicer, M. Amparo Gilabert, and Ernesto Lopez-Baeza
A physical analysis is given of the evolution undergone by the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, from their definition to the present day.
Pellicer, Julio; Gilabert, M. Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 911.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories
Letters  
Extending the rule for rounding significant figures of products and quotients.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 897.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Best of Chem 13 News  Kathy Thorsen
Chemistry demonstrations, density, and significant figures.
Thorsen, Kathy. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 884.
Physical Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Preparation and Identification of Benzoic Acids and Benzamides: An Organic "Unknown" Lab  Douglass F. Taber, Jade D. Nelson, and John P. Northrop
The reaction of an unknown substituted benzene derivative with oxalyl chloride and aluminum chloride gives the acid chloride. Hydrolysis of the acid chloride gives the acid, and reaction of the acid with concentrated aqueous ammonia gives the benzamide. The equivalent weight of the acid can be determined by titration; given this information and the melting points of the acid and the benzamide, it is possible to deduce the structure of the initial unknown.
Taber, Douglass F.; Nelson, Jade D.; Northrop, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 828.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Calculating Units with the HP 48G Calculator  Matthew E. Morgan
The HP 48G's units function can make simple calculations, such as converting grams to moles, or more complex unit analysis, such as gas law calculations. Examples and calculator keystrokes for both of these examples are included in this article.
Morgan, Matthew E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 631.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Periodic Puns for the Classroom  Paul E. Vorndam
Some puns on the names of the elements are presented.
Vorndam, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 492.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Learning Theories
Using Games To Teach Chemistry. 2. CHeMoVEr Board Game  Jeanne V. Russell
A board game similar to Sorry or Parcheesi was developed. Students must answer chemistry questions correctly to move their game piece around the board. Card decks contain questions on balancing equations, identifying the types of equations, and predicting products from given reactants.
Russell, Jeanne V. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 487.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Using Games to Teach Chemistry. 1. The Old Prof Card Game  Philip L. Granath and Jeanne V. Russell
A card game has been developed and used to teach nomenclature of the elements and their symbols in the first laboratory session of General Chemistry. The game both helps the students learn or review the symbols of the elements and is a good "icebreaker" where students learn the names of other students.
Granath, Philip L.; Russell, Jeanne V. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 485.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Don't Forget the Units!  Kathryn R. Williams
While looking through Volume 3, the author was attracted to correspondence by Harvey A. Neville, bearing the title "The Metric System and Mr. Dale" (1926, 3, 215). This led her to find several rewarding, and often amusing, writings on the metric system.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 313.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How Thermodynamic Data and Equilibrium Constants Changed When the Standard-State Pressure Became 1 Bar  Richard S. Treptow
In 1982 the IUPAC recommended that the pressure used to define the standard state of a substance be changed from 1 atm to 1 bar. The principal effect of the change is a slight increase in the entropy and a slight decrease in the free energy of any gas.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 212.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay)  Scott White and George Bodner
CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations.
White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Temperature Scale Conversion as a Linear Equation: True Unit Conversion vs Zero-Offset Correction  Reuben Rudman
The equation used for the interconversion between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is in reality the general case of the straight-line equation (y = ax + b). This equation is the paradigm for many of the calculations taught in introductory chemistry.
Rudman, Reuben. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Reduction of 2,6-Dimethylcyclohexanone with Sodium Borohydride Revisited: A Correction on the Structural Assignments of the Products, and the Discovery of a Solvent Effect  Bruce A. Hathaway
Changing the solvent from methanol to ethanol produced a different ratio of cis-cis to trans-trans than was reported in the original work. Therefore, a short series of solvents was investigated to determine if there was a solvent effect. The results indicate that as the size and bulk of the solvent increase, the proportion of the trans alcohol product increases.
Hathaway, Bruce A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1623.
Stereochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Appalachian Trail Problems  Brian N. Akers
Twelve problems involving unit conversions are presented. These problems are based on daily experiences encountered while hiking the Appalachian Trail.
Akers, Brian N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1571.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Demonstrations of the Enormity of Avogadro's Number  Damon Diemente
Most high-school students learn of Avogadro's number for the first time when they begin study of the mole concept. It is important to impress students with the enormity of Avogadro's number and the concomitant minuscularity of the atom. The present article describes three such problems.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1565.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Very Simple Method Way to Convert Haworth Representation to Zigzag Representation  Janine Cossy and Véronique Bellosta
A very simple method to convert Haworth representation of hexoses and pentoses to zigzag representation is proposed
Cossy, Janine; Bellosta, Véronique. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1307.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Solving the Mystery of Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces  Doris R. Kimbrough and Ronald DeLorenzo
The fingerprints of the perpetrator are often not the only ones of importance in the collection of evidence. The fingerprints of the victim can be extremely important as well, and obtaining them when the victim is a child can be a tricky and frustrating endeavor.
Kimbrough, Doris R.; DeLorenzo, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1300.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Forensic Chemistry |
Esters |
Applications of Chemistry
Use of Theoretical Chemistry To Explain Baeyer-Villiger Oxidations of Methoxy Aromatic Aldehydes  N. Anoune, H. Hannachi, P. Lantéri, R. Longeray, and C. Arnaud
This is a project for advanced students in two parts. First: A study of the Baeyer-Villiger reaction on para-methoxybenzaldehyde. Such a reaction is commonly used to oxidize ketones into esters. Second: The experiment is extended to various polymethoxybenzaldehydes and theoretical calculations are used to explain their particular behaviors.
Anoune, N.; Hannachi, H.; Lantéri, P.; Longeray, R.; Arnaud, Christian. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1290.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
A Modified Synthesis of the Insect Repellent DEET  Peter H. Knoess and Edward G. Neeland
In the preparation of the insect repellent DEET, lab procedures prepare the intermediate m-toluoyl chloride by heating m-toluic acid with thionyl chloride for times ranging from 15 to 45 minutes. The acid chloride is then worked up under Schotten-Baumann conditions to yield DEET.
Knoess, Peter H.; Neeland, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1267.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment  John A. Olmsted III
An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer.
Olmsted, John A., III. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1261.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Vanillin (the author replies)  Hocking, Martin
Additional information regarding salicylic acid.
Hocking, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1203.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Vanillin  Calloway, Dean
Incorrect structural formula for methyl salicylate.
Calloway, Dean J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1203.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters  
Incorrect structural formula for methyl salicylate.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1203.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Oxygen vs Dioxygen: Diatomic/Monatomic Usage  Sharon, Jared B.
Using the name dioxygen for O2.
Sharon, Jared B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1089.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A Simple Organic Microscale Experiment Illustrating the Equilibrium Aspect of the Aldol Condensation  Ernest A. Harrison Jr.
A simple microscale experiment has been developed that illustrates the equilibrium aspect of the aldol condensation by using two versions of the standard preparation of tetraphenylcyclopentadienone from benzil and 1,3-diphenyl- 2-propanone.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 636.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Cinnamaldehyde by Steam Distillation of Cinnamon  Douglass F. Taber and Andrew J. Weiss
Powdered cinnamon foams badly on attempted steam distillation. It has been demonstrated that preliminary iterative evacuation of the aqueous mixture allows smooth distillation of cinnamaldehyde (I).
Taber, Douglass F.; Weiss, Andrew J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 633.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
The Baker's Yeast Reduction of Keto-Esters in Organic Solvents: A One Week Research Project for Undergraduate Students   Michael North
An experiment has been designed which allows final year undergraduate students to carry out a mini-research project in one week and thus get a flavor of the joys and tribulations of conducting chemical research before they undertake a major research project. The experiment is an investigation into the reduction of alpha- or beta-keto esters using non-fermenting Baker's yeast in petroleum ether.
North, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 630.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Undergraduate Research
Synthesis of Exotic Soaps in the Chemistry Laboratory  Otto Phanstiel IV, Eric Dueno, and Queenie Xianghong Wang
A variety of different triglyceride sources ranging from Vietnamese garlic oil to a local restaurant's grill sludge were saponified to generate a series of exotic soaps. Students did not quantify their results, but described their products in terms of color, texture and odor.
Phanstiel, Otto, IV; Dueno, Eric; Wang, Queenie Xianghong. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 612.
Qualitative Analysis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Lipids |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Fatty Acids
Quantity Calculus: Unambiguous Designation of Values and Units in Graphs and Tables  Mary Anne White
This paper gives some background to quantity calculus and shows examples, suitable for teaching to undergraduate students, of its use to provide unambiguous representations of physical quantities in tables and graphs.
White, Mary Anne. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 607.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Incorporating Organic Name Reactions and Minimizing Qualitative Analysis in an Unknown Identification Experiment  Claire Castro and William Karney
The authors have developed a new type of unknown identification experiment for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. The unknown sample the student is provided with is the product of an organic name reaction. The student is only informed of the starting material and conditions used in the compound's synthesis, and must then: (1) deduce the compound's structure, (2) determine the name reaction and corresponding mechanism that yields the compound, and (3) present his/her results to the class.
Claire Castro and William Karney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 472.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An Aldehyde Derivative  J. Hodge Markgraf and Bo Yoon Choi
A system in which aldehydes are condensed with 1,2-benzenedimethylthiol in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride on silica gel to give 3-substituted 1,5-dihyhdro-2,4-benzodithiepines. Melting points of the derivatives were taken as a means of identification of unknown compounds.
Markgraf, J. Hodge; Choi, Bo Yoon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 222.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Nucleophilic Addition vs. Substituion: A Puzzle for the Organic Laboratory  Ernest F. Silversmith
The chemistry of beta-carbonyl compounds is studied. Beta-carbonyl compounds react with hydrazines to give products with a 5-membered ring containing two nitrogens. The experiment makes students determine whether ethyl 2-acetyl-3-oxobutanoate reacts like a beta-diketone or like a beta-keto ester.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 221.
Learning Theories |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Grignard-like Organic Reaction in Water  Gary W. Breton and Christine A. Hughey
A known Grignard-like reaction between allyl bromide and benzaldehyde mediated by zinc metal in aqueous media. The procedure retains the desirable features of the traditional Grignard reaction, while eliminating some of the commonly encountered difficulties.
Breton, Gary W.; Hughey, Christine A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 85.
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Some Linguistic Detail on Chelation  Daniel T. Haworth
The word chelate and its lingual background/history are examined.
Haworth, Daniel T. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 47.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Acetone and Ethyl Acetate in Commercial Nail Polish Removers: A Quantitative NMR Experiment Using an Internal Standard  David W. Clarke
The qualitative and quantitative analysis of commercial nail polish removers is performed on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer. After taking NMR spectra of the polish removers, students can make peak assignments for the known components of acetone and ethyl acetate. Using these spectra, students are also able to identify the unknown alcohol present in the remover as ethanol.
Clarke, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1464.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Celsius to Fahrenheit and Vice Versa - Quick, Exact, and Neat  S. C. Dutta Roy
A quick, exact, and neat method is given for conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit temperatures and vice versa.
Roy, S. C. Dutta. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1199.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke  Jon W. Wong, Kenley K. Ngim, Jason P. Eiserich, Helen C. H. Yeo, Takayuki Shibamoto, and Scott A. Mabury
This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode).
Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1100.
Learning Theories |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry
A Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  William B. Jensen
It is argued that the best translation of the term "chalcogen" is "ore former." It is further suggested that the term chalcogenide should be replaced with the term chalcide in order to maintain a parallelism with the terms halogen and halide.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1063.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
The Dimensions of Logarithmic Quantities (re J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 467)  Robert D. Freeman
Proposal to introduce logarithms of dimensioned quantities.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 900.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ionization or Dissociation?  Emeric Schultz
The use of the terms Dissociation and Ionization in the teaching of chemistry is discussed. It is suggested that the term dissociation, and what it suggests in terms of ordinary language, is inappropriate when used in certain contexts. Since an alternate and more physically correct term, specifically ionization, is available for these contexts, it is argued that this term be used consistently in these contexts.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 868.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Does Copper Metal React with Acetic Acid?  Stephen DeMeo
Starting with a discrepant event and led through a series of experiments, students of an introductory chemistry course investigate if copper metal reacts with acetic acid. Finding that oxygen from the air plays an important role in the reaction of these substances, students ultimately realize that the conditions under which two reactants interact are important in determining the type of products that are made.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 844.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Old MacDonald Named a Compound: Branched Enynenynols  Dennis Ryan
An imaginary teacher of organic chemistry thinks up some whimsical compounds for his students to name using IUPAC nomenclature rules.
Ryan, Dennis. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 782.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determination of the Enantiomeric Purity of Naproxen: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Thomas D. Walsh and Curtis S. Koontz
Recent availability of and publicity surrounding the antiinflammatory drug naproxen presents an opportunity for an organic chemistry laboratory experiment of great up-to-the-minute interest.
Walsh, Thomas D.; Koontz, Curtis S. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 585.
Stereochemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Catalytic Transfer Hydogenation Reactions for Undergraduate Practical Programs  R. W. Hanson
A brief review of catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) reactions is given. Attention is drawn, particularly, to the utility of ammonium formate as the hydrogen donor in this type of reaction.
Hanson, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 430.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Three Programs for DOS: Abstract of Volume 10B, Number 1 2. Periodic Table Games  John S. Martin
The Periodic Table Games are intended to expose students to the vocabulary of chemistry: formulas, combination rules, and descriptive chemistry. They may be played by an individual against the computer, or by several competing players.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 346.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An Experiment to Demonstrate Magnetic Nonequivalence in Proton NMR  Christopher J. Welch
The bicyclic compound, 3a,6a-diethoxycarbonyl-2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole, prepared by a literature procedure is used to demonstrate magnetic nonequivalence for methylene protons in the proton NMR experiment.
Welch, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 247.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A -78°C Sequential Michael Addition for the Organic Lab  Michael W. Tanis
This paper introduces a cold-temperature enolate alkylation reaction that can be performed safely and inexpensively by undergraduate students in approximately two 3-hour lab sessions.
Tanis, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 112.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Reduction of Carboxylic Acids with Sodium Borohydride and an Electrophile  Jan William Simek, Thad Tuck, and Kelly Courter Bush
Integration of new reduction conditions into a procedure applicable to the first-year organic chemistry laboratory, where reduction of the carboxylic acid group has remained an obstacle, notwithstanding the use of borane or LiAlH4 (2) on the microscale. The NaBH4 method with either electrophile can be modified to any scale; in our hands, the use of I2 as the electrophile performed better at the semimicro scale than the H2SO4 method.
Simek, Jan William; Tuck, Thad; Bush, Kelly Courter . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 107.
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Regiospecific Ester Hydrolysis by Orange Peel Esterase - An Undergraduate Experiment.  Timothy D.H. Bugg, Andrew M. Lewin and Eric R. Catlin
The experiment involves the preparation of diester derivatives of para-, meta- and ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid (e.g. methyl 4-acetoxy-benzoic acid). The derivatives are incubated with orange peel esterase, as a crude extract, and with commercially available pig liver esterase and porcine pancreatic lipase. The enzymatic hydrolysis reactions are monitored by thin layer chromatography, revealing which of the two ester groups is hydrolysed, and the rate of the enzyme-catalysed reaction.
Bugg. Timothy D. H.; Lewin, Andrew M.; Catlin, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 105.
Esters |
Catalysis |
Chromatography
Exponential Notation  Gavin D Peckham
Suggestion for streamlined typing of exponential notation.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 64.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Acyclic Saturated Ketones (the author replies)  Rowland, Alex T.
Use of deuterium exchange to identify ketones.
Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A296.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Acyclic Saturated Ketones  Harvey, T.G.
Use of deuterium exchange to identify ketones.
Harvey, T.G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A295.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Ems-Wilson, Janice
The progress of two microscale reactions, the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride and the photochemical formation of benzopinacol, was monitored, qualitatively, using FT-IR.
Ems-Wilson, Janice J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A171.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
IR Spectroscopy
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Janice Ems-Wilson
This article describes an experiment that encourages discussion of carbohydrate chemistry in terms of reaction mechanisms, conformational analysis, and spectroscopy. The specific experiment involves the preparation of the bis(acetonide) of D-(+)-mannose.
Ems-Wilson, Janice. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A170.
Microscale Lab |
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Conformational Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Interfacing "8088" Computers in the Chemistry Laboratory  James Goodrich and Bill Durham
The goal of using such puzzles is to provide a bit of variety to beginning chemistry students and reduce the tedium of memorizing chemical names.
Goodrich, James; Durham, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Displaying Chemical Formulas in Microsoft Excel  E. Joseph Billo
An Excel macro which automates the entry of subscripts in Excel spreadsheets is described. The macro is assigned to a custom button on Excel's standard toolbar, so that, after typing a text label containing a chemical formula, clicking the button automatically formats the text as a chemical formula.
Billo, E. Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A40.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Carbonyl and Conjugate Additions to Cyclohexenone: Experiments Illustrating Reagent Selectivity  Michael G. Organ and Paul Anderson
Undergraduate students leaving an organic chemistry program should have exposure to these concepts and hands-on experience in dealing practically with the issue of selectivity. In this paper, selective addition of a nucleophile to either end of the enone moiety in cyclohexenone is examined.
Organ, Michael G.; Anderson, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1193.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment  John M. Risley
Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell.
Risley, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1181.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Consumer Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Nonmajor Courses |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Phenols
Amyl: A Misunderstood Word  Richard A. Kjonaas
There is much confusion associated with the word amyl. When younger chemists are taught to use the words propyl, butyl, and pentyl in place of n-propyl, n-butyl, and n-pentyl, they then incorrectly assume that this practice also applies to the word amyl.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1127.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Mini-scale Oxidation/Reduction in Organic Laboratory Course: 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde/ 4-Nitrobenzyl Alcohol  Douglass F. Taber, Yanong Wang, Sebastian Liehr
Oxidation of an alcohol to the aldehyde or ketone, and corresponding reduction back to the alcohol, are two of the most common transformations of preparative organic chemistry. We have found a much more satisfactory combination in 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde: both are crystalline, neither is volatile, and both are strongly UV-absorbing, so they visualize well on TLC.
Taber, Douglass F.; Wang, Yanong; Liehr, Sebastian. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1042.
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation State |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
A Convenient Synthesis of the Tetrasubstituted Pyrrole: An Undergraduate Heterocyclic Laboratory Experiment  Patrik Kolar, Miha Tisler
A two-step synthesis of tetrasubstituted pyrroles from esters of a-amino acids has been applied as a simple undergraduate laboratory experiment, which illustrates the utility of amino acids in heterocyclic synthesis.
Kolar, Patrik; Tisler, Miha. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 986.
Amino Acids |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Esters
Inorganic Nomenclature  ten Hoor, Marten J.
Inorganic naming schemes should be brought in line with IUPAC recommendations.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 825.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Epoxidation of Alpha-Methylstyrene and its Lewis Acid Rearrangement to 2-Phenylpropanal  David L. Garin, Melissa Gamber, and Bradley J. Rowe
This undergraduate organic lab experiment includes procedures for the peracid epoxidation of an olefin and the Lewis acid rearrangement of an epoxide to a carbonyl compound.
Garin, David L.; Gamber, Melissa; Rowe, Bradley J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 555.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The Esterification of Trifluoroacetic Acid: A Variable Temperature NMR Kinetics Study  Thomas N. Gallaher, David A. Gaul, and Serge Schreiner
This paper describes an addition to a previously published experiment in which NMR is used to follow the kinetics of the reaction of trifluoroacetic acid with alcohols. A variable temperature accessory is used to determine the energy of activation and reaction order with respect to the alcohol concentration.
Gallaher, Thomas N.; Gaul, David A.; Schreiner, Serge. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 465.
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Esters
An Excel 4.0 Add-in Function to Calculate Molecular Mass  Christian Hauck
185. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel 4.0 add-in function is presented, which consists of a parser to interpret molecular formulas and a database containing three values for the atomic masses for every element: the mass number of the most abundant isotope, the mass of the most abundant isotope, and the atomic weight.
Hauck, Christian. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 433.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Mixed Aldol Condensation-Michael Addition Experiment  Thomas P. Clausen, Beverly Johnson, and Jim Wood
This article describes the analysis of the recrystallized products of a mixed aldol condensation between symmetrical ketones and aromatic aldehydes.
Clausen, Thomas P.; Johnson, Beverly; Wood, Jim. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 266.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Mechanism of NaBH4 Addition to Aldehydes: A Labeling Experiment  Rolland K. Robinson and Karl De Jesus
In order to determine the sources of hydrogens in NaBH4 reductions of aldehydes, a series of reductions were carried out using differentially deuterated reagents and solvents.
Robinson, Rolland K.; De Jesus, Karl. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 264.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Experimental Illustration of the Utility of Lewis Structures: An FTIR Experiment for Introductory Chemistry  James E. Swartz and Kurt Schladetzky
An experiment is described in which students record the FTIR spectra of a series of organic liquids which contain a carbonyl group and to predict the strength of the carbonyl bonds based upon drawing and examination of various Lewis structures.
Swartz, James E.; Schladetzky, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 188.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Lewis Structures
Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals  Sally Solomon, Chinhyu Hur, Alan Lee, and Kurt Smith
Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 173.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Phase Transfer Catalysis Applied to Oxidation  Claude Amsterdamsky
Benzhydrol and cycloheptanol have been oxidized to ketones using commercial bleach as oxidizer and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate as a phase transfer catalyst.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 92.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Catalysis
GC/MS of Unknown Esters for Teaching MS Fragmentation Patterns: A Combination Organic Experiment for Esterifying Unknown Alcohols and Determining their Structures by GC/MS  Ernest C. McGoran, Cameron Melton, and Darren Taitch
Students work together in groups of three to match fragmentation rules with actual MS data to identify each of three different unknowns, assigned individually for the conversion of their acetates.
McGoran, Ernest C.; Melton, Cameron; Taitch, Darren. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 88.
Alcohols |
Esters |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Richard F. Smith and Gaetano M. Cristalli
A laboratory to introduce the concept and technique of mass spectroscopy to introductory organic students; sample data and analysis included.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A160.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Discovery-Based Microscale Catalytic Decarbonylation of Aldehydes  Pearsall, Mary-Ann; Rosen, Alan M.; Conrad, Jennifer S.; Hendrickson, Carrie A.; Pacchia, Ann Marie L.; Schantz, Daniel J.
Experimental procedure for decarbonylation of aldehydes by heating over a palladium/carbon catalyst.
Pearsall, Mary-Ann; Rosen, Alan M.; Conrad, Jennifer S.; Hendrickson, Carrie A.; Pacchia, Ann Marie L.; Schantz, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A29.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Microscale Lab
Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Indane-1-ones: Monitoring of the Reaction by VPC and IR Spectroscopy  Elie Stephan
Procedure for the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of indane-1-ones.
Stephan, Elie. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1142.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Dimensional Analysis: An Analogy to Help Students Relate the Concept to Problem Solving  James R. McClure
Using dominoes to help students understand the conversion factor method of dimensional analysis.
McClure, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1093.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Celsius to Fahrenheit--Quick and Dirty  Colin Hester
Simple algorithm for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature.
Hester, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1026.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Dimensions of Logarithmic Quantities (the author replies)  Molyneux, Philip
Reply to Mills' letter.
Molyneux, Philip J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 955.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  
Examples in physical chemistry where it seems that we take the logarithm of quantities that are not dimensionless.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 954.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Those Baffling Subscripts  Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney
Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems.
Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Your Share of the National Debt--A High-Interest Calculation Using Exponential Notation  William Hoyt
Example of using exponential notation.
Hoyt, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 807.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
W. R. Hamilton: His Genius, His Circuits, and the IUPAC Nomenclature for Fulleranes  Alexandru T. Balaban, Darko Babic, and Douglas J. Klein
Biography of W. R. Hamilton and the application of his circuits to IUPAC nomenclature.
Balaban, Alexandru T.; Babic, Darko; Klein, Douglas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 693.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
"Double Unknown " Microscale Preparation and COSY Analysis of an Unknown Ester:
An Introductory 2D-NMR Experiment
  Stephen E. Branz, Robert G. Miele, Roy K. Okuda, and Daniel A. Straus
Proton NMR activity designed to highlight the power of the technique to analyze structures and not merely confirm the identity of known substances.
Branz, Stephen E.; Miele, Robert G.; Okuda, Roy K.; Straus, Daniel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 659.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
A Centenary Synthesis of Carone and Dicarvelone  Armstead, D. E. F.
Procedure for synthesizing carone and dicarvelone.
Armstead, D. E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 550.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Small Scale One-Pot Reactions of Copper, Iron, and Silver  Epp, Dianne N.
Investigation of a series of reactions involving copper, iron, and silver, all conducted with very small quantities in a single well.
Epp, Dianne N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 545.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Hammett Correlations of Amide Proton Chemical Shifts: An Organic or Spectroscopy Experiment  Setliff, F. L.; Soman, N. G.; Toland, A. D.
Experiment designed to illustrate the quantitative relationship between an easily measurable property (amide proton NMR chemical shift) and the electronic effect of several different substituents on substituted benzanilides; includes sample data and analysis.
Setliff, F. L.; Soman, N. G.; Toland, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 362.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amides
Determination of the R or S Configuration of Tetrahedral Stereocenters: A Graphical Flowchart Approach  Starkey, Ronald
Using graphical flowcharts to determine R or S configurations through higher shell comparisons for long-chain, highly branched, and cyclic organic structures.
Starkey, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 315.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Baker's Yeast Reduction of alpha-Diketones: A Four-Hour Experiment for Undergraduate Students  Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri
Procedure for quickly and efficiently reducing alpha-diketones using bakers' yeast.
Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 277.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Preparation of (S)-(+)-5,8a-Dimethyl-3,4,8,8a-tetrahydro-1,6(2H,7H)-naphthalenedione: An Undergraduate Experiment in Asymmetric Synthesis  Markgraf, J. Hodge; Fei, John F.; Ruckman, Robert E.
An asymmetric Robinson annelation suitable for the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Markgraf, J. Hodge; Fei, John F.; Ruckman, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 270.
Synthesis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Measuring with a Purpose: Involving Students in the Learning Process  Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
Constructivist learning activities for helping students to understand measurement, significant figures, uncertainty, scientific notation, and unit conversions.
Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Constructivism
Which Organic Molecule Should I Pick?  Perkins, Robert
Examples of questions requiring students to demonstrate their understanding of organic structures, nomenclature, isomerism, and chemical reactivity.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 124.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
What's in a Name - Transition State or Critical Transition Structure?  Bauer, S. H.; Wilcox, C. F., Jr.
Proposal for the transitional molecular structure at the potential energy saddle point to be called the critical transition structure.
Bauer, S. H.; Wilcox, C. F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 13.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Synthesis of 9-Fluorenol: Sodium Borohydride Reduction of 9-Fluorenone  Jones, C. Susana
Reduction of 9-fluorenone to generate 9-fluorenol.
Jones, C. Susana J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A252.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Microscale Lab
The Ritter Reaction: Trapping a Carbocation with a Nitrile  Crouch, R. David
An organic experiment involving the Ritter reaction that yields an unpredictable product.
Crouch, R. David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A200.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The Distribution of Cyclohexanone between Cyclohexane and Water  Worley, John D.
A microscale experiment that may be used to demonstrate extraction, spectrophotometric analysis, and the determination of a distribution constant.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A145.
Microscale Lab |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
A More Affordable Undergraduate Experiment on the Reduction of Acetophenone by Yeast  Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha
Preparation of Mosher's esters through the reduction of acetophenone with baker's yeast.
Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A62.
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Esters |
Synthesis
Metric for Me! A Layperson's Guide to the Metric System for Everyday Use with Exercises, Problems, and Estimations (Schoemaker, Robert W.)  
Title of interest.
J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A23.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Small Scale Determination of the pKa Values for Organic Acids  Flash, Patrick
Determination and interpretation of the pKa values for a series of organic acids as a concrete example of the effect of structure on acid strength.
Flash, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A6.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carboxylic Acids
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study of Plant Growth Regulators Phenylpyridylureas: An "Agrorganic" Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Hocquet, Alexandre; Tohier, Jacques; Fournier, Josette
This lab could represent an undergraduate comparative synthesis and analysis of biologically active molecules, suitable for an introductory lab session.
Hocquet, Alexandre; Tohier, Jacques; Fournier, Josette J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1092.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Modern Technology and the Metric System  Pilar, Frank L.
Misuse of ML for mL on a can of soda.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 810.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Expanded Dimensional Analysis: A Blending of English and Math  DeLorenzo, Ronald
Development, applications, and examples of expanded dimensional analysis.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 789.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Candy Sprinkles To Illustrate One Part Per Million  Meloan, Clifton E.; Meloan, Mindy L.; Meloan, John M.
1,000,000 colored candy sprinkles (5,246 g) with a single black one placed in a clear, spherical fish tank.
Meloan, Clifton E.; Meloan, Mindy L.; Meloan, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 658.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A More Direct Feeling for Avogadro's Number  Goh, N. K.; Subramanian, R.; Chia, L. S.
An approach based on the intrinsic parameters of an atom to evaluate Avogadro's Number and assess its accuracy.
Goh, N. K.; Subramanian, R.; Chia, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 656.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Symbolic Algebra and Stoichiometry  DeToma, Robert P.
Applying symbolic algebra (instead of the factor-label method) to stoichiometry calculations.
DeToma, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 568.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Quest for Mistakes  Wolf, A. A.
The English and Spanish billion are identical.
Wolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 536.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Simple, Systmatic Method for Determining J levels for jj Coupling  Gauerke, Ensign Steven J., USN; Campbell, Mark L.
A simple, systematic method for determining J levels for jj coupling.
Gauerke, Ensign Steven J., USN; Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 457.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Basic Principles of Scale Reading  Peckham, Gavin D.
Steps and basic principles of reading the scales of laboratory instruments.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 423.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Nomenclature  Shaw, David B.
Drill-and-practice exercise in naming organic compounds and identifying structural formulas.
Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 421.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Binary Notation for Cyclic Polyols  McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B.
Applying a combination of a binary and decimal representation to acyclic polyols and isomers of inositol.
McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 285.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers
Revisiting Fehling and Discovering Vogel  Boll, Per M.
Fehling's reagent, the story of copper(II) ions reaction with sugars, and the life and contributions of Heinrich August Vogel.
Boll, Per M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 220.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carbohydrates
Mole and Chemical Amount: A Discussion of the Fundamental Measurements of Chemistry  Gorin, George
Demonstrates that the mole is little different from other units of measurement.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 114.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Models of 2-Butanone: Using Graphics To Illustrate Complementary Approaches to Molecular Structure and Reactivity  Hanks, T. W.
157. Ways in which a graphics workstation can be used to illustrate various concepts of molecular structure.
Hanks, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 62.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Stereochemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
Grasping the Concepts of Stereochemistry  Barta, Nancy S.; Stille, John R.
An alternative procedure for the determination of R or S configuration for chiral molecules.
Barta, Nancy S.; Stille, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 20.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity
The stereochemistry of commercial 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanone: An application of capillary gas chromatography   Garner, Charles M.
One example of how capillary gas chromatography can be employed in undergraduate organic laboratories.
Garner, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A310.
Gas Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
A convenient method of esterification of fatty acids: An undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Di Raddo, Pasquale
A convenient method of esterification of fatty acids for undergraduate organic chemistry lab.
Di Raddo, Pasquale J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1034.
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fatty Acids
Determining Hammett sigma and rho values: Improvements on a published student experiment  Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn
Modifications and improvements to laboratory experiments written for an organic chemistry lab text.
Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 953.
Esters |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
Products of aldol addition and related reactions: Notation for their prediction  Nwaukwai, Stephen O.
A simple method that can be used to predict products of aldols and aldol-tye addition reactions.
Nwaukwai, Stephen O. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 626.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The correct von Baeyer name for (Buckminster)fullerane  Eckroth, David
The goal of this paper is to show the usefulness of a Hamiltonian line in the derivation of the correct von Baeyer name of a bridged hydrocarbon.
Eckroth, David J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 609.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Replacing mineral acids in the laboratory: Nafion-catalyzed dehydration and esterification  Doyle, Michael P.; Plummer, Benjamin F.
The advantage of Nafion is that unlike mineral acids, this perfluorinated ion-exchange polymer is a solid resin that can be handled without the safety hazards usually associated with strong acids.
Doyle, Michael P.; Plummer, Benjamin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 493.
Esters |
Laboratory Management
Kinetics of the hydrolysis of orthoesters: A general acid-catalyzed reaction. An undergraduate physical organic chemistry experiment using NMR to determine both rate constants of a two-route mechanism  Potts, Richard A.; Schaller, Ruth A.
As more advanced instrumentation is made available for use by undergraduates, suitable experiments are needed. Due to the great importance of NMR spectroscopy in chemistry, this experiment was developed to give students some experience in this area.
Potts, Richard A.; Schaller, Ruth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 421.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Esters |
Catalysis
Alkimers  Hiatt, Richard R.
Tutorial and practice program for isomerism and nomenclature.
Hiatt, Richard R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 125.
Diastereomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Quantitative analysis by FTIR: Thin films of copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate.  Mathias, Lon J.; Hankins, Marie G.; Bertolucci, Craig M.; Grubb, Tina L.; Muthiah, Jeno.
Quantitation of coploymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate using FTIR.
Mathias, Lon J.; Hankins, Marie G.; Bertolucci, Craig M.; Grubb, Tina L.; Muthiah, Jeno. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A217.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Quantitative Analysis |
Alkenes |
Carboxylic Acids
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.  Lee, Moses.
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.
Lee, Moses. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A172.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Microscale reactions of vanillin   Fowler, Rosemary G.
In this paper five microscale experiments which allow first-year organic student sot study the properties and reactions of vanillin are presented.
Fowler, Rosemary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A43.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Microscale Lab |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Preparing and purifying 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones: Alternatives to the Brady procedure  Zhang, Juan; Hertzler, Russell L.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Problems with and an alternative to the Brady procedure for preparing 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone; using a sulfonic acid ion-exchange resin in refluxing toluene.
Zhang, Juan; Hertzler, Russell L.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1037.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Metric matrix  Helser, Terry L.
Puzzle to help students learn and become familiar with the metric system.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 986.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Elemental anagrams  Thomas, Nicholas C.
Ten elemental anagrams.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 984.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Trivial names for chemical substances: Will they be taught or forgotten in the twenty-first century?   Smith, Peter A. S.
A so-called trivial name is simply a term for identifying a substance without utilizing standardized symbols to designate its structural features.
Smith, Peter A. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 877.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The centennial of systematic organic nomenclature  Smith, Homer A., Jr.
This article outlines the development of the Geneva Rules, sketches the history of important modifications over the years, discusses the recent advances under auspices of IUPAC, and speculates about future developments.
Smith, Homer A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 863.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The metric system  Mason, Lynn M.
Metric conversions commonly encountered in chemistry and biology, with tests over each lesson.
Mason, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Misusing "molecular"  Goldberg, David E.
In discussing net ionic equations, the authors of many general chemistry textbooks call the overall equation a "molecular equation", which is misleading at best and incorrect at worst.
Goldberg, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 776.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Identification of methylcyclohexanones by NMR  Gurst, Jerome E.
Distinguishing between three isomeric methylcyclohexanones using NMR.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 774.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers
Imprecise numbers and incautious safety procedure mar experiment.  Nelson, Robert N.
Problems with significant figures and safety concerns regarding two published experiments.
Nelson, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 688.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A revision of the paper "Grid of expressions related to the Einstein coefficients" (the author replies).  Sturm, James E.
Some inconsistencies in the grid of expressions presented in the original article.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 686.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A revision of the paper "Grid of expressions related to the Einstein coefficients."  Orti, E.; Planelles, J.
Some inconsistencies in the grid of expressions presented in the original article.
Orti, E.; Planelles, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 685.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Pinacol rearrangement of cyclopentylcyclohexane-1,1'-diol revisited.  Sands, Richard D.
Two cyclic diols are treated with ice-cold boron trifluoride etherate to make rearrangement instead of diene formation the major product.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 667.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The anode and the sunrise.  Mierzecki, Roman.
Etymology of the terms anode and cathode.
Mierzecki, Roman. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 657.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching inorganic nomenclature: A systematic approach.  Lind, Gerhard.
Convenient flow charts for naming inorganic compounds.
Lind, Gerhard. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 613.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Three methods for studying the kinetics of the halogenation of acetone.  Birk, James P.; Walters, David L.
Three methods for carrying out a kinetic study of the reaction between propanone and elemental iodine.
Birk, James P.; Walters, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 585.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Rate Law
Schiff base puzzle project.  Todd, David.
Students pick an unknown substituted aniline and a substituted benzaldehyde, produces the corresponding Schiff base from them, and compares its melting point to those of 25 possible Schiff bases (their structures and melting points being given).
Todd, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 584.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Corn chip aroma: A classroom demonstration on the preparation of a Schiff base  Sartori, Antony T.; Wood, William F.
Preparing 3-methylimino-2-butanone.
Sartori, Antony T.; Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 572.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The importance of temperature control in the preparation of phencyclone (1,3-diphenyl-2-H-cyclopenta[I]phenanthrene-2-one).  Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
The addition of a methanolic alkali solution to the reactant mixture increases yields to 80%.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 571.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A note on the Schrdinger representation of the momentum and energy operators  Chow, Tai L.
Observables in quantum mechanics can not be regarded as ordinary algebraic variables as in classical mechanics; instead, every observable can be represented by an operator.
Chow, Tai L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 537.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantum Chemistry
Significant figures: A classroom demonstration  Kirksey, H. Graden.
Demonstration to show students the function and importance of significant figures in a measurement.
Kirksey, H. Graden. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 497.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A mole of salt crystals-Or how big is the Avogadro number?  Hoyt, William.
Calculations designed to help students put the size of Avogadro's number into perspective.
Hoyt, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Views of nursing professionals on chemistry course content for nursing education  Walhout, Justine S.; Heinschel, Judie.
Analysis of survey conducted of deans of schools of nursing, chairs of nursing departments, and registered nurses regarding courses required of nursing students and the importance of different units of measure and 39 chemistry topics to the nursing profession.
Walhout, Justine S.; Heinschel, Judie. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 483.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Formaldehyde: A simple compound with many uses.  Seymour, Raymond B.; Kauffman, George B.
Properties, chemistry, and uses of formaldehyde.
Seymour, Raymond B.; Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 457.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry |
Polymerization |
Physical Properties
A source of isomer-drawing assignments  Kjonaas, Richard A.
A comprehensive source from which instructors can choose a wide variety of good isomer drawing examples to use as homework assignments and exam questions.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 452.
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Esters |
Alkynes
Toward the consistent use of regiochemical and stereochemical terms in introductory organic chemistry.  Adams, David L.
Proposes consistency and clarity in the use of definitions for regioselective, stereoselective, and stereospecific in introductory organic chemistry.
Adams, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 451.
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A new method for the oxidation of 4-phenylurazole to 4-phenyltriazolinedione.  Mallakpour, Shadpour E.
The procedures describe the synthesis of 4-phenyl-urazole from ethyl carbazate and then the oxidation of the urazole with NO2-N2O4 to yield 4-phenyl-1,2,4-trizoline-3,5-dione.
Mallakpour, Shadpour E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Enhancing interest in organic chemistry. Part I. Relating redolence in organic chemistry class.  Smith, Terrill D.
The author supplies a list of compounds that can be passed around in class for students to guess their origin from an odor.
Smith, Terrill D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 233.
Esters |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Phenols
Beta-keto esters from tin(II) chloride catalyzed reactions of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate: An undergraduate laboratory experiment drawn from the current literature  Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R.
This is an experimental procedure for producing longer-chain keto esters from unconjugated aldehydes on reaction with ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by Lewis acids for use in an undergraduate laboratory.
Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 68.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters
Microscale resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine and chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in undergraduate chemistry   Krumpolc, Miroslav
A standard experiment has been modified to incorporate microscale techniques and employ chiral high performance liquid chromatography to determine enantiomeric purity.
Krumpolc, Miroslav J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A176.
Enantiomers |
Amides |
Diastereomers |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
A novel ketone derivative  Melamedi, Dan; Pickering, Miles
The authors propose the use of thioketals as derivatives as a safer alternative that also illustrates an interesting but rarely visited corner of undergraduate organic chemistry.
Melamedi, Dan; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1046.
Aldehydes / Ketones
Discovering stereoselectivity: Synthesis of exo- and endobrevicomin using a tunable hydride reduction: A program of organic synthesis experiments for advanced undergraduate students  Richardson, David P.; Wilson, Whitney; Mattson, Rebecca J.; Powers, Dawn M.; Dolan, Brian T.
With their low molecular weights and modest structural complexity, insect pheromones have proven to be especially fruitful for advanced undergraduate organic synthesis laboratory exercises.
Richardson, David P.; Wilson, Whitney; Mattson, Rebecca J.; Powers, Dawn M.; Dolan, Brian T. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 951.
Natural Products |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A simple, experimental illustration of the LeChatelier principle  Plaza del Pino, Isabel; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose
This report describes a simple equilibrium experiment using an aqueous solution of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, n-hexylamine, and the Schiff's base they form.
Plaza del Pino, Isabel; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 944.
Equilibrium |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The water solubility of 2-butanol: A widespread error  Alger, Donald B.
There seems to be widespread misreporting of the solubility of 2-butanol. This misreporting is an example of the importance of consulting original sources.
Alger, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 939.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Precipitation / Solubility
The malonic ester synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D.
The versatile reactions of diethyl malonate represent an important lecture topic in introductory organic courses, but are only rarely performed in the lab because of several problems associated with performing these reactions. These authors present a lab the circumvents some of the typical problems.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 689.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amino Acids |
Heterocycles |
Amides
The three-step synthesis of 2,6-dinitro-4-methylaniline from p-toluidine  Todd, David
A multistep synthesis for the beginning organic chemistry lab.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 682.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides
Thermal decomposition of diacyl peroxides and peresters: An undergraduate laboratory experiment using infrared absorptions to monitor decomposition rates  Mosher, Michael D.; Vinson, Sandra; Connagahan, Jodi; Forsythe, Regina; Mosher, Melvyn W.
This paper describes a technique that addresses the important educational goal of adapting research techniques into the teaching laboratory.
Mosher, Michael D.; Vinson, Sandra; Connagahan, Jodi; Forsythe, Regina; Mosher, Melvyn W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 510.
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Esters |
Reactions
Demonstrating organic synthesis with familiar materials   Rothenberger, Otis; Bunting, Roger; Newton, Thomas
Two chemical synthesis demonstrations for elementary, high school, college, and adult audiences.
Rothenberger, Otis; Bunting, Roger; Newton, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 502.
Synthesis |
Esters |
Natural Products
An internal comparison of the intermolecular forces of common organic functional groups: A thin-layer chromatography experiment  Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W.
Due to the latest trends in organic chemistry textbook content sequences, it has become desirable to develop an experiment that is rapid, simple, and general, that would compare and contrast the various functional group classes of organic molecules in terms of their relative polarities, dipole moments, and intermolecular forces of attraction.
Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 428.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Reduction of a carbonyl compound using baker's yeast: An underground laboratory synthesis of ferrocenylmethanol  Bozak, Richard E.; Prater, Michael E.; Hicks, Ronald J.
The transformation of ferrocenecarboxaldehyde to the corresponding alcohol using the intact cells of actively fermenting baker's yeast is a simple, inexpensive experiment demonstrating the general features of microbial reduction.
Bozak, Richard E.; Prater, Michael E.; Hicks, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 427.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Organometallics
A brief freshman experience in qualitative organic analysis  Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.
This is an experiment aimed at second semester non-major students. Because such courses attempt to cover so much material in so little time, laboratory experiences must be carefully thought out.
Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 418.
Nonmajor Courses |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Phenols |
Qualitative Analysis
The synthesis of 2-methyl-4-heptanone  de Jong, Elma A.; Feringa, Ben L.
2-methyl-4-heptanone is an ant pheromone used to alarm fellow ants. The synthesis described in this article is greeted with interest by students.
de Jong, Elma A.; Feringa, Ben L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 71.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Grignard Reagents
A One-Step Synthesis of Cinnamic Acids Using Malonic Acid: The Verley-Doebner Modification of the Knoevenagel Condensation  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F.
With this procedure malonic acid itself, rather than its diester, can be effectively condensed with benzaldehyde to produce trans-cinnamic acid.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A304.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carboxylic Acids
Synthesis of iodohexane via hydroboration-iodination: A microscale organic laboratory experiment involving air-sensitive compounds  Gooch, E. Eugene
Use of ICl and organoborane intermediates to prepare iodohexane that parallels similar methods that introduce iodine radionuclides into fatty acids for use as heart imaging agents via positron emission tomography.
Gooch, E. Eugene J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A232.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Carboxylic Acids |
Medicinal Chemistry
Organic Nomenclature (Lampman, Gary)  Damey, Richard F.
An interactive tutorial / drill for naming organic compounds.
Damey, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A220.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols
More elements: Another puzzle  Mandelin, Dorothy J.
An element search puzzle.
Mandelin, Dorothy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1044.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Terminology: Helping students cope with name reactions in organic chemistry  Ganem, Bruce
Using limericks to help students understand and remember name reactions in organic chemistry.
Ganem, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1009.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Sherlock Holmes and the fraudulent ketone  Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1006.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The elements: A puzzle  Mandelin, Dorothy J.
An element word search.
Mandelin, Dorothy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1005.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (6)  Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT
The solution may be to use the etymological meaning of anode and cathode.
Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (5)  Sweeting, Linda M.
The chemical potential of the electrons, not their "richness" determines direction of flow.
Sweeting, Linda M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (4)  Fochi, Giovanni
It is sufficient to show what part of the circuit is the electric generator.
Fochi, Giovanni J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (3)  Woolf, A. A.
There are no shortcuts in teaching the electrochemistry of galvanic cells; the process in each cell must be treated holistically.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (2)  Castellan, Gilbert W.
The difficulty is not so much confusion over conventions as the actual wrong use of terminology.
Castellan, Gilbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 991.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (1)  Freeman, Robert D.
There is no convincing evidence of confusion regarding electrochemical conventions and the author's proposed solutions are unacceptable.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 990.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Synthesis of 5-nitrofurfural diacetate and 5-nitrofurfural semicarbazone: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Li, Xiaorong; Liu, Qianguang; Chang, James C.
Demonstrates how to nitrate an aromatic compound having an aldehyde group that can be oxidized by nitrating agents.
Li, Xiaorong; Liu, Qianguang; Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 986.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Ethers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy
Preparation of 1-phenyl-3-phenylaminopyrrolidine-2,5-dione: An organic laboratory experiment on the Michael addition  Ram, Ram N.; Varsha, Kiran
Acylation of aniline with maleic anhydride to give maleanilic acid followed by Michael addition of aniline and cyclization to yield 1-phenyl-3-phenylaminopyrrolidine-2,5-dione.
Ram, Ram N.; Varsha, Kiran J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 985.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
From cyclohexanol to 2-alkylated cyclopentanones: An open-ended set of experiments for an upper level organic laboratory  Wintner, Claude E.
Students are given 50 g of cyclohexanol and asked to convert this to the maximum amount of adipic acid that they can.
Wintner, Claude E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 984.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Synthesis of a phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting polymer  Bedard, Y.; Riedl, B.
Procedure that allows for the synthesis of a 50% aqueous solution of a prepolymer that, with the proper application of heat and pressure, can be used to bind together wood or other materials.
Bedard, Y.; Riedl, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 977.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phenols |
Polymerization
Understanding the language: Problem solving and the first law of thermodynamics  Hamby, Marcy
A flow chart that classifies thermodynamic, mathematical relationships into categories that students can consult for help in solving first law problems.
Hamby, Marcy J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 923.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Calculation of equilibrium constant in esterification reactions  Sarlo, Edward; Svoronos, Paris; Kulas, Patricia
Procedure for measuring the equilibrium constant in esterification reactions.
Sarlo, Edward; Svoronos, Paris; Kulas, Patricia J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 796.
Esters |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Equilibrium
Avogadro's number, moles, and molecules  McCullough, Thomas, CSC
A simple diagram that relates Avogadro's number, moles, and number of atoms / molecules.
McCullough, Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 783.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Pop-up units converter  Filby, Gordon; Klusmann, Martin
Program that provides conversion factors and calculations among a variety of units.
Filby, Gordon; Klusmann, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 770.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Binary representation in carbohydrate nomenclature  McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B.
A binary notation is used to indicate the structure of carbohydrates.
McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 747.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
Name for the basic physical quantity n, symbol for relative mass  Nelson, P. G.
Recommendations for naming the basic physical quantity n, symbol for relative mass.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 628.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Synthesis of 3-(2'-methoxy,5'-bromophenyl)-2,3-epoxy phenyl propanone, A novel epoxidated chalcone derivative: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Moloney, Gerard P.
Synthesis of 3-(2'-methoxy,5'-bromophenyl)-1-phenyl-prop-2-enone and its subsequent epoxidation to 3-(2'-methoxy,5'- bromophenyl)-2,3-epoxy phenyl propanone.
Moloney, Gerard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 617.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A simple procedure for the base-catalyzed cleavage of benzopinacolone to triphenylmethane: An undergraduate experiment  Stranberg, Michael; Anselme, J. -P.
A simple procedure for the base-catalyzed cleavage of benzopinacolone to triphenylmethane: An undergraduate experiment.
Stranberg, Michael; Anselme, J. -P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 616.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
A significant example: How many days in a century?  Lisensky, George
Calculating the number of days in a century can help clarify the subject of significant figures.
Lisensky, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 562.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A new look at carbonyl electronic transitions  Henderson, Giles
In this study the author has extended the use of superposition wave functions to describe the evolution of molecular orbitals in the carbonyl chomophore undergoing both p g p* and n g p* transitions.
Henderson, Giles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 392.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
MO Theory |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution: A microscale organic experiment  Avila, Walter B.; Crow, Jeffrey L.; Utermoehlen, Clifford M.
This experiment demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and is also an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry.
Avila, Walter B.; Crow, Jeffrey L.; Utermoehlen, Clifford M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 350.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Carboxylic Acids
The palladium-catalyzed oxidation of 2-vinylnaphthalene: A microscale organic synthesis experiment   Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R.
The Wacker oxidation experiment as described is cost-efficient due to the small scale employed, and is a valuable addition to the undergraduate organic curriculum.
Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 340.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Alkynes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
The subjection of glutaraldehyde to the Tollens test  Hill, William D., Jr.
Redox equations have been established for the Tollens test with respect to compounds containing two aldehyde groups such as glutaraldehyde.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 329.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Please, no angstrometer!  Gorin, George
Instead of urging the adoption of more prefixes, there is good reason to propose that some of them be eliminated.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 277.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Laboratory experiments on phase-transfer-catalyzed reactions of neutral molecules  Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K.
In order to illustrate the application of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC), the preparation of benzophenone oxime was attempted under different conditions.
Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 273.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Microscale synthesis of heterocyclic compounds   Al-awar, Rima; Wahl, George H., Jr.
The authors describe microscale syntheses of four heterocyclic compounds for which large-scale versions were described previously in this Journal.
Al-awar, Rima; Wahl, George H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 265.
Microscale Lab |
Heterocycles |
Esters |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
A PROLOG program for the generation of molecular formulas  Mendez, B.; Moreno, J. A.
112. Bits and pieces, 43. The authors have developed a computer program that generates a list of all possible molecular formulas for compounds that may contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, and halogens that are consistent with certain restrictive conditions.
Mendez, B.; Moreno, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 234.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A kinetic and mechanistic study of the alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl acetoacetate by acid-base potentiometry: Determination of the pKa of the ester  Paredes, Rodrigo; Ocampo, Rogelio
This experiment illustrates the determination of the kinetic order for a simple reaction. This experiment was used with good results in a physical organic chemistry class by advanced undergraduate students.
Paredes, Rodrigo; Ocampo, Rogelio J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 72.
Esters |
Kinetics |
Potentiometry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
g-Nonanoic lactone: Synthesis of a fragrance and flavor enhancer in the undergraduate laboratory  Bunce, Richard A.; Reeves, Henry D.
The experiment describes the synthesis of ?-nonanoic lactone, an un-natural compound having the odor and flavor of coconuts.
Bunce, Richard A.; Reeves, Henry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 69.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Grid of expressions related to the Einstein coefficients  Sturm, James E.
The following is a collection of all of the relations of Einstein coefficients.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 32.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Quantities, Units, and Symbols in Physical Chemistry (Mills, Ian; Cvitas, Tomislav; Homann, Klaus; Kallay, Nikola; Kuchitsu, Kozo)  Freeman, Robert D.
Everything you ever wanted to know about physical quantities, symbols, and units.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A188.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Reaction Chemistry, Review II (Flash, P.; Bendall, V.)  Chipman, Wilmon B.
Six different programs which allow the user to identify functional groups, supply the missing reagent necessary to complete a given reaction, deduce the product of a given reaction, ascertain whether a given reaction will go, search the reaction database for functional group conversions, and search for the utility of a certain reagent.
Chipman, Wilmon B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A171.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Reaction Chemistry, Review I (Flash, P.; Bendall, V.)  Hargis, J. H.
Six different programs which allow the user to identify functional groups, supply the missing reagent necessary to complete a given reaction, deduce the product of a given reaction, ascertain whether a given reaction will go, search the reaction database for functional group conversions, and search for the utility of a certain reagent.
Hargis, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A170.
Reactions |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical Nomenclature and Balancing Equations (Bergwall Educational Software)  Kling, Timothy A.
These computer programs deal exclusively with the subjects of inorganic nomenclature and balancing simple equations.
Kling, Timothy A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A41.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach (the author replies)  Cardulla, Frank
There are other ways to teach problem solving, and they can produce competent, successful, and enthusiastic students.
Cardulla, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1066.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach  Gillette, Marcia L.
The classroom analogy Cardulla uses could be made much more meaningful if it were used to demonstrate the relation between what is obvious and what is not.
Gillette, Marcia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1065.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Amending the IUPAC Green Book  Tykodi, R. J.
Suggested amendments to the IUPAC Green Book regarding standardized chemical terminology and units of measure.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1064.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Polarized light and rates of chemical reactions  Weir, John J.
This experiment provides the opportunity to introduce the principles of reaction kinetics, polarized light, and the chemistry of optically active compounds; the rate of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose is determined.
Weir, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1035.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Carboxylic Acids
Illustrating the inductive effect on acid strength of carboxylic acids  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris
The effect of various substituents on acid strength can be easily demonstrated using aqueous solutions of various carboxylic acids containing a suitable indicator.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1034.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids
Carbohydrate nomenclature half a century ago: A personal view of an eyewitness  Hurd, Charles D.
The history of the nomenclature of carbohydrates.
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 984.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
Elementary my dear Watson  Helser, Terry L.
A puzzle using the names and symbols of the elements.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 980.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Fundamental concepts in the teaching of chemistry: Part 1. The two worlds of the chemist make nomenclature manageable  Loeffler, Paul A.
A proposal to precisely define and consistently employ the terms chemical substance and chemical species; the article uses the classification of matter and nomenclature as examples of the scheme's application.
Loeffler, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 928.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
The choice of names and symbols for quantities in chemistry  Mills, Ian M.
The importance of maintaining a clear distinction between the names and symbols for quantities and the names and symbols for units.
Mills, Ian M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 887.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Atlantic-Pacific sig figs  Stone, Helen M.
Examples of applications of significant figures in calculations.
Stone, Helen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 829.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
How to visualize Avogadro's number  van Lubeck, Henk
Three examples to help students visualize the size of a mole.
van Lubeck, Henk J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 762.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Origin of the names of chemical elements  Ringnes, Vivi
Survey of the etymology and the reason scientists coined a specific name for a newly discovered element.
Ringnes, Vivi J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 731.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Reactions of borohydride in carboxylic acid media: A summary  Nutaitis, Charles F.
Sodium borohydride / carboxylic acid systems represent a paradox of reactivity; depending on the substrate being transformed and the method sued to mix the reagents, this methodology can lead to reaction media that are either more or less reactive than sodium borohydride itself.
Nutaitis, Charles F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 673.
Carboxylic Acids |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A query on the etymology of the symbols, R and S  Koga, Gen
Confusion regarding the etymology of the stereochemical symbols, R and S.
Koga, Gen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 534.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
The proton NMR spectrum of ascorbic acid: A relevant example of deceptively simple second-order behavior  Reid, R. Stephen
To dispel student misconceptions, the use of the proton NMR spectrum of asorbic acid in D20 as an example has proven very effective.
Reid, R. Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 344.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Carboxylic Acids |
Vitamins
Molecular modeling in organic chemistry: Correlating odors with molecular structure  Lipkowitz, Kenny B.
This paper presents a safe, inexpensive, and successful undergraduate laboratory exercise that incorporates computational chemistry.
Lipkowitz, Kenny B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 275.
Molecular Modeling |
Computational Chemistry |
Esters
Different Choices (author response)  Kemp, H.R.
Ronald Rich discusses the use of descriptive units in the problem of calculating the concentration of a 96% sulfuric acid solution of a known density.
Kemp, H.R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Different Choices  Rich, Ronald L.
Kemp wisely advocates that the values of physical quantities be treated as independent of the units used.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Concerning Units (author response)  Wadlinger, Robert
Strobel's additional comments are most welcome, especially his electron-volt argument.
Wadlinger, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Concerning Units  Strobel, Pierre
Wadlinger rightly pointed out a number of traps and misunderstandings resulting from an omission of such descriptive units as atom or wave. Here are some more examples, which any chemist dealing with some physics is likely to encounter.
Strobel, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 270.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A series of synthetic organic experiments demonstrating physical organic principles  Sayed, Yousry; Ahlmark, Chris A.; Martin, Ned H.
The sequence of reactions described here incorporates several common synthetic organic transformations involving alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, and ketones that demonstrate some important principles of physical organic chemistry.
Sayed, Yousry; Ahlmark, Chris A.; Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 174.
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in undergraduate chemistry: Part 2. Registry (structure) File: molecular formulas, names, and name fragments  Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie
This data base, essentially a subject index, consists of substance names, their Registry Numbers and characteristics, and actual structural representations.
Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 26.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determination of the relative rates of alkaline hydrolysis of esters by the method of competition  Paredes, Rodrigo; Gil, Jimmy; Ocampo, Pamela
A method is presented for further illustration of the electronic and steric factors in the saponification of selected groups of esters.
Paredes, Rodrigo; Gil, Jimmy; Ocampo, Pamela J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1109.
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics
Photochemistry of phenyl alkyl ketones: The "Norrish type II" photoreaction: An organic photochemistry experiment   Marciniak, Bronislaw
In this paper a student laboratory experiment is described aimed to study the "Norrish type II" reception of valerophenone. The advantage of this experiment is that it can be performed with a simple irradiation system and with a gas chromatograph and it brings students into contact with some problems of organic photochemistry.
Marciniak, Bronislaw J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 832.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Phenols |
Chromatography
Disulfide interchange reactions: An enzymic case study   Kitson, Trevor M.
This article concerns the reaction known as "disulfide interchange" in which a thiol reacts with a disulfide to give a different thiol and disulfide pair as the products.
Kitson, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 829.
Enzymes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Biology |
Biological Cells |
Alcohols
The preparation of 4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one and its base catalyzed conversion into 2,3,4,5-tetraphenycyclopentadienone: An organic laboratory experiment   Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
An organic laboratory experiment that permits direct observation of a pedagogically interesting transformation.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 828.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phenols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Example of the Robinson annulation procedure via phase transfer catalysis a beginning organic synthesis experiment  Soriano, D. S.; Lombardi, A. M.; Persichini, P. J.; Nalewajek, D.
A brief description of the procedure.
Soriano, D. S.; Lombardi, A. M.; Persichini, P. J.; Nalewajek, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 637.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A conversion of methyl ketones into acetylenes: A project for a problem oriented or microscale organic chemistry course  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Orlando, Steven C.
The authors present their adaptation of an open-ended project on the conversion of methyl ketones into acetylenes for the microscale lab and describe its pedagogic utility.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Orlando, Steven C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 630.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography
Determination of the equilibrium constant for keto-enol tautomerism of ethyl acetoacetate  Ruggiero, Salvador J.; Luaces, Victor-Martinez
An experiment designed to illustrate the determination of equilibrium constants of chemical reactions.
Ruggiero, Salvador J.; Luaces, Victor-Martinez J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 629.
Equilibrium |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Tautomerization of acetylacetone enol: A physical organic experiment in kinetics and thermodynamics  Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E.
Description of an investigation of the tautomerization of acetylacetone enol that produces both kinetic and thermodynamic data.
Spyridis, Greg T.; Meany, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 461.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Biophysical Chemistry
Aldehyde and ketone ligands in organometallic complexes and catalysis   Huang, Yo Hsin; Gladysz, J. A.
The purpose of this article is to acquaint the nonspecialist with an interface of organometallic chemistry and catalysis. In particular, what is the fundamental coordination chemistry of aldehydes and ketones?
Huang, Yo Hsin; Gladysz, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 298.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Coordination Compounds |
Organometallics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy
Organic lecture demonstrations  Silversmith, Ernest F.
Organic chemistry may not be known for its spectacular, attention getting chemical reactions. Nevertheless, this author describes a few organic chemistry reactions that put points across and generate interest. This article provides a convenient sources of demonstrations and urges others to add to the collection. Demonstrations concerning: carbohydrates, spectroscopy, proteins, amines, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and much more.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 70.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Mnemonic for Z and E nomenclature  Thomas, C. W.
A visual reminder that makes it unnecessary to memorize the German terms.
Thomas, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 44.
Diastereomers |
Alkenes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Writing Chemical Formulas, Review I (Ross, Don)  Sweeney-Hammond, Kathleen
Program to give students practice in writing chemical formulas and to facilitate the understanding of balancing positive and negative charges in a chemical formula.
Sweeney-Hammond, Kathleen J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A90.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Writing Chemical Formulas, Review I (Ross, Don)  Pavlovich, Joseph M.
Program to give students practice in writing chemical formulas and to facilitate the understanding of balancing positive and negative charges in a chemical formula.
Pavlovich, Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A88.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Le Chtelier - Right or wrong? (the author replies)  Helfforich, F. G.
Equilibrium constants are always dimensionless.
Helfforich, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1069.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Le Chtelier - Right or wrong?  Quintero B., Gustavo
Equilibrium constants are always dimensionless.
Quintero B., Gustavo J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1069.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Significance and precision (the author replies)  Peiser, H. S.
Using atomic weights with constant significant figures introduces less confusion for students.
Peiser, H. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1068.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Significance and precision  Hartkopf, A. V.
Examples of misconceptions in the treatment of data.
Hartkopf, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1068.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A synthesis of chrysanthemic ester: An undergraduate experiment  Kelly, Lawrence F.
Procedure for producing a mixture of cis- and trans-ethyl chrysanthemates.
Kelly, Lawrence F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1061.
Esters |
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
A suggestion for a convenient new SI prefix  Schieher, Cherylann; Longo, Frederick R.
Proposes the angstro as an SI prefix to represent 10-10.
Schieher, Cherylann; Longo, Frederick R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1030.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A modified Fehling test and a modified corrected Benedict test  Hill, William D, Jr.
Reactions to demonstrate that iron(III) sulfate supplements copper(I) sulfate in the oxidation of aldehydes of any type (aliphatic, aromatic, a combination of the two, glutaraldehyde, and alpha-hydroxy) and alpha-hydroxy ketones.
Hill, William D, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 984.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A problem involving organic qualitative analysis  Silvert, D. J.
Five different organic compounds are to be identified from the result of three simple qualitative tests on each unknown (dichromate, DNPH, and iodoform tests).
Silvert, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 971.
Qualitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
"Million" ideas  Godshall, Clark J.; Herrick, Jill; vander Water, Kevin; Bogner, Donna
Several ideas for demonstrating the size of a million.
Godshall, Clark J.; Herrick, Jill; vander Water, Kevin; Bogner, Donna J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 956.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
"Correct" methods for naming inorganic compounds  Fernelius, W. Conard
Summary of nomenclature rules and their historical development.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 901.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Naming inorganic compounds  Lancashire, Robert J.
Textbook survey regarding inconsistencies in systems for the order of naming ligands when using prefixes.
Lancashire, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 900.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Outmoded terminology: The normal hydrogen electrode  Ramette, R. W.
As educators, we should not confuse the "normal hydrogen electrode" with the "standard hydrogen electrode".
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 885.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Polymer properties and testing definitions  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; Seymour, Raymond B.
Glossary of common terms regarding the properties and testing of polymers.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; Seymour, Raymond B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 866.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Questionable word usage in analytical chemistry  Mellon, M. G.
The use of imprecise, uninformative, inappropriate or even wrong terms; and the lack of clarity in imprecise or uninformative names for methods of chemical analysis.
Mellon, M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 735.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
One more view on assigning absolute configurations  Todd, David
Etymology of the R, S convention.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 732.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The many chemical names for H2O  Treptow, Richard S.
"Inventing" names for water to illustrate the limitations of any naming system.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 697.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A new road to reactions. Part 4. The substance and its molecules  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
Teaching the chemical reaction concept to young students requires a more disciplined way of using substance names, as well as other strategies.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 692.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
The chemists' delta  Craig, Norman C.
Thermodynamic quantities such as ?G and ?S are intensive functions and derivatives that depend on instantaneous values of the partial molar forms of various thermodynamic properties of reactions and products; they are not simple finite differences.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 668.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ring opening and ring forming polymerizations: An organic and polymer laboratory experiment  Mathias, Lon J.; Viswnathan, Tito
Polymer synthesis involving ring-opening polymerization to yield a polyamide from oxazoline and cyclopolymerization of a diallylamine derivative to give a polymer containing pyrrolidine units.
Mathias, Lon J.; Viswnathan, Tito J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 639.
Polymerization |
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Amides |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Elemental etymology: What's in a name?  Ball, David W.
Wrong Ytterby referred to in the original article.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Rules for propagation of significant figures (the author replies)  Schwartz, Lowell M.
Example that focusses on the difference between random error and systematic error.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 471.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Rules for propagation of significant figures  Stieg, Scott
The cited article fails to recognize that the last digit in a number implies precision or random error in the measurement result estimated by the number.
Stieg, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 471.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On a common graphical flaw in the carboxylic acid/alcohol relative acidity argument  McClard, Ronald W.
Why are carboxylic acids so much more acidic than aliphatic alcohols?
McClard, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 416.
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases
Making sense of the nomenclature of the oxyacids and their salts  Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L.
An overall scheme or "roadmap" for naming oxyacids and their salts.
Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 409.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Allotropes and polymorphs  Sharma, B. D.
Definitions and examples of allotropes and polymorphs.
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 404.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Origin of the term "quantum" (the author replies)  Bent, Henry A.
Origin of the term "quantum".
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 383.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantum Chemistry
Origin of the term "quantum"  Kauffman, George B.
Quantum can be used to denote either very small or very large amounts.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 383.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantum Chemistry
An aldol condensation experiment using a number of aldehydes and ketones  Hathaway, Bruce A.
Four aldehydes and four ketones can be used to synthesize sixteen different products via an aldol condensation reaction.
Hathaway, Bruce A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 367.
Aldehydes / Ketones
The official rules for organic chemical nomenclature: Emergence, evolution, emphasis, and errors  Traynham, James G.
Historical development of the official rules for organic chemical nomenclature.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 325.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Molar and equivalent amounts and concentrations  Kohman, Truman P.
What are the quantities of which molar and normal are units?
Kohman, Truman P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 246.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The nomenclature of relative stereochemistry: Choosing between likes and preferences  Brook, Michael A.
The commonly used descriptors for relative stereochemistry are introduced and compared.
Brook, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 218.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
The transition state  Anonymous
Proper definition of a transition state.
Anonymous J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 208.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactive Intermediates
Fundamental and descriptive units  Kemp, H. R.
It is not necessary to impose on the unit the burden of describing the physical quantity being measured.
Kemp, H. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 191.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The structure of bis(trimethylsilyl) amides: A multinuclear NMR project  Samples, Majorie S.; Yoder, Claude H.; Schaeffor, Charles D., Jr.
A project designed to illustrate the great value of observing nuclei other than 1H and 13C (29Si, 14N, 17O).
Samples, Majorie S.; Yoder, Claude H.; Schaeffor, Charles D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 177.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amides |
NMR Spectroscopy
Tollens's test, fulminating silver, and silver fulminate  Jenkins, Ian D.
Preparation, application, and misinformation regarding Tollens's test for aldehydes and reducing sugars.
Jenkins, Ian D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 164.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Specific-documented assertion of the term "carbonium" as correct and the term "carbocation" as incorrect  Schwartz, M. Gerald
Asserts that the term "carbocation" has been incorrectly and inconsistently replacing the term "carbonium ion" in some quarters.
Schwartz, M. Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 92.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbocations
A visual manifestation of the Norrish Type I reaction: The cyclohexanone sunburn dosimeter  Carroll, Felix A.; Strouse, Geoffrey F.; Hain, Jon M.
Irradiation of aqueous cyclohexanone solutions produces hex-5-enal and butylketene; the latter reacts with water to form caproic acid, which lowers the pH of the solution and thus can be used to measure the progress of the reaction.
Carroll, Felix A.; Strouse, Geoffrey F.; Hain, Jon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 84.
Photochemistry |
pH |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Polymer nomenclature, or, what's in a name?  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; Hess, George; Sperling, L. H.
Concentrates on the naming of linear organic polymers by considering common names, source-based names, characteristic group names, and structure-based names.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; Hess, George; Sperling, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 36.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A history of nomenclature of organic chemistry (Verkade, Pieter Eduard)  Kauffman, George B.
A review of a book that the reviewer promises is "far from dull".
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A180.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Some ambiguous chemical terms defined  Thomas, Nicholas C.
Some clever puns built on terms used in chemistry.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1049.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Naming after names: Good or bad?  Ball, David W.
Isn't all the "name calling" in chemistry confusing? The author thinks this is especially true for students, and proposes a move away from using personal names in chemistry.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1039.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A proposed new name for hydrogen bonding: H-FON bonding  Hill, John W.
The author's suggested name for hydrogen bonding, he argues, may be more descriptive than the present term.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 960.
Nonmajor Courses |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Carbonium ion: Waxing and waning of a name  Traynham, James G.
A review of the history of the name "carbonium ion" reveals how a chemical term may emerge, become popular in a different context, lose its precision, and fall from popularity. It illuminates the care required in the development and use of chemical nomenclature.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 930.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Displaying custom designed characters from BASIC on the IBM PC  Cassen, T.
76. Bits and pieces, 31. A technique for displaying subscripts and superscripts when working on a computer word processor.
Cassen, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 842.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI and non-SI units of concentration: A truce?  Rich, Ronald L.
These authors examine whether a truce could be promoted by filling a chemical gap in the System Internationale with special attention on concentration.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 784.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Metabolism Part III: Lipids  Bodner, George M.
A discussion of lipids and metabolism: fatty acids; neutral fats; activation and transport; saponification; the Beta-oxidation spiral; fatty acid degradation as a source of biochemistry energy; degradation of unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms; ketone bodies.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 772.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Enzymes |
Metabolism |
Lipids |
Surface Science |
Bioenergetics |
Fatty Acids
A time scale for fast events  Onwood, David
Scientific vocabulary has not grown so as to afford a single means that is uniform, succinct , and accurate to describe the characteristic time of rapid events.
Onwood, David J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 680.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Mythology and elemental etymology: The names of elements 92 through 94  Glidewell, Christopher
The purpose of this brief note is to amplify the origin of the names for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium.
Glidewell, Christopher J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 659.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Replaying the ball: Soccerane revisited  Castells, Josep; Serratosa, Felix
This article features two possible Schlegel diagrams and the two different Hamiltonian pathways.
Castells, Josep; Serratosa, Felix J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 630.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Find-the-pairs  Ryan, Jack
73. Bits and pieces, 29. A computer game that can help students avoid the drudgery of memorizing such essential items as elemental names and symbols or conversion factors.
Ryan, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 626.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
L-Cysteine: The (R)-amino acid from protein  Carter, Kenneth Nolan
Most texts do not treat the topic of this brief note accurately.
Carter, Kenneth Nolan J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 602.
Amino Acids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Illustrating Newman projection formulas in large classes  Elakovich, Stella D.
An overhead projector demonstration can help students better understand Newman projections.
Elakovich, Stella D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 570.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Modeling
A flowchart for dimensional analysis  Graham, D. M.
A flowchart to help students organize their thoughts when solving conversion problems.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 527.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Where did that number come from?   DeLorenzo, Ronald
With more careful labeling and handling of numbers, instructors can reduce the confusion students sometimes feel when watching problems being solved by the instructor on the board.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 514.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Stress the twofold axis of the threo isomer  Tavernier, D.
The author weighs in on the the controversy of the threo and erythro nomenclature.
Tavernier, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 511.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Michael addition and aldol condensation: A simple teaching model for organic laboratory  Garcia-Raso, A.; Garcia-Raso, J.; Sinisterra, J. V.; Mestres, R.
Three experiments are presented in this paper: Michael addition; Michael addition followed by aldol addition; and Michael addition followed by aldol condensation.
Garcia-Raso, A.; Garcia-Raso, J.; Sinisterra, J. V.; Mestres, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 443.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Selective oxidation in the presence of a heterocycle  Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R.
The process of weighing the advantages and disadvantages of various oxidation methods are presented in this paper.
Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 358.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carboxylic Acids
Catalysis of the carbonylation of alcohols to carboxylic acids including acetic acid synthesis from methanol  Forster, Denis; Dekleva, Thomas W.
These authors outline the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggest ways of extending the sythesis to higher carboxylic acids.
Forster, Denis; Dekleva, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 204.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols |
Industrial Chemistry
Hydroformylation: An old yet new industrial route to alcohols  Pruett, Roy L.
This author from Exxon brings us up to date on modern hydroformylation chemistry.
Pruett, Roy L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 196.
Organometallics |
Addition Reactions |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Coordination Compounds |
Catalysis |
Industrial Chemistry
Modern instrumental techniques: The battle of acronyms  Cantrell, Thomas S.
34 common instrumental acronyms.
Cantrell, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1101.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Instrumental Methods
The language gap: Common words with technical meanings  Ryan, Janet N.
Defines 30 common words with alternate scientific meanings.
Ryan, Janet N. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1098.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Computer-assisted quantitative infrared conformational analysis of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones  Tisnes, P.; Perry, M.
Investigates the s-cis <> s-trans conformational equilibrium of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones.
Tisnes, P.; Perry, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 903.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 1. The special nature of quantity equations  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
Differences between operation on quantities and operation on numbers and how chemical quantities should be described mathematically.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 839.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Elemental etymology: What's in a name?  Ball, David W.
Summarizes patterns to be found among the origins of the names of the elements.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 787.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The definition and symbols for the quantity called "molarity" or "concentration" and for the SI units of this quantity  Gorin, George
An alternative formulation for concentration and the SI units for this quantity.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 741.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Conversion of standard thermodynamic data to the new standard state pressure  Freeman, Robert D.
Analyzes the changes that will be required to convert standard thermodynamic data from units of atmospheres to the bar.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 681.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On the origin of the name of the element indium  Gutman, Ivan
Indium is not named after India.
Gutman, Ivan J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 674.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The nitric acid oxidation of selected alcohols and ketones: An organic laboratory experiment  Field, Kurt, W.; Shields, James P.; Standard, Jean M.; Ash, Craig K.; Hoch, Daniel J.; Kolb, Kenneth E.
Preparation of C6-C12 a, ?-dioic acids, glutaric acid, and substituted benzaldehydes and benzophenones.
Field, Kurt, W.; Shields, James P.; Standard, Jean M.; Ash, Craig K.; Hoch, Daniel J.; Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 637.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The preparation of benzoyl esters of phenols and benzoic anhydride by phase-transfer catalysis  Yeadon, A.; Turney, T. A.; Ramsay, G.
The procedure is sufficiently rapid to replace the Schotten-Baumann technique.
Yeadon, A.; Turney, T. A.; Ramsay, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 518.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Esters |
Phenols |
Aromatic Compounds
Ewens-Bassett notation for inorganic compounds  Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll
Development and adoption of Ewens-Bassett notation for inorganic compounds.
Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 474.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Working backwards is a forward step in the solution of problems by dimensional analysis  Drake, Robert F.
Solving chemistry calculations by determining the units of the desired answer and then working backwards using dimensional analysis.
Drake, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A comment on "The order of CH3CHO decomposition"  Liu, Michael T. H.
The order of the decomposition of acetaldehyde is 3/2 or 1.5.
Liu, Michael T. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 399.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Nuclear synthesis and identification of new elements  Seaborg, Glenn T.
Review of descriptive terms, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay modes, and experimental methods in nuclear chemistry.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 392.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Isotopes
Buffer capacity of various acetic acid-sodium acetate systems: A lecture experiment  Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.
Uses indicators to illustrate the response of two buffers with the same initial pH value but differing buffer capacities.
Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 337.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
The origin and adoption of the Stock system  Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll
The history and development of the Stock system of inorganic nomenclature.
Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 243.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A problem on formulas  Browne, Elaine J.
A problem suitable as an indicator of abstract thought and as an aid in selecting students for admission to honors or advanced placement courses.
Browne, Elaine J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 242.
Carboxylic Acids
Toward a more rational terminology  Tykodi, R. J.
Recommended changes in the terms atomic weight, molecular weight, gram atomic / molecular / formula weights, gram equivalent weight, specific heat / volume / density, and chemical equation.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 241.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A short set of 13C-NMR correlation tables  Brown, D. W.
The object of these tables is to enable a student to calculate rapidly approximate d values for 13C nuclei in as wide a variety of compounds as possible.
Brown, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 209.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
Aqueous hydrogen peroxide: Its household uses and concentration units  Webb, Michael J.
Includes some simple weight / volume calculations and their answers.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 152.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Some improper terms in coordination chemistry  Syamal, A.
A listing of terms recommended to replace those employing "complex" in coordination chemistry.
Syamal, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 143.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Five Avogadro's number problems  Todd, David
Five problems involving Avogadro's number.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 76.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
The mole: Questioning format can make a difference  Lazonby, John N.; Morris, Jane E.; Waddington, David J.
Study of 2,695 high school students that found that it is the piecing together of the individual steps involved in mole calculations that presents the main difficulty for students.
Lazonby, John N.; Morris, Jane E.; Waddington, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 60.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The naming of evolving theories: Retaining the spirit of invention  Freeman, Gordon, R.
To retain a reference to the major controversy that was resolved by a new theory, and therefore to a major step in the growth of knowledge, reference names in the lengthening list used to refer to a particular theory should be dropped from the middle, not the beginning.
Freeman, Gordon, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 57.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
What's in a name: NaNO3  Haberfield, Paul
Origin and relationships between the names of sodium (natrium), the nitrate ion, and nitrogen.
Haberfield, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 56.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Atmospheric formaldehyde levels in an academic laboratory  Clausz, John C.; Maclntyre, Bruce A.; Malone, Elizabeth S.; Twelmeyer, John M.
Study to determine whether improved ventilation and use of "formaldehyde-free" specimens could reduce the levels of formaldehyde in laboratory air.
Clausz, John C.; Maclntyre, Bruce A.; Malone, Elizabeth S.; Twelmeyer, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A121.
Laboratory Management |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Oxidation of alcohols using calcium hypochlorite and solid/liquid phase-transfer catalysis  Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L.
Includes synthesis of an aldehyde from a primary alcohol as well as several ketones from secondary alcohols.
Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1118.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Uncommon common names-a heuristic approach  Mancott, Anatol
A chemical puzzle consisting of 25 antiquated, common names for compounds and elements.
Mancott, Anatol J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1097.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The subjection of glutaraldehyde to the Fehling test and to the corrected Benedict test  Hill, William D., Jr.
The molecular and ionic redox equations with respect to the Fehling and Benedict tests (corrected with respect to glutaraldehyde).
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1085.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A new meaning of the terms acid and base hydrolysis  Milic, Nikola B.
Suggestions for distinguishing between solvation, hydration, and solvolysis, and hydrolysis reactions that produce hydroxo and protonated complexes.
Milic, Nikola B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1066.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The unit gram/mole and its use in the description of molar mass  Gorin, G.
How is molar mass related to the quantity called "molecular (or atomic) weight"?
Gorin, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1045.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
The emergence of stochastic theories: What are they and why are they special?  Freeman, Gordon R.
Examines the word stochastic and its opposite, deterministic, and points out why stochastic models are receiving new emphasis of late.
Freeman, Gordon R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 944.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
L-amino acid ethyl ester hydrochlorides: Derivatives for qualitative organic analysis  Borders, C. L., Jr.; Blech, Dianne M.; McElvany, Karen D.
Results in the attempted synthesis of the ethyl ester hydrochlorides for 21 common L-amino acids to be provided to students for determination as unknowns.
Borders, C. L., Jr.; Blech, Dianne M.; McElvany, Karen D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 814.
Amino Acids |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis
Metallo complexes: An experiment for the undergraduate laboratory  Kauffman, George B.; Karbassi, Mohammad; Bergerhoff, Gunter
Theory, nomenclature, structure, and preparative methods of metallic complexes; the experiment prepares several metallo complexes according to procedures modified from the literature and their properties are observed.
Kauffman, George B.; Karbassi, Mohammad; Bergerhoff, Gunter J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 729.
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis
Use of the world "eager" instead of "spontaneous" for the description of exergonic reactions  Hamori, Eugene; Muldrey, James E.
Difficulties with the word spontaneous and why eager is a better term.
Hamori, Eugene; Muldrey, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 710.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
Natural sources of ionizing radiation  Bodner, George M.; Rhea, Tony A.
Units of radiation measurement, calculations of radiation dose equivalent, sources of ionizing radiation and its biological effects.
Bodner, George M.; Rhea, Tony A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 687.
Natural Products |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
To space or not to space- that is the question  Hurd, Charles D.
The use of spaces in the words "chloro acids" and "keto esters".
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 667.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
The estimation of activation parameters: Corrections and incorrections  Hamann, S. D.; le Noble, W. J.
Since liquids undergo thermal expansion and hydrostatice compression, expressing concentrations in terms of molarity can cause problems.
Hamann, S. D.; le Noble, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 658.
Thermodynamics |
Rate Law |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Synthesis of benzoic acid using household bleach  Perkins, Robert
Conversion of acetophenone to benzoic acid (the haloform reaction) using household bleach.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 551.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds
A new method for the preparation of derivatives of carboxylic acids  Brindle, Ian D.; Chassie, Susan
Preparation technique using potassium fluoride. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Brindle, Ian D.; Chassie, Susan J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 347.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids
A convenient method for the preparation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones  Howell, B. A.
A more satisfactory synthesis that increases the conversion rate and minimizes undesired side reactions.
Howell, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 176.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Acetaldehyde: a chemical whose fortunes have changed  Wittcoff, Harold A.
Acetaldehyde is an example of a chemical whose use is declining because chemists have replaced it with superior chemicals.
Wittcoff, Harold A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1044.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching factor-label method without sleight of hand  Garrett, James M.
As an aid in teaching the factor-label method, the author has developed a rather simple card game involving the matching of symbols and colors.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 962.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Concerning units  Wadlinger, Robert L.
The author discusses several instances where a critical reexamination of the use, or lack of use, of units should be made. He advocates the introduction of the descriptive unit wave to make many relationships, such as the Planck-Einstein equation, less open to misinterpretation and proposes the adoption of the radian as a fundamental unit.
Wadlinger, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 942.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Goal!: an exercise in IUPAC nomenclature  Castells, Josep; Serratosa, Felix
Footballane and soccerane.
Castells, Josep; Serratosa, Felix J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 941.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The NMR time scale  Bryant, Robert G.
The author states that it is common jargon to talk about slow or fast process in relation to the "NMR time scale" as if such a time scale had been carefully defined and agreed on by all. He examines each of the physical or chemical process associated with NMR spectra and correlates them to their time-scale ranges.
Bryant, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 933.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Dilemma over extinction coefficient units   Castellan, Gilbert W.
The author comments on the six options descried in the recent note by Donald C. Wigefiled, "The extinction coefficient: SI and the dilemma of its Units-six options."
Castellan, Gilbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 912.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor.  Gorin, George
Is the term "mole" a shortcoming or a virtue?
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 782.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
What do we measure in moles?   Tykodi, R. J.
Should we use a unit name that has a "particle" as a root?
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 782.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Gas chromatographic verification of a mathematical model: product distribution following methanolysis reactions  Lam, R. B.; Palocsay, F. A.; Gallaher, T. N.; Leary, J. J.
The work in this article demonstrates the applicability of the binomial distribution as a mathematical model the chemical equilibrium of bifunctional esters. The model as developed enables a straightforward extension to symmetrical polyfunctional esters and presents a mathematical basis for estimating equilibrium constants for such systems.
Lam, R. B.; Palocsay, F. A.; Gallaher, T. N.; Leary, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 769.
Esters |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Application of aromatic solvent induced shifts in organic chemistry  Kalyanam, Nagabushanam
This article illustrates the predictability of the movement of proton signals in the case of carbonyl compounds when the solvent is changed from a standard aliphatic solvent to an aromatic solvent.
Kalyanam, Nagabushanam J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 635.
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents
Organic nomenclature: Making it a more exciting teaching and learning experience  Hambly, Gordon F.
The author shares a game that he has used with great success to help students understand organic nomenclature.
Hambly, Gordon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 553.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton NMR spectra   Macomber, Roger S.
Undergraduates generally become equipped only to handle only first-order coupling patterns. This means that they have a hard time understanding a real spectra. By scaffolding students through the synthesis level of Bloom's taxonomy, students can work toward a more expert level of understanding.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 525.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Learning Theories
A quick and simple conversion of carboxylic acids into their anilides of heating with phenyl isothiocyanate  Ram, Ram N.; Kumar, Pradeep; Mukerjee, Arya K.
In this article, the authors report a quick and easy procedure using phenyl isothiocyanate, which is ideally suited to students.
Ram, Ram N.; Kumar, Pradeep; Mukerjee, Arya K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 508.
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Reactions
A phase transfer catalyzed permanganate oxidation: preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate  Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.
There are several attractive features in this reaction sequence for the undergraduate laboratory. These include (1) use of a protecting acetate group, (2) use of a familiar "textbook" oxidant, potassium permanganate, (3) use of phase transfer catalyst, (4) preparing of an aldehyde, (5) short reaction period, and (6) the laboratory has a pleasant aroma.
Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 503.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
A study of stereospecificity: the Beckmann rearrangement  Stradling, S. S.; Hornick, D.; Lee, J.; Riley, J.
These authors have developed a Beckmann rearrangement which explores the concept of stereospecificity, and concurrently exposes the student to synthetic, spectrometric, and chromatographic processes for an advanced laboratory.
Stradling, S. S.; Hornick, D.; Lee, J.; Riley, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 502.
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkenes |
Phenols
A chemistry laboratory project to develop thinking and writing skills  Goodman, W. Daniel; Bean, John C.
The "Ester Project" requires students to carry out an independent investigation of the synthesis of one or more alphatic esters and to present their research in the form of professional papers. The students, as a group, judge each paper for the quality of research and the quality of writing according to criteria and methods devised jointly by the students and the instructor.
Goodman, W. Daniel; Bean, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 483.
Alcohols |
Esters
Modernization of the van Deemter equation for chromatographic zone dispersion  Hawkes, Stephen J.
The van Deemter equation for chromatographic zone dispersion has changed form since its inception in the mid 1950's. This has altered its usefulness and understanding by students.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 393.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chromatography |
Transport Properties
The spilled can of paint   Perkins, Robert
The writer describes a problem for students to work out in order to better understand units of conversion.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Chemistry Handbook (Summers, Donald B.)  Bock, James S., Jr.
A review of a handbook that provides many values, units, conversion tables, definitions, symbols, and equations.
Bock, James S., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 252.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
3-Ketoesters by malonic synthesis  Pollet, Patrick L.
This essay reviews a synthesis strategy.
Pollet, Patrick L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 244.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkylation
A novel classification of concentration units  MacCarthy, Patrick
Concentration units can be a source of confusion for students. This article presents a treatment on this topic that may help students understand the differences between these units.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 187.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Solvent increment not solvent correction: a suggested modification in the procedure of calculating wavelength of maximum ultraviolet absorption of alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones  Qureshi, Mohammad Ismail
This article describes a procedure for calculating the ? solvent max that removes an unnecessary, but typical source of confusion.
Qureshi, Mohammad Ismail J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 149.
Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Group names  Fernelius, W. Conard
Chemists are continually creating new words to obtain more precise meanings.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 140.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Flow chart for naming inorganic compounds  Robson, David
The flow chart presented in this paper can aid students that are learning to name inorganic compounds.
Robson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 131.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Correct representation of conformational equilibria  Fulop, F.; Bernath, G.; Szabo, J. A.; Dombi, Gy
This article draws attention to a recurring error in representations of conformations of carbocyclic compounds in the literature.
Fulop, F.; Bernath, G.; Szabo, J. A.; Dombi, Gy J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 95.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Degas' dancers: an illustration for rotational isomers  Hargittai, Istvan
Two drawings by Degas provide an opportunity to introduce the concepts of staggered and eclipsed conformations of A2B-BC2 molecules in a concrete, interesting, and aesthetic way.
Hargittai, Istvan J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 94.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Constitutional Isomers |
Diastereomers
A reinvestigation of the synthesis of 4-methyl-3-heptanol  Hoffman, Robert V.; Alexander, M. D.; Buntain, Gregory; Hardenstein, Richard; Mattox, Cynthia; McLaughlin, Susan; McMinn, Denise; Spray, Scott; White, Steven
A previously reported laboratory may have reported gas chromatographic separation of the 4-methyl-3-heptanol diastereomiers in error. The side reactions in the Grignard reaction account for the observed results.
Hoffman, Robert V.; Alexander, M. D.; Buntain, Gregory; Hardenstein, Richard; Mattox, Cynthia; McLaughlin, Susan; McMinn, Denise; Spray, Scott; White, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 78.
Hormones |
Alcohols |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Natural Products
Naming chemical compounds: Calculator drill   Holdsworth, David; Lacanienta, Evelyn
36. Bits and pieces, 13. A calculator can be programmed to drill students on chemical compound naming rules.
Holdsworth, David; Lacanienta, Evelyn J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 48.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Programming utilities for the APPLE II Plus   Nagel, Edgar H.
36. Bits and pieces, 13. Some new computer programs that can facilitate writing subscripts and superscripts are described in this note .
Nagel, Edgar H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 45.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The volume/volume problem  Robinson, Trevor
A short arrow is used to read as "made up to."
Robinson, Trevor J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 988.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ketone synthesis using household bleach  Perkins, Robert A.; Chau, Felix
Household bleach is used to synthesize several different ketones from alcohols.
Perkins, Robert A.; Chau, Felix J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 981.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Numbers in chemical names  Fernelius, W. Conard
Discusses the various ways that numbers are used in the formulas and names of chemical compounds.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 964.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State
Kinetics of imidazole catalyzed ester hydrolysis: Use of buffer dilutions to determine spontaneous rate, catalyzed rate, and reaction order  Lombardo, Anthony
Uses the hydrolysis of p-nitro-phenyl acetate in the presence of imidazole to extract rate constants for a reaction proceeding by a catalyzed and uncatalyzed pathway simultaneously.
Lombardo, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 887.
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Esters |
Rate Law
Student preparation of acetone from 2-propanol  Kauffman, J. M.; McKee, J. R.
Using swimming pool chlorine for the oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone.
Kauffman, J. M.; McKee, J. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 862.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Richard Anschutz (1852-1937), Kekule's forgotten successor Part II: The work  Kauffman, George B.
In his mistaken attempt to prove that maleic and fumaric acids are structural rather than geometric isomers, Anschutz carried out much useful work not only on these compounds but also on many polybasic acids and their derivatives.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 745.
Carboxylic Acids |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The oxidation of terminal alkenes by permanganate: A practical demonstration of the use of phase transfer agents  Brown, Keith C.; Chang, Victor S.; Dar, Fazal H.; Lamb, Shannon E.; Lee, Donald G.
An oxidative cleavage of a terminal alkene to give the corresponding carboxylic acid with one less carbon atom.
Brown, Keith C.; Chang, Victor S.; Dar, Fazal H.; Lamb, Shannon E.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 696.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carboxylic Acids
Chemical symbols on auto license plates  Mellon, M. G.
Identifying chemical symbols and simple chemical formulas on license plates.
Mellon, M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 669.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The underprepared student, scientific literacy and Piaget: Reflections on the role of measurement in scientific discussion  Kurland, Daniel J.
The need for an explicit instructional component that stresses the notion of measurement as a means of physical description.
Kurland, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 574.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
By any other name: Trademarks and "generic" names  Fernelius, W. Conard
Rules and guidelines for using trademark and generic names, particularly with regard to drugs.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 572.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Crystallographic and spectroscopic symmetry notations  Sharma, B. D.
Comparisons between the symmetry notations used by crystallographers (Hermann-Mauguin) and spectroscopists (Schoenflies).
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 554.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Proposed terminology for intermolecular hydrogen bonds  Isenberg, Norbert
Suggests the use of homomolecular and heteromolecular to describe hydrogen bonds found among the same molecules and between different molecules.
Isenberg, Norbert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 547.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The principle of vinylogy  Krishnamurthy, Subrahmanya
The principle of vinylogy recognizes the possibility that the inductive effect of a functional group is transmitted through a double bond or a conjugated system of double bonds.
Krishnamurthy, Subrahmanya J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 543.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkenes |
Esters |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amides |
Aromatic Compounds
"Chemical Amount" or "Chemiance": Proposed names for the quantity measured in mole units  Gorin, George
The quantity measured in mole units does not have a generally accepted proper name.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 508.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An arbitrary aspect of science  Lagowski, J. J.
An opportunity to have input to IUPAC regarding the designation of A and B elements.
Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 439.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Administrative Issues
Entropy and equilibria: A reassessment of ionization data for substituted acetic acids  Edward, John T.
Investigating the effect of various substituents on the proton-transfer reaction of substituted acetic acids in the gas phase and in water.
Edward, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 354.
Thermodynamics |
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Gases
Powers of ten  Herman Miller, Inc.
New version of the 1968 original.
Herman Miller, Inc. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 166.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How much cholesterol is in your body?  Chamizo G., Jose Antonio
Calculations involving the size and proportion of the body consisting of cholesterol.
Chamizo G., Jose Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 151.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
The IUPAC systematic names of the regular polyhedranes: An exercise in organic chemistry nomenclature  Moyano, Albert; Serratosa, Felix; Camps, Pelayo; Drudis, Josep M.
A simple procedure to assign IUPAC systematic names to all the polyhedranes, as well as other polycyclic hydrocarbons.
Moyano, Albert; Serratosa, Felix; Camps, Pelayo; Drudis, Josep M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 126.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
On naming the elements with atomic number greater than 100  Orna, Mary Virginia, O.S.U.
IUPAC's guidelines for naming newly created, heavy elements.
Orna, Mary Virginia, O.S.U. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 123.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The meaning of the word periodic  Chang, James C.
Challenges the cited author's meaning of the word "periodic".
Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 80.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The extinction coefficient: S.I. and the dilemma of its units-six options  Wigfield, Donald C.
Six options for dealing with units in regards to the extinction coefficient.
Wigfield, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 27.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Notation confusion in volume ratio dilution  Beaulieu, Patrick L.; Woodin, Terry S.
Volume used to indicate dilution is not universally the same throughout various disciplines.
Beaulieu, Patrick L.; Woodin, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 740.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Colmolaity   DiPippo, Ascanio G.
It is suggested that a more generally descriptive unit, "the colomole" be adapted in place of the "osmole" in discussions and calculations involving the colligative properties of solutions.
DiPippo, Ascanio G. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 619.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Another view of significant figures  Ward, Chares R.
Ambiguity surrounding the treatment of the trailing zero can be overcome by requiring that trailing zeros be written only if they are meant to be significant.
Ward, Chares R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 616.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How big is Avogadro's number (or how small are atoms, molecules and ions)  Fulkrod, John E.
Calculating the volume occupied by Avogadro's number of drops of water helps students understand the magnitude of this quantity while giving them practice at using scientific notation and the metric system.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 508.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Notation for order of addition  Niewahner, J. H.
The notation described here will enable a student to include in the chemical equation an implied statement regarding the order of addition.
Niewahner, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 461.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Molecular term symbols   Leung, A. F.; So, S. P.; Li, Wai-Kee

Leung, A. F.; So, S. P.; Li, Wai-Kee J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 431.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Elemental concentration   Enyedy, Zoe
This chemistry version of a popular TV game is a student favorite.
Enyedy, Zoe J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 426.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Introduction to chemical nomenclature  Friedstein, Harriet

Friedstein, Harriet J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Student response to simultaneous instruction in SI and conventional units  Grosser, Arthur E.
What do students think about the United States' speculated switch to SI units?
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 366.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Errors in retrospect  Eberhardt, W. H.
A broadening of the "Textbook Errors" feature (1955-1980). Common textbook problems are related to meanings, representations, implications of probability densities radial distribution functions, and contour diagrams of atomic and molecular orbitals. [Debut]
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 359.
MO Theory |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
N and Na - The Egyptian connection  Feldman, Martin R.
Among the fascinating stories in the history of chemical nomenclature, few are as complex historically and geographically as the origins of the names and symbols for nitrogen and sodium.
Feldman, Martin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 877.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Preparation of solid derivatives by differential scanning calorimetry  Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine
Derivatives of alcohols, amines, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, and haloalkanes are prepared and their phase transitions observed using a differential scanning calorimeter.
Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 824.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Groups and subgroups in the periodic table of the elements: A proposal of modification in the nomenclature  Araneo, Antonio
A proposal to eliminate the "A" and "B" designations of subgroups and replace them with letters referring directly to the electronic structures of atoms.
Araneo, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Preparation of 1,1-Diphenyl-1-hydroxy-3-butanone  Rivett, D. E. A.
Exemplifies the use of a protecting group in organic synthesis.
Rivett, D. E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 751.
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Esters of some phosphorus acids: A laboratory experiment  Glidewell, Christopher; Pogorzelec, Peter J.
Introduces students two reactions in organophosphorus chemistry, the Azbuzov and Atherton-Todd reactions, and involves the use of infrared and 1H and 31P NMR spectra for the identification of the products.
Glidewell, Christopher; Pogorzelec, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 740.
Esters |
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Balancing equations and nomenclature  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 730.
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Balancing equations and nomenclature  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 730.
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Simple enols: How rare are they?  Hart, Harold; Sasaoka, Michio
Enols may be synthesized independently of their more stable, keto tautomers; enols are not inherently unstable.
Hart, Harold; Sasaoka, Michio J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 685.
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phenols
An applied exam in coordination chemistry  Pantaleo, Daniel C.
Students draw from a pool of stock chemicals and answer questions based on its formula and observed properties.
Pantaleo, Daniel C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Confusion over D and L Nomenclature  Yuan, Sun-Shine
The use of the (R,S) convention will eliminate (D,L) confusion.
Yuan, Sun-Shine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 528.
Amino Acids |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Compact comments  Rhodes, Gale; Goodmanson, David
A clear derivation of a temperature scale interconversion equation can be carried out by plotting temperatures of one scale against corresponding temperatures of the other.
Rhodes, Gale; Goodmanson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 506.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chem-deck: How to learn to write the formulas of chemical compounds (or lose your shirt)  Sherman, Alan; Sherman, Sharon J.
A game that helps students learn to name compounds and write chemical formulas.
Sherman, Alan; Sherman, Sharon J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 503.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Sir William Crookes, Victorium, and the Library of Congress  Elder, Eleanor S.
Victorium, an "element" discovered by William Crookes, was actually a mixture.
Elder, Eleanor S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 421.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Correlating Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures by the "unit calculus"  Gorin, George
Deriving the mathematical relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 350.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Adopting SI units in introductory chemistry  Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.
Conventions associated with SI units, conversion relationships commonly used in chemistry, and a roadmap method for solving stoichiometry problems.
Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 303.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Diphenylbutadienes syntheses by means of the Wittig reaction: Experimental introduction to the use of phase transfer catalysis  Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L.
Intended as a project carried out by students at the end of introductory organic chemistry.
Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 161.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
Claisen ester condensation equilibria-model calculations  Garst, John F.
In a Claisen condensation of an ester with but one alpha hydrogen, promoted by a strong base, both reactants and products are deprotonated; because the products are stronger acids than the reactant ester, the net effect is a shift toward products.
Garst, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 721.
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium
Response to Comments on "SI Units? A Camel is a Camel"  Adamson, Arthur W.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters on SI Units  Dingledy, David
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Dingledy, David J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters on SI Units  Heslop, R. B.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Heslop, R. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An apologia for accepting at least an approximation to SI  Wright, P. G.
Comments on earlier articles regarding SI units.
Wright, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 663.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On finding a middle ground for SI  Nelson, Robert A.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Nelson, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 661.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Empirical formulas  Ryan, Dennis P.
This question forces one to duplicate the line of reasoning used by Dalton in his initial formulation of atomic weights; it tests for the ability to deduce atomic sizes and to calculate empirical formulas.
Ryan, Dennis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 528.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Excretion of ingested ascorbic acid: An easy, interesting undergraduate experiment  Sirota, G. R.; MacInnis, W. K.; Rasmussen, P. W.
The student ingests ascorbic acid and then measures the amount excreted in his urine using a microfluorometric procedure.
Sirota, G. R.; MacInnis, W. K.; Rasmussen, P. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 421.
Carboxylic Acids |
Vitamins |
Quantitative Analysis
A more convenient method of preparation of amide derivatives of carboxylic acids  Long, Karen P.
An adaptation of this method was devised for use in a qualitative organic analysis program.
Long, Karen P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 420.
Synthesis |
Amides |
Carboxylic Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Catalysis
Synthesis of some unreported derivatives of sulfonamides: A laboratory in organic chemistry  Gilow, Helmuth
Preparation of N4-benzylsulfanilamide.
Gilow, Helmuth J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 419.
Synthesis |
Amides |
Aromatic Compounds
The last (?) word on student preparation of benzalacetophenone  Ellern, James B.
A procedure the rapidly produces a satisfactory yield of benzalacetophenone.
Ellern, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 418.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Purification by sub-zero temperature washing  Chu, Samuel S.-T.
Separating an ester from the carboxylic acid from which it was synthesized.
Chu, Samuel S.-T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 384.
Synthesis |
Esters |
Carboxylic Acids |
Laboratory Management
An nmr protonation study of metal diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complexes: An integrated senior chemistry experiment  Letkeman, Peter
A protonation study of an aminocarboxylic acid and its metal complexes that can be expanded to cover topics from instrumental techniques to a study of the kinetics of metal-ligand bond formation.
Letkeman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 348.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Carboxylic Acids |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Hey, watch your language!  Herron, J. Dudley
If we do not use our words with care, we introduce and reinforce confusion.
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 330.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The ambit of chemistry  Vitz, Edward W.
Proposal to revise the standard definition of chemistry to one that focusses on atoms and molecules rather than simply matter.
Vitz, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 327.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Computer-assisted instruction in stereochemical configuration analysis  Bishop, Marvin; Nowak, Maria

Bishop, Marvin; Nowak, Maria J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 318.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
B or H? A chemist's guide to modern teachings on magnetism  Crooks, J. E.
A brief outline of the derivation of magnetic units and their application to various problems of interest to chemists.
Crooks, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 301.
Magnetic Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical toxicology. Part I. Organic compounds  Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus
General principles of toxicology, and particular consideration of aliphatics, aromatic, and halogenated hydrocarbons; alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, and ketones; sulfides, mercaptans, and carbon disulfide; nitrogen-containing compounds; and carcinogens.
Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 284.
Toxicology |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Ethers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Lipids
How many significant digits in 0.05C?  Power, James D.
Textbooks abound with erroneous examples, such as 33F = 0.56C.
Power, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Aqueous chromic acid oxidation of secondary alcohols in diethyl ether: A convenient undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M.
A two-phase procedure for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones that is applicable to a wide variety of substrates.
Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 203.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Ethers |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Amides and hydrazides from amine and hydrazine hydrochlorides  Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuran L.
The Schotten-Baumann procedure is extensively used for the preparation of carboxylic acid derivatives in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory.
Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuran L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 816.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Synthesis
A synthesis of o-chlorocinnamic acid utilizing a Meerwein reaction. An undergraduate organic experiment  Cleland, George H.
The authors share an experimental procedure that converts an o-chloroaniline to o-chlorocinnamic acid.
Cleland, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 814.
Carboxylic Acids |
Synthesis
p-Carboxystyrene. A Wittig procedure in aqueous medium  Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc
In this paper, the authors present a student preparation of p-carboxyl group, as it makes the reaction product soluble in alkaline and insoluble in acid medium, provides for an easy way of separation.
Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Separation Science
Periodic sub-groups   Mazieres, Ch.
Why are the elements of the periodic table still being labeled with A and B? This author suggests it is time to leave that convention behind.
Mazieres, Ch. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 750.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A m3 is bigger than a breadbox  Lambert, Jack L.
This chemist contributes his concerns and thoughts over the conversion to the metric system.
Lambert, Jack L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 638.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI units? A camel is a camel  Adamson, Arthur W.
This paper is a summary of remarks made at a recent symposium on "New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Chemistry" in which the author took exception to both the claims made for the SI system and to the manner in which it has been promoted.
Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 634.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Aldol condensation: A simple teaching model for organic laboratory  Hawbecker, Byron L.; Kurtz, David W.; Putnam, Theodore D.; Ahlers, Patricia A.; Gerber, Gregory D.
The authors share a teaching model for the organic laboratory that was developed to be accomplished in a three-hour-period and clearly illustrate a number of concepts which serve to enrich the student's understanding of organic reaction chemistry.
Hawbecker, Byron L.; Kurtz, David W.; Putnam, Theodore D.; Ahlers, Patricia A.; Gerber, Gregory D. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 540.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions
Use of hand models for assigning configurational nomenclature  Garrett, James M.
A subject which often produces consternation in a beginning student in organic chemistry is that of sequential nomenclature involving chiral centers. After having studied the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules of nomenclature a student may be asked to examine a structure as shown in this article.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 493.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers
Synthesis of chrysanthemic acid: A multistep organic synthesis for undergraduate students  Schatz, Paul F.
This laboratory is geared toward intermediate organic chemistry laboratory courses that will acquaint students, predominantly chemistry majors, with the strategies and techniques in carrying out a multistep synthesis.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 468.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
Oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes with pyridinium chlorochromate. An organic chemistry experiment  Glaros, George
This organic chemistry experiment addresses a common misconception about aldehyde reactions.
Glaros, George J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 410.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
Analysis of some synthetic reactions by the HSAB principle  Ho, Tse-Lok
The specificity and efficiency of reactions often have been left unexplained. Addressing these deficiencies, we delineate an empirical analysis of a selected number of synthetic reactions based on the hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) principle.
Ho, Tse-Lok J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 355.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds  Chenier, Philip J.
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds: This can be classified as an intramolecular rearrangement from carbon to carbon, involving a migrating group Z moving without its electrons from migrating origin A to an electron-rich terminus B.
Chenier, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 286.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Synthesis of furfuryl alcohol and furoic acid  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
The exercise in this paper can be conducted utilizing two 3-hour laboratory periods and is meant to illustrate the 1) the use of the cannizzaro reaction in synthesis, 2) production of a commercial resin and 3) the importance of several natural products in the present industrial economy.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 269.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Industrial Chemistry
Basic organic nomenclature  Breneman, G. L.
A series of three computer programs have been developed in the Basic Language to give students practice in naming branched alkanes, compounds with various functional groups, and benzene derivatives.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 224.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Classification test for aldehydes involving phase transfer catalysis  Durst, H. Dupont; Gokel, George W.
Although common spectroscopic methods have largely supplanted the more classical methods for distinguishing aldehydes from ketones in many applications, aldehyde classification tests remain very useful in actual laboratory practice as well as important pedagogical device in qualitative organic chemistry.
Durst, H. Dupont; Gokel, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 206.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Qualitative Analysis
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
The chemical formula. Part II: Determination  Kolb, Doris
Kinds of chemical formulas, determination of a chemical formula, and problem formulas.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 109.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Notation for powers of ten   Freeman, Robert D.
The author proposes a simpler scheme for notations of power of ten.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 103.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Enzymatic and colorimetric determination of total serum cholesterol. An undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment  Taylor, Ronald P.; Broccoli, Anthony V.; Grisham, Charles M.
The authors describe an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which the students determines the level of cholesterol in serum both by colorimetric experiment and by following the procedures of Allain, et al.
Taylor, Ronald P.; Broccoli, Anthony V.; Grisham, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 63.
Enzymes |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Esters |
Fatty Acids
General base catalyzed enolization of acetone. An undergraduate kinetics experiment  Waddington, Mark D.; Meany, J. E.
The experiment described below is suitable for students of organic or physical chemistry and requires a minimum of laboratory equipment.
Waddington, Mark D.; Meany, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 60.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy
Lecture notes or facts that are hard to work into a conversation  Smith, Douglas D.
An overview of chemistry news from around the globe.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 49.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Derivatives of oxo acids III. Functional derivatives  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
The authors consider some general aspects of nomenclature for the so-called functional derivatives of the inorganic oxo acids.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 30.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The oxidation of ethyl lactate  Morgan, E. D.; Goddard, Hilary; Thomas, G. A.
Using pyridinium chlorochromate, ethyl lactate can be oxidized to ethyl pyruvate in a convenient time by carrying out the reaction in refluxing acetone.
Morgan, E. D.; Goddard, Hilary; Thomas, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 782.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Esters
Selective reduction of functionalized carboxylic acids with borane-methyl sulfide: A convenient undergraduate organic experiment  Krishnamurthy, S.; Thompson, Kerry L.
Introduces a new selective reducing agent, borane-methyl sulfide.
Krishnamurthy, S.; Thompson, Kerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 778.
Carboxylic Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
What is an element?  Kolb, Doris
Reviews the history of the discovery, naming, and representation of the elements; the development of the spectroscope and the periodic table; radioactive elements and isotopes; allotropes; and the synthesis of future elements.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 696.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Isotopes
Selectivity and specificity in organic reactions  Ault, Addison
Distinguishes between various forms of selectivity and specificity (e.g. the us of and differences between stereoselective and stereospecific).
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 614.
Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Derivatives of oxo acids II. Insertion or infix nomenclature (the Drake Report)  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Considers the general pattern for naming acids containing phosphorus; also examines the systematic nomenclature for new elements.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 610.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Equations of electromagnetism from CGS to SI  Cvitas, T.; Kallay, N.
A general procedure for changing any CGS formula into SI.
Cvitas, T.; Kallay, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 530.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic derivatives of oxo acids II. Acids, salts, and esters of Groups IIIA-IVA elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Considers the nomenclature of acids, salts, and esters of groups IIIA-VA elements.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 509.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
Photohydration of pyridine in aqueous solution. An undergraduate experiment in photochemical kinetics  Andre, J. C.; Niclause, M.; Joussot-Dubien, J.; Deglise, X.
An easy experiment that illustrates many of the physical aspects of photochemistry.
Andre, J. C.; Niclause, M.; Joussot-Dubien, J.; Deglise, X. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 387.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Synthesis of 4-methyl-3-heptanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanone. Two easily synthesized insect pheromones  Einterz, Robert M.; Ponder, Jay W.; Lenox, Ronald S.
A two step reaction sequence involving the Grignard synthesis of an alcohol followed by oxidation of this alcohol to the corresponding ketone.
Einterz, Robert M.; Ponder, Jay W.; Lenox, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 382.
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Grignard Reagents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A convenient notation for powers of ten and logarithms  Oesterreicher, H.
A convenient notation for powers of ten and logarithms that does not require superscripts.
Oesterreicher, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 367.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Simulation of experimental data, the design of experiments, and the analysis of results. Kinetics of catalyzed ester hydrolysis  Rosenthal, Donald; Arnold, David
A computer program is used in the design, representation, and analysis of experiments.
Rosenthal, Donald; Arnold, David J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 323.
Kinetics |
Esters
Organic derivatives of oxo acids. Part I. Acids, salts, and esters of group VIA elements / Knowledge is ready cash  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Nomenclature of organic derivatives of oxo acids and their salts and esters that are derived from the polybasic acids of the nonmetallic elements of Group IIIA through Group VIA.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 299.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
Isodiazomethane revisited. N-aminoisonitriles  Anselme, J.-P.
The structure, reactions, and preparation of N-aminoisonitriles.
Anselme, J.-P. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 296.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amides
NMR determination of the rotational barrier in N,N-dimethylacetamide. A physical chemistry experiment  Gasparro, Francis P.; Kolodny, Nancy H.
The barrier to rotation in N,N-dimethylacetamide is determined by measuring changes in nmr line shapes as a function of temperature.
Gasparro, Francis P.; Kolodny, Nancy H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 258.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amides
Lower valent oxo acids of phosphorus and sulfur  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Reviews current practice and some of the problems with partial solutions.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 30.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
CXXX. Background Information on Hexamethylphosphoric Triamide  Steere, Norman V.
Hexamethylphosphoric Triamide has been shown to cause malignant tumors.
Steere, Norman V. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, A12.
Amides |
Toxicology
"Chemantics" - A new chemical education card game  Sawyer, Albert K.
Learning the symbols and charges of ions and combining them to make formulas of compounds is often tedious for a beginner.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 780.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Ketene generator: Simultaneous exo-endothermic reactions   Whitaker, Robert D.; McGarian, Thurman
A procedure for a demonstration of ketene generation.
Whitaker, Robert D.; McGarian, Thurman J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 776.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Differences between "organic" and "inorganic" nomenclature  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
The authors caution chemists to make certain that the organic and inorganic systems of nomenclature completely compatible and that a word segment used in one pattern does not have a different meaning in the other.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 773.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Reactions of organocopper intermediates. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Schambach, Robert A.
This paper describes an undergraduate organo-metallic laboratory experiment which investigates the reactivity of organo-copper intermediates generated during the copper-quinoline decarboxylation of o-nitrobenzoic acid.
Schambach, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 735.
Organometallics |
Carboxylic Acids |
Reactions
Isomerism about a double bond: Use of cis and trans   Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Limitations of the cis and trans nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 727.
Diastereomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Some U. S. nomenclature practices at variance with those recommended by IUPAC  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Chemists don't always seem to realize what a valuable asset they have in their schemes of systematic nomenclature. Mineralogist and biologists do not have this asset.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 726.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical nomenclature versus that of other sciences  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
IUPAC recommendations combine the two words whereas U.S. practice is to keep them separated.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 726.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Absolute scales for temperature and reduction potentials  Haight, G. P., Jr.
A situation regarding the units of measurement is developing with electrode potentials or reduction potentials that is analogous to the adoption of temperature scales.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 693.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
SI stands for student improvement   Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.; Collins, Ronald W.
The united states is out of step with the rest of the scientific world when it comes to our units of measurement.
Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.; Collins, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 681.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
New edition of the green book  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
A new edition of "Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemimcal Quantities and Units" is available.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Levels of communication via nomenclature  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Certain aspects of names for chemicals are not unlike names for people.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 495.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Systematic versus index nomenclature  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Chemistry nomenclature has undergone profound extension and revision.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 495.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The motion of ions in solution under the influence of an electric field  Vincent, Colin A.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nature of the motion of ions in an electric field and to reappraise the units and nomenclature of the subject.
Vincent, Colin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 490.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
The scope of the Haworth synthesis  Agranat, Israel; Shih, Yu-Shan
The duality of the Haworth synthesis as revealed most conspicuously in the preparation of both anthracene and phenanthrene, widens the scope of the method. On the basis of the reversibility of Friedel-Crafts acylation in PPA, the Haworth synthesis may serve as a route to linearly annelated-as well as to angularly annelated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.
Agranat, Israel; Shih, Yu-Shan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 488.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
An undergraduate electroanalytical experiment  Janata, Jiri
This article presents a determination of vanillin and of other aromatic aldehyde can easily be accomplished by amperometric titration with a standard solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydazine.
Janata, Jiri J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 399.
Electrochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Natural Products
Preparation of phenanthridone. A multipurpose experiment for the organic laboratory  Hawbecker, Byron L.; Radovich, David A.; Tillotson, Loyal G.
It is desirable to have a series of multipurpose reactions available which can illustrate a variety of reaction types within a single, three hour lab period.
Hawbecker, Byron L.; Radovich, David A.; Tillotson, Loyal G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 398.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
An NMR study of keto-enol tautomerism in [beta]-dicarbonyl compounds  Drexler, Edward J.; Field, Kurt W.
A procedure for an NMR study of keto-enol tautomerism in beta-dicarbonyl compounds.
Drexler, Edward J.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 392.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Catalysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Structural assignment of a C10H12O3 ester by mass spectroscopy. An undergraduate organic problem  Marchand, Alan P.; Jackson, Danny
The authors provide challenging problems to help students integrate spectroscopic methods.
Marchand, Alan P.; Jackson, Danny J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 390.
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Mass Spectrometry
Renaissance of concern with the nascent condition  Bauer, S. H.
The author argues that it is time to restore the term "nascent" to legitimacy.
Bauer, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 372.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases
Equivalents - A winner or a dead horse  Brescia, Frank
The object of this article is to review the history of the stoichiometric term "equivalent" and examine its relevance over a century after the International Congress of 1860 was held at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 362.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Information sources for nomenclature practices  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Why don't chemists practice a more faithful adherence to good nomenclature? This note features a list of resources to obtain reliable nomenclature information.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Historical development of chemical nomenclature  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
A list of titles on the historical development of chemical nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 354.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Addition compounds  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
The need for general terms to include all compounds with "water of crystallization" and all compounds with "ammonia of crystallization" has led to the widespread use of "ammoniates" and "hydrates" for this purpose. However, the extension of this practice has certain pitfalls since the ending -ate is now the accepted ending for anions generally.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 354.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ketene cycloadditions  Holder, Richard W.
Mechanisms of ketene cycloadditions.
Holder, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 81.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Reactions
Electrolyte theory and S.I. units  Holliday, R. I.
The purpose of this paper is to outline the essential differences between the basic equations of the two systems of units when the equations are used to develop Debye- Huckel and Onsager Theories of Electrolytic Conductance.
Holliday, R. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 21.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Chemometrics
Coordination nomenclature. III  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Discusses the nomenclature of polynuclear compounds with bridging groups.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 793.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The mole: A number of a mass?  Herron, J. Dudley
Recommended definition of the mole.
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 726.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A case history of unplanned development of new chemistry  Roberts, John D.
Work to synthesize a cyclobutadiene derivative resulted in an unanticipated procedure.
Roberts, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 708.
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
What happened to alabamine, virginium, and illinium?  Trimble, R. F.
History of the nomenclature of three elements at one time named after states of the Union.
Trimble, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 585.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Names for elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
System for naming new, heavy elements.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 583.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The determination of a mechanism of isomerization of maleic acid to fumaric acid  Meek, John S.
Procedure in which students attempt to determine the mechanism for the isomerization of maleic acid to fumaric acid by heating with hydrochloric acid.
Meek, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 541.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Illustrating gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. An undergraduate experiment  Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken
One lab period is used to separate and collect the components of a ketone mixture; the second lab period is used to explain and demonstrate the MS instrumentation and the interpretation of ketone spectra; and in part three the spectra of the separated ketones are analyzed by individual students.
Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 535.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Trademarks and trade names / Publications on nomenclature  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Defines trademarks and trade names and distinguishes between the two, giving examples of each. / Additional publications on nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 482.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Benzylthiuronium bicarbonate for the derivatization of carboxylic acids  Reddy, J. V. Krishna; Bopari, K. S.
Preparing benzylithiuronium carboxylates with benzylithiuronium bicarbonate.
Reddy, J. V. Krishna; Bopari, K. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 324.
Carboxylic Acids |
Synthesis
Spatter shield  Wander, J. D.
A method for reducing spatter in the conversion of aniline to sulfanilamide.
Wander, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 127.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amino Acids |
Amides
Stereoisomerism about a double bond (1-3)  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Rules for specifying E and Z configurations.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 60.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkenes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Davy, Coleridge, and chemical nomenclature  Knight, David
The useful term "substrate" was first used in print in 1817 by the author of "The Ancient Mariner".
Knight, David J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 54.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The sequence rules  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
The authors explain the usefulness of the sequence rules in learning about chirality.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 735.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Coordination Compounds
The Planck constant  Kipling, B.; Kirk, A. W.
A random survey of twelve well-known chemistry texts revealed that only one took the trouble to add a quantity unit to the value quoted for Planck's Constant, and other shocking findings.
Kipling, B.; Kirk, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 679.
Photochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Coordination nomenclature. II  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
This note deals with the designation of structure and the principles covering the nomenclature of various configurations.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 603.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
G and gammaG/ upsilon  Spencer, J. N.
A discussion on whether symbol changes in thermodynamics are needed.
Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 577.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Coordination Nomenclature. I  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
This note describes the general pattern, names for central atoms, and names for ligands.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 468.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A metric (SI) energy scale: Conversions and comparisons  Petrakis, L.
Textbooks have yet to catch up the contemporary chemical units of measurement.
Petrakis, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 459.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The photoisomerization of cyclic ketones: An experiment in organic chemistry  Haas, J. W., Jr.
This experiment deals with parameters such as the nature of the excited state, effect of triplet quenchers on product formation, chemical structure and reaction rate and quantum yield when cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone are irradiated at 254nm. These cyclic ketones provide a variety of photolysis information in a short time span, are conveniently analyzed by gas chromatography, and are readily available at the requisite levels of purity.
Haas, J. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 346.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography
Preparative reduction of benzil: Use of a polarographic analyzer and simple current booster  Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J.
The authors report a simple laboratory experiment which demonstrates some of the preparative and mechanistic electrochemistry of ketones in acid solution. The also describe a simple and inexpensive apparatus for preparative scale electrochemistry.
Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 343.
Electrochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Stereochemistry of carbonyl addition reactions  Goller, Edwin J.
This article is a brief summary of some of the more important unifying concepts that have been proposed in the study of the stereo chemistry of carbonyl addition reactions.
Goller, Edwin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 182.
Addition Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Naming organic polymers. II. Structure-based polymer nomenclature  Fox, Robert B.
This note is an attempt to devise a precise method for communicating in words the structure of polymers. It is hoped that most possible combinations of atoms have been covered in the rules. At the same time, it is also hoped that chemists have been given another research tool for which they will find use for many years to come.
Fox, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 113.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The significant role of chemical reactions in analytical chemistry  Siggia, Sidney
With the increase in contemporary abilities to make measurements, the author has noticed a tendency to decrease the use of chemistry for analytical purposes. The author argues that chemists should still use the chemical expertise and lines of reasoning used by our chemistry predecessors and apply this extra degree of freedom to modern measuring approaches.
Siggia, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 98.
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography
A crossed aldol condensation for the undergraduate laboratory  Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E.
This two-step experiment for undergraduate organic chemistry students illustrates three basic ideas: organic chemistry students illustrate three basic ideas (1) crossed aldol condensation; (2) the acidity of benzylic hydrogen in hydrocarbons; and (3) reduction of a double bond in hydride transfer.
Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 64.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Naming organic polymers. I. Problems with present-day nomenclature  Fox, Robert B.
Present-day nomenclature needs to evolve and respond to the changing landscape of chemistry brought on by polymers.
Fox, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 41.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Computer program for identifying alkane structures  Davidson, Scott
A Fortran IV computer program to identify and name alkane structure having C1-C16 main chains and C1-C4 side chains is available.
Davidson, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 707.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
What mean these words?  Mellon, M. Guy
Examines inconsistent and questionable usage of terms and names in analytical chemistry.
Mellon, M. Guy J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 690.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The boat form of cyclohexane as viewed by Midwestern sailors  Lyle, Gloria; Lyle, Robert E.
Possible confusion regarding the boat analogy in describing the positions of hydrogens in cyclohexane.
Lyle, Gloria; Lyle, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 655.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Biological asymmetry of glycerol  Blackmore, P. R.; Williams, J. F.; Clark, M. G.
In order to be both correct and properly educate the student, authors of biochemistry textbooks should be consistent and accurate with their nomenclature in naming glycerol phosphate and all symmetrical intermediate compounds and products.
Blackmore, P. R.; Williams, J. F.; Clark, M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 555.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Structures containing cationic carbon  Dermer, O. C.; Traynham, James C.
Reviews nomenclature conventions for structures containing cationic carbon.
Dermer, O. C.; Traynham, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 545.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbocations
Temperature conversions and the new IPTS-68 temperature scale  Estok, George K.
Lists important temperature reference points for Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Rankin temperature scales.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 495.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Calibration
Electron affinity. The zeroth ionization potential  Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C.
It is the purpose of this article to present the merits of adopting the terminology zeroth ionization potential to describe the energy change that occurs when a gaseous anion loses an electron.
Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 487.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Some early usages of chemical terms  Oldroyd, D. R.
Investigates the origin of some of the important terms that one commonly meets in the early year's of one's chemical education.
Oldroyd, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 450.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Illustrated molecular orbitals of formaldehyde  Orloff, M. K.; Colthup, N. B.
These calculated molecular orbitals for formaldehyde complement and earlier analysis.
Orloff, M. K.; Colthup, N. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 400.
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Derivatives of oxo acids. IUPAC Publications on Nomenclature. Other International Reports. SI Units  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes the nomenclature of oxo acid derivatives.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 341.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Molecular weight determination of aldehydes and ketones. A quantitative organic experiment  Steinhaus, Ralph K.
The reaction between semicarbazide and an unknown ketone is used to determine molecular weight.
Steinhaus, Ralph K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 293.
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Homogeneous catalysis in industrial synthesis. Acetaldehyde, vinyl acetate, and vinyl chloride  Hartley, F. R.
Describes the synthesis of three closely related heavy organic chemicals - acetaldehyde, vinyl acetate, and vinyl chloride - and shows how the synchronous run-down of the coal industry and build-up of the oil industry have necessitated a complete change in the technology required for their preparation.
Hartley, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 263.
Catalysis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Report of the High School Subcommittee of the Curriculum Committee  
Presents some preliminary performance objectives for different tracks of high school chemistry.
J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 257.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
The ethylene ketal protecting group in organic synthesis. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Paulson, D. R.; Hartwig, A. L.; Moran, G. F.
This reactive sequence involves the preparation of the ethylene ketal of ethyl acetoacetate using the standard p-toluene-sulfonic acid catalyzed procedure; once the reactive ketone moiety has been masked, the reactive ester group can be modified.
Paulson, D. R.; Hartwig, A. L.; Moran, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 216.
Synthesis |
Esters |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Hydration of aldehydes. A temperature-jump relaxation experiment for physical chemistry  Heck, Henry; Iwata, Adrienne; Mah, Floyd
Presents a temperature-jump relaxation experiment for physical chemistry.
Heck, Henry; Iwata, Adrienne; Mah, Floyd J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 141.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Kinetics
Demonstrating the nomenclature for absolute configurations in octahedral complexes  Alexander, M. Dale
Using cardboard octahedral and transparent cylinders to help students visualize the nomenclature for absolute configurations in octahedral complexes.
Alexander, M. Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 125.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Oxoacids and their salts  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Reviews the conventions for naming oxoacids and their salts.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 123.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The synthesis of fused cycloalkenones via annelation methods  Mundy, Bradford P.
A review of the Robinson annelation reaction, which has been invaluable for syntheses in the terpene and steroid fields.
Mundy, Bradford P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 110.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A socially relevant problem in unit and dimension conversions  Bernstein, Stanley
An activity in which students determine the cheapest source of nutritional iron by considering a variety of food products.
Bernstein, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 65.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nutrition |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
SI chemical data (Aylward, G. H.; Findlay, T. J. V.)  Campbell, J. A.

Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A656.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Positive ions and binary compounds  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Guidelines for the names of positive ions and binary compounds; also errata from past articles in this series.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 844.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Furfural - Ubiquitous natural product  McCullough, CSC, Thomas
Procedure for obtaining 2-furaldehyde from citrus peelings, banana skins, gourd rinds, corn cobs, dried leaves, and other organic wastes.
McCullough, CSC, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 836.
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Significant digits in logarithm-antilogarithm interconversions  Jones, Donald E.
Most textbooks are in error in the proper use of significant digits when interconverting logarithms and antilogarithms.
Jones, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 753.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The chemistry of nitrosoamides  Lobl, Thomas J.
Reviews the photochemistry, base and acid catalyzed decompositions, and thermal decompositions of the nitrosoamides.
Lobl, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 730.
Amides |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis |
Reactions
Decimalization of time  Smeaton, W. A.
The decimalization of time suggested by the cited author has been suggested before.
Smeaton, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 720.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Bases and types of names  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Examines the requirements of a good name and different types of names, including inorganic and organic names.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 699.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Visualization of molecular orbitals. Formaldehyde  Olcott, Richard J.
Using a computer to generate three dimensional charge density distributions of the formaldehyde molecule.
Olcott, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 614.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Probing chemical reactivity with the diphenyldiazomethane reaction  Dack, Michael R. J.
Examines uses of the reaction between diphenyldiazomethane and carboxylic acids to study the effects of temperature, pressure, solvent, and other variables.
Dack, Michael R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 600.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Carboxylic Acids
Gimmicks for mid-year motivation  Adams, Richard C.
Suggestions include directions for making peanut brittle, examining common, antiquated names for chemical compounds, and periodic puns.
Adams, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 536.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Effective magnetic moment  Hoppe, J. I.
The dimensionless nature of the effective magnetic moment in both the CGS and SI approaches is demonstrated using relevant equations.
Hoppe, J. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 505.
Magnetic Properties |
Coordination Compounds |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How Should Abbreviations be Used? / The Second Edition of the "Red Book"  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Presents IUPAC rules regarding the use of abbreviations. New IUPAC publication.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 488.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The origin of the inductive effect  Stock, Leon M.
The results obtained in the investigation of the dissociation constants of carboxylic acids of known geometry and free from the complicating features of pi electron interactions and steric effects have established that the magnitude of the polar effect does not depend on either the number or the nature of the atoms between the substituent and the reaction site, nor do such substituent contributions depend on the number of paths available for their propagation.
Stock, Leon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 400.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carboxylic Acids
Use Of Punctuation Marks and Spaces. Order of Constituents  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes how punctuation marks and spaces are used in nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 333.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Decimal time units proposed  Purandare, Yeshwant K.
Proposes that the United States adopt a decimal system of time.
Purandare, Yeshwant K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 300.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Use of enclosing marks and letters  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes how parentheses, brackets, braces, and letters are used in nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 253.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Beer, acetone, and diabetes: A story and a demonstration  Isenberg, Norbert
Acetone causes the collapse of beer foam.
Isenberg, Norbert J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 151.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Medicinal Chemistry
Catalytic hydrogenation of ketones at moderate pressures. An organic demonstration-experiment  Kaye, Irving Allan
This procedure requires a moderate pressure hydrogenator and can be completed as a demonstration or a laboratory with a small number of students.
Kaye, Irving Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 131.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate. A freshman class investigation  Hopkins, Harry P., Jr.; Mather, Jane H.
A study of the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate is made the basis of a biochemistry-oriented quarter in freshman chemistry; after completing the simple hydrolysis studies, the student proceeds to investigate the enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate.
Hopkins, Harry P., Jr.; Mather, Jane H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 126.
Reactions |
pH |
Esters |
Enzymes |
Catalysis
Magnetochemistry in SI units  Quickenden, Terence I.; Marshall, Robert C.
Explains the conversion of magnetochemical formulas from the frequently used CGS-EMU system to the International System of Units (SI).
Quickenden, Terence I.; Marshall, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 114.
Magnetic Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Pretenders to the throne  Morgenstern, Christian; Trimble, R. F. (trans.)
A short poem on the units of temperature.
Morgenstern, Christian; Trimble, R. F. (trans.) J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 109.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Fragmentation mechanisms in mass spectrometry  Campbell, M. M.; Runquist, O.
Presents a precise mechanistic notation that is useful in teaching fragmentation processes.
Campbell, M. M.; Runquist, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 104.
Mass Spectrometry |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Ethers |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Amides
Alkylations in organic chemistry  Mundy, Bradford P.
Examines some of the subtle factors involved in alkylations, including alkylations via enolates, alkylations via enamines, and alkylation of enolates derived from reduction of enone systems.
Mundy, Bradford P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 91.
Synthesis |
Alkylation |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Numbers in nomenclature  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Examines how multiplying affixes are used, particularly in inorganic nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 49.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A note on the notation and terminology of thermodynamics  Bent, Henry A.
Presents notation that enables one to express the first and second laws of thermodynamics in symmetrical, analogous, and easily remembered forms.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 44.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Carbonium ion-carbanion nomenclature   Sinclair, Dean L.
The author writes in to add his voice to the many others who have pled that the chemical world adopt consistent nomenclature systems and stick to them.
Sinclair, Dean L. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, A105.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI units in physico-chemical calculations  Norris, A. C.
This article demonstrates how the adoption of SI units affects some of the more important physico-chemical calculations found at the undergraduate level.
Norris, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 797.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Names of groups and elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
A brief history on the naming of elements and element groups.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 730.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The two faces of D and L nomenclature  Slocum, D. W.; Surgarman, D.; Tucker, S. P.
This paper reviews the conflicts and ambiguities in two older nomenclature methods.
Slocum, D. W.; Surgarman, D.; Tucker, S. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 597.
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The periodic tables  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
How should groups and subgroups be designed? What are the transition elements, inner transition elements, and rare earth elements?
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 594.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Transition Elements |
Inner Transition Elements
Policy for NBS of SI Units  National Bureau of Standards; US Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.
The International System of Units was defined and given official status by the General Convergence on Weights and Measures in 1960. While the basic policy remains unchanged, experience has shown the need for slight revisions of interpretation, which are incorporated in this article.
National Bureau of Standards; US Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 569.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Preparation of 2,3-diphenyl-1-indenone and related compounds  Clark, Thomas J.
The author describes a series of preparative experiments which students in organic chemistry have found enjoyable and instructive.
Clark, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 554.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) What is the significance of negative absolute temperatures? (2) What role do nitrogen atoms play in dyes?
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 529.
Dyes / Pigments |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aromatic Compounds
Carbonium nomenclature   Hurd, Charles D.
A brief history on carbonium nomenclature.
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 490.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An abbreviation for the word mole   Benson, John E.
Is the abbreviation for "mole" too confusing?
Benson, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 490.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Introduction: Why do a series of discussions on nomenclature?  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
What is the role of nomenclature for professional chemists? [Debut]
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 433.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The s-and p-inductive effects  Katritzky, A. R.; Topsom, R. D.
The authors consider, in the absence of the usual terminology or symbols, the possible modes of electric disturbance that can be thought of as contributing to the overall electron distribution.
Katritzky, A. R.; Topsom, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 427.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Equivalent weights. Unnecessary confusion   Wauchope, R. D.
This is a short plea to eliminate a source of confusion from the General Chemistry course and textbook-the concept of equivalent weights.
Wauchope, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 420.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Actual effects controlling the acidity of carboxylic acids  Calder, G. V.; Barton, T. J.
The authors discuss the inaccurate treatment of the actual effects controlling the acidity of carboxylic acids found in many textbooks.
Calder, G. V.; Barton, T. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 338.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Reactions
Measurement of acidic catalysis. A physical-organic laboratory experiment  Berndt, Donald C.
This article describes an experiment for undergraduate laboratory courses which illustrate the acidic catalysis of many reactions of carbonyl and carboxyl functions.
Berndt, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 200.
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
Measurement of magnetic susceptibilities and the adoption of SI units  Pass, G.; Sutcliffe, H.
The intention of this article is to demonstrate how the adoption of SU units affects the calculation required for the determination of magnetic susceptibility.
Pass, G.; Sutcliffe, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 180.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Magnetic Properties |
Chemometrics
Recent advances in stereochemical nomenclature  Eliel, Ernest L.
It is the purpose of this brief article to deal with the most significant of the recent nomenclature changes and additions.
Eliel, Ernest L. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
Benzoic acid tree  Chen, Philip S.
Benzaldehyde undergoes autoxidation to benzoic acid by air, particularly upon exposure to light; the white benzoic acid is caused to form a crystalline tree on twisted pipe cleaners.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Detection of carboxylic acids by formation of ferric hydroxamates  Cleland, George H.; Knight, Duane W.
Offers an improved method for the detection of carboxylic acids through the formation of ferric hydroxamates.
Cleland, George H.; Knight, Duane W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 781.
Carboxylic Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Recrystallization and melting point determination  Kaye, Irving Allan; Yuska, Henry
This experiment is essentially an exercise in recrystallization and identification, by melting point and mixed melting point determination, an unknown ketone that has been transformed into either its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone or semicarbazone derivative.
Kaye, Irving Allan; Yuska, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 703.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Qualitative Analysis
Stereochemistry of the citric acid cycle  Smith, W. Grady; York, J. Lyndal
A large percentage of biochemistry texts show the trans structure for aconitate but label it cis.
Smith, W. Grady; York, J. Lyndal J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 588.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Carboxylic Acids
The acidities of ascorbic and sialic acids  Hurd, Charies D.
This note concerning the pKa's of ascorbic and sialic acids id presented since the compounds are of general interest to organic chemists and carbohydrate chemists as well as biochemists.
Hurd, Charies D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 481.
Acids / Bases |
Vitamins |
Carboxylic Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis of cyclopentanecarboxaldehyde: An undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Dev, Vasu
The synthesis of cyclopentanecarboxaldehyde can be applied to develop an understanding of the behavior of compounds in many areas of organic chemistry, particularly those of alicyclic compounds.
Dev, Vasu J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 476.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Organic nomenclature, I  Liotta, Charles
It is the purpose of this article to call attention to errors and misconceptions in the application of IUPAC Rules of Organic Nomenclature.
Liotta, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 471.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols |
Heterocycles
Measure for measure  Fried, Rainer
The author draws attention to the use of units in popular publications like the New York Times and National Geographic.
Fried, Rainer J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 450.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The mole again!  Haack, N. H.
Discusses the definition of the mole.
Haack, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 324.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Intensive and extensive properties  Redlich, Otto
Defines and discusses the differences between intensive and extensive properties.
Redlich, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Physical versus chemical change  Gensler, Walter J.
Defines and discusses the differences between physical and chemical changes.
Gensler, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Intensive and extensive properties  Redlich, Otto
Defines and discusses the differences between intensive and extensive properties.
Redlich, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Linear free energy relationships in the furan and thiophene ring systems  Freeman, Fillmore
The authors have correlated, by multiple linear regression analysis, sets of data taken from the literature with the Hammett equation for the dissociation constants of furoic and thiophene carboxylic acid derivatives.
Freeman, Fillmore J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 140.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carboxylic Acids |
Heterocycles
An Introduction to Chemical Nomenclature (Cahn, R. S.)  Hurd, Charles D.

Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A830.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Dipole moments: A physical-organic experiment  Rapp, Robert D.; Sturm, James E.
The experiment described here applies dipole moment measurements to a study of the conformation of 2-chlorocyclohexanone.; students are required to estimate the dipole moment of the equatorial and axial conformers by a series of calculations.
Rapp, Robert D.; Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 851.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Conversion of sucrose into a carboxylic acid: An undergraduate experiment  Carman, R. M.; Evans, R. F.
A cascade series of experiments transforms cane sugar into a carboxylic acid.
Carman, R. M.; Evans, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 847.
Carbohydrates |
Carboxylic Acids |
Heterocycles
Identification of an unknown ester: An analytical-organic experiment  Grob, Robert L.; Husk, G. Ronald
It is the student's challenge to hydrolyze an ester, separate and purify the resultant alcohol and acid, determine several physical and chemical characteristics, and arrive at a logical choice for its identity.
Grob, Robert L.; Husk, G. Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 769.
Quantitative Analysis |
Esters |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids
SI Units  Socrates, G.
This article discusses the history of the International System of Units and presents tables of basic and derived SI units, prefixes, conversions, and physical constants in SI units.
Socrates, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 710.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Fuel conversion in transport phenomena  Gerlach, E. R.
Calculations comparing the fuel efficiency of a hummingbird with that of a Volkswagen.
Gerlach, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 455.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A.
(1) Suggestions for presenting the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales. (2) Why are 4s rather than 3d electrons involved in the first and second ionizations of the first row transition elements? - answer by Haight. (3) The basis for the mnemonic ordering of atomic orbitals. (4) What is a liquid-liquid membrane electrode? Is it the same as an ion-selective electrode? - answer by Rechnitz.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 444.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Membranes
Identification of carboxylic acids: Use of N-methylpiperazine and N-phenylpiperazine  Duff, J. G.; Yung, D. K.; Brenner, R. J.; Wilson, B. J.; Racz, W. J.
Demonstrates that N-phenylpiperazine is a useful reagent for the identification of carboxylic acids.
Duff, J. G.; Yung, D. K.; Brenner, R. J.; Wilson, B. J.; Racz, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 388.
Carboxylic Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Photochemistry of organic compounds. II, Carbonyl compounds  Swenton, John S.
Examines the electronics of the simple carbonyl group, the effect of structure on photoreduction of benzophenones and acetophenones, non-conjugated unsaturated ketones, the photochemistry of cyclic enones, and cross-conjugated cyclohexadienones.
Swenton, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 217.
Photochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A system of notation and classification for typical close-packed structures  Ho, Shih-Ming; Douglas, Bodie E.
A system of notation is proposed to describe the essential features of a structure in terms of the broad close-packing concept.
Ho, Shih-Ming; Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 207.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Description of Fahrenheit's thermometer  Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1798
A short description of Fahrenheit's thermometer and his development of a temperature scale.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1798 J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 192.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The languages of chemistry. Reading, writing, and understanding equations (Walker, Ruth A.; Johnston, Helen)  Fiekers, Bernard A.

Fiekers, Bernard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A620.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Hazardous chemicals data  National Fire Protection Association
Explains aspects of chemical hazard data and presents hazards associated with acetaldehyde.
National Fire Protection Association J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A115.
Chemometrics |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Management
The formaldehyde centenary  Farber, Eduard
Examines the first production of and early investigations involving formaldehyde.
Farber, Eduard J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 812.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John
(1) Is the mole a number or a weight? (2) Is there an easy way to locate a compound by volume and page in Beilstein? (3) What are the stages evident in a gas discharge tube as the pressure of the gas and the voltage are changed? - answer by Bolte
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 718.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Gases
The Hofmann amide rearrangement  Schreck, James O.
N-bromobenzamide and phenyl isocyanate are subjected to the same conditions required to convert benzamide to aniline to demonstrate that the former two compounds could be intermediates in the Hofmann rearrangements of benzamide.
Schreck, James O. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 670.
Amides |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Mole fraction versus molality  Creak, G. Alan
Mole fractions are not always unambiguous when used in the context of ionic solutions.
Creak, G. Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 622.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Acids as derivatives of aldehydes prepared with silver oxides  Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G.
Examines the use of silver(i) and silver(II) oxide to convert aldehydes into acid derivatives.
Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The dissociation of acetic acid dimer in the gas phase  Barton, Donald; Ralph, Roy; Kane, Kevin
The dissociation of acetic acid dimer in the gas phase is used to determine the temperature dependence of equilibrium constants.
Barton, Donald; Ralph, Roy; Kane, Kevin J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 440.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Carboxylic Acids
The Girard reagents  Wheeler, Owen H.
Examines the use and chemistry of the Girard reagents.
Wheeler, Owen H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 435.
Aldehydes / Ketones
The methanolysis of substituted methyl benzoates: An exchange reaction illustrating linear free energy relationships  Glover, I. T.; Peterson, C. W.
Exchange of the carbon-14 labeled methoxyl group in substituted methyl benzoates with nonlabeled methanol provides a laboratory experiment illustrating radioisotope applications, exchange reaction kinetics, and linear free energy relationships for correlation of substituent effects on reaction rates.
Glover, I. T.; Peterson, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 241.
Esters |
Kinetics |
Isotopes |
Rate Law
Using TLC to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone  Davis, Michael
A short note regarding a simple procedure involving the use of thin layer chromatography to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone.
Davis, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 192.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Normality and molality: The expendables  Sacks, L. J.
Discusses objections against normality and molality.
Sacks, L. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 183.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical queries. Especially for high school teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) Which is correct, Celsius or centigrade? (2) How is the paddle wheel effect in the Crookes tube explained? (3) How does pH influence the chemistry of the Cu-Cu+2 cell? (4) How does concentration influence the formation of a precipitate between tin(II) chloride and mercury(II) chloride? (5) Is it Avogadro's Law, Theory, or Hypothesis?
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 38.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Stoichiometry
Hydrolysis of monosubstituted orthophosphate esters  Bunton, C. A.
Examines the mechanism of the hydrolyses of mono-alkyl and -aryl derivatives of orthophosphoric acid.
Bunton, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 21.
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Letter to the editor  Brescia, Frank
Calls on instructors not to confuse students with inappropriate definitions of work.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 771.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Significant figures and correlation of parameters  DeTar, DeLos F.
Examines the two quite different meanings for the term significant figures as applied to the parameters of an equation.
DeTar, DeLos F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 759.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Improved polymer tubes  Maycock, W. E.; Hoelzel, C. B.
Suggests improvements to the polymer tubes and procedures used in the small-scale preparation of polyesters.
Maycock, W. E.; Hoelzel, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 716.
Esters |
Polymerization
Recyclization apparatus for esterification  Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S.
Describes an apparatus and procedure involved in preparing and distilling n-butyl acetate.
Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 680.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Esters
Letter to the editor  Ewing, Galen W.; Fitgerald, J. M.
The cited paper contains a erroneous statement regarding the cm-1 being a unit of energy.
Ewing, Galen W.; Fitgerald, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 622.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Kinetic study by NMR  Socrates, G.
This experiment uses NMR to examine the kinetics of the hydration of pyruvic acid.
Socrates, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 575.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols
Photochemical reactivity  Turro, Nicholas J.
It is the purpose of this paper to clarify some confused and confusing concepts employed by photochemists concerning the reactivity of molecules in related photochemical reactions.
Turro, Nicholas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 536.
Photochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic nomenclature: A programmed introduction (Traynham, James G.)  Hiatt, Richard

Hiatt, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 309.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The significance of significant figures  Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E.
This paper is an attempt to clarify some of our ideas about numerical data, measurements, mathematical operations, and significant figures.
Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 232.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Preparation and crosslinking of an unsaturated polyester: An organic chemistry experiment  Stevens, M. P.
Unsaturated polyesters are ideally suited for introducing students to polymer chemistry in the laboratory because they are easy to prepare, the use both condensation and addition polymerization, and they serve to demonstrate the techniques involved in preparing the most widely used polymers.
Stevens, M. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 160.
Polymerization |
Esters
Patentese: A dialect of English?  Singer, T. E. R.; Smith, Julian F.
Discusses the wording and usage of patent attorneys.
Singer, T. E. R.; Smith, Julian F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 111.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
alpha-Chymotrypsin: Enzyme concentration and kinetics  Bender, Myron L.; Kezdy, Ferenc J.; Wedler, Fred C.
Spectrophotometric methods are used to explore the kinetics of ester hydrolysis by alpha-chymotrypsin.
Bender, Myron L.; Kezdy, Ferenc J.; Wedler, Fred C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 84.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Esters
Textbooks errors. Miscellanea no. 5  Mysels, Karol J.
Considers inconsistencies in the units involved in thermodynamic expressions, incorrect units given for equivalent conductivity, oscillations in polargraphic measurements, and inconsistencies in dealing with catalysis.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 44.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis
The methanolysis of acetal: A chemical kinetics and gas chromatography experiment  Johnston, David O.
Gas chromatography is used to investigate the reaction kinetics of the methanolysis of acetal.
Johnston, David O. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 33.
Kinetics |
Gas Chromatography |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Letter to the editor  Goldman, James A.
The author questions the significance of new terms presented in some textbooks.
Goldman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 680.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Hemiacetals, aldals and hemialdals  Hurd, Charles D.
This paper deals with some important aspects of aldehyde chemistry, including the reactions of hemiacetals.
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 527.
Aldehydes / Ketones
The MKS temperature scale  Georgian, John C.
A temperature scale to fit into the MKS system of units is proposed.
Georgian, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Paper chromatographic separation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones  Burnett, Marvin C.
This short note describes the paper chromatographic separation of C1-C8 aldehyde and ketone 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives.
Burnett, Marvin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 385.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Letter to the editor  Onwood, D. P.
Discusses variations in the usage of the terms "acid" and "base," including Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis systems.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 335.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Hydration of an alkyne: Undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Rose, Norman C.
The hydration of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol to yield 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone is a very suitable reaction for undergraduates who have had little prior experience in the organic laboratory.
Rose, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 324.
Alkynes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Intermolecular association and molar polarization: Physical chemistry experiment  Schrier, Eugene E.
In the experiment describes, the concentration dependence of the molar polarization of a solute is obtained for the amides 2-oxohexamethyleneimine (caprolactam) and N-methylacetamide in benzene solution.
Schrier, Eugene E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 257.
Amides
Molecules versus moles  Guggenheim, E. A.
Now that the mass of molecules is known with great accuracy, there is nothing to be gained in continuing to use moles.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 250.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Permanganate hydroxylation of alkenes  Snyder, Carl H.
Alkaline permanganate is usually a distinctly superior reagent for the conversion of alkenes to cis-glycols; neutral permanganate usually produces oxidation to ketols or cleavage to aldehydes.
Snyder, Carl H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 141.
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
It is not poor teaching to admit that mystery remains and that much of our chemical language is an oversimplification.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 111.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching dimensionless groups in chemical engineering  Gall, C. E.; Hudgins, R. R.
A paradigm is presented to show visually the structure of chemical engineering dimensionless groups.
Gall, C. E.; Hudgins, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 611.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Qualitative test for ketones, aromatic aldehydes, and aliphatic aldehydes  Morrison, James D.
The Bordwell-Wellman solution of chromic anhydride in aqueous sulfuric acid is an excellent reagent for distinguishing aldehydes from ketones.
Morrison, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 554.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Units of measurement: An early application of Avogadro's number  Brasted, Robert C.
A comparison is made between the measured volume of a regular metallic solid and its theoretical volume as calculated using Avogadro's number.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Metals |
Physical Properties
A temperature-independent concentration unit  Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr.
Describes a new system of concentration, termed molicity by the authors.
Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 420.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical vocabulary and principles. Survey of high school texts and popular literature  Morgan, Ashley C., Jr.; Koelsche, Charles L.
This study was conducted to answer two questions: Are the principles presented in the new high school chemistry textbooks different from those of 30 years ago? How do the principles and vocabularies of the new curricular materials compare with those found in popular literature?
Morgan, Ashley C., Jr.; Koelsche, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 379.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Simplified temperature conversion  Midgley, Calvin P.
This simple method for temperature conversion can be done without pencil and paper.
Midgley, Calvin P. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 322.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Derivation of equations for the interconversion of concentration units  Mills, Alfred P.
Presents the derivation of equations for the interconversion of concentration units.
Mills, Alfred P. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 314.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Editorially speaking  
Does the scientist have consistent and different meanings for the terms "law" and "theory"?
J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An introduction to chemical nomenclature (Cahn, R. S.)  Hurd, Charles D.

Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 234.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Modified exponential number notation  Frigerio, Norman A.
Suggests the notation 1P3 and 1N3 to represent 1000 and 0.001, respectively.
Frigerio, Norman A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 213.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An MKS system of units for chemists  Strong, Frederick C.
It would be worth investigating whether the MKS system would be useful in chemistry.
Strong, Frederick C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 621.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Systematic names for the tartaric acids  Baxter, J. N.
Examines the use of the small capital letters D and L in naming tartaric acids.
Baxter, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 619.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Cyclobutane chemistry: A student laboratory experiment  Williams, Francis T.; Baber, S. Charles
Suggests a sequence of experiments for studying cyclobutane chemistry involving the use of tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanedione.
Williams, Francis T.; Baber, S. Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 563.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The structures and reactions of the phosphorus sulfides  Cowley, Alan H.
Examines the nomenclature, preparation and properties, structures and bonding, and reactions of the phosphorus sulfides.
Cowley, Alan H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 530.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Lexicon of international and national units (Clason, W. E.)  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 519.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Signs of tensions in electrochemistry  Van Rysselberghe, Pierre
Discusses conventions and definitions for electrochemical terms and relationships.
Van Rysselberghe, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 486.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Phthalocyanine compounds  Moser, Frank H.; Thomas, Arthur L.
Examines the properties of phthalocyanine, the nomenclature of phthalocyanine compounds, and phthalocyanine polymers.
Moser, Frank H.; Thomas, Arthur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 245.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An introduction to the sequence rule: A system for the specification of absolute configuration  Cahn, R. S.
This paper describes the relatively simple methods that suffice for specifying the absolute configuration of the majority of optically active organic compounds - those containing asymmetric carbon atoms.
Cahn, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 116.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The direct esterification of phenols  Offenhauer, Robert D.
It is not true that phenols cannot be esterfied by the direct action of an organic acid; includes an experiment demonstrating the fallacy of this common textbook error.
Offenhauer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 39.
Phenols |
Esters |
Reactions
Determination of saponification equivalents of phenolic esters  Tobey, S. W.
Suggests several questions for exploration regarding the determination of saponification equivalents of phenolic esters.
Tobey, S. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A986.
Esters |
Phenols
The pyrolytic decomposition of carboxylate salts to ketones  Schultz, H. P.; Sichels, J. P.
Suggestions for research to accompany a previously published article.
Schultz, H. P.; Sichels, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A463.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Chromatographic glossary  Lewin, S. Z.
Presents thin layer and gas chromatography terms in English, German, French, and Spanish.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A167.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography
The use of the Perkin reaction in organic chemistry classes  Buckles, R. E.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Buckles, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Scientific communication  Eyring, Henry
Discusses the vagaries of written English and the English system of measurement.
Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 617.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Wu, Chisung
Commentary on Chinese symbols for elements.
Wu, Chisung J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 388.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Chang, J. C.
Commentary on Chinese symbols for elements.
Chang, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 388.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Tung, Cheng Ta
Commentary on Chinese symbols for elements.
Tung, Cheng Ta J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 388.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The theory of the formaldehyde clock reaction  Jones, P.; Oldham, K. B.
Presents a theory for the formaldehyde clock reaction.
Jones, P.; Oldham, K. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 366.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Esterification for the introductory organic laboratory course: A modified Dean-Stark trap  Puterbaugh, W. H.; Vanselow, C. H.; Nelson, K.; Shrawder, E. J.
Describes a simplified construction for a Dean-Stark trap and its use to determine optimum conditions for the preparation of n-amul acetate.
Puterbaugh, W. H.; Vanselow, C. H.; Nelson, K.; Shrawder, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 349.
Esters |
Synthesis
Conversion grids for ternary systems  Heric, E. L.
This article describes the basics of conversion grids and their construction and applies a conversion grid to a system of benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and n-hexane.
Heric, E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 325.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Linde, Charlotte
Suggests the term "ionocule" for the opposite of molecule.
Linde, Charlotte J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 270.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Random and systematic errors in the determination of association constants  Pasternak, R. A.; Brady, A. P.
Examines random and systematic errors in the context of studying association equilibria in solution of carboxylic acids and amides.
Pasternak, R. A.; Brady, A. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 254.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Carboxylic Acids |
Amides
The decarboxylation of organic acid  March, Jerry
Simple aliphatic acids (except for acetic) do not give good yields of the corresponding alkanes through decarboxylation, although many organic chemistry textbooks cite this as a general method for the preparation of alkanes.
March, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 212.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids
Naming chemical elements in Chinese  Suter, Rufus
Examines the naming and use of characters to represent chemical elements in Chinese.
Suter, Rufus J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 44.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Conventions defining thermodynamic properties of aqueous ions and other chemical species  Noyes, Richard M.
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the conventions presently used to tabulate thermodynamic properties of chemical species, to show the reaction types for which these tabulations are and are not applicable, and to suggest alternative conventions that could extend the applicability of the conventions.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 2.
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The formation of acetone from acetates  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests some research activities based on an article published previously in the Journal.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A962.
Undergraduate Research |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
An algorithm for translating chemical names to molecular formulas (Garfield, Eugene)  Landee, F. A.

Landee, F. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A557.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Goldberg, David E.
The author suggests using the term "continuous chain" rather than "straight" chain so as to reduce confusion regarding the geometry of carbon chains.
Goldberg, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 319.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Infrared spectra of silver salts to characterize carboxylic acids  Bonner, William A.; DeGraw, Joseph I., Jr.
Describes the use of infrared spectra of silver salts to characterize carboxylic acids.
Bonner, William A.; DeGraw, Joseph I., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 639.
Qualitative Analysis |
Carboxylic Acids |
IR Spectroscopy
Ultramacro and ultramicro science terms  de Ment, Jack
Proposes a convenient and consistent set of metric prefixes for very large and very small multiples and sub-multiples.
de Ment, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 587.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discussion of the conventions, definitions, and symbols of thermodynamics.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
Conformational analysis of the pyranoside ring  Sunderwirth, S. G.; Olson, Gary G.
Examines means of clarifying the structure of the pyranoside ring, favorable conformations, factors that influence its stability, and the affects of glycoside hydrolysis.
Sunderwirth, S. G.; Olson, Gary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 410.
Conformational Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The carbon-12 scale of atomic masses  Labbauf, Abbas
Examines the concept of atomic weight and the rise and coexistence of the oxygen and carbon scales of atomic mass.
Labbauf, Abbas J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 282.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discusses differences between mass and weight.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 275.
Physical Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A new method of defining the activity functions of non-ideal gases and solutions  Ben-Naim, A.
The aim of this paper is to discuss the various definitions given to the different activity functions as they appear in a variety of textbooks, and to propose a new and exact definition of these quantities.
Ben-Naim, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 242.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The acylation of aliphatic unsaturated hydrocarbons  Sharefkin, Jacob G.
Introductory organic chemistry textbooks discuss the Friedel-Crafts synthesis of aromatic ketones but usually do not treat the corresponding reaction in the aliphatic series.
Sharefkin, Jacob G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 206.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Letters  Smith, W. B.
The author suggests two experiments for determining the best method for preparing cyclopentanone from adipic acid.
Smith, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 638.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Letters  Crawford, Crayton M.
Comments on use of the term equivalent weights and the determination of equivalent mass.
Crawford, Crayton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 637.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Determination of saponification equivalents of phenolic esters  Tobey, Stephen W.; McGregor, S. D.; Cottrill, Sharon L.
The objective of this paper is to show that by making a few key changes in existing techniques, a procedure of saponification determination is evolved that is not only applicable to ordinary alkyl esters of carboxylic acids, but gives excellent results with a wide variety of esters of phenol and other aromatic hydroxyl compounds.
Tobey, Stephen W.; McGregor, S. D.; Cottrill, Sharon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 611.
Esters |
Carboxylic Acids |
Phenols |
Aromatic Compounds
Molecular weights by cryoscopy: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Mikulak, Robert; Runquist, Olaf
Presents an experiment determining the cryoscopic constant of cyclohexanol.
Mikulak, Robert; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 557.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Moles and equivalents: Quantities of matter  Cohen, Irwin
Examines the various means of describing and measuring quantities of matter, including the mole and the equivalent.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 555.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Foy, John R.
Suggests a modification to an earlier proposed definition for the term mole.
Foy, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Bieber, Theodore I.
Provides a concise definition for the mole.
Bieber, Theodore I. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Cohen, Irwin
Proposes use of the term cardinal weight.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The mole in quantitative chemistry  Copley, George Novello
The purpose of this paper is to show how the mole concept can be applied more consistently and efficiently to all aspects of quantitative chemistry.
Copley, George Novello J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 551.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis
A redefinition of "mole"  Lee, Shiu
Proposes improvements to a set of terms related to gram formula weights.
Lee, Shiu J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 549.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Translating and re-jargonizing the little-languages of science  de Ment, Jack
Examines the need for and challenges posed by the translation of scientific jargon into language suitable or the masses.
de Ment, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 415.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Toxic phosphorus esters (O'Brien, Richard D.)  Treece, Robert E.

Treece, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 380.
Toxicology |
Esters
Letters  Laughton, P. M.
A short discussion on the meaning of empirical formula.
Laughton, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 378.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Is there an alternative to pH?  Crane, Francis E., Jr.
Provides some alternatives to the traditional definition of pH that introductory students may find more intuitive and less confusing.
Crane, Francis E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 365.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The basis for a new conception of an electrode potential: Escaping tendency of electrons in the electrode of electrode systems at equilibrium  Ramsey, J. B.
This article develops a definition of electrode potential that is essentially different from that of either of two definitions in current usage.
Ramsey, J. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A group experiment on the Hammett sigma-rho relation  Leisten, J. A.
The second-order alkaline hydolysis of an ester is used to illustrate the Hammett sigma-rho relation.
Leisten, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 302.
Kinetics |
Esters
The pyrolytic decomposition of carboxylate salts to ketones  Schultz, Harry P.; Sichels, Jackson P.
Describes the literature and investigations regarding the pyrolytic decomposition of carboxylate salts to ketones.
Schultz, Harry P.; Sichels, Jackson P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 300.
Aldehydes / Ketones
Letters  Taylor, D. A. H.
Tollens reagent is not an infallible test for aldehydes.
Taylor, D. A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 102.
Quantitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The mole and related quantities  Guggenheim, E. A.
Examines some of the terminology associated with the mole and expressing amounts of substances.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 86.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The general philosophy of organic nomenclature  Hurd, Charles D.
A discussion of the underlying principles of nomenclature that are basic to all systems of organic nomenclature.
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 43.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Abbreviations in Russian chemical literature  Smith, Julian F.
Describes some common abbreviations found in the Russian chemical literature and discusses related issues.
Smith, Julian F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 41.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Fehling and Benedict tests  Daniels, Ralph; Rush, Clyde C.; Bauer, Ludwig
The commonly cited interpretation of the Fehling and Benedict tests are not in accord with experimental facts.
Daniels, Ralph; Rush, Clyde C.; Bauer, Ludwig J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 205.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
MolonA new concentration unit  Gillespie, R. J.; Solomons, C.
Suggests the use of the molon, defined as moles of solute per kilogram of solution.
Gillespie, R. J.; Solomons, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 202.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
New Prefixes for Units  
Outlines new recommendations for standardized metric prefixes.
J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 85.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Hall, Arthur C.
The molality-molarity paradox presented in an earlier article is artificial rather than apparent.
Hall, Arthur C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 584.
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Japanese organic chemical nomenclature: Problems of translation and transliteration  Urushibara, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Masao
In Japan, Chinese characters and a set of Japanese phonetic letters are used in scientific papers, books, and other documents almost exclusively; this presents many challenges to representing organic compounds.
Urushibara, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Masao J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 482.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Fifty foreign languages at Chemical Abstracts  Heumann, K. F.; Bernays, P. M.
Examines the various languages used in Chemical Abstracts and issues related to their application.
Heumann, K. F.; Bernays, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 478.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Some aspects of anti-acetyl-cholinesterase chemistry  Rubin, Robert T.
Examines several types of anti-acetylcholinesterase compounds and their practical applications.
Rubin, Robert T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 306.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Esters
A molality-molarity paradox?  Toby, Sidney
The author points out that there seems no obvious reason why molality could not equal molarity in a solution whose density is less than unity.
Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 230.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discusses efforts to establish a unified scale of atomic weight.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 103.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
Letters to the editor  Kraus, Charles A.
The author defines science, mathematics, engineering, and education.
Kraus, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 100.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Notations in physics and chemistry  Guggenheim, E. A.
A review and evaluation of five different forms of notation that have been used in chemistry and physics.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 606.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Grades of chemicals  Ramsey, James C., Jr.
Most students are generally unfamiliar with the various grade labels of chemicals and the significance of various grade classifications, such as reagent grade, chemically pure, and technical grade.
Ramsey, James C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 558.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Copley, G. N.
The author proposes terms and symbolism to represent different phase changes.
Copley, G. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 528.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Fused ring systems: Designation of fusion points  Krupp, Robert G.; Kondas, Michael
Addresses the challenges of nomenclature with respect to fused ring systems.
Krupp, Robert G.; Kondas, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 397.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Rutledge, Charles H.
The author reminds us that the term "nylon" was never trademarked.
Rutledge, Charles H. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 367.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Representation of polycyclic aromatic compounds  Bieber, Theodore I.
Reviews the representation of polycyclic aromatic compounds and the matter of pi-electron sharing by adjacent sextets.
Bieber, Theodore I. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 235.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters  Fisher, D. Jerome
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Donohue, Jerry
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Nomenclature of phase transition  McDonald, James E.
Discusses the curious situation in which the terminology of chemistry and physics has only five words to describe the six possible transitions between three states of matter.
McDonald, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 205.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Pokras, Lewis
The author proposes the term "senacule" as analagous to molecule and to be used to refer to ionic species.
Pokras, Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 159.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Simplified stoichiometric formula index  Skolnik, Herman; Hopkins, Jane K.
Contrasts several systems for organizing chemical formulas.
Skolnik, Herman; Hopkins, Jane K. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 150.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Revised inorganic (Stock) nomenclature for the general chemistry student  Brasted, Robert C.
Examines the Stock System as applied to teaching general chemistry and naming binary compounds of nonmetals and metals, complex entities, and oxy-anions.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 136.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ciphered formulas in carbohydrate chemistry  Difini, Alvaro; Neto, Jose Difini
Describes the use of schematic formulas as an aid to rapidly representing configurations for monosaccharides.
Difini, Alvaro; Neto, Jose Difini J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 38.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Reactions in liquid ammonia  Watt, George W.
This article considers five classes of reaction in liquid ammonia: reaction in which participation of the solvent is either absent or incidental, ammoniation, ammonolysis, reactions of alkali and alkaline earth metal amides, and reactions of solutions of metals.
Watt, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 538.
Reactions |
Metals |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
A suggested convention for the representation of ionic substances  Sunderwirth, Stanely G.
The author suggests conventions for the representation of ionic substances that may prove less confusing for introductory students.
Sunderwirth, Stanely G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 520.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Fisher, D. Jerome
The author responds to criticism of his suggestions for naming classes of crystals.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 458.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Our constantly changing language: Alice through the magnetooptical, electrooptical looking glass  Wilson, John H.
A technical editor writes on the challenges of being a technical editor.
Wilson, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 447.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials  Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J.
It is the purpose of this paper to review recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials, particularly with respect to single electrode potential, half-reaction potential, and half-cell electromotive force.
Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 433.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Letters to the editor  Freedman, Jules
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Freedman, Jules J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters to the editor  Pickering, Roger A.
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Pickering, Roger A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids  Vickery, Hubert Bradford
Discusses conventions regarding the assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids.
Vickery, Hubert Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 339.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Donohue, Jerry
Commentary of the terminology of crystal classes.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 310.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: The Wohl conventions  Abernethy, John Leo
Examines the Wohl system for designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Abernethy, John Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 150.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Acids / Bases
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: An unsettled stereochemical question  Nenitzescu, Costin D.
Examines the Wohl and Freudenberg systems of designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Nenitzescu, Costin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 147.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Relations between molecular structure and photodecomposition modes  Pitts, James N., Jr.
It is now possible to predict qualitatively, and in some cases semiquantitatively, the extent of free radical processes versus direct molecular rearrangements in vapor-phase studies of the direct photolysis of aldehydes and ketones.
Pitts, James N., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 112.
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Letters to the editor  Gorin, George
Amplifies the discussion of proper configurational prefixes for the tartaric acids.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 478.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters to the editor  Foster, Laurence S.
Thanks a reader for pointing out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Foster, Laurence S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Mayper, Stuart A.
Points out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Mayper, Stuart A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Hydrogen bonding and physical properties of substances  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
Physical properties influenced by hydrogen bonding considered in this paper include transition temperatures, vapor pressure, water solubility, the ionization of carboxylic acids, stereoisomerism, adsorption, and infrared spectra.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 267.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
Electronic configurations and atomic term symbols  Gregory, N. W.
It is valuable for senior or first-year graduate student to correlate assigned electronic configurations with spectroscopic evidence in the form of term symbols for ground states of various atoms or monatomic ions.
Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 144.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Some difficulties and common errors related to the designation of sugar configurations  Abernethy, John Leo
Examines some difficulties and common errors related to the designation of sugar configurations.
Abernethy, John Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 88.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Movable symbols and formulas as a teaching aid  Lippincott, W. T.; Wheaton, Roger
Movable magnetic squares with symbols and formulas printed on them are used as a visual teaching aid involving a variety of fundamental chemistry concepts.
Lippincott, W. T.; Wheaton, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 15.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Letters to the editor  Weiner, Samuel
Discusses some of the semantic confusions that plague teaching in chemistry.
Weiner, Samuel J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Nomenclature for conductance  Fuoss, Raymond M.
The author offers several new terms to be used in association with work on conductance and demonstrates their usefulness.
Fuoss, Raymond M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 527.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Conductivity
Thioacetamide as a source of hydrogen sulfide in qualitative analysis  Lehrman, Leo
Examines the advantages and disadvantages of using a water solution of thioacetamide as a source of hydrogen sulfide to precipitate metal sulfides in qualitative analysis.
Lehrman, Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 474.
Amides |
Qualitative Analysis
A mnemonic for dicarboxylic acids  Cox, Gerald J.
This short note provides a mnemonic for the names of the dicarboxylic acids.
Cox, Gerald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 363.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
A notation for the study of certain stereochemical problems  Newman, Melvin S.
Newman introduces the projections of compounds containing two adjacent asymmetric carbons that would later bear his name.
Newman, Melvin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 344.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Editor's outlook  Rakestraw, Norris W.
Unless the prospects of a scientific career include the spirit of freedom, we are unlikely to attract to it the kind of young men and women who in the long run will pursue it most effectively and productively.
Rakestraw, Norris W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 343.
Student / Career Counseling |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides
Trends in chemical education  Currier, Arnold J.
Topics examined include chemical nomenclature, the organization of subject matter in chemistry, carbon chemistry versus qualitative analysis, the laboratory versus the textbook, and supplies in chemistry teachers.
Currier, Arnold J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 286.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Qualitative Analysis
A laboratory exercise in catalytic dehydrogenation  Allison, Elizabeth; Gorsich, Richard; Binder, L. O.
Presents an apparatus that uses a copper catalyst to prepare aldehydes and ketones from alcohols through catalytic dehydrogenation.
Allison, Elizabeth; Gorsich, Richard; Binder, L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 209.
Catalysis |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
A mnemonic acid for aldoses  Deloach, Will S.; Brandon, Ann
Presents a mnemonic aid for remembering the D-aldoses (through the hexoses).
Deloach, Will S.; Brandon, Ann J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 136.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
The formaldehyde clock reaction  Barrett, Richard L.
The formaldehyde clock reaction has some advantages over the familiar iodine clock and deserves to be better known.
Barrett, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 78.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Gram equivalent weights  Meldrum, William B.
The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the subject of equivalent weights and the more directly applicable gram equivalents and to offer a general method by which they may be deduced from chemical equations.
Meldrum, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 48.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Crossword puzzle solution  Brown, Curtis L.
Solution to a crossword puzzle appearing earlier in this issue of the Journal.
Brown, Curtis L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 330.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Geneva Congress on Organic Nomenclature, 1892  Evieux, E. A.
Describes the work of the Geneva Congress on Organic Nomenclature, which constituted the basis of a new system of nomenclature that has since been designated the Geneva system.
Evieux, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 326.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Crossword puzzle of chemical symbols  Brown, Curtis L.
A crossword puzzle of chemical symbols and molecular formulas.
Brown, Curtis L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 298.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr.
The author replies to a commentary on his earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 217.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Rosenbaum, E. J.
Commentary on an earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Rosenbaum, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 216.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Lash, M. E.
The author clarifies the definition of critical temperature, which is often stated uncritically in textbooks.
Lash, M. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A synthesis of bis(p-aminophenyl) sulfone for laboratory classes  Buckles, Robert E.
A three-step synthesis of bis(p-aminophenyl) sulfone from p-chloronitrobenzene has been devised on a fairly small scale for laboratory classes in beginning organic chemistry.
Buckles, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 36.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Preparation of 2-naphthaldehyde  Doukas, Harry M.
Describes an improved procedure for the preparation of 2-naphthaldehyde.
Doukas, Harry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 12.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
The definition of "Spectrum"  Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr.
The author examines the word "spectrum" and several related terms.
Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Spectroscopy
Letters  Wolfrom, Melville L.
The author encourages American chemists to familiarize themselves with the conventions of representing configurational formulas.
Wolfrom, Melville L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 479.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
The identification of esters of phenols  Carbone, Gabriel
The present modification is designed to better characterize esters of phenols and is based on the observations that the potassium salts of phenols are soluble in absolute alcohol wile the potassium salts of organic acids are relatively insoluble in absolute methanol.
Carbone, Gabriel J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 315.
Phenols |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis
Aspects of isomerism and mesomerism. I. (a) Formulas and their meaning (b) Mesomerism  Bent, Richard L.
Examines molecular, empirical, structural, configurational, and projection formulas, as well as mesomerism (electronic isomers) and various types of resonance.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 220.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Editor's Outlook  Rakestraw, Norris W.
The editor suggests shortening the names of metric units.
Rakestraw, Norris W. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 219.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V.
The author suggests that valence electrons be called "valentrons."
Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
History of the chemical sign language  Winderlich, Rudolf
Traces the historic development of chemical symbolism.
Winderlich, Rudolf J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 58.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The genesis of the metric system and the work of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures  Moreau, Henri
This paper provides the broad outlines of the origin of the metric system and the contributions of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.
Moreau, Henri J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 3.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Friedel-Crafts reaction in elementary organic laboratories  Wright, Oscar L.; Fuhlhage, Donald; Sheridan, Earl
Presents a modification of the Perrier ketone synthesis.
Wright, Oscar L.; Fuhlhage, Donald; Sheridan, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 620.
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Letters  Brescia, Frank
The author calls for someone to invent another term for the word resonance as applied to the field of molecular structure.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 261.
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The preservation and availability of chemical knowledge  Dyson, G. Malcolm
The author examines the nature, collection, organization, and dissemination of chemical knowledge through literature.
Dyson, G. Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 239.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On accenting observations in chemistry  Campbell, J. A.
A chemical equations is, for many a student, such a complete abstraction that he would be hard put to describe the actual observations that would be made in a process for which he was supplied the complete equation.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 634.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Reduction of benzophenone by aluminum isopropoxide  Cole, Quintin P.
Presents an apparatus and a microscale procedure for the reduction of benzophenone by aluminum isopropoxide.
Cole, Quintin P. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 142.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Letters  Swaine, D. J.
The author points out continuing errors regarding the names and symbols of the elements lutetium, samarium, and radon.
Swaine, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 53.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols