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Journal Articles: 1,000 results
[#99] Clip Clues: Discovering Chemical Formulas  Carmen Fies and Diana Mason
Students use deductive reasoning skills as they identify formulas of unknown elements and compounds modeled by paperclips. The activity supports formation of a basic understanding of elements and compounds, including allotropes, oxidation states, and diatomic elements.
Fies, Carmen; Mason, Diana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1648A.
Covalent Bonding |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Student-Centered Learning
Ionic Blocks  Richard S. Sevcik, Rex Gamble, Elizabet Martinez, Linda D. Schultz, and Susan V. Alexander
"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery.
Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1631.
Ionic Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Stoichiometry
Assessing Nitration Products of Benzene Derivatives Using TLC Analysis  Rita K. Hessley
Thin layer chromatography is applied to an earlier published, guided discovery experiment using GCMS analyses to identify isomers formed by the nitration of mono-substituted benzenes.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1623.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds
Communicating about Matter with Symbols: Evolving from Alchemy to Chemistry  Luigi Fabbrizzi
Alchemists used a secret language and arcane symbols to indicate substances and procedures. When alchemy became quantitative and evolved into the discipline of chemistry, those symbols were supplanted by abbreviations and formulas. However, chemical communication can remain mysterious to the uninitiated.
Fabbrizzi, Luigi. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1501.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
French Mnemonics for the Periodic Table  Gilles Olive and David Riffont
Memorizing chemical names and symbols can be relatively easy with the help of mnemonics. In this letter, we continue the international trend of a previous letter by providing French mnemonics (in the form of sentences) to help young chemists.
Olive, Gilles; Riffont, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1489.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Biphenyl  Jay A. Young
Safe handling and laboratory use of biphenyl are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1486.
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Management
Elemental Chem Lab  Antonio Joaquín Franco Mariscal
Three puzzles use the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs.
Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1370.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Optimizing Chromatographic Separation: An Experiment Using an HPLC Simulator  R. A. Shalliker, S. Kayillo, and G. R. Dennis
An HPLC simulator from JCE Software and Excel spreadsheets are used to help students develop an appreciation for the complexities involved in the optimization of chromatographic separation procedures. The relationship between solvent composition and retention factor is measured to determine the solvent composition for maximized separation.
Shalliker, R. A.; Kayillo, S.; Dennis, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1265.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Preparation of Conducting Polymers by Electrochemical Methods and Demonstration of a Polymer Battery  Hiromasa Goto, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Fumihiro Togashi, Reina Ohta, Akitsu Tsujimoto, Eiji Kita, and Ken-ichi Ohshima
The electrochemical polymerization of aniline and pyrrole, and demonstrations of electrochromism and the polymer battery effect, are presented as demonstrations suitable for high school and introductory chemistry at the university level.
Goto, Hiromasa; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Togashi, Fumihiro; Ohta, Reina; Tsujimoto, Akitsu; Kita, Eiji; Ohshima, Ken-ichi. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1067.
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Polymerization
The Science Teacher: Spring 2008  Steve Long
This article reviews chemistry-related articles published between Summer 2007 and February 2008 in The Science Teacher. Supplementary JCE articles and topics are also referenced.
Long, Steve. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 772.
Electrophoresis |
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student / Career Counseling
Determination of Hammett Equation Rho Constant for the Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Benzoate Esters  Sheue L. Keenan, Karl P. Peterson, Kelly Peterson, and Kyle Jacobson
In this experiment, seven p-nitrophenyl benzoate esters are synthesized and characterized. Students then measure the rate constants for the base hydrolysis of these esters using UV-vis spectrophotometry and determine the Hammett equation constant for this hydrolysis reaction.
Keenan, Sheue L.; Peterson, Karl P.; Peterson, Kelly; Jacobson, Kyle. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 558.
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Chemistry Taboo: An Active Learning Game for the General Chemistry Classroom  Ken Capps
This paper presents an effective and entertaining way to teach and reinforce central chemistry concepts by incorporating chemical terms into the board game Taboo.
Capps, Ken. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 518.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Biochemistry Wordsearches  Terry L. Helser
Presents two matrix puzzles containing names, terms, acronyms, and abbreviations describing amino acid and nucleotide synthesis, respectively. When completed, the letters remaining describe 1) a genetic disease that students are asked to explain, and 2) a sentence describing the pathways of nucleic acid anabolism.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 515.
Amino Acids |
Biosynthesis |
Metabolism |
Molecular Biology |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Synthesis
Elements—A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols  Richard S. Sevcik, O'Dell Hicks, Linda D. Schultz, and Susan V. Alexander
"Elements" is a card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student constructs his or her own playing cards and competes against classmates in a mini-tournament.
Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 514.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Why Tungsten Instead of Wolfram?  William B. Jensen
Traces the reason that American and British chemical literature use the name tungsten for element 74, while northern European literature uses the name wolfram.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 488.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Synthesis and Characterization of 9-Hydroxyphenalenone Using 2D NMR Techniques  Benjamin Caes and Dell Jensen Jr.
The synthesis of 9-Hydroxyphenalenone produces a planar multicyclic beta-ketoenol, the tautomerization of which results in C2v symmetry on the NMR time scale, thus simplifying the spectra and providing a unique structure for teaching 2D NMR spectroscopy.
Caes, Benjamin; Jensen, Dell, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 413.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Zeroing In on Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution  David C. Forbes, Mohini Agarwal, Jordan L. Ciza, and Heather A. Landry
Presents a unique and novel illustration of reactivity trends in the formation of trisubstituted benzene derivatives from disubstituted systems using electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions.
Forbes, David C.; Agarwal, Mohini; Ciza, Jordan L.; Landry, Heather A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1878.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Reactions
Probing the Rate-Determining Step of the Claisen–Schmidt Condensation by Competition Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Wing-Fat Chan, Ka-Ying Lung, Wai-Yee Lam, Weng-Cheong Ng, and Siu-Fung Lee
This article describes a physical organic experiment to identify the rate-determining step of the ClaisenSchmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and acetophenone by studying the linear free energy relationship.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Chan, Wing-Fat; Lung, Ka-Ying; Lam, Wai-Yee; Ng, Weng-Cheong; Lee, Siu-Fung. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1819.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gas Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Discovering Electronic Effects of Substituents in Nitrations of Benzene Derivatives Using GC–MS Analysis  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
Describes an organic lab in which students pool mass spectral data to identify the distribution of isomer products generated by the nitration of six benzene derivatives whose substituents differ in their electronic effects. Students also determine which substituents direct nitration predominantly to the ortho- or para- and to the meta positions.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1679.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
The Aromaticity of Pericyclic Reaction Transition States  Henry S. Rzepa
Presents an approach that combines two fundamental concepts in organic chemistry, chirality and aromaticity, into a simple rule for stating selection rules for pericyclic reactions in terms of achiral Hckel-aromatic and chiral Mbius-aromatic transition states.
Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1535.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
The Penny Experiment Revisited: An Illustration of Significant Figures, Accuracy, Precision, and Data Analysis  Joseph Bularzik
In this general chemistry laboratory the densities of pennies are measured by weighing them and using two different methods to measure their volumes. The average and standard deviation calculated for the resulting densities demonstrate that one measurement method is more accurate while the other is more precise.
Bularzik, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1456.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Physical Properties
Communicating Chemical and Mathematical Equations in Email  Carl W. David
MathCast is a program that can be used to communicate technical materials, especially complex mathematical formulas and chemical equations, using email.
David, Carl W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 932.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Professional Development
The Origin of the Names Malic, Maleic, and Malonic Acid  William B. Jensen
Explores the origins of the terms malic, maleic, and malonic acid.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 924.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation  J. F. Ogilvie and M. B. Monagan
The authors explain how the use of mathematical software improves the teaching and understanding of mathematics to and by chemistry students while greatly expanding their abilities to solve realistic chemical problems.
Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 889.
Chemometrics |
Computational Chemistry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Short History of Three Chemical Shifts  Shin-ichi Nagaoka
Regrettably, the term "chemical shift" to designate the position of a spectral signal has a poor reputation as a technical term. Nevertheless, the "chemical" environment around an atom of interest influences the electronic environment and hence, leads to spectral shifts, making the prefix "chemical" appropriate.
Nagaoka, Shin-ichi. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 801.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Aromatic Bagels: An Edible Resonance Analogy  Shirley Lin
Describes a classroom demonstration involving the use of a bagel and cream cheese as an analogy for benzene that emphasizes the deficiencies of using a single Lewis structure to describe this structure.
Lin, Shirley. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 779.
Aromatic Compounds |
Lewis Structures |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Toluene  Jay A. Young
Safety precautions for handling toluene are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 760.
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Competitive Nitration of Benzene–Fluorobenzene and Benzene–Toluene Mixtures: Orientation and Reactivity Studies Using HPLC  Ronald L. Blankespoor, Stephanie Hogendoorn, and Andrea Pearson
In this experiment for the first-year organic laboratory, mixtures of benzenetoluene and benzenefluorobenzene are competitively nitrated to determine the reactivity and orientation effects of CH3 and F. HPLC is used to analyze the reaction mixtures.
Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Hogendoorn, Stephanie; Pearson, Andrea. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 697.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
HPLC
Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Monitoring of the Cyclic Voltammetric Deposition of Polyaniline. A Laboratory Experiment for Undergraduates  Qingji Xie, Zhili Li, Chunyan Deng, Meiling Liu, Youyu Zhang, Ming Ma, Shaoxi Xia, Xiaoming Xiao, Dulin Yin, and Shouzhuo Yao
Describes a laboratory experiment for fourth-year undergraduates in which an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is used to monitor the cyclic voltammetric deposition of a conducting polyaniline thin film on an Au electrode.
Xie, Qingji; Li, Zhili; Deng, Chunyan; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Ma, Ming; Xia, Shaoxi; Xiao, Xiaoming; Yin, Dulin; Yao, Shouzhuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 681.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Polymerization
A Spoonful of C12H22O11 Makes the Chemistry Go Down: Candy Motivations in the High School Chemistry Classroom  Fanny K. Ennever
Describes sixteen motivations that combine food with measurement, nomenclature, stoichiometry, distillation, the periodic table, polarity, boiling point, rate of solution, catalysis, entropy, acids, redox, and organic compounds.
Ennever, Fanny K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 615.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students  Alice L. Perez and G. Lamoureux
Sudoku puzzles are used to help the students learn the correspondence between the names of amino acids, their abbreviations, and codes; and the correspondence between the names of functional groups, their structures, and abbreviations.
Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 614.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkylation |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Amino Acids |
MO Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student-Centered Learning |
Alkynes |
Amides
Sudoku Puzzles as Chemistry Learning Tools  Thomas D. Crute and Stephanie A. Myers
Sudoku puzzles that use a mixture of chemical terms and symbols serve as a tool to encourage the necessary repetition and attention to detail desired for mastering chemistry. The classroom-ready examples provided use polyatomic ions, organic functional groups, and strong nucleophiles. Guidelines for developing additional puzzles are described.
Crute, Thomas D.; Myers, Stephanie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 612.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student-Centered Learning
Chlorobenzene  Jay A. Young
Safety precautions for handling chlorobenzene are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 590.
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Management
How and When Did Avogadro's Name become Associated with Avogadro's Number?  William B. Jensen
Traces the process by which Avogadro's name became associated with Avogadro's number in American college and high school chemistry texts.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 223.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Precision in Stereochemical Terminology  LeRoy G. Wade, Jr.
This article recommends that instructors use the precise terms asymmetric carbon atom and chirality center when they apply, and use the broader term stereocenter only when there is a need to include stereogenic atoms that are not chirality centers.
Wade, LeRoy G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1793.
Chemical Technicians |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity
p-Dichlorobenzene  Jay A. Young
The hazards of p-dichlorobenzene are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1755.
Laboratory Management |
Aromatic Compounds
o-Dichlorobenzene  Jay A. Young
The hazards of o-dichlorobenzene are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1754.
Laboratory Management |
Aromatic Compounds
The Origin of the Term "Hypervalent"  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the term hypervalent, the various debates surrounding its usage, and the resulting implications for introductory textbooks.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1751.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The IUPAC Rules for Naming Organic Molecules  Stanislaw Skonieczny
A systematic approach to naming polyfunctional organic compounds is presented. Latest IUPAC rules are incorporated and the table of order of precedence for the major functional groups is assembled.
Skonieczny, Stanislaw. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1633.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Use of Dots in Chemical Formulas  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins and uses of dots in chemical formulas.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1590.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Concentration Scales for Sugar Solutions  David W. Ball
Examines several special scales used to indicate the concentration of sugar solutions and their application to industry.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Food Science |
Solutions / Solvents
The New Measurement Concept Explained by Using an Introductory Example  Bruno Wampfler, Matthias Rösslein, and Helene Felber
Presents the implementation of measurement uncertainty in lectures on analytical chemistry and compares the measurement concept published in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement with the current state-of-practice.
Wampfler, Bruno; Rösslein, Matthias; Felber, Helene. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1382.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Professional Development
Calix[4]pyrrole: Synthesis and Anion-Binding Properties. An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  James A. Shriver and Scott G. Westphal
Simple calixpyrrole macrocycles provide an easy-to-synthesize example of an anion-binding agent that can be included in the undergraduate laboratory curriculum. The inclusion of a test for anion binding also makes this procedure suitable for a more advanced audience and supplies a bridge for the introduction of supramolecular chemistry and a typical hostguest interaction.
Shriver, James A.; Westphal, Scott G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1330.
Aromatic Compounds |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Recognition |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Classifying Matter: A Physical Model Using Paper Clips  Bob Blake, Lynn Hogue, and Jerry L. Sarquis
By using colored paper clips, students can represent pure substances, mixtures, elements, and compounds and then discuss their similarities and differences. This model is advantageous for the beginning student who would not know enough about the detailed composition of simple materials like milk, brass, sand, and air to classify them properly.
Blake, Bob; Hogue, Lynn; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1317.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solids |
Student-Centered Learning
More on the Nature of Resonance  Robert C. Kerber
The author continues to find the use of delocalization preferable to resonance.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1291.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
More on the Nature of Resonance  William B. Jensen
Supplements a recent article on the interpretation of resonance theory with three additional observationsone historical and two conceptual.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
The Origin of the Term "Base"  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the term base as used in acid-base chemistry.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1130.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Acid–Base Chemistry According to Robert Boyle: Chemical Reactions in Words as well as Symbols  David E. Goodney
Examples of acidbase reactions from Robert Boyle's The Sceptical Chemist are used to illustrate the rich information content of chemical equations. Boyle required lengthy passages of florid language to describe what can be done quite simply with a chemical equation.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Octachem Model: Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Companion  Joaquin Palacios
The Octachem model is an educational physical model designed to guide students in the identification, classification, and naming of the chemical structures of organic compounds. In this article the basic concepts of Octachem model are presented, and the physical model and contents are described.
Palacios, Joaquin. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 890.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Ethers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Origin of the Term Allotrope  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the concept of allotropism and its changing meaning over time.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 838.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Valence, Oxidation Number, and Formal Charge: Three Related but Fundamentally Different Concepts  Gerard Parkin
The purpose of this article is to clarify the terms valence, oxidation number, coordination number, formal charge, and number of bonds and illustrate how the valence of an atom in a molecule provides a much more meaningful criterion for establishing the chemical reasonableness of a molecule than does the oxidation number.
Parkin, Gerard. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 791.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Oxidation State |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Vocabulary and Concepts of Organic Chemistry, Second Edition (Milton Orchin, Roger S. Macomber, Allan R. Pinhas, R. Marshall Wilson)  R. David Crouch
As the title implies, this book serves as a reference for someone who needs to answer a question such as What is a carbene? or Whats the difference between a sulfenate and a sulfinate?
Crouch, R. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 706.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Rainbow Wheel and Rainbow Matrix: Two Effective Tools for Learning Ionic Nomenclature  Joseph S. Chimeno, Gary P Wulfsberg, Michael J. Sanger, and Tammy J. Melton
This study compared the learning of ionic nomenclature by three different methods, one traditional and the other two using game formats. The game formats were found to be more effective in helping students develop a working knowledge of chemical nomenclature.
Chimeno, Joseph S.; Wulfsberg, Gary P.; Sanger, Michael J.; Melton, Tammy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 651.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses
Incorporation of Microwave Synthesis into the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Alan R. Katritzky, Chunming Cai, Meghan D. Collins, Eric F. V. Scriven, Sandeep K. Singh, and E. Keller Barnhardt
Describes a simple way to effectively implement microwave synthesis into the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum.
Katritzky, Alan R.; Cai, Chunming; Collins, Meghan D.; Scriven, Eric F. V.;Singh, Sandeep K.; Barnhardt, E. Keller. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 634.
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Revisiting Molar Mass, Atomic Mass, and Mass Number: Organizing, Integrating, and Sequencing Fundamental Chemical Concepts  Stephen DeMeo
It is often confusing for introductory chemistry students to differentiate between molar mass, atomic mass, and mass number as well as to conceptually understand these ideas beyond a surface level. One way to improve understanding is to integrate the concepts, articulate their relationships, and present them in a meaningful sequence.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 617.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Nomenclature Made Practical: Student Discovery of the Nomenclature Rules  Michael C. Wirtz, Joan Kaufmann, and Gary Hawley
Presents a method to teach chemical nomenclature to students in an introductory chemistry course that utilizes the discovery-learning model. Inorganic compounds are grouped into four categories and introduced through separate activities interspersed throughout the first semester to provide context and avoid confronting the student with all of the nomenclature rules at once.
Wirtz, Michael C.; Kaufmann, Joan; Hawley, Gary. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 595.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmetals |
Student-Centered Learning
Acrostic Puzzles in the Classroom  Dorothy Swain
Acrostic puzzles are an effective vehicle to expose students to the history and philosophy of science without lecturing.
Swain, Dorothy. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Origins of the Ortho-, Meta-, and Para- Prefixes in Chemical Nomenclature  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the prefixes "ortho-", "meta-", and "para-" in both inorganic and organic chemical nomenclature.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 356.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
If It's Resonance, What Is Resonating?  Robert C. Kerber
This article reviews the origin of the terminology associated with the use of more than one Lewis-type structure to describe delocalized bonding in molecules and how the original usage has evolved to reduce confusion
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 223.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Acid-Catalyzed Isomerization of Carvone to Carvacrol  Richard A. Kjonaas and Shawn P. Mattingly
Describes the acid-catalyzed isomerization of carvone (oil of spearmint) to carvacrol (oil of origanum). The experiment demonstrates several important concepts including formation of a carbocation by protonation of an alkene, rearrangement of a carbocation, deprotonation of a carbocation, acid-catalyzed enolization, and aromaticity.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Mattingly, Shawn P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1813.
Aromatic Compounds |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy
Benzaldehyde  Jay A. Young
The hazards of benzaldehyde are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1770.
Laboratory Management |
Aromatic Compounds
Benzene  Jay A. Young
The hazards of benzene are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1769.
Laboratory Management |
Aromatic Compounds
Benzidine  Jay A. Young
The hazards of benzidine are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1768.
Laboratory Management |
Aromatic Compounds
Are Some Elements More Equal Than Others?  Ronald L. Rich
Presents a new periodic chart with 18 columns but no interruptions of atomic numbers at Lanthanum or Actinum, and no de-emphasis of elements 57-71 or 89-103 by seeming to make footnotes of them. It shows some elements more than once in order to illuminate multiple relationships in chemical behavior.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Inner Transition Elements |
Main-Group Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Azulene Chemistry  
The months Featured Molecules illustrate some of the chemistry of a substituted azulene, a structural isomer of naphthalene.
J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1688.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Aromatic Compounds
An Azulene-Based Discovery Experiment: Challenging Students To Watch for the "False Assumption"  Charles M. Garner
Abundant inconsistencies between the "expected" structure of a product and its observed color, solubility, polarity, and NMR spectra causes students to be much more observant and critical of their results, particularly with respect to interpretation of NMR spectra.
Garner, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1686.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Chromatography
The Symbolism of Chemical Equations   Jensen, William B.
Traces the origins of the equal sign and double arrow symbolism in balanced chemical equations.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1461.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Improving Conceptions in Analytical Chemistry: ci Vi = cf Vf  Margarita Rodríguez-López and Arnaldo Carrasquillo Jr.
A common misconception related to analytical chemistry, which may be generalized as the failure to recognize and to account analytically for changes in substance density, is discussed. A cautionary example is made through the use of mass-based units of composition during volumetric dilution. The correct application of the volumetric dilution equation ci Vi = cf Vf is discussed. A quantitative description of the systematic error introduced by incorrect use of the volumetric dilution equation is also specified.
Rodríguez-López, Margarita; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1327.
Industrial Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Quantitative Thermodynamic Descriptions of Aromaticity. A Computational Exercise for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Terrence Gavin
This article describes an exercise that enables students to establish a quantitative scale of aromaticity via computer-driven quantum mechanical calculations using Spartan software. The method utilizes a group of analogous isodesmic reactions from which the energy difference between two isomeric cyclic polyenes is calculated from their optimized geometries. The energy differences found are used to characterize structures as aromatic, nonaromatic, or antiaromatic depending on the value obtained. A representative group of structures, including hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon ions, and heterocycles are studied.
Gavin, Terrence. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 953.
Aromatic Compounds |
Computational Chemistry |
Heterocycles |
Molecular Modeling |
Thermodynamics
A Green Starting Material for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  T. Michelle Jones-Wilson and Elizabeth A. Burtch
Traditional experiments in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory involve the use of hazardous organic materials. Substitution of alternative green procedures wherever possible reduces organic waste and allows students to consider the need for environmentally sound chemistry. A green electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction (EAS), nitration of tyrosine, has been developed for use in the undergraduate laboratory. This reaction allows students to consider the varied aspects of EAS including activating and deactivating groups and o, p, m directors in a green environment.
Jones-Wilson, T. Michelle; Burtch, Elizabeth A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 616.
Amino Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Electrophilic Substitution
"In Yeast" Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 31 names, terms and acronyms that describe enzyme catalysis in a 15-by-14 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find. When all are found, the 15 letters remaining in the matrix complete a sentence describing what enzymes do. This wordsearch puzzle is suitable for any course that introduces enzyme nomenclature.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 552.
Enzymes |
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Water Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 36 names and terms from water chemistry in a 14-by-13 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find. When all are found, the 16 letters remaining in the matrix complete a sentence describing a reason to learn these terms. It is suitable for any course that introduces the unique properties of water.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 551.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Designing Element T-shirts: Spelling with the Periodic Table  Julie Palmer and Lisa Brosnick
As an enrichment activity for the periodic table unit, students used element symbols to spell their name or a common word. These element "words" were typed into a template using proper element notation, atomic mass, and atomic number. The resulting templates were then printed on iron-on t-shirt transfer papers using an inkjet printer. Students ironed the transfers onto t-shirts and wore the shirts to school in celebration of National Chemistry Week.
Palmer, Julie; Brosnick, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 517.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Introducing JCE ChemInfo: Organic  Hans J. Reich
JCE ChemInfo: Organic is a collection of Web pages containing information useful to teachers, researchers, and students in organic chemistry, biochemistry, and medicinal chemistry. The pages have been selected for ease of use, broad applicability, and quality of coverage. Topics will include structural information, organic reactions, nomenclature, physical properties, and spectroscopic data. These Web pages will be updated when possible and additional Web pages will be added as they become available.
Reich, Hans J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 495.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
NMR Spectroscopy
The Evolution of a Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment: Greener Brominations of Stilbene  Lallie C. McKenzie, Lauren M. Huffman, and James E. Hutchison
We describe two new greener alkene bromination reactions that offer enhanced laboratory safety and convey important green chemistry concepts, in addition to illustrating the chemistry of alkenes. The two alternative reactions, one involving pyridinium tribromide and a second using hydrogen peroxide and hydrobromic acid, are compared to the traditional bromination of stilbene through the application of green metrics, including atom economy, percent experimental atom economy, E factor, and effective mass yield.
McKenzie, Lallie C.; Huffman, Lauren M.; Hutchison, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 306.
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes
Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen  Liliana Haim
We present a series of cooking activities to be carried out as a starting point of a chemistry course in the elementary school. This "kitchen course" is intended for students ages 911 who are new to chemistry. The main purpose is to allow students to practice transferrable skills by handling concrete kitchen materials; they learn classification, ordering, unit conversion, and conservation. The kitchen activities also introduce anchors for chemistry-specific skills such as periodic table conformation and manipulation, chemical equation and chemical formula use, relative mass, and element and compound differentiation.
Haim, Liliana. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 228.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Kilogram and the Mole Redux  Paul J. Karol
Freemans reply to my letter on the kilogram and the mole misses the point, perhaps because I was not sufficiently clear. Of his substantive criticisms, Freeman first states (correctly) I define NAAvogadros numberand that I then define the kilogram (incorrect). Defining NA in conjunction with the existing undebatable definition of a mass scale based on 12C mandates, ipso facto, the kilogram metric.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 212.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Rotor-shaped Cyclopentadienyltetraphenylcyclobutadienecobalt. An Advanced Inorganic Experiment  Darren K. MacFarland and Rebecca Gorodetzer
An advanced laboratory experiment involving the synthesis of the title compound is described. The suitability of the compound for teaching inert-atmosphere techniques and the stability of the product are discussed. The compound has interesting structural features that pique student interest.
MacFarland, Darren K.; Gorodetzer, Rebecca. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 109.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics
Empirical Formulas and the Solid State: A Proposal  William B. Jensen
This brief article calls attention to the failure of most introductory textbooks to point out explicitly the fact that nonmolecular solids do not have molecular formulas and suggests some practical remedies for improving textbook coverage of this subject. The inadequacies of the terms "empirical formula" and "molecular formula" are also discussed, and the terms "relative compositional formula" and "absolute compositional formula" are proposed as more appropriate alternatives.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1772.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Discovery-Based Friedel–Crafts Acylation Experiment: Student-Designed Experimental Procedure  Anne McElwee Reeve
A discovery-based FriedelCrafts acylation experiment that includes a student-designed procedure, spectroscopic analysis of an unknown aromatic product, and molecular modeling is described. Students design the synthetic procedure and workup for the acylation of an unknown aromatic starting material in an instructor-guided classroom discussion that integrates concepts from the first semester of organic lab into a new context.
Reeve, Anne McElwee. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1497.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Etymology as an Aid to Understanding Chemistry Concepts  Nittala S. Sarma
Recognition of word roots and the pattern of evolution of scientific terms can be helpful in understanding chemistry concepts (gaining knowledge of new concepts represented by related terms). The meaning and significance of various etymological roots, occurring as prefixes and suffixes in technical terms particularly of organic chemistry, are explained in a unified manner in order to show the connection of various concepts vis  vis the terms in currency. The meanings of some special words and many examples are provided.
Sarma, Nittala S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1437.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Origin of the Mole Concept  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader query, the column traces the origins of the mole concept in chemistry.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1409.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Why Helium Ends in "-ium"  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader query, the reasons are traced for helium having the ending "-ium", usually reserved for metals.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 944.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Coumarin, Naphthalene, and Additional Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  William F. Coleman
Fully manipulative Chime versions of these molecules are available online.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 912.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
SI for Chemists: A Modification  Robert D. Freeman
To correct my original blunder, I recommend that the name "amount of substance" be replaced by "quant" (rather than posos). The word "quant" is in standard dictionaries and has a single meaning related to boating.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 802.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: Another Position  Tomislav Cvitas
I must say that I agree neither with what was said in the original commentary by R. D. Freeman, nor with the letter by P. Karol.
Cvitas, Tomislav. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 801.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions; SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Robert D. Freeman
Karols letter is a prime example of the type of article about which he complains in his first paragraph. There are four major flaws in Karols suggestions.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions. SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Paul J. Karol
The persistent perceived problem with the base units kilogram and mole addressed in those journal articles is resolvable once it is finally recognized that we have been using a double standard: the international platinumiridium kilogram prototype and 12C.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions. SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Paul J. Karol
The persistent perceived problem with the base units kilogram and mole addressed in those journal articles is resolvable once it is finally recognized that we have been using a double standard: the international platinumiridium kilogram prototype and 12C.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
The Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution of Fluorobenzene   Addison Ault
Joel Rosenthal and David Schuster published a paper entitled The Anomalous Reactivity of Fluorobenzene in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution and Related Phenomena. The authors and the reviewers, apparently, were not aware of my publication in this Journal in 1966 entitled The Activating Effect of Fluorine in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 644.
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Functional Group Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 24 names and terms from organic chemistry in a 12 ? 12 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 517.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Organic Chemistry Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 27 names and terms from organic chemistry in a 13 ? 13 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 515.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Caveman Chemistry: 28 Projects, from the Creation of Fire to the Production of Plastics (Kevin M. Dunn)  Michael S. Matthews
In Caveman Chemistry, Kevin Dunn presents a historically oriented hands-on introduction to chemistry and chemical technology that is tremendously entertaining.
Matthews, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 490.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Natural Products |
Nonmajor Courses
Developing Investigation Skills in an Introductory Multistep Synthesis Using Fluorene Oxidation and Reduction  Mark G. Stocksdale, Steven E. S. Fletcher, Ian Henry, Paul J. Ogren, Michael A. G. Berg, Roy D. Pointer, and Barrett W. Benson
A two-step reaction sequence in the beginning organic laboratory provides a useful introduction to the importance of multistep synthesis. In addition to introducing several common synthetic methods and techniques, a two-step preparation can quickly establish the importance of testing alternative reactions in order to optimize intermediate yields.
Stocksdale, Mark G.; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Henry, Ian; Ogren, Paul J.; Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.; Benson, Barrett W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 388.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules for the month of February are a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) discussed in the article Fluorescence, Absorption, and Excitation Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 245.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming  Michael Golombok
We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity regimes: equilibrium determined and kinetically determined, respectively. The feed streams and reaction conditions are similar, but the products are different. The role of catalysis for the two processes is compared and the effects on the kinetics are discussed.
Golombok, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 228.
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Kinetics
Microscale Synthesis of 1-Bromo-3-chloro-5-iodobenzene: An Improved Deamination of 4-Bromo-2-chloro-6-iodoaniline  Michael W. Pelter, Libbie S.W. Pelter, Dusanka Colovic, and Regina Strug
Overall, we find this procedure to be advantageous to the published methods owing to its requirement of less starting material, higher product yields, and a greatly simplified procedure.
Pelter, Michael W.; Pelter, Libbie S.W.; Colovic, Dusanka; Strug, Regina. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 111.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
An Acid Hydrocarbon: A Chemical Paradox  Jeffrey T. Burke
This article explores the use of paradox as a teaching and learning strategy. Specifically, students observe the acid-like paradoxical behavior of the hydrocarbon cyclopentadiene. This observation then serves as a springboard to an understanding of the non-benzenoid aromatics.
Burke, Jeffrey T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 65.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds
A Polymer-Supported Organic Reaction: Seeing Is Believing  E. Hailstone, N. Huther, and A. F. Parsons
In this laboratory experiment, an amide-coupling reaction is carried out on a polymer support, and the reaction is monitored using different chemical stains. This effectively demonstrates, through color changes, the reaction of a polymer-supported amine that provides students with valuable practical experience of this important and modern advance in organic chemistry methodology.
Hailstone, E.; Huther, N.; Parsons, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1444.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Dyes / Pigments |
Solid State Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Using Hydrocarbon Acidities To Demonstrate Principles of Organic Structure and Bonding  Andrew P. Dicks
This article demonstrates the utility of hydrocarbon acidity as a teaching tool within the undergraduate classroom. Acidities of compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon vary by at least 50 orders of magnitude. Differences in acidities are rationalized by invoking principles of hybridization, resonance, induction, and aromaticity.
Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1322.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Reactions (→) vs Equations (=)  S. R. Logan
A recent chemical kinetics text uses an equals sign for an overall reaction, whereas an arrow is used in each of the reaction steps that are proposed to constitute the mechanism, and for any elementary process.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1258.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Organic Nomenclature  David B. Shaw and Laura R. Yindra
Organic Nomenclature is a drill-and-practice exercise in naming organic compounds (using both common and IUPAC names) and identifying structural formulas. It consists of multiple-choice questions where a name or formula is given and the correct formula or name is chosen from a list of five possible answers.
Shaw, David B.; Yindra, Laura R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1223.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Nonlinear Optical Experiment: Stimulated Raman Scattering in Benzene and Deuterated Benzene  Stéphanie Melin and Joseph W. Nibler
A sampling arrangement is described that results in strong stimulated Raman emission involving symmetric CC and CH(CD) stretching modes in both C6H6 and C6D6. The wavelengths of the coherent beams are easily measured with a simple transmission grating and meter stick. Observations of both collinear and conical stimulated Raman beams are made and the reasons for these discussed.
Melin, Stéphanie; Nibler, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1187.
Aromatic Compounds |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
Inorganic Nomenclature   David Shaw
Drill-and-practice exercises in naming and writing formulas for ionic and covalent inorganic compounds.
Shaw, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 711.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Trivial, Common, and Systematic Chemical Names  Giovanni Lentini
Call for clear distinction to be made between trivial / common / generic names, international nonproprietary names (INN), and systematic (IUPAC) names for compounds (in reference to adrenaline / suprarenine / epinephrine).
Lentini, Giovanni. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 487.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
The Name Game: Learning the Connectivity between the Concepts  Marina C. Koether
Game in which students review words (names of elements and compounds, instrumentation, types of reactions) using an ice-breaker-type activity; each student given a word that they can't see but everyone else can; must learn their name by asking as few yes-no questions as possible.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 421.
Instrumental Methods |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Electron Transport Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 30 words that describe electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 419.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Genetic Code Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 30 words that describe the nucleotide sequences used to produce proteins.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 417.
Biotechnology |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Terminology: Four Puzzles from One Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Tips for constructing multiple wordsearch puzzles; example of a lab safety wordsearch provided.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Find the Symbols of Elements Using a Letter Matrix Puzzle  V. D. Kelkar
Letter matrix puzzle using chemical symbols.
Kelkar, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 411.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Elemental ZOO  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle using the symbols of 39 elements to spell the name of 25 animals found in zoos.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 409.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Review of "The Ingredients: A Guided Tour of the Elements" (Philip Ball)  Linda H. Doerrer
Chronologic tour of our understanding of matter, from Hellenic civilization to the present.
Doerrer, Linda H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 387.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Review of "The Ingredients: A Guided Tour of the Elements" (Philip Ball)  Linda H. Doerrer
Chronologic tour of our understanding of matter, from Hellenic civilization to the present.
Doerrer, Linda H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 387.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Featured Molecules: Enantiomers of Guaifenesin  William F. Coleman and Randall J. Wildman
Fully manipulable Chime versions of guaifenesin or 3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol, an aromaric ether, for the article "Semi-Microscale Williamson Ether Synthesis and Simultaneous Isolation of an Expectorant from Cough Tablets"
Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 315.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters
Mole, Mole per Liter, and Molar: A Primer on SI and Related Units for Chemistry Students  George Gorin
A brief historical overview of the SI system, the concept of the mole and the definition of mole unit, the status of the liter in the metric and SI systems, and the meaning of molar and molarity.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 103.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Recycling of Pop Bottles: The Synthesis of Dibenzyl Terephthalate from the Plastic Polyethylene Terephthalate  Craig J. Donahue, Jennifer A. Exline, and Cynthia Warner
Procedure in which students depolymerize a common plastic (PET from 2-L pop bottles) under mild conditions using nontoxic chemicals to produce monomer building blocks.
Donahue, Craig J.; Exline, Jennifer A.; Warner, Cynthia. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 79.
Industrial Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Polymerization
Featured Molecule: Dibenzyl Terephthalate  William F. Coleman and Randall J. Wildman
Fully manipulable Chime version of dibenzyl terephthalate.
Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 75.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions  Robert D. Freeman
Problems with SI units for mass (the kilogram) and amount of material (the mole) and recommendations for changes.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 16.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
What's in a Name?   Robert M. Hanson
Quiz that asks questions that are helpful in determining what is happening in an aqueous solution.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1380.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Chemical Name Game  Robert M. Hanson
Provides practice in learning about names and properties of chemical species.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1380.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Triboluminescent Crystals from the Microwave Oven  Bruce W. Baldwin and David M. Wilhite
Procedure for producing triboluminescent crystals in a microwave oven.
Baldwin, Bruce W.; Wilhite, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1344.
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry
An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions  Jonathan Mitschele
Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English- and metric-unit thermometers.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Measurements for a Rainy Day  Erica K. Jacobsen and Nancy S. Gettys
Students collect data on a rainy day and use the information to calculate the rate of rainfall.
Jacobsen, Erica K.; Gettys, Nancy S. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1104A.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching Molecular Applications of the Particle-in-a-Ring Model Using Azulene  Miguel A. R. B. Castanho
Using azulene as a 2-D, circular equivalent to the particle-in-a-box model.
Castanho, Miguel A. R. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1092.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Modeling
Chemistry Formatter Add-ins for Microsoft Word and Excel  Christopher King
MS Word and Excel add-ins that automatically convert chemistry symbols and notations.
King, Christopher. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 896.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Aqueous-Phase Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling. A Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Brandy A. Harper, J. Chance Rainwater, Kurt Birdwhistell, and D. Andrew Knight
Synthesis of triphenylphosphine monosulfonate, and its use in the aqueous-phase palladium-catalyzed coupling of iodobenzene with diethyl phosphite to give diethyl phenylphosphonate.
Harper, Brandy A.; Rainwater, J. Chance; Birdwhistell, Kurt; Knight, D. Andrew. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 729.
Catalysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
A New Approach to Understanding Oxidation-Reduction of Compounds in Organic Chemistry  Abdullah Menzek
Teaching oxidation-reduction in introductory organic chemistry.
Menzek, Abdullah. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 700.
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
On the Stereochemistry of 'Natural' a-Amino Acids (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48-49)  Sam H. Leung

Leung, Sam H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 559.
Amino Acids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
On the Stereochemistry of 'Natural' a-Amino Acids (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48-49)  Giovanni Lentini

Lentini, Giovanni. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 558.
Amino Acids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438)  Moreno Paolini, Giovanni Cercignani, and Carlo Bauer
Alternative units in which to express atomic weight.
Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438)  George Gorin
Alternative units in which to express atomic weight.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Synthesis of Quinolines and Their Characterization by 2-D NMR Spectroscopy  Pamela J. Seaton, R. Thomas Williamson, Abhijit Mitra, and Ali Assarpour
Synthesis of quinolines and their characterization by 2-D NMR spectroscopy.
Seaton, Pamela J.; Williamson, R. Thomas; Mitra, Abhijit; Assarpour, Ali. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 106.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles
Kinetic Derivations for Thermal Isomerizations of Monodeuterio Cyclic 1,3-Dienes through 1,5-Hydrogen Shifts  John E. Baldwin, Phyllis A. Leber, and Tamara W. Lee
Explicit derivations of equations defining relative concentrations versus time for five sets of monodeuterio cyclic 1,3-dienes.
Baldwin, John E.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Lee, Tamara W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1394.
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes
The Combined Effects of pH and Percent Methanol on the HPLC Separation of Benzoic Acid and Phenol  Seema M. Joseph and John A. Palasota
Investigating the combined effects of pH and percent methanol on the HPLC separation of benzoic acid and phenol.
Joseph, Seema M.; Palasota, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1381.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols
Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success  Shannon Byrd and David P. Hildreth
Classification activity and scheme for learning functional groups.
Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1355.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Second Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  Werner Fischer
Etymology of the term "chalcogen".
Fischer, Werner. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1333.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Second Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  Werner Fischer
Etymology of the term "chalcogen".
Fischer, Werner. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1333.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reactions: Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Biaryls in the Organic Laboratory  Christopher S. Callam and Todd L. Lowary
Laboratory that exposes students to organometallic chemistry and application of the Suzuki reaction.
Callam, Christopher S.; Lowary, Todd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 947.
Aromatic Compounds |
Metals |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
Transition Elements |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Bullvalene Story. The Conception of Bullvalene, a Molecule That Has No Permanent Structure  Addison Ault
Properties and chemistry of bullvalene, C10H10, a hydrocarbon with no permanent carbon-carbon bonds.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 924.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
The Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes: Using Data Pooling in the Organic Laboratory to Illustrate Research in Organic Chemistry  James C. Adrian Jr. and Leslie A. Hull
Student groups are assigned the task of oxidizing various substituted alkylbenzenes with potassium permanganate in basic solution; by pooling the results from all groups it is possible to illustrate how a research project in chemistry can be used to answer simple questions - What happens when your individual alkylbenzene is oxidized?
Adrian, James C., Jr.; Hull, Leslie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 529.
Synthesis |
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
Simulating How a Virus Spreads through a Population: An Introduction to Acid-Base Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Ronald M. Jarret
The traditional lab exercise that achieves separation of a mixture of 4-aminoacetophenone and benzoic acid by chemically active extraction has been expanded to include an exercise that uses materials from the extraction experiment to simulate how a virus spreads through a population.
Jarret, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 525.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Krebs Cycle Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 46 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe the citric acid (Krebs) cycle.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 515.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Glycolysis Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 30 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe glycolysis and fermentation.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 503.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
b-Oxidation Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 36 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe lipid metabolism.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 483.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
Protein Structure Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 37 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe protein structure.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 474.
Proteins / Peptides |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Strategy for Incorporating Hands-On GC-MS into the General Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Courses  Perry C. Reeves and Kim L. Pamplin
Students use the GC-MS to obtain spectra of the various halobenzenes. This vividly illustrates the differences in isotopic distributions of the halogens and the complications these differences present in calculating molar masses of compounds. The isotopic distribution of iron is then obtained from the mass spectrum of Fe(CO)5, and the students calculate the atomic mass of iron from this data.
Reeves, Perry C.; Pamplin, Kim L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 368.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds
Determination of the Regiochemistry of Disubstituted Arenes Generated by Addition of a Carbanion to the (h6-Anisole)Cr(CO)3 Complex  Ashfaq A. Bengali, Cindy Samet, and Samantha B. Charlton
A laboratory activity that integrates fundamental concepts of organic and organometallic chemistry and then employs standard instrumental techniques (GC) and molecular modeling to justify the results.
Bengali, Ashfaq A.; Samet, Cindy; Charlton, Samantha B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 68.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Modeling
An EPR Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory  R. A. Butera and D. H. Waldeck
An experiment that illustrates the principles of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described. Students measure the value of g for DPPH and use it to determine the value of g for two inorganic complexes, Cu(acac)2 and VO(acac)2.
Butera, Richard A.; Waldeck, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1489.
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aromatic Compounds
A Phthalocyanine Synthesis Group Project for General Chemistry  Darren K. MacFarland, Christopher M. Hardin, and Michael J. Lowe
A group experiment synthesizing phthalocyanine dyes in one step from commercially available starting materials is described. The importance of a metal template is explored. The experiment is suitable for a second-semester general chemistry course.
MacFarland, Darren K.; Hardin, Christopher M.; Lowe, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1484.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Visible Aromatic Electronic Effects Using a Series of Substituted Copper Phthalocyanines  Darren K. MacFarland, Solomon Lieb, and Jessica Oswald
Phthalocyanines provide an opportunity to directly observe electronic effects in an aromatic system through color changes that are dependent on the nature of peripheral substituents. Simple, reliable syntheses of electron-poor and electron-rich phthalocyanines are reported, along with corresponding UV-visible spectra.
MacFarland, Darren K.; Lieb, Solomon; Oswald, Jessica. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1482.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights   Moreno Paolini, Giovanni Cercignani, and Carlo Bauer
Proposal on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.
Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Periplanar or Coplanar?  Saul Kane and William H. Hersh
The prefix peri, derived from the Greek for "near", was chosen to make the meaning "approximately planar". However, the current common usage of syn and antiperiplanar is planar, which is incorrect. In the interests of proper language, we suggest that future authors instead use "syn-coplanar" and "anti-coplanar".
Kane, Saul; Hersh, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1366.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Are We Taking Symbolic Language for Granted?   Paul Marais and Faan Jordaan
This study formed part of a broader investigation into the role of language in teaching and learning chemical equilibrium. Students were tested for their understanding of 25 words and five symbols commonly used in connection with chemical equilibrium. This test showed that most of the students had an inadequate grasp of the meaning of all five symbols. It also showed that, on the average, their understanding of symbols was more problematic than their understanding of words.
Marais, Paul; Jordaan, Faan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1355.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Displacement of the Benzene Solvent Molecule from Cr(CO)5(benzene) by Piperidine: A Laser Flash Photolysis Experiment  Ashfaq A. Bengali and Samantha B. Charlton
This laboratory experiment utilizes a nitrogen laser to investigate the chemistry of the Cr(CO)5(benzene) complex on the microsecond time scale. The unique capabilities of a laser and the chemistry made possible by its use is demonstrated.
Bengali, Ashfaq A.; Charlton, Samantha B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1348.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions
Organic Acids without a Carboxylic Acid Functional Group  G. V. Perez and Alice L. Perez
This paper presents several organic molecules that have been labeled as acids but do not contain a carboxylic acid functional group. Various chemical principles such as pKa, tautomerization, aromaticity, conformation, resonance, and induction are explored.
Perez, G. V.; Perez, Alice L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 910.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Phenols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds
A Practical Procedure for the Solid-Phase Synthesis of Azo Compounds in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Cailan Wang, Yulu Wang, Xiaoyang Wang, Xiaoxia Wang, and Hong Wang
A new solid-phase reaction method used to synthesize a new type of azo compound is described. The procedure is short, safe, and simple enough to serve as a laboratory exercise for undergraduate students in the middle weeks of a course when azo compounds or synthesis methods have been discussed in the lecture.
Wang, Cailan; Wang, Yulu; Wang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Hong. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 903.
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
Aromatic Compounds
The Discovery Approach to NMR: Development of Chemical-Shift Additivity Tables and Application to Product Identification  Eric Bosch
A discovery-based approach to the preparation and application of chemical-shift additivity tables is presented to give students insight into the development of NMR spectral prediction software.
Bosch, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 890.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The R/S System: A New and Simple Approach to Determining Ligand Priority and a Unified Method for the Assignment and Correlation of Stereogenic Center Configuration in Diverse Stereoformulas  Dipak K. Mandal
A new approach providing an "at-a-glance" priority order of ligands attached to a stereogenic center in organic molecules and a unified method for assigning and correlating stereogenic center absolute configuration in diverse stereochemical representations is presented.
Mandal, Dipak Kumar. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 866.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
News from Online: Learning Communities  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Summary of a variety of online, chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 808.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Classroom Nomenclature Games--BINGO  Thomas D. Crute
The use of games in the chemistry classroom can provide instruction, feedback, practice, and fun. A modification of a BINGO game to chemical nomenclature and a specific application to alkanes are described. Tips on preparation of materials, and suggested variations including inorganic nomenclature are presented.
Crute, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 481.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses
Sugar Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 29 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe sugars and their polymers.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 480.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Lipid Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 37 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe lipids.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 479.
Lipids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Isolation of Curcumin from Turmeric  Andrew M. Anderson, Matthew S. Mitchell, and Ram S. Mohan
The active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin, which is approximately 2% by weight of the root of turmeric. We have developed two simple procedures for isolation of curcumin from turmeric, making this a new and interesting natural product isolation experiment.
Anderson, Andrew M.; Mitchell, Matthew S.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 359.
Chromatography |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds
Synthesis of the Sweetener Dulcin from the Analgesic Tylenol  Brian D. Williams, Birute Williams, and Louise Rodino
A sequence suitable for the synthesis of the sweetener dulcin from the analgesic acetaminophen. The analgesic phenacetin is isolated during the synthesis as an intermediate and consequently the experiment can be adopted as a multistep synthesis or as either of two single-period transformations.
Williams, Brian D.; Williams, Birute; Rodino, Louise. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 357.
Synthesis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Experiments with Aspirin  Londa L. Borer and Edward Barry
Experiments include (i) synthesis, purification, and characterization of aspirin by mp and TLC, (ii) percentage composition of a commercial aspirin tablet by titration, (iii) kinetics of the hydrolysis of aspirin to salicylic acid under various conditions, (iv) synthesis and characterization of copper(II) aspirinate and copper(II) salicylate, and (v) reaction of copper(II) aspirinate in aqueous solution.
Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 354.
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
From Past Issues: Contests Revisited  Metanomski, W.V.
Using the CAS registry to identify "corrosive sublimate" and "chlorazene".
Metanomski, W.V. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 310.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Let's Not Forget the Units!  Hillger, Don
History of movement toward metric in U.S.
Hillger, Don J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 310.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  
History of movement toward metric in U.S.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 310.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How to Make Learning Chemical Nomenclature Fun, Exciting, and Palatable  Joseph Chimeno
One great challenge that introductory chemistry students have is learning the names of various chemical compounds. To make chemical nomenclature fun, exciting, and palatable, the "Rainbow Wheel" was developed at North Iowa Area Community College.
Chimeno, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 144.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Keep Going with Cyclooctatetraene!  Addison Ault
This paper shows how some simple properties of cyclooctatetraene can indicate important ideas about the structure of cyclooctatetraene.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 55.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Use of Extent of Reaction in Introductory Courses  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of the extent of reaction as an alternative to the traditional approach to stoichiometry in first-year chemistry. The method focuses attention on the reaction as a whole rather than on pairs of reagents as in the traditional approach. The balanced equation is used as the unit of change.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 52.
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?  Sam H. Leung
This article provides a brief survey of the origins of the common names of some amino acids, aromatic compounds, and carboxylic acids.
Leung, Sam H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48.
Amino Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
Synthesis of Derivatives of (1R)-(-)- and (1S)-(+)-10-Camphorsulfonic Acid  Steven C. Cermak and David F. Wiemer
The preparation of optically active (camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridines from commercially available (1R)-(-) and/or (1S)-(+)10-camphorsulfonic acid provides a clear demonstration of the lack of relationship between absolute configuration and optical rotation. The parent sulfonic acid can be converted to the corresponding acid chloride and then to the sulfonamide, sulfonylimine, and finally to an oxaziridine in a series of practical organic laboratory experiments.
Cermak, Steven C.; Wiemer, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1715.
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases
Separation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons Using 2-Dimensional Thin-Layer Chromatography. An Environmental Chemistry Experiment  Geoffrey T. Crisp and Natalie M. Williamson
Students are given a soil sample from which they extract two (previously added) polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a Soxhlet apparatus. They determine the identity of the unknown PAHs by comparing the 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatograms of the soil sample extract and a standard solution, both of which they must run themselves.
Crisp, Geoffrey T.; Williamson, Natalie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1691.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A New Look at Reaction Rates  Tomislav Cvitas
The rate of reaction, as an intensive quantity characteristic of the process, is obtained by dividing the amount of chemical transformations per time by the volume of the reaction system. The practical definition of the reaction rate found in the literature can then be derived by defining the stoichiometric numbers as changes in the number of specific molecules taking part in the reaction per chemical transformation.
Cvitas, Tomislav. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1574.
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Rate Law
Selection of an Analysis Wavelength: An Interesting Example Involving Solvatochromism and the Zwitterionic Dimroth-Reichardt's Betaine ET-30 Dye  Taihe Deng and William E. Acree Jr.
By spectrophotometric measurements, students determine the analysis wavelength for ET-30 dissolved in solvents of varying polarity. The five solvents selected for study give solutions that appear wine-red, violet, blue, green, and yellowish-green. Student observations afford an excellent opportunity for detailed discussions of how solvent polarity affects spectral transitions, which expands the presentation given in most analytical textbooks.
Deng, Taihe; Acree, William E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1555.
Solutions / Solvents |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aromatic Compounds
Geometry of Benzene from the Infrared Spectrum  Elisabetta Cané, Andrea Miani, and Agostino Trombetti
The structure of benzene is fully determined once the interatomic distances rcc and rCH are obtained from experimental data. This infrared spectroscopy experiment allows the determination of rcc and rCH from the rotational analysis of an infrared active band of C6H6 and one of its isotopomers, C6D6.
Can, Elisabetta; Miani, Andrea; Trombetti, Agostino. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1288.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
A Simple Demonstration for Introducing the Metric System to Introductory Chemistry Classes  Clarke W. Earley
A simple demonstration is described for introducing metric system prefixes and conversion between different units. The width of the classroom is defined as an arbitrarily standard of length ("room") and measured using a paper streamer. By cutting this into ten equal pieces, a deciroom measure is obtained. Centiroom and milliroom pieces are obtained in a similar manner.
Earley, Clarke W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1215.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Comments on the Treatment of Aromaticity and Acid-Base Character of Pyridine and Pyrrole in Contemporary Organic Chemistry Textbooks  Hugh J. Anderson and Ludwig Bauer
Presentations of aromaticity and acid-base character of pyridine and pyrrole in 18 contemporary organic chemistry textbooks were surveyed.
Anderson, Hugh J.; Bauer, Ludwig. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1151.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds
The Evolution of the Celsius and Kelvin Temperature Scales and the State of the Art  Julio Pellicer, M. Amparo Gilabert, and Ernesto Lopez-Baeza
A physical analysis is given of the evolution undergone by the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, from their definition to the present day.
Pellicer, Julio; Gilabert, M. Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 911.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories
Letters  
Extending the rule for rounding significant figures of products and quotients.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 897.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Best of Chem 13 News  Kathy Thorsen
Chemistry demonstrations, density, and significant figures.
Thorsen, Kathy. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 884.
Physical Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Simple and Convenient Method for Generation and NMR Observation of Stable Carbanions  Hamid S. Kasmai
A simple and convenient method for the generation and NMR study of stable carbanions is described. The data and sample spectra illustrate that reliable and good quality NMR spectra of stable carbanions may be obtained. The experiments described provide a good opportunity for students to apply the basic principles of 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry and the interesting topic of the exchange phenomenon in NMR.
Kasmai, Hamid S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Reactive Intermediates |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Preparation and Identification of Benzoic Acids and Benzamides: An Organic "Unknown" Lab  Douglass F. Taber, Jade D. Nelson, and John P. Northrop
The reaction of an unknown substituted benzene derivative with oxalyl chloride and aluminum chloride gives the acid chloride. Hydrolysis of the acid chloride gives the acid, and reaction of the acid with concentrated aqueous ammonia gives the benzamide. The equivalent weight of the acid can be determined by titration; given this information and the melting points of the acid and the benzamide, it is possible to deduce the structure of the initial unknown.
Taber, Douglass F.; Nelson, Jade D.; Northrop, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 828.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Calculating Units with the HP 48G Calculator  Matthew E. Morgan
The HP 48G's units function can make simple calculations, such as converting grams to moles, or more complex unit analysis, such as gas law calculations. Examples and calculator keystrokes for both of these examples are included in this article.
Morgan, Matthew E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 631.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Periodic Puns for the Classroom  Paul E. Vorndam
Some puns on the names of the elements are presented.
Vorndam, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 492.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Learning Theories
Using Games To Teach Chemistry. 2. CHeMoVEr Board Game  Jeanne V. Russell
A board game similar to Sorry or Parcheesi was developed. Students must answer chemistry questions correctly to move their game piece around the board. Card decks contain questions on balancing equations, identifying the types of equations, and predicting products from given reactants.
Russell, Jeanne V. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 487.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Using Games to Teach Chemistry. 1. The Old Prof Card Game  Philip L. Granath and Jeanne V. Russell
A card game has been developed and used to teach nomenclature of the elements and their symbols in the first laboratory session of General Chemistry. The game both helps the students learn or review the symbols of the elements and is a good "icebreaker" where students learn the names of other students.
Granath, Philip L.; Russell, Jeanne V. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 485.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Don't Forget the Units!  Kathryn R. Williams
While looking through Volume 3, the author was attracted to correspondence by Harvey A. Neville, bearing the title "The Metric System and Mr. Dale" (1926, 3, 215). This led her to find several rewarding, and often amusing, writings on the metric system.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 313.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How Thermodynamic Data and Equilibrium Constants Changed When the Standard-State Pressure Became 1 Bar  Richard S. Treptow
In 1982 the IUPAC recommended that the pressure used to define the standard state of a substance be changed from 1 atm to 1 bar. The principal effect of the change is a slight increase in the entropy and a slight decrease in the free energy of any gas.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 212.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
John Norman Collie: Chemist and Mountaineer  Ronald Bentley
Chemical career and contributions of John Norman Collie (1859-1942).
Bentley, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 41.
Aromatic Compounds |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Bioinorganic Chemistry
CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay)  Scott White and George Bodner
CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations.
White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Temperature Scale Conversion as a Linear Equation: True Unit Conversion vs Zero-Offset Correction  Reuben Rudman
The equation used for the interconversion between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is in reality the general case of the straight-line equation (y = ax + b). This equation is the paradigm for many of the calculations taught in introductory chemistry.
Rudman, Reuben. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Conformation Interchange in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  Keith C. Brown, Randy L. Tyson, and John A. Weil
Intramolecular dynamics are readily discernible by use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. A relatively simple laboratory tutorial experiment demonstrating such motion, an internal interchange of conformations, in a readily available nitroaromatic hydrazine (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine in liquid solution) is presented and discussed.
Brown, Keith C.; Tyson, Randy L.; Weil, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1632.
Magnetic Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Quantitative HPLC Analysis of a Psychotherapeutic Medication: Simultaneous Determination of Amitriptyline Hydrochloride and Perphenazine  Glenda K. Ferguson
A quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment which entails the isocratic separation and simultaneous determination of the two active components of a commercial antipsychotic tablet has been developed.
Ferguson, Glenda K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1615.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Appalachian Trail Problems  Brian N. Akers
Twelve problems involving unit conversions are presented. These problems are based on daily experiences encountered while hiking the Appalachian Trail.
Akers, Brian N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1571.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Demonstrations of the Enormity of Avogadro's Number  Damon Diemente
Most high-school students learn of Avogadro's number for the first time when they begin study of the mole concept. It is important to impress students with the enormity of Avogadro's number and the concomitant minuscularity of the atom. The present article describes three such problems.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1565.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (by Ronald G. Harvey)  C. F. Murray
This text is a timely and welcome addition to the ever-growing literature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) chemistry and an essential addition to the chemist's library. It is the most comprehensive and complete account of the synthesis and chemical properties of polyarenes to date.
Murray, C. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1392.
Aromatic Compounds
Naphthalene and Azulene I: Semimicro Bomb Calorimetry and Quantum Mechanical Calculations  Carl Salter and James B. Foresman
A novel H2O physical chemistry experiment is proposed in which the heats of combustion of naphthalene and azulene are measured using bomb calorimetry, and then the energy difference between the two molecules is computed using Gaussian 94W.
Salter, Carl; Foresman, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1341.
Computational Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
A Very Simple Method Way to Convert Haworth Representation to Zigzag Representation  Janine Cossy and Véronique Bellosta
A very simple method to convert Haworth representation of hexoses and pentoses to zigzag representation is proposed
Cossy, Janine; Bellosta, Véronique. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1307.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Use of Theoretical Chemistry To Explain Baeyer-Villiger Oxidations of Methoxy Aromatic Aldehydes  N. Anoune, H. Hannachi, P. Lantéri, R. Longeray, and C. Arnaud
This is a project for advanced students in two parts. First: A study of the Baeyer-Villiger reaction on para-methoxybenzaldehyde. Such a reaction is commonly used to oxidize ketones into esters. Second: The experiment is extended to various polymethoxybenzaldehydes and theoretical calculations are used to explain their particular behaviors.
Anoune, N.; Hannachi, H.; Lantéri, P.; Longeray, R.; Arnaud, Christian. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1290.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
A Modified Synthesis of the Insect Repellent DEET  Peter H. Knoess and Edward G. Neeland
In the preparation of the insect repellent DEET, lab procedures prepare the intermediate m-toluoyl chloride by heating m-toluic acid with thionyl chloride for times ranging from 15 to 45 minutes. The acid chloride is then worked up under Schotten-Baumann conditions to yield DEET.
Knoess, Peter H.; Neeland, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1267.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Synthesis of NMP, a Fluoxetine (Prozac) Precursor, in the Introductory Organic Laboratory  Daniel M. Perrine, Nathan R. Sabanayagam, and Kristy J. Reynolds
A synthesis of the immediate precursor of the widely used antidepressant fluoxetine (Prozac) is described. The procedure is short, safe, and simple enough to serve as a laboratory exercise for undergraduate students in the second semester of introductory organic chemistry and is one which will be particularly interesting to those planning a career in the health sciences.
Perrine, Daniel M.; Sabanayagam, Nathan R.; Reynolds, Kristy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1266.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Industrial Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
The Chemistry behind Carbonless Copy Paper  Mary Anne White
Carbonless copy paper, used to make countless copies of forms, is a 1,000,000,000 kg business annually. Copies are made when the pressure of a pen ruptures microcapsules that contain a dye precursor, initiating a chemical reaction between the dye precursor in the top page and an acid source in the bottom page.
White, Mary Anne. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1119.
Acids / Bases |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Oxygen vs Dioxygen: Diatomic/Monatomic Usage  Sharon, Jared B.
Using the name dioxygen for O2.
Sharon, Jared B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1089.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Cinnamaldehyde by Steam Distillation of Cinnamon  Douglass F. Taber and Andrew J. Weiss
Powdered cinnamon foams badly on attempted steam distillation. It has been demonstrated that preliminary iterative evacuation of the aqueous mixture allows smooth distillation of cinnamaldehyde (I).
Taber, Douglass F.; Weiss, Andrew J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 633.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Nanosecond Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Formation of the Pyrene Excimer in Solution  David A. Van Dyke, Brian A. Pryor, Philip G. Smith, and Michael R. Topp
Students are introduced to nanosecond-domain transient spectroscopy in fluid solution by using a pulsed-laser apparatus to make direct measurements of the effects of these variables. They become familiar with the operation of a nitrogen laser and an associated apparatus for fluorescence spectra and lifetime measurements, including the optical and electronic hardware and the computer software used to acquire and analyze the data.
Van Dyke, David A.; Pryor, Brian A.; Smith, Philip G.; Topp, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 615.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Quantity Calculus: Unambiguous Designation of Values and Units in Graphs and Tables  Mary Anne White
This paper gives some background to quantity calculus and shows examples, suitable for teaching to undergraduate students, of its use to provide unambiguous representations of physical quantities in tables and graphs.
White, Mary Anne. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 607.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
The Pi-Electron-System of Monocyclic Polyenes C2nH2n with Alternating Single and Double Bonds  J. J. C. Mulder
The question asked is whether (in)stability towards distortion away from a symmetric geometry is a {pi}-electron property or, on the contrary, primarily connected to the {sigma}-skeleton.
Mulder, J. J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 594.
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Incorporating Organic Name Reactions and Minimizing Qualitative Analysis in an Unknown Identification Experiment  Claire Castro and William Karney
The authors have developed a new type of unknown identification experiment for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. The unknown sample the student is provided with is the product of an organic name reaction. The student is only informed of the starting material and conditions used in the compound's synthesis, and must then: (1) deduce the compound's structure, (2) determine the name reaction and corresponding mechanism that yields the compound, and (3) present his/her results to the class.
Claire Castro and William Karney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 472.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Stepwise Equilibria in Gas-Phase Reactions: The Alkylation of Benzene  Eugen E. Weltin
The method to calculate the equilibrium composition of a stepwise attachment of a ligand to a central species is extended to equilibria in a stepwise gas-phase reactions and applied to the alkylation of benzene. For given initial amounts and given total pressure the equilibrium composition for four groups of isomers are evaluated.
Weltin, Eugen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 370.
Learning Theories |
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Coordination Compounds
A Grignard-like Organic Reaction in Water  Gary W. Breton and Christine A. Hughey
A known Grignard-like reaction between allyl bromide and benzaldehyde mediated by zinc metal in aqueous media. The procedure retains the desirable features of the traditional Grignard reaction, while eliminating some of the commonly encountered difficulties.
Breton, Gary W.; Hughey, Christine A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 85.
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Photodimerization of Anthracene  Gary W. Breton and Xoua Vang
The laboratory experiment of the photodimerization of anthracene is given.
Breton, Gary W.; Vang, Xoua. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 81.
Photochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Some Linguistic Detail on Chelation  Daniel T. Haworth
The word chelate and its lingual background/history are examined.
Haworth, Daniel T. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 47.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On the Disproportionations of Cyclohexene and Related Compounds  Alex Bunjes, Ingo Eilks, Manfred Pahlke, and Bernd Ralle*
The catalytic hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons is easy to realize in a simple laboratory experiment using a palladium catalyst. In the case of hydrogenation cyclohexen or cyclohexadiene in addition to the expected finding of cyclohexane among the hydrogenation products, the formation of benzene can be observed. In absence of hydrogen, the disproportionation of both starting materials to cyclohexane and benzene takes place.
Bunjes, Alex; Eilks, Ingo; Pahlke, Manfred; Ralle, Bernd. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1323.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Synthesis
Celsius to Fahrenheit and Vice Versa - Quick, Exact, and Neat  S. C. Dutta Roy
A quick, exact, and neat method is given for conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit temperatures and vice versa.
Roy, S. C. Dutta. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1199.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  William B. Jensen
It is argued that the best translation of the term "chalcogen" is "ore former." It is further suggested that the term chalcogenide should be replaced with the term chalcide in order to maintain a parallelism with the terms halogen and halide.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1063.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
The Dimensions of Logarithmic Quantities (re J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 467)  Robert D. Freeman
Proposal to introduce logarithms of dimensioned quantities.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 900.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ionization or Dissociation?  Emeric Schultz
The use of the terms Dissociation and Ionization in the teaching of chemistry is discussed. It is suggested that the term dissociation, and what it suggests in terms of ordinary language, is inappropriate when used in certain contexts. Since an alternate and more physically correct term, specifically ionization, is available for these contexts, it is argued that this term be used consistently in these contexts.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 868.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Reduction of Chlorinated Dibenzodioxin and Dibenzofuran Formation in the Beilstein Test  Theodore D. Goldfarb and Sabine G. Fontana
In this paper we describe the results of studies designed to increase the safety of the Beilstein test by minimizing the production of these toxins. Simple adjustments in Bunsen burner temperature and the length of time the copper test loop is exposed to the flame were found to be ineffective.
Goldfarb, Theodore D.; Fontana, Sabine G. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 838.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds
Synthesis of 4-Nitro-1-Pentynylbenzene: An Example of Transitional Metal-Mediated Cross-Coupling  Ronald G. Brisbois, William G. Batterman, and Scott R. Kragerud
Synthesis of the target compound exemplifies contemporary Pd-mediated cross-coupling methodologies. In this regard, several fundamental mechanistic aspects of catalytic organometallic chemistry are illustrated, including oxidative addition, transmetallation, and reductive elimination.
Brisbois, Ronald G. ; Batterman, William G.; Kragerud, Scott R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 832.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Organometallics |
Transition Elements |
Aromatic Compounds
Old MacDonald Named a Compound: Branched Enynenynols  Dennis Ryan
An imaginary teacher of organic chemistry thinks up some whimsical compounds for his students to name using IUPAC nomenclature rules.
Ryan, Dennis. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 782.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Applications of Luminescent Transition Metal Complexes to Sensor Technology and Molecular Probes  J. N. Demas and B. A. DeGraff
An overview of the applications of luminescent transition metal complexes to sensor technology is presented. In addition to general considerations, a number of specific systems are discussed including oxygen, pH, carbon dioxide, temperature, and immunoassay sensors.
Demas, J. N.; DeGraff, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 690.
Materials Science |
Photochemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Coordination Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds
Determination of the Enantiomeric Purity of Naproxen: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Thomas D. Walsh and Curtis S. Koontz
Recent availability of and publicity surrounding the antiinflammatory drug naproxen presents an opportunity for an organic chemistry laboratory experiment of great up-to-the-minute interest.
Walsh, Thomas D.; Koontz, Curtis S. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 585.
Stereochemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Effect of Dielectric Constant and Ionic Strength Variation on the Fading of N,N-Dimethylaminophenolphthalein in Alkaline Medium  M. Dakkouri and W. Bodenmuller
A modified route for the preparation of DMAPP as well as the procedure for the performance of the fading experiment have been described. Furthermore, the results obtained from students' experiments demonstrating the influence of I and e of the solvent on the rate constant k have been presented and discussed.
Dakkouri, M.; Bodenmuller, W. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 556.
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aromatic Compounds
Correction  
Correction in equation 1.
J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Photochemistry of Benzophenone in 2-Propanol: An Easy Experiment for Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Courses  M. S. Churio and M. A. Grela
In this article we describe a laboratory experiment for undergraduate physical chemistry courses dealing with the photophysics and photochemistry of benzophenone in 2-propanol. This is an easy-to-perform experiment aimed to introduce the basic concepts of photochemistry which may help to achieve a systematic approach to the subject, incorporating related topics of chemical kinetics and molecular spectroscopy.
Churo, M. S.; Grela, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 436.
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
An Example of a Human Topological Rubber Glove Act  Yock Chai Toong and Shih Yung Wang
A hitherto unreported human body narcissistic inversion which is an example of the rubber glove act has been uncovered from a Chinese acrobatic performance. This inversion is related to the unimolecular enantiomerizations of chiral molecules, a topological figure and a rubber glove via chiral pathway.
Toong, Yock Chai; Wang, Shih Yung. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 403.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Three Programs for DOS: Abstract of Volume 10B, Number 1 2. Periodic Table Games  John S. Martin
The Periodic Table Games are intended to expose students to the vocabulary of chemistry: formulas, combination rules, and descriptive chemistry. They may be played by an individual against the computer, or by several competing players.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 346.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Use of MO Calculations to Teach Students Some Concepts of Aromatic Substitution Reactions  Petrus Zeegers
The experiments described here are an attempt to help students unify the theoretical and practical aspects of their studies in organic chemistry. Simple aromatic compounds (4-X-phenols) have been used to illustrate the relationship between theoretical molecular orbital calculations and an industrially useful multi step organic synthesis.
Zeegers, Petrus. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 299.
MO Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols
A History of the Structural Theory of Benzene - The Aromatic Sextet Rule and Hückel's Rule  Shigeaki Kikuchi
This paper shows why the aromatic sextet rule rapidly lost significance in the 1930s and why it has been reevaluated since the 1950s.
Kikuchi, Shigeaki. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 194.
Aromatic Compounds
Aromaticity Today: Energetic and Structural Criteria  Mikhail Glukhovtsev
The present paper addresses current controversies in development and applications of the two main criteria of aromaticity, namely, energetic and structural criteria. Various types of resonance energy with an emphasis on homodesmotic and isodesmic stabilization energies are discussed. Reliability of such structural criteria of aromaticity as equalization of carbon-carbon bond lengths and stability with respect to out-of-plane distortions of a molecular structure are analyzed using various examples.
Glukhovtsev, Mikhail . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 132.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Reactions of Bromine with Diphenylethylenes: an Introduction to Electrophilic Substitution  Ronald M. Jarret, Jamie New, and Kalliopi Karaliolios
Pooling the results obtained from the reaction between bromine and the cis and trans isomers of 1,2-diphenylethylenes allows students to discover the mechanism of anti addition which is common to most situations. Expansion of this experiment to include 1,1-diphenylethylene allows students the opportunity to discover the electrophilic substitution reaction. This serves as an excellent springboard for follow-up experiments on, and discussion of, electrophilic aromatic substitution.
Jarret, Ronald M.; New, Jamie; Karaliolios, Kalliopi . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 109.
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
Reduction of Carboxylic Acids with Sodium Borohydride and an Electrophile  Jan William Simek, Thad Tuck, and Kelly Courter Bush
Integration of new reduction conditions into a procedure applicable to the first-year organic chemistry laboratory, where reduction of the carboxylic acid group has remained an obstacle, notwithstanding the use of borane or LiAlH4 (2) on the microscale. The NaBH4 method with either electrophile can be modified to any scale; in our hands, the use of I2 as the electrophile performed better at the semimicro scale than the H2SO4 method.
Simek, Jan William; Tuck, Thad; Bush, Kelly Courter . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 107.
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Exponential Notation  Gavin D Peckham
Suggestion for streamlined typing of exponential notation.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 64.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Interfacing "8088" Computers in the Chemistry Laboratory  James Goodrich and Bill Durham
The goal of using such puzzles is to provide a bit of variety to beginning chemistry students and reduce the tedium of memorizing chemical names.
Goodrich, James; Durham, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Displaying Chemical Formulas in Microsoft Excel  E. Joseph Billo
An Excel macro which automates the entry of subscripts in Excel spreadsheets is described. The macro is assigned to a custom button on Excel's standard toolbar, so that, after typing a text label containing a chemical formula, clicking the button automatically formats the text as a chemical formula.
Billo, E. Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A40.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Use of Infrared Spectroscopy in Monitoring a New Method for the Preparation of Sulotroban, an Antithrombotic Drug: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment  Alain Nuhrich, Martine Varache-Lembège, Fabrice Martin, Guy Devaux,
The chemical experimental procedures given integrate an infrared spectroscopy technique for monitoring the chromatographic purification processes used in this synthesis. The purpose of the proposed manipulations is to reflect in a concrete manner the reality of doing research on and preparing drugs of chemical origin.
Nuhrich, Alain; Varache-Lembège, Martine; Lacan, Fabrice; Devaux, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1185.
IR Spectroscopy |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation Part 3. The Strengthening of Paper  Henry A. Carter
The following study describes the parylene and graft copolymerization processes that have been developed to strengthen fragile or brittle paper artifacts.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1160.
Aromatic Compounds |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Amyl: A Misunderstood Word  Richard A. Kjonaas
There is much confusion associated with the word amyl. When younger chemists are taught to use the words propyl, butyl, and pentyl in place of n-propyl, n-butyl, and n-pentyl, they then incorrectly assume that this practice also applies to the word amyl.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1127.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Microscale Preparation of Difluorenylidene and trans-2,3-Dibenzoylspiro[cyclopropane-1-99-fluorene]  Fred H. Greenberg
The synthetic sequence involving the oxidation of fluorene to fluorenone and the reduction of fluorenone to fluorenol can be extended by preparing the title compounds via the intermediate 9-chlorofluorene. The latter is obtained by heating fluorenol in methanol with conc. hydrochloric acid.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1043.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Mini-scale Oxidation/Reduction in Organic Laboratory Course: 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde/ 4-Nitrobenzyl Alcohol  Douglass F. Taber, Yanong Wang, Sebastian Liehr
Oxidation of an alcohol to the aldehyde or ketone, and corresponding reduction back to the alcohol, are two of the most common transformations of preparative organic chemistry. We have found a much more satisfactory combination in 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde: both are crystalline, neither is volatile, and both are strongly UV-absorbing, so they visualize well on TLC.
Taber, Douglass F.; Wang, Yanong; Liehr, Sebastian. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1042.
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation State |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
A Conceptually Simple Approach to the Analysis of Aromaticity in Pericyclic Transition States  Richard Francis Langler
Aromatic Mbius cyclobutadiene is shown to be an artifact of Hckel theory. It is then shown that transition states may be classified as aromatic / antiaromatic / non-aromatic by exploiting both the extent of orbital overlap which develops in competing transition states and Hckel's rule.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 899.
Molecular Modeling |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Inorganic Nomenclature  ten Hoor, Marten J.
Inorganic naming schemes should be brought in line with IUPAC recommendations.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 825.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Molecular Orbital (Hückel) Theory and Linus Pauling: A Historical Perspective  Brahama D. Sharma
This short article offers evidence contrary to the belief that Linus Pauling was somehow opposed to Hckel-type calculations and that he therefore provided little or no support to the school of scientists in the '60s who were engaged in these semi empirical calculations.
Sharma, Brahama D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 746.
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory
The Nitrogen-Laser Excited Luminescence of Pyrene: A Student Laboratory Study of Excimer Dynamics  John S. Muenter and John L. Deutsch
The resulting luminescence is studied as a function of wavelength, time, and pyrene concentration to observe the dynamics of both the excited pyrene monomer and the pyrene excimer.
Muenter, John S.; Deutsch, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 580.
Aromatic Compounds |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Lasers
Azo dyes  Stick, Robert V.; Mocerino, Mauro
This "Tested Demonstration" describes the preparation of various azo dyes from p-nitroaniline and phenol, 1-naphthol or 2-naphthol, utilizing the overhead projector.
Stick, Robert V.; Mocerino, Mauro J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 540.
Dyes / Pigments |
Aromatic Compounds
The Curiously Intertwined Histories of Benzene and Cyclohexane  E. W. Warnhoff
The first reduction of benzene, which was done by means of hydrogen iodide in the middle of the 19th century, led to a saturated hydrocarbon initially thought to be hexane and later to be hexahydrobenzene (cyclohexane).
Warnhoff, E. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 494.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds
An Excel 4.0 Add-in Function to Calculate Molecular Mass  Christian Hauck
185. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel 4.0 add-in function is presented, which consists of a parser to interpret molecular formulas and a database containing three values for the atomic masses for every element: the mass number of the most abundant isotope, the mass of the most abundant isotope, and the atomic weight.
Hauck, Christian. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 433.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Iron(III) Chloride as a Lewis Acid in the Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reaction  William H. Miles, Charles F. Nutaitis, and Christian A. Anderton
The Friedel-Crafts reaction receives extensive coverage in sophomore organic chemistry. The most widely used Lewis acid for the Friedel-Crafts reaction is aluminum chloride. The safety and handling problems associated with using aluminum chloride prompted us to examine iron(III) chloride as an alternative Lewis acid for the Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction.
Miles, William H.; Nutaitis, Charles F.; Anderton, Christian A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 272.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Bromination of Acetanilide  Paul F. Schatz
A general procedure for bromination of aromatic compounds activated with electron donating substituents such as acetamido, hydroxyl, or ether groups is described.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 267.
Aromatic Compounds
Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals  Sally Solomon, Chinhyu Hur, Alan Lee, and Kurt Smith
Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 173.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M.
Efficient and simple microscale preparation of 3,5-dinitrobenzoates.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A164.
Synthesis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management |
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters
Microscale Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution of p-Toluidine  Kady, Ismail O.
Experimental procedure for first-year organic chemistry students to apply the principles of group protection and study the effect of ring substituents on reaction orientation.
Kady, Ismail O. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A9.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Electrophilic Substitution
Dimensional Analysis: An Analogy to Help Students Relate the Concept to Problem Solving  James R. McClure
Using dominoes to help students understand the conversion factor method of dimensional analysis.
McClure, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1093.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Celsius to Fahrenheit--Quick and Dirty  Colin Hester
Simple algorithm for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature.
Hester, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1026.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Dimensions of Logarithmic Quantities (the author replies)  Molyneux, Philip
Reply to Mills' letter.
Molyneux, Philip J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 955.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  
Examples in physical chemistry where it seems that we take the logarithm of quantities that are not dimensionless.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 954.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Those Baffling Subscripts  Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney
Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems.
Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
GC/MS Analysis of the Aromatic Composition of Gasoline  Keith S. Kostecka, Ashraf Rabah, and Charles F. Palmer, Jr.
Procedure for examining 11 aromatics species in three unleaded regular-grade commercial fuels using GC/MS analysis; includes sample data.
Kostecka, Keith S.; Rabah, Ashraf; Palmer, Charles F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 853.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Your Share of the National Debt--A High-Interest Calculation Using Exponential Notation  William Hoyt
Example of using exponential notation.
Hoyt, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 807.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
W. R. Hamilton: His Genius, His Circuits, and the IUPAC Nomenclature for Fulleranes  Alexandru T. Balaban, Darko Babic, and Douglas J. Klein
Biography of W. R. Hamilton and the application of his circuits to IUPAC nomenclature.
Balaban, Alexandru T.; Babic, Darko; Klein, Douglas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 693.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Characterizing Resins According to Organic Ion Exchange and Chelating Ion Exchange  Quigley, Michael N.; Vernon, Frederick
Procedure for characterizing ion-exchange materials.
Quigley, Michael N.; Vernon, Frederick J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 553.
Ion Exchange |
Aromatic Compounds
Charge Distribution in 1,1-Dicyano-2-Arylethenes: An Undergraduate Organic Experiment Utilizing the Knoevenagel Condensation and NMR Spectroscopy  Rowland, Alex T.
Organic synthesis illustrating the effect of ring substituents on an aromatic ring.
Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 548.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Small Scale One-Pot Reactions of Copper, Iron, and Silver  Epp, Dianne N.
Investigation of a series of reactions involving copper, iron, and silver, all conducted with very small quantities in a single well.
Epp, Dianne N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 545.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Resonance Analogy Using Cartoon Characters  Starkey, Ronald
Using Charlie Brown and Dennis the Menace as an analogy for resonance hybrids (specifically benzene).
Starkey, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 542.
Covalent Bonding |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An Attention-Getting Model for Atomic Orbitals  Kiefer, Edgar F.
Tapping a spoon on a coffee mug to illustrate the circular orbitals of benzene.
Kiefer, Edgar F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 500.
MO Theory |
Aromatic Compounds
Steric Hindrance by Bromination of Alkylbenzenes: Experimental Demonstration  Cooley, James H.; Abobaker, Nagib M.
Procedure to illustrate the influence of steric hindrance on organic chemistry in which students must decide what data to collect and how to interpret it.
Cooley, James H.; Abobaker, Nagib M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 463.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aromatic Compounds |
Stereochemistry
Determination of the R or S Configuration of Tetrahedral Stereocenters: A Graphical Flowchart Approach  Starkey, Ronald
Using graphical flowcharts to determine R or S configurations through higher shell comparisons for long-chain, highly branched, and cyclic organic structures.
Starkey, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 315.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Measuring with a Purpose: Involving Students in the Learning Process  Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
Constructivist learning activities for helping students to understand measurement, significant figures, uncertainty, scientific notation, and unit conversions.
Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Constructivism
Which Organic Molecule Should I Pick?  Perkins, Robert
Examples of questions requiring students to demonstrate their understanding of organic structures, nomenclature, isomerism, and chemical reactivity.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 124.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Hydrogen-Bonding Equilibrium in Phenol Analyzed by NMR Spectroscopy  Lessinger, Leslie
Experimental procedure for determining the equilibrium constant for the hydrogen-bonding equilibrium of phenol in carbon tetrachloride solution; data and analysis included.
Lessinger, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 85.
Equilibrium |
Noncovalent Interactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols
What's in a Name - Transition State or Critical Transition Structure?  Bauer, S. H.; Wilcox, C. F., Jr.
Proposal for the transitional molecular structure at the potential energy saddle point to be called the critical transition structure.
Bauer, S. H.; Wilcox, C. F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 13.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Boiling Point and the Refraction (Polarizability) of Exposed Atoms  Rich, Ronald L.
Technique for using the refraction of light to determine the boiling points of a variety of organic and inorganic substances; includes data and analysis.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 9.
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Organometallics
Metric for Me! A Layperson's Guide to the Metric System for Everyday Use with Exercises, Problems, and Estimations (Schoemaker, Robert W.)  
Title of interest.
J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A23.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Dinitration of 2-Benzylpyyridine: Microscale Synthesis of a Photochromic Compound  Gilfillan, Elizabeth D.; Pelter, Michael W.
Microscale synthesis of 2-[(2,4-dinitrophenyl)methyl]pyridine, which is tan in the absence of light but turns blue when exposed to light.
Gilfillan, Elizabeth D.; Pelter, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A4.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study of Plant Growth Regulators Phenylpyridylureas: An "Agrorganic" Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Hocquet, Alexandre; Tohier, Jacques; Fournier, Josette
This lab could represent an undergraduate comparative synthesis and analysis of biologically active molecules, suitable for an introductory lab session.
Hocquet, Alexandre; Tohier, Jacques; Fournier, Josette J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1092.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Modern Technology and the Metric System  Pilar, Frank L.
Misuse of ML for mL on a can of soda.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 810.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Expanded Dimensional Analysis: A Blending of English and Math  DeLorenzo, Ronald
Development, applications, and examples of expanded dimensional analysis.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 789.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Acetate: A Versatile Reaction To Study Enzyme Kinetics  Anderson, J.; Byrne, T.; Woelfel, K. J.; Meany, J. E.; Spyridis, G. T.; Pocker,Y.
Simple kinetic assay methods to determine the specific and molecular activities of carbonic anhydrase, alpha-chymotrypsin, and acetylcholinesterase.
Anderson, J.; Byrne, T.; Woelfel, K. J.; Meany, J. E.; Spyridis, G. T.; Pocker,Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 715.
Aromatic Compounds |
Enzymes |
Kinetics
Candy Sprinkles To Illustrate One Part Per Million  Meloan, Clifton E.; Meloan, Mindy L.; Meloan, John M.
1,000,000 colored candy sprinkles (5,246 g) with a single black one placed in a clear, spherical fish tank.
Meloan, Clifton E.; Meloan, Mindy L.; Meloan, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 658.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A More Direct Feeling for Avogadro's Number  Goh, N. K.; Subramanian, R.; Chia, L. S.
An approach based on the intrinsic parameters of an atom to evaluate Avogadro's Number and assess its accuracy.
Goh, N. K.; Subramanian, R.; Chia, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 656.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Symbolic Algebra and Stoichiometry  DeToma, Robert P.
Applying symbolic algebra (instead of the factor-label method) to stoichiometry calculations.
DeToma, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 568.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Quest for Mistakes  Wolf, A. A.
The English and Spanish billion are identical.
Wolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 536.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution, Promoted by Bentonitic Clay  Angeles, Enrique; Ramirez, Alberto; Martinez, Ignacio; Moreno, Enrique
Experiment that uses bentonitic clay as a catalyst instead of the conventional Lewis acid in the chlorination and bromination of benzene and dimerization of toluene.
Angeles, Enrique; Ramirez, Alberto; Martinez, Ignacio; Moreno, Enrique J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 533.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Catalysis
A Simple, Systmatic Method for Determining J levels for jj Coupling  Gauerke, Ensign Steven J., USN; Campbell, Mark L.
A simple, systematic method for determining J levels for jj coupling.
Gauerke, Ensign Steven J., USN; Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 457.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Basic Principles of Scale Reading  Peckham, Gavin D.
Steps and basic principles of reading the scales of laboratory instruments.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 423.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Nomenclature  Shaw, David B.
Drill-and-practice exercise in naming organic compounds and identifying structural formulas.
Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 421.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Binary Notation for Cyclic Polyols  McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B.
Applying a combination of a binary and decimal representation to acyclic polyols and isomers of inositol.
McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 285.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers
Computer Assisted Molecular Modeling Exercises for Undergraduates: II. Aromaticity in Hetorcyclic Molecules  Box, Vernon G. S.
159. Bits and pieces, 51. Using a molecular modeling program to design at least six mono- or bicyclic heterocyclic structures that obey Huckel's rules.
Box, Vernon G. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 236.
Molecular Modeling |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles
Isomers of Benzene  Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H.
Summary of isomers and valence isomers of benzene.
Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 222.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Covalent Bonding
The Blue Bottle Experiment Revisited: How Blue? How Sweet?  Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E.
Determining whether other colors and carbohydrates are possible with the "Blue Bottle" reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 160.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction
New Developments in Instant Photography  Simon, Myron S.
Account of the efforts to improve instant photography.
Simon, Myron S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 132.
Applications of Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aromatic Compounds
Mole and Chemical Amount: A Discussion of the Fundamental Measurements of Chemistry  Gorin, George
Demonstrates that the mole is little different from other units of measurement.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 114.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Grasping the Concepts of Stereochemistry  Barta, Nancy S.; Stille, John R.
An alternative procedure for the determination of R or S configuration for chiral molecules.
Barta, Nancy S.; Stille, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 20.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity
GC/MS experiments for the organic laboratory: II. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of p-xylene   Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie
Experiments for the sophomore organic chemistry laboratory that make use of capillary gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy(MS), teach the use of MS fragmentation patterns in structure determination, and also illustrate the effects of reaction conditions on the product distribution in well-known reactions.
Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A150.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkylation
A kinetic study of the isomerization of eugenol: The quantitative use of NMR, GC, and HPLC in a single organic laboratory experiment that demonstrates alternative approaches to solving a problem   Peterson, Thomas H.; Bryan, James H.; Keevil, Thomas A.
Description of an experiment that allows students to be aware that there is often more than one approach to designing an experiment,and that the quality of the experimental results often depend on the proper choice of instrument(s).
Peterson, Thomas H.; Bryan, James H.; Keevil, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A96.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Kinetics
Using Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements To Study Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding: Calculating the Degree of Association, Equilibrium Constant, and Bond Energy for Hydrogen Bonding in Benzyl Alcohol and Phenol  Frohlich, H.
This paper presents simple IR spectroscopy experiments that the author has used for two years in a third-year course, which covers spectroscopy and binding.
Frohlich, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A3.
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Covalent Bonding
Organometallic benzene complexes  Maslowsky, Edward, Jr.
A look at benzene's flexibility and subsequent interactions with metal atoms.
Maslowsky, Edward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 980.
Organometallics |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds
A quantitative organic analysis using carbon magnetic resonance: A study in enamine isomer distribution and relative stabilities  Cook, A. Gilbert
An experiment that utilizes the 13C capabilities of FT-NMR spectrometers.
Cook, A. Gilbert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 865.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Aromatic Compounds
A fast, easy-to-run and safe ene reaction between benzyne and [beta]-pinene  Drouin, Jacques; Jacq, Philippe
A fast, easy-to-run and safe ene reaction between benzyne and [beta]-pinene.
Drouin, Jacques; Jacq, Philippe J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 863.
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkynes |
Reactions
Products of aldol addition and related reactions: Notation for their prediction  Nwaukwai, Stephen O.
A simple method that can be used to predict products of aldols and aldol-tye addition reactions.
Nwaukwai, Stephen O. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 626.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The correct von Baeyer name for (Buckminster)fullerane  Eckroth, David
The goal of this paper is to show the usefulness of a Hamiltonian line in the derivation of the correct von Baeyer name of a bridged hydrocarbon.
Eckroth, David J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 609.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Preparation of 2-aminobenzaldehyde: A fragrant component of floral odors  Foy, Brian D.; Smudde, R. Allen; Wood, William F.
This article summarizes an experimental procedure and lists spectroscopic and physical properties of the products.
Foy, Brian D.; Smudde, R. Allen; Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 322.
Aromatic Compounds |
Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties
Don't stop with benzene! The educational value of the cyclooctatetraene (C8H8) molecule  Samet, Cindy
Educators often ignore larger molecular ring systems, suggesting to students that benzene covers all the important aspects of the chemistry of annulenes.
Samet, Cindy J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 291.
Aromatic Compounds
Alkimers  Hiatt, Richard R.
Tutorial and practice program for isomerism and nomenclature.
Hiatt, Richard R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 125.
Diastereomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Relation Between the Ionization Potential and the Molecular Electronegativity of Organic Homologs  Chenzhong, Cao.
A quantitative correlation of the molecular electronegativity with first ionization potential of organic homologs that can be a great help to students (especially those without any quantum chemistry background) in understanding the change rule of electron activity.
Chenzhong, Cao. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 25.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
Preparation of 2,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrrole  Shaw, Dennis J.; Wood, William F.
Synthesis and characterization of 2,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrrole.
Shaw, Dennis J.; Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A313.
Heterocycles |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab
Microscale synthesis of azulene  Brieger, Gottfried
Procedure for the microscale synthesis of azulene.
Brieger, Gottfried J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A262.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Dyes / Pigments |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Synthesis of epoxidated chalcone derivatives: A useful introductory undergraduate experiment in organic synthesis  Dixon, Christine E.; Pyne, Stephen G.
Modifications to a previously reported organic synthesis.
Dixon, Christine E.; Pyne, Stephen G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1032.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Metric matrix  Helser, Terry L.
Puzzle to help students learn and become familiar with the metric system.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 986.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Elemental anagrams  Thomas, Nicholas C.
Ten elemental anagrams.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 984.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Trivial names for chemical substances: Will they be taught or forgotten in the twenty-first century?   Smith, Peter A. S.
A so-called trivial name is simply a term for identifying a substance without utilizing standardized symbols to designate its structural features.
Smith, Peter A. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 877.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The centennial of systematic organic nomenclature  Smith, Homer A., Jr.
This article outlines the development of the Geneva Rules, sketches the history of important modifications over the years, discusses the recent advances under auspices of IUPAC, and speculates about future developments.
Smith, Homer A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 863.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Benzene isomers? (the author replies)  Potgieter, J. H.
Additional isomers of benzene.
Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 859.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers
Benzene isomers?  Reinecke, Manfred G.
Additional isomers of benzene.
Reinecke, Manfred G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 859.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Alkenes
Synthesis of 5,6-dimethoxybenzofuroxan: An organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Eswaran, S. V.; Sajadian, S. K.
Synthesis and characterization of 5,6-dimethoxybenzofuroxan.
Eswaran, S. V.; Sajadian, S. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 839.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
The metric system  Mason, Lynn M.
Metric conversions commonly encountered in chemistry and biology, with tests over each lesson.
Mason, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Misusing "molecular"  Goldberg, David E.
In discussing net ionic equations, the authors of many general chemistry textbooks call the overall equation a "molecular equation", which is misleading at best and incorrect at worst.
Goldberg, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 776.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical structure-What is "she"?  Randic, Milan
Encoding molecular structures; path numbers as descriptors, selective use of descriptors, and basis descriptors.
Randic, Milan J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 713.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Modeling |
Diastereomers
A graph-theoretical approach to structure-property relationships  Mihalic, Zlatko; Trinajstic, Nenad
Topological indexes, elementary graph-theoretical concepts, definitions of selected topological indices, and designing QSPR models.
Mihalic, Zlatko; Trinajstic, Nenad J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 701.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An example molecular orbital calculation using the Sachs graph method  Dias, Jerry Ray
Methodologies to circumvent solving large secular determinants.
Dias, Jerry Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 695.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Aromaticity via Kekule structures and conjugated circuits  Klein, D. J.
Aromatic sextets, conjugated-circuit theory, and the adjacency-matrix computational method.
Klein, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 691.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Imprecise numbers and incautious safety procedure mar experiment.  Nelson, Robert N.
Problems with significant figures and safety concerns regarding two published experiments.
Nelson, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 688.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A revision of the paper "Grid of expressions related to the Einstein coefficients" (the author replies).  Sturm, James E.
Some inconsistencies in the grid of expressions presented in the original article.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 686.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A revision of the paper "Grid of expressions related to the Einstein coefficients."  Orti, E.; Planelles, J.
Some inconsistencies in the grid of expressions presented in the original article.
Orti, E.; Planelles, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 685.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The anode and the sunrise.  Mierzecki, Roman.
Etymology of the terms anode and cathode.
Mierzecki, Roman. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 657.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching inorganic nomenclature: A systematic approach.  Lind, Gerhard.
Convenient flow charts for naming inorganic compounds.
Lind, Gerhard. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 613.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Synthesis and reactions of benzofurazan-1-oxide.  Terrian, Deborah L.; Houghtaling, Melissa A.; Ames, James R.
An elementary experiment that can be used to familiarize students with the synthesis and reactions of nitrogen heterocycles.
Terrian, Deborah L.; Houghtaling, Melissa A.; Ames, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 589.
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Aromatic Compounds
The importance of temperature control in the preparation of phencyclone (1,3-diphenyl-2-H-cyclopenta[I]phenanthrene-2-one).  Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
The addition of a methanolic alkali solution to the reactant mixture increases yields to 80%.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 571.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Phenol and the importance of dose.  Crute, Thomas D.
Phenol is highly toxic, but the active ingredient in Chloraseptic lozenges.
Crute, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 553.
Phenols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Toxicology |
Consumer Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
A note on the Schrdinger representation of the momentum and energy operators  Chow, Tai L.
Observables in quantum mechanics can not be regarded as ordinary algebraic variables as in classical mechanics; instead, every observable can be represented by an operator.
Chow, Tai L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 537.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantum Chemistry
Significant figures: A classroom demonstration  Kirksey, H. Graden.
Demonstration to show students the function and importance of significant figures in a measurement.
Kirksey, H. Graden. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 497.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A mole of salt crystals-Or how big is the Avogadro number?  Hoyt, William.
Calculations designed to help students put the size of Avogadro's number into perspective.
Hoyt, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Views of nursing professionals on chemistry course content for nursing education  Walhout, Justine S.; Heinschel, Judie.
Analysis of survey conducted of deans of schools of nursing, chairs of nursing departments, and registered nurses regarding courses required of nursing students and the importance of different units of measure and 39 chemistry topics to the nursing profession.
Walhout, Justine S.; Heinschel, Judie. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 483.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Toward the consistent use of regiochemical and stereochemical terms in introductory organic chemistry.  Adams, David L.
Proposes consistency and clarity in the use of definitions for regioselective, stereoselective, and stereospecific in introductory organic chemistry.
Adams, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 451.
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Flash photochemical measurements in the physical chemistry laboratory: Kinetics of deactivation of electronically excited aromatic molecules by oxygen  Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L.
In this experiment, students examine the kinetics by which molecular oxygen deactivates the electronically excited triplet states of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene in hexane solution.
Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 336.
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A new method for the oxidation of 4-phenylurazole to 4-phenyltriazolinedione.  Mallakpour, Shadpour E.
The procedures describe the synthesis of 4-phenyl-urazole from ethyl carbazate and then the oxidation of the urazole with NO2-N2O4 to yield 4-phenyl-1,2,4-trizoline-3,5-dione.
Mallakpour, Shadpour E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Synthesis of trans-2-tert-butylcyclohexanol via hydroboration: A microscale organic experiment demonstrating syn addition  Wigal, Carl T.; Hopkins, William T.; Ronald, Bruce P.
This microscale experiment demonstrates the relative stereochemistry of the titled addition.
Wigal, Carl T.; Hopkins, William T.; Ronald, Bruce P. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A299.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Addition Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Stereochemistry
The Wittig synthesis of alkenes by phase-transfer catalysis: The syntheses of 4,4'-dichlorostilbenes and of E, E-1,4 -diphenylbutadiene   Breuer, Stephen W.
The syntheses of 4,4'-dichlorostilbenes and of E, E-1,4 -diphenylbutadiene.
Breuer, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A58.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds
Hofmann's Benzene tree at the Kekule festivities  Brock, William H.; Benfey, O. Theodor; Stark, Susanne
A retranslation of Hofmann's speech in 1890.
Brock, William H.; Benfey, O. Theodor; Stark, Susanne J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 887.
Aromatic Compounds |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A simple preparation of 1,4-di-tert-butylbenzene without AICI3: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Castrillon, Jose
Alkylation of benzene with tert-butyl chloride and aluminum chloride has been very popular in first year organic chemistry courses, but it releases HCl gas fumes. This problem has lead to a replacement preparation using tert-butyl acetate, which provides better yield and eliminated the fumes.
Castrillon, Jose J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 793.
Alkylation |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Microscale Lab
Synthetic applications of aromatic metabolites  Armstead, D. E. F.
A sequel lab to clove oil extraction.
Armstead, D. E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 698.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Natural Products |
Synthesis
Synthesis of an isolable quinodimethane  Rosenfeld, Stuart; VanDyke, Sarah
A new lab sequence where the primary goal is to generate a situation in which students have the ability to extend knowledge independently using the tools and models available following a yearlong organic chemistry course. To accomplish this, the authors created a structured lab within a relatively poorly studied area so that some independent work could be done in a setting that is neither contrived nor too loosely defined to afford a useful experience.
Rosenfeld, Stuart; VanDyke, Sarah J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 691.
Aromatic Compounds |
Undergraduate Research
The malonic ester synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D.
The versatile reactions of diethyl malonate represent an important lecture topic in introductory organic courses, but are only rarely performed in the lab because of several problems associated with performing these reactions. These authors present a lab the circumvents some of the typical problems.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 689.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amino Acids |
Heterocycles |
Amides
The three-step synthesis of 2,6-dinitro-4-methylaniline from p-toluidine  Todd, David
A multistep synthesis for the beginning organic chemistry lab.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 682.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides
The diverse nature of the C6H6 molecule  Potgeiter, J. H.
The purpose of this discussion is to show that C6H6 describes more than just one kind of benzene.
Potgeiter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 280.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Reactions |
Constitutional Isomers
Friedel-Crafts alkylation products   Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.
Comments on how two recent papers could compliment one and another.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 86.
Alkylation |
Gas Chromatography |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds
The microscale synthesis and purification of N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet): An experiment for a project-oriented organic chemistry course  LeFevre, Joseph W.
Procedure for the microscale synthesis and purification of N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet).
LeFevre, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A278.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Organic Nomenclature (Lampman, Gary)  Damey, Richard F.
An interactive tutorial / drill for naming organic compounds.
Damey, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A220.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols
More elements: Another puzzle  Mandelin, Dorothy J.
An element search puzzle.
Mandelin, Dorothy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1044.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Terminology: Helping students cope with name reactions in organic chemistry  Ganem, Bruce
Using limericks to help students understand and remember name reactions in organic chemistry.
Ganem, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1009.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The elements: A puzzle  Mandelin, Dorothy J.
An element word search.
Mandelin, Dorothy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1005.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (6)  Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT
The solution may be to use the etymological meaning of anode and cathode.
Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (5)  Sweeting, Linda M.
The chemical potential of the electrons, not their "richness" determines direction of flow.
Sweeting, Linda M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (4)  Fochi, Giovanni
It is sufficient to show what part of the circuit is the electric generator.
Fochi, Giovanni J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (3)  Woolf, A. A.
There are no shortcuts in teaching the electrochemistry of galvanic cells; the process in each cell must be treated holistically.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (2)  Castellan, Gilbert W.
The difficulty is not so much confusion over conventions as the actual wrong use of terminology.
Castellan, Gilbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 991.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (1)  Freeman, Robert D.
There is no convincing evidence of confusion regarding electrochemical conventions and the author's proposed solutions are unacceptable.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 990.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Polymers in the physical chemistry laboratory: An integrated experimental program  Hardgrove, George L.; Tarr, Donald L.; Miessler, Gary L.
Procedure for polymerizing mixtures of styrene and methylmethacrylate.
Hardgrove, George L.; Tarr, Donald L.; Miessler, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 979.
Polymerization |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Reaction of bromine with hydrocarbons on the overhead, real or simulated  Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt
A simulation that looks like the addition of bromine to hydrocarbons but is not (the bromine is simulated using a mixture of food colorings).
Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 961.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Addition Reactions
Understanding the language: Problem solving and the first law of thermodynamics  Hamby, Marcy
A flow chart that classifies thermodynamic, mathematical relationships into categories that students can consult for help in solving first law problems.
Hamby, Marcy J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 923.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
NMR analysis of product mixtures in electrophilic aromatic substitution  Clark, Mary Ann; Duns, Glenn; Golberg, Danny; Karwowska, Anna; Turgeon, Andree; Turley, Jolanda
Use of mole fraction analysis permits precise quantitative product mixture analysis, a large improvement over qualitative and semiquantitative techniques.
Clark, Mary Ann; Duns, Glenn; Golberg, Danny; Karwowska, Anna; Turgeon, Andree; Turley, Jolanda J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 802.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Quantitative Analysis
An olfactory indicator for acid-base titrations: A laboratory technique for the visually impaired  Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.
Analysis of eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol as aromatic indicators for acid-base titrations.
Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 795.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Minorities in Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Avogadro's number, moles, and molecules  McCullough, Thomas, CSC
A simple diagram that relates Avogadro's number, moles, and number of atoms / molecules.
McCullough, Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 783.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Pop-up units converter  Filby, Gordon; Klusmann, Martin
Program that provides conversion factors and calculations among a variety of units.
Filby, Gordon; Klusmann, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 770.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Binary representation in carbohydrate nomenclature  McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B.
A binary notation is used to indicate the structure of carbohydrates.
McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 747.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
An easily implemented flash photolysis experiment for the physical chemistry laboratory: The isomerization of 4-anilino-4'-nitroazobenzene  Hair, Sally R.; Taylor, Gregg A.; Schultz, L. Wayne
In this experiment, an inexpensive electronic camera flash initiates the reaction, and a visible spectrometer monitors its progress.
Hair, Sally R.; Taylor, Gregg A.; Schultz, L. Wayne J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 709.
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A simple second-order kinetics experiment  Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim
The reaction studied in this experiment is the (reversible) dimerization of 2,5-dimethyl-3,4-diphenylcyclopentadienone; the monomer is colored while the dimer is not, so monitoring the reaction with a simple spectrophotometer provides the concentration of the monomer and therefore the rate of its disappearance.
Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 707.
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Name for the basic physical quantity n, symbol for relative mass  Nelson, P. G.
Recommendations for naming the basic physical quantity n, symbol for relative mass.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 628.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Industrial chemistry in the organic laboratory: C4 alkylations  Teegarden, David M.; Varco-Shea, Theresa C.; Conklin, Karen T.; Markle, Cynthia A.; Anderson, Scott D.
A set of experiments to illustrate reactions of the tertiary-butyl group; the products are all compounds that occur in consumer products and have received considerable attention in the popular press (BHT, BHA, TBHQ, and MTBE).
Teegarden, David M.; Varco-Shea, Theresa C.; Conklin, Karen T.; Markle, Cynthia A.; Anderson, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 619.
Industrial Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Synthesis of 3-(2'-methoxy,5'-bromophenyl)-2,3-epoxy phenyl propanone, A novel epoxidated chalcone derivative: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Moloney, Gerard P.
Synthesis of 3-(2'-methoxy,5'-bromophenyl)-1-phenyl-prop-2-enone and its subsequent epoxidation to 3-(2'-methoxy,5'- bromophenyl)-2,3-epoxy phenyl propanone.
Moloney, Gerard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 617.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Saccharin alkylation: O vs. N substitution  Greenberg, Fred H.
Illustrates charge delocalization of an ambident anion in an SN2 reaction, the comparative deshielding of oxygen and nitrogen in proton NMR, and the use of the NMR integral in assessing isomer distribution.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 611.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
A significant example: How many days in a century?  Lisensky, George
Calculating the number of days in a century can help clarify the subject of significant figures.
Lisensky, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 562.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A new approach to the generation of sigma complex structures  Young, Joseph G.
An alternative to the electron pushing approach for determining intermediate resonance structures for electrophilic aromatic substitutions.
Young, Joseph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 550.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Resonance Theory |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An effective and facile demonstration of organic photochemistry  Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Cooksey, Christopher J.; Crich, David
The number of experiments that illustrate photochemically induced change and are suitable for student use is limited. The photolysis experiment described here is carried out very quickly using tungsten-filament lamp irradiation.
Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Cooksey, Christopher J.; Crich, David J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 434.
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution: A microscale organic experiment  Avila, Walter B.; Crow, Jeffrey L.; Utermoehlen, Clifford M.
This experiment demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and is also an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry.
Avila, Walter B.; Crow, Jeffrey L.; Utermoehlen, Clifford M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 350.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Carboxylic Acids
Please, no angstrometer!  Gorin, George
Instead of urging the adoption of more prefixes, there is good reason to propose that some of them be eliminated.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 277.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Laboratory experiments on phase-transfer-catalyzed reactions of neutral molecules  Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K.
In order to illustrate the application of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC), the preparation of benzophenone oxime was attempted under different conditions.
Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 273.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Grignard reagent additions to alpha, beta-ethylenic nitriles: 1,4- vs. 1,2- additions  Kulp, Stuart S.; DiConcetto, Joseph A.
The easily synthesized alpha-phenylcinnamonitrile serves as an excellent starting material to illustrate conjugate (1,4) vs. simple (1,2) addition of various reactants.
Kulp, Stuart S.; DiConcetto, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 271.
Grignard Reagents |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Photohydration of pyridine: Modification of an undergraduate kinetics experiment  Morine, Gerald H.
In a previous article in this Journal an undergraduate experiment on photochemical kinetics was presented. This author is offering modifications to the original experiment.
Morine, Gerald H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 266.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Heterocycles
Microscale synthesis of heterocyclic compounds   Al-awar, Rima; Wahl, George H., Jr.
The authors describe microscale syntheses of four heterocyclic compounds for which large-scale versions were described previously in this Journal.
Al-awar, Rima; Wahl, George H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 265.
Microscale Lab |
Heterocycles |
Esters |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
A PROLOG program for the generation of molecular formulas  Mendez, B.; Moreno, J. A.
112. Bits and pieces, 43. The authors have developed a computer program that generates a list of all possible molecular formulas for compounds that may contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, and halogens that are consistent with certain restrictive conditions.
Mendez, B.; Moreno, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 234.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The stepwise nitration of toluene: A multistep microscale synthesis based on an industrial process  Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W.; Longmore, Robert W.
The stepwise synthesis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene is a simple but important industrial example of electrophilic aromatic substitution that reflects a decreasing reactivity accompanying the increasing degree of nitration.
Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W.; Longmore, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 68.
Microscale Lab |
Industrial Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
HPLC
Grid of expressions related to the Einstein coefficients  Sturm, James E.
The following is a collection of all of the relations of Einstein coefficients.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 32.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Quantities, Units, and Symbols in Physical Chemistry (Mills, Ian; Cvitas, Tomislav; Homann, Klaus; Kallay, Nikola; Kuchitsu, Kozo)  Freeman, Robert D.
Everything you ever wanted to know about physical quantities, symbols, and units.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A188.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Reaction Chemistry, Review II (Flash, P.; Bendall, V.)  Chipman, Wilmon B.
Six different programs which allow the user to identify functional groups, supply the missing reagent necessary to complete a given reaction, deduce the product of a given reaction, ascertain whether a given reaction will go, search the reaction database for functional group conversions, and search for the utility of a certain reagent.
Chipman, Wilmon B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A171.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Reaction Chemistry, Review I (Flash, P.; Bendall, V.)  Hargis, J. H.
Six different programs which allow the user to identify functional groups, supply the missing reagent necessary to complete a given reaction, deduce the product of a given reaction, ascertain whether a given reaction will go, search the reaction database for functional group conversions, and search for the utility of a certain reagent.
Hargis, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A170.
Reactions |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical Nomenclature and Balancing Equations (Bergwall Educational Software)  Kling, Timothy A.
These computer programs deal exclusively with the subjects of inorganic nomenclature and balancing simple equations.
Kling, Timothy A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A41.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach (the author replies)  Cardulla, Frank
There are other ways to teach problem solving, and they can produce competent, successful, and enthusiastic students.
Cardulla, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1066.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach  Gillette, Marcia L.
The classroom analogy Cardulla uses could be made much more meaningful if it were used to demonstrate the relation between what is obvious and what is not.
Gillette, Marcia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1065.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Amending the IUPAC Green Book  Tykodi, R. J.
Suggested amendments to the IUPAC Green Book regarding standardized chemical terminology and units of measure.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1064.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Friedel Crafts acylation and alkylation with acid chlorides  Jarret, Ronald M.; Keil, Nora; Allen, Susan; Cannon, Lisa; Coughlan, Julie; Cusumano, Leonarda; Nolan, Brian
A shortened Friedel-Crafts experiment; the extra time available allows for additional experiments designed to illustrate the finer points of the reaction, such as electrophile rearrangements and decarbonylation of acyl cations.
Jarret, Ronald M.; Keil, Nora; Allen, Susan; Cannon, Lisa; Coughlan, Julie; Cusumano, Leonarda; Nolan, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1056.
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab
The diazo copying process: An example and demonstration of applied organic chemistry for the undergraduate student  Osterby, Bruce
Demonstrating the chemistry of the diazo copying process.
Osterby, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1026.
Applications of Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments
Carbohydrate nomenclature half a century ago: A personal view of an eyewitness  Hurd, Charles D.
The history of the nomenclature of carbohydrates.
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 984.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
Elementary my dear Watson  Helser, Terry L.
A puzzle using the names and symbols of the elements.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 980.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An overview of oriental lacquer: Art and chemistry of the original high-tech coating  Snyder, Donald M.
While the use of Oriental lacquer dates back thousands of years, a scientific understanding of this complex material is only now emerging.
Snyder, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 977.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Natural Products
Fundamental concepts in the teaching of chemistry: Part 1. The two worlds of the chemist make nomenclature manageable  Loeffler, Paul A.
A proposal to precisely define and consistently employ the terms chemical substance and chemical species; the article uses the classification of matter and nomenclature as examples of the scheme's application.
Loeffler, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 928.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
The choice of names and symbols for quantities in chemistry  Mills, Ian M.
The importance of maintaining a clear distinction between the names and symbols for quantities and the names and symbols for units.
Mills, Ian M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 887.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
1H-NMR spectral analysis: Phenoxathiin-1-oxide: A classic first-order, four spin system  Klein, Robert F. X.; Svoronos, Paris D. N.; Hammer, Charles F.
Phenoxathiin-1-oxide is an ideal molecule for an introduction to four-spin data analysis.
Klein, Robert F. X.; Svoronos, Paris D. N.; Hammer, Charles F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 870.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles
Aromatic pi cloud availability: Formation of colored charge-transfer complexes  Kolb, Kenneth E.
One way to demonstrate the variance of pi electron availability in the benzene ring is to observe the color of the charge-transfer complex formed between an aromatic compound and tetracyanoethylene.
Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 853.
Aromatic Compounds
Atlantic-Pacific sig figs  Stone, Helen M.
Examples of applications of significant figures in calculations.
Stone, Helen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 829.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Borodin and the benzidine rearrangement  Shine, Henry J.
It is evident now that Borodin's work really had no impact at all on the mechanism of the benzidine rearrangement.
Shine, Henry J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 793.
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
How to visualize Avogadro's number  van Lubeck, Henk
Three examples to help students visualize the size of a mole.
van Lubeck, Henk J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 762.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Origin of the names of chemical elements  Ringnes, Vivi
Survey of the etymology and the reason scientists coined a specific name for a newly discovered element.
Ringnes, Vivi J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 731.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Evolution of the morphinan synthesis  Lednicer, Daniel
The key reaction to the preparation of morphinans is the Grewe carbocation cyclization.
Lednicer, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 718.
Synthesis |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
Organic chemistry on postage stamps  Schreck, James O.
Various organic chemistry topics on stamps, including hydrocarbons, benzene, Fischer projection, structural formulas, polymers, fermentation, Leibig condenser, molecular curiosities, and the organic chemical industry.
Schreck, James O. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 624.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds
A query on the etymology of the symbols, R and S  Koga, Gen
Confusion regarding the etymology of the stereochemical symbols, R and S.
Koga, Gen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 534.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
A visual aid for teaching the resonance concept  Delvigne, Francis
Using "dot clouds" to represent electron densities and resonance in structures such as benzene.
Delvigne, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 461.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds
A simple qualitative technique for pattern recognition in structure-activity relationships  Roy, Glenn
Acetate Overlay Repeating Topology Assay (AORTA) provides an inexpensive way to introduce high school or college students to the ever expanding library of structure-taste relationships without the need of a computer.
Roy, Glenn J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 435.
Qualitative Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
Different Choices (author response)  Kemp, H.R.
Ronald Rich discusses the use of descriptive units in the problem of calculating the concentration of a 96% sulfuric acid solution of a known density.
Kemp, H.R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Different Choices  Rich, Ronald L.
Kemp wisely advocates that the values of physical quantities be treated as independent of the units used.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Concerning Units (author response)  Wadlinger, Robert
Strobel's additional comments are most welcome, especially his electron-volt argument.
Wadlinger, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Concerning Units  Strobel, Pierre
Wadlinger rightly pointed out a number of traps and misunderstandings resulting from an omission of such descriptive units as atom or wave. Here are some more examples, which any chemist dealing with some physics is likely to encounter.
Strobel, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 270.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
ESR studies and HMO calculations on benzosemiquinone radical anions: A physical chemistry experiment  Beck, Rainer; Nibler, Joseph W.
For this laboratory study, several benzosemiquinone radical anions were chosen since they are long-lived and are easily made from inexpensive source materials. The effects of molecular symmetry and of different substituents attached to the aromatic ring system are also readily seen.
Beck, Rainer; Nibler, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 263.
Spectroscopy |
MO Theory |
Aromatic Compounds
Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in undergraduate chemistry: Part 2. Registry (structure) File: molecular formulas, names, and name fragments  Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie
This data base, essentially a subject index, consists of substance names, their Registry Numbers and characteristics, and actual structural representations.
Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 26.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The synthesis of methyl salicylate: Amine diazotization.  Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R.
Unlike many organic chemistry labs, this experiment does not expose students to carcinogenics, nor does it smell bad.
Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1106.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds
Synthesis of azulene, a blue hydrocarbon  Lemal, David M.; Goldman, Glenn D.
A procedure of the synthesis of this simple, beautiful, and theoretically interesting compound with many unusual properties.
Lemal, David M.; Goldman, Glenn D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 923.
MO Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Synthesis
Clusters: Link between molecules and solids  Jelski, Daniel A.; George, Thomas F.
In this article, the authors review some of the recent work reported with clusters of atoms, concentrating on the fundamental principles underlying cluster chemistry and physics.
Jelski, Daniel A.; George, Thomas F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 879.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Disulfide interchange reactions: An enzymic case study   Kitson, Trevor M.
This article concerns the reaction known as "disulfide interchange" in which a thiol reacts with a disulfide to give a different thiol and disulfide pair as the products.
Kitson, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 829.
Enzymes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Biology |
Biological Cells |
Alcohols
Example of the Robinson annulation procedure via phase transfer catalysis a beginning organic synthesis experiment  Soriano, D. S.; Lombardi, A. M.; Persichini, P. J.; Nalewajek, D.
A brief description of the procedure.
Soriano, D. S.; Lombardi, A. M.; Persichini, P. J.; Nalewajek, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 637.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Undergraduate experiments with a long-lived radical (Fremy's salt): Synthesis of 1,4-benzoquinones by degradative oxidation of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohols  Morey, J.
The long-lived, stable radical described in this article can be prepared and stored for several months and therefore is an excellent basis for a series of experiments that the author designed for his class.
Morey, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 627.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
The correlation of multinuclear spectral data for selectively fluorinated organic compounds  Everett, T. Stephen
This article presents a general discussion of fluorine-19 NMR spectroscopy, spectral data for two series of selectively fluorinated compounds, and the detailed correlation of multinuclear data for one specific compound.
Everett, T. Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 422.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes
Alkylation of chlorobenzene: An experiment illustrating kinetic versus thermodynamic control  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Standard, Jean M.; Field, Kurt W.
An experiment illustrating kinetic versus thermodynamic control through the alkylation of chlorobenze.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Standard, Jean M.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 367.
Alkylation |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gas Chromatography
Mnemonic for Z and E nomenclature  Thomas, C. W.
A visual reminder that makes it unnecessary to memorize the German terms.
Thomas, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 44.
Diastereomers |
Alkenes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Writing Chemical Formulas, Review I (Ross, Don)  Sweeney-Hammond, Kathleen
Program to give students practice in writing chemical formulas and to facilitate the understanding of balancing positive and negative charges in a chemical formula.
Sweeney-Hammond, Kathleen J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A90.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Writing Chemical Formulas, Review I (Ross, Don)  Pavlovich, Joseph M.
Program to give students practice in writing chemical formulas and to facilitate the understanding of balancing positive and negative charges in a chemical formula.
Pavlovich, Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A88.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Le Chtelier - Right or wrong? (the author replies)  Helfforich, F. G.
Equilibrium constants are always dimensionless.
Helfforich, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1069.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Le Chtelier - Right or wrong?  Quintero B., Gustavo
Equilibrium constants are always dimensionless.
Quintero B., Gustavo J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1069.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Significance and precision (the author replies)  Peiser, H. S.
Using atomic weights with constant significant figures introduces less confusion for students.
Peiser, H. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1068.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Significance and precision  Hartkopf, A. V.
Examples of misconceptions in the treatment of data.
Hartkopf, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1068.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A suggestion for a convenient new SI prefix  Schieher, Cherylann; Longo, Frederick R.
Proposes the angstro as an SI prefix to represent 10-10.
Schieher, Cherylann; Longo, Frederick R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1030.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Analysis of xylene mixtures using binuclear lanthanide(III) silver(I) NMR shift reagents  Wenzel, Thomas J.; Russett, Mark D.
An alternative to IR spectroscopy for the quantification of xylene mixtures employing NMR spectroscopy and involving the use of binuclear lanthanide(III)-silver(I) NMR shift reagents.
Wenzel, Thomas J.; Russett, Mark D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 979.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
"Million" ideas  Godshall, Clark J.; Herrick, Jill; vander Water, Kevin; Bogner, Donna
Several ideas for demonstrating the size of a million.
Godshall, Clark J.; Herrick, Jill; vander Water, Kevin; Bogner, Donna J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 956.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
"Correct" methods for naming inorganic compounds  Fernelius, W. Conard
Summary of nomenclature rules and their historical development.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 901.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Naming inorganic compounds  Lancashire, Robert J.
Textbook survey regarding inconsistencies in systems for the order of naming ligands when using prefixes.
Lancashire, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 900.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Outmoded terminology: The normal hydrogen electrode  Ramette, R. W.
As educators, we should not confuse the "normal hydrogen electrode" with the "standard hydrogen electrode".
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 885.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Polymer properties and testing definitions  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; Seymour, Raymond B.
Glossary of common terms regarding the properties and testing of polymers.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; Seymour, Raymond B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 866.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Questionable word usage in analytical chemistry  Mellon, M. G.
The use of imprecise, uninformative, inappropriate or even wrong terms; and the lack of clarity in imprecise or uninformative names for methods of chemical analysis.
Mellon, M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 735.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
One more view on assigning absolute configurations  Todd, David
Etymology of the R, S convention.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 732.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The many chemical names for H2O  Treptow, Richard S.
"Inventing" names for water to illustrate the limitations of any naming system.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 697.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A new road to reactions. Part 4. The substance and its molecules  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
Teaching the chemical reaction concept to young students requires a more disciplined way of using substance names, as well as other strategies.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 692.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
The chemists' delta  Craig, Norman C.
Thermodynamic quantities such as ?G and ?S are intensive functions and derivatives that depend on instantaneous values of the partial molar forms of various thermodynamic properties of reactions and products; they are not simple finite differences.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 668.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Indian happiness wart in the development of photodynamic action  Neckers, Douglas C.
Review of the properties and uses of Rose Bengal and related dyes.
Neckers, Douglas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 649.
Aromatic Compounds |
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry
Elemental etymology: What's in a name?  Ball, David W.
Wrong Ytterby referred to in the original article.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Rules for propagation of significant figures (the author replies)  Schwartz, Lowell M.
Example that focusses on the difference between random error and systematic error.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 471.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Rules for propagation of significant figures  Stieg, Scott
The cited article fails to recognize that the last digit in a number implies precision or random error in the measurement result estimated by the number.
Stieg, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 471.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Making sense of the nomenclature of the oxyacids and their salts  Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L.
An overall scheme or "roadmap" for naming oxyacids and their salts.
Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 409.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Allotropes and polymorphs  Sharma, B. D.
Definitions and examples of allotropes and polymorphs.
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 404.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Origin of the term "quantum" (the author replies)  Bent, Henry A.
Origin of the term "quantum".
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 383.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantum Chemistry
Origin of the term "quantum"  Kauffman, George B.
Quantum can be used to denote either very small or very large amounts.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 383.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantum Chemistry
The official rules for organic chemical nomenclature: Emergence, evolution, emphasis, and errors  Traynham, James G.
Historical development of the official rules for organic chemical nomenclature.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 325.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Molar and equivalent amounts and concentrations  Kohman, Truman P.
What are the quantities of which molar and normal are units?
Kohman, Truman P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 246.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The nomenclature of relative stereochemistry: Choosing between likes and preferences  Brook, Michael A.
The commonly used descriptors for relative stereochemistry are introduced and compared.
Brook, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 218.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
The transition state  Anonymous
Proper definition of a transition state.
Anonymous J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 208.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactive Intermediates
Fundamental and descriptive units  Kemp, H. R.
It is not necessary to impose on the unit the burden of describing the physical quantity being measured.
Kemp, H. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 191.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Specific-documented assertion of the term "carbonium" as correct and the term "carbocation" as incorrect  Schwartz, M. Gerald
Asserts that the term "carbocation" has been incorrectly and inconsistently replacing the term "carbonium ion" in some quarters.
Schwartz, M. Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 92.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbocations
Polymer nomenclature, or, what's in a name?  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; Hess, George; Sperling, L. H.
Concentrates on the naming of linear organic polymers by considering common names, source-based names, characteristic group names, and structure-based names.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; Hess, George; Sperling, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 36.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A history of nomenclature of organic chemistry (Verkade, Pieter Eduard)  Kauffman, George B.
A review of a book that the reviewer promises is "far from dull".
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A180.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The synthesis of lactones from beta-aroylpropionic acids  McGahey, Lawrence
The experiment described in this article gives students experience in a short, multistep syntheses using reactions covered in most elementary organic courses and demonstrates reactions of difunctional compounds.
McGahey, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1101.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
The ultraviolet spectra of benzene derivatives: A physical chemistry experiment  DiBenedetto, John S.; Joens, Jeffrey A.
This paper describes an experiment that can be carried out using only a standard UV-visible scanning spectrophotometer and commonly available chemicals that make use of the fundamental concepts in symmetry and spectroscopy.
DiBenedetto, John S.; Joens, Jeffrey A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1095.
Aromatic Compounds |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Some ambiguous chemical terms defined  Thomas, Nicholas C.
Some clever puns built on terms used in chemistry.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1049.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Naming after names: Good or bad?  Ball, David W.
Isn't all the "name calling" in chemistry confusing? The author thinks this is especially true for students, and proposes a move away from using personal names in chemistry.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1039.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Does Cu(acac)2 quench benzene fluorescence?: A physical chemistry experiment  Marciniak, Bronislaw
The quenching of benzene fluorescence is investigated in this laboratory experiment because besides the "normal" quenching process, corrections for the absorption of exciting light as well as the absorption of benzene emission by the quencher are taken into account. This way, students see how many parameters should be taken into consideration in the solution of the quenching problem.
Marciniak, Bronislaw J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 998.
Photochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds
A proposed new name for hydrogen bonding: H-FON bonding  Hill, John W.
The author's suggested name for hydrogen bonding, he argues, may be more descriptive than the present term.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 960.
Nonmajor Courses |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Carbonium ion: Waxing and waning of a name  Traynham, James G.
A review of the history of the name "carbonium ion" reveals how a chemical term may emerge, become popular in a different context, lose its precision, and fall from popularity. It illuminates the care required in the development and use of chemical nomenclature.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 930.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Microscale organic laboratory: IV: A simple and rapid procedure for carrying out Wittig reactions  Pike, R. M.; Mayo, D. W.; Butcher, D. W.; Butcher, S. S.; Hinkle, R. J.
This paper offers two examples that illustrate a new synthetic method. This synthesis is the first feasible preparation of a particular group available for the introductory organic laboratory.
Pike, R. M.; Mayo, D. W.; Butcher, D. W.; Butcher, S. S.; Hinkle, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 917.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Alkenes |
Alcohols
Synthesis of fulvenes using phase-transfer catalysis  Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Yaritz, Joseph G.
These authors have devised a new procedure for synthesizing fulvenes from indene and fluorene using phase-transfer catalysis.
Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Yaritz, Joseph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 916.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Catalysis
Displaying custom designed characters from BASIC on the IBM PC  Cassen, T.
76. Bits and pieces, 31. A technique for displaying subscripts and superscripts when working on a computer word processor.
Cassen, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 842.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI and non-SI units of concentration: A truce?  Rich, Ronald L.
These authors examine whether a truce could be promoted by filling a chemical gap in the System Internationale with special attention on concentration.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 784.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Getting the acid out of your 2,4-DNPH  Behforouz, Mohammad
A method for getting the acid out of a sample of 2,4-DNPH.
Behforouz, Mohammad J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 723.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
A time scale for fast events  Onwood, David
Scientific vocabulary has not grown so as to afford a single means that is uniform, succinct , and accurate to describe the characteristic time of rapid events.
Onwood, David J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 680.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Mythology and elemental etymology: The names of elements 92 through 94  Glidewell, Christopher
The purpose of this brief note is to amplify the origin of the names for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium.
Glidewell, Christopher J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 659.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The enzymatic resolution of aromatic amino acids  Sheardy, Riehard; Liotta, L.; Steinhart, E.; Champion, R.; Rinker, J.; Planutis, M.; Salinkas, J.; Boyer, T.; Carcanague, D.
This article presents an experiment that can demonstrate as many principles of steroisomersim as possible and is also efficient in terms of time and preparation.
Sheardy, Riehard; Liotta, L.; Steinhart, E.; Champion, R.; Rinker, J.; Planutis, M.; Salinkas, J.; Boyer, T.; Carcanague, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 646.
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amino Acids |
Enzymes
Replaying the ball: Soccerane revisited  Castells, Josep; Serratosa, Felix
This article features two possible Schlegel diagrams and the two different Hamiltonian pathways.
Castells, Josep; Serratosa, Felix J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 630.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Find-the-pairs  Ryan, Jack
73. Bits and pieces, 29. A computer game that can help students avoid the drudgery of memorizing such essential items as elemental names and symbols or conversion factors.
Ryan, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 626.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
L-Cysteine: The (R)-amino acid from protein  Carter, Kenneth Nolan
Most texts do not treat the topic of this brief note accurately.
Carter, Kenneth Nolan J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 602.
Amino Acids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Illustrating Newman projection formulas in large classes  Elakovich, Stella D.
An overhead projector demonstration can help students better understand Newman projections.
Elakovich, Stella D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 570.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Modeling
A flowchart for dimensional analysis  Graham, D. M.
A flowchart to help students organize their thoughts when solving conversion problems.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 527.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Where did that number come from?   DeLorenzo, Ronald
With more careful labeling and handling of numbers, instructors can reduce the confusion students sometimes feel when watching problems being solved by the instructor on the board.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 514.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Stress the twofold axis of the threo isomer  Tavernier, D.
The author weighs in on the the controversy of the threo and erythro nomenclature.
Tavernier, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 511.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Relative activating ability of various ortho, para-directors  Zaezek, Norbert M.; Tyszkiewicz, Robert B.
The authors saw a need to develop an experiment for students to comprehensively learn about electrophilic aromatic substitution.
Zaezek, Norbert M.; Tyszkiewicz, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 510.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
Synthesis with ultrasonic waves  Boudjouk, Philip
A historical overview of the use of ultrasonic waves for chemical synthesis.
Boudjouk, Philip J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 427.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Reactions |
Catalysis
The arithmetic of aromaticity  Glidewell, Christopher; Lloyd, Douglas
In this article, the authors explore an aspect of conjugated systems that have received little attention, namely polycyclic hydrocarbons.
Glidewell, Christopher; Lloyd, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 306.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds
Mushroom odors: Student synthesis of the odoriferous compounds of the matsutake mushroom  Wood, William F.; Fesler, Mark
Matsutake mushrooms are in demand due to their pleasant and appetizing flavor or aroma. This article describes the synthesis of methyl cinnamate as an experiment for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory.
Wood, William F.; Fesler, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 92.
Food Science |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Natural Products
The Curtin-Hammett principle and the Winstein-Holness equation: new definition and recent extensions to classical concepts  Seeman, Jeffery I.
The author briefly demonstrates that the C-H principle and the W-H equation have values far exceeding those originally intended.
Seeman, Jeffery I. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 42.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
And the winner is . . . A multistep synthesis for the introductory organic course  Stradling, Samuel S.; Gage, Clarke L.
A synthetic sequence with a touch of friendly competition; methyl m-nitrobenzoate is prepared via three different routes from acetophenone.
Stradling, Samuel S.; Gage, Clarke L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1116.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Modern instrumental techniques: The battle of acronyms  Cantrell, Thomas S.
34 common instrumental acronyms.
Cantrell, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1101.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Instrumental Methods
The language gap: Common words with technical meanings  Ryan, Janet N.
Defines 30 common words with alternate scientific meanings.
Ryan, Janet N. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1098.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Graphics drill and game programs for benzene synthesis  Flash, Patrick J.
65. Bits and pieces, 26. "Benzene Synthesis Drill", a game format program that drills students on multistep conversions involving benzene.
Flash, Patrick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1028.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 1. The special nature of quantity equations  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
Differences between operation on quantities and operation on numbers and how chemical quantities should be described mathematically.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 839.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Elemental etymology: What's in a name?  Ball, David W.
Summarizes patterns to be found among the origins of the names of the elements.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 787.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The definition and symbols for the quantity called "molarity" or "concentration" and for the SI units of this quantity  Gorin, George
An alternative formulation for concentration and the SI units for this quantity.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 741.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Conversion of standard thermodynamic data to the new standard state pressure  Freeman, Robert D.
Analyzes the changes that will be required to convert standard thermodynamic data from units of atmospheres to the bar.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 681.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On the origin of the name of the element indium  Gutman, Ivan
Indium is not named after India.
Gutman, Ivan J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 674.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The preparation of benzoyl esters of phenols and benzoic anhydride by phase-transfer catalysis  Yeadon, A.; Turney, T. A.; Ramsay, G.
The procedure is sufficiently rapid to replace the Schotten-Baumann technique.
Yeadon, A.; Turney, T. A.; Ramsay, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 518.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Esters |
Phenols |
Aromatic Compounds
Ewens-Bassett notation for inorganic compounds  Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll
Development and adoption of Ewens-Bassett notation for inorganic compounds.
Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 474.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Working backwards is a forward step in the solution of problems by dimensional analysis  Drake, Robert F.
Solving chemistry calculations by determining the units of the desired answer and then working backwards using dimensional analysis.
Drake, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Nuclear synthesis and identification of new elements  Seaborg, Glenn T.
Review of descriptive terms, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay modes, and experimental methods in nuclear chemistry.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 392.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Isotopes
Frontier orbital analysis of the bathochromic shift of monosubstituted benzenes  Duben, Anthony J.
The bathochromic shift of the longest wavelength band observed when benzene is substituted can be demonstrated theoretically using a simple frontier orbital analysis.
Duben, Anthony J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 373.
Aromatic Compounds
The origin and adoption of the Stock system  Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll
The history and development of the Stock system of inorganic nomenclature.
Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 243.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Toward a more rational terminology  Tykodi, R. J.
Recommended changes in the terms atomic weight, molecular weight, gram atomic / molecular / formula weights, gram equivalent weight, specific heat / volume / density, and chemical equation.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 241.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Aqueous hydrogen peroxide: Its household uses and concentration units  Webb, Michael J.
Includes some simple weight / volume calculations and their answers.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 152.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Some improper terms in coordination chemistry  Syamal, A.
A listing of terms recommended to replace those employing "complex" in coordination chemistry.
Syamal, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 143.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Five Avogadro's number problems  Todd, David
Five problems involving Avogadro's number.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 76.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
The mole: Questioning format can make a difference  Lazonby, John N.; Morris, Jane E.; Waddington, David J.
Study of 2,695 high school students that found that it is the piecing together of the individual steps involved in mole calculations that presents the main difficulty for students.
Lazonby, John N.; Morris, Jane E.; Waddington, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 60.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The naming of evolving theories: Retaining the spirit of invention  Freeman, Gordon, R.
To retain a reference to the major controversy that was resolved by a new theory, and therefore to a major step in the growth of knowledge, reference names in the lengthening list used to refer to a particular theory should be dropped from the middle, not the beginning.
Freeman, Gordon, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 57.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
What's in a name: NaNO3  Haberfield, Paul
Origin and relationships between the names of sodium (natrium), the nitrate ion, and nitrogen.
Haberfield, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 56.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Uncommon common names-a heuristic approach  Mancott, Anatol
A chemical puzzle consisting of 25 antiquated, common names for compounds and elements.
Mancott, Anatol J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1097.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A new meaning of the terms acid and base hydrolysis  Milic, Nikola B.
Suggestions for distinguishing between solvation, hydration, and solvolysis, and hydrolysis reactions that produce hydroxo and protonated complexes.
Milic, Nikola B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1066.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The unit gram/mole and its use in the description of molar mass  Gorin, G.
How is molar mass related to the quantity called "molecular (or atomic) weight"?
Gorin, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1045.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
The emergence of stochastic theories: What are they and why are they special?  Freeman, Gordon R.
Examines the word stochastic and its opposite, deterministic, and points out why stochastic models are receiving new emphasis of late.
Freeman, Gordon R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 944.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Synthesis and testing of the insecticide carbaryl  Thadeo, Peter F.; Mowery, Dwight F.
Carbaryl, 1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate, is synthesized from alpha-naphthol and triethylamine.
Thadeo, Peter F.; Mowery, Dwight F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 742.
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Metallo complexes: An experiment for the undergraduate laboratory  Kauffman, George B.; Karbassi, Mohammad; Bergerhoff, Gunter
Theory, nomenclature, structure, and preparative methods of metallic complexes; the experiment prepares several metallo complexes according to procedures modified from the literature and their properties are observed.
Kauffman, George B.; Karbassi, Mohammad; Bergerhoff, Gunter J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 729.
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis
Use of the world "eager" instead of "spontaneous" for the description of exergonic reactions  Hamori, Eugene; Muldrey, James E.
Difficulties with the word spontaneous and why eager is a better term.
Hamori, Eugene; Muldrey, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 710.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
Natural sources of ionizing radiation  Bodner, George M.; Rhea, Tony A.
Units of radiation measurement, calculations of radiation dose equivalent, sources of ionizing radiation and its biological effects.
Bodner, George M.; Rhea, Tony A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 687.
Natural Products |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
To space or not to space- that is the question  Hurd, Charles D.
The use of spaces in the words "chloro acids" and "keto esters".
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 667.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
The estimation of activation parameters: Corrections and incorrections  Hamann, S. D.; le Noble, W. J.
Since liquids undergo thermal expansion and hydrostatice compression, expressing concentrations in terms of molarity can cause problems.
Hamann, S. D.; le Noble, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 658.
Thermodynamics |
Rate Law |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Synthesis of benzoic acid using household bleach  Perkins, Robert
Conversion of acetophenone to benzoic acid (the haloform reaction) using household bleach.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 551.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds
The evaluation of empirical resonance energies as reaction enthalpies with particular reference to benzene  George, Philip; Bock, Charles W.; Trachtman, Mendel
Deals with empirical resonance energy - how its magnitude depends on the choice of reference molecules from which the bond energies are derived, and how it can be evaluated much more simply, without recourse to bond energies, as the enthalpy change for a reaction predetermined by the choice of reference molecules.
George, Philip; Bock, Charles W.; Trachtman, Mendel J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 225.
Aromatic Compounds |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The evaluation of strain and stabilization in molecules using isodesmic reactions  Fuchs, Richard
The stabilities of cyclic hydrocarbons are analyzed using isodesmic and metathetical isodesmic reactions.
Fuchs, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 133.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds
Determination of the dipole moment of polar compounds in nonpolar solvents  Janini, George M.; Katrib, Ali H.
An experiment is described in the determination of the dipole moment of polar compounds in nonpolar solvents.
Janini, George M.; Katrib, Ali H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1087.
Solutions / Solvents |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Aromatic Compounds
Teaching factor-label method without sleight of hand  Garrett, James M.
As an aid in teaching the factor-label method, the author has developed a rather simple card game involving the matching of symbols and colors.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 962.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Concerning units  Wadlinger, Robert L.
The author discusses several instances where a critical reexamination of the use, or lack of use, of units should be made. He advocates the introduction of the descriptive unit wave to make many relationships, such as the Planck-Einstein equation, less open to misinterpretation and proposes the adoption of the radian as a fundamental unit.
Wadlinger, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 942.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Goal!: an exercise in IUPAC nomenclature  Castells, Josep; Serratosa, Felix
Footballane and soccerane.
Castells, Josep; Serratosa, Felix J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 941.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The NMR time scale  Bryant, Robert G.
The author states that it is common jargon to talk about slow or fast process in relation to the "NMR time scale" as if such a time scale had been carefully defined and agreed on by all. He examines each of the physical or chemical process associated with NMR spectra and correlates them to their time-scale ranges.
Bryant, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 933.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Dilemma over extinction coefficient units   Castellan, Gilbert W.
The author comments on the six options descried in the recent note by Donald C. Wigefiled, "The extinction coefficient: SI and the dilemma of its Units-six options."
Castellan, Gilbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 912.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor.  Gorin, George
Is the term "mole" a shortcoming or a virtue?
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 782.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
What do we measure in moles?   Tykodi, R. J.
Should we use a unit name that has a "particle" as a root?
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 782.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Application of aromatic solvent induced shifts in organic chemistry  Kalyanam, Nagabushanam
This article illustrates the predictability of the movement of proton signals in the case of carbonyl compounds when the solvent is changed from a standard aliphatic solvent to an aromatic solvent.
Kalyanam, Nagabushanam J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 635.
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents
Molecular formulas of organic compounds: the nitrogen rule and degree of unsaturation  Pellegrin, Valdo
This article wishes to demonstrate the nitrogen rule and the formula for calculating the number of rings plus double bonds of any common organic compound.
Pellegrin, Valdo J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 626.
Heterocycles |
Aromatic Compounds |
Free Radicals
Organic nomenclature: Making it a more exciting teaching and learning experience  Hambly, Gordon F.
The author shares a game that he has used with great success to help students understand organic nomenclature.
Hambly, Gordon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 553.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The synthesis of 4,6,8-trimethylazulene: an organic laboratory experiment  Garst, Michael E.; Hochlowski, Jill; Douglass, III, James G.; Sasse, Scott
A procedure for a two-step synthesis of 4,6,8-trimethylazulene.
Garst, Michael E.; Hochlowski, Jill; Douglass, III, James G.; Sasse, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 510.
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Chromatography
A quick and simple conversion of carboxylic acids into their anilides of heating with phenyl isothiocyanate  Ram, Ram N.; Kumar, Pradeep; Mukerjee, Arya K.
In this article, the authors report a quick and easy procedure using phenyl isothiocyanate, which is ideally suited to students.
Ram, Ram N.; Kumar, Pradeep; Mukerjee, Arya K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 508.
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Reactions
Raoult's law: A general chemistry experiment  Steffel, Margaret J.
A paper exercise and laboratory work make Raoult's law more meaningful to students.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 500.
Liquids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Palladium catalyzed reduction of nitrobenzene  Mangravite, John A.
The authors present an application of palladium catalyzed reductions to the undergraduate laboratory.
Mangravite, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 439.
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Organometallics
Modernization of the van Deemter equation for chromatographic zone dispersion  Hawkes, Stephen J.
The van Deemter equation for chromatographic zone dispersion has changed form since its inception in the mid 1950's. This has altered its usefulness and understanding by students.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 393.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chromatography |
Transport Properties
The spilled can of paint   Perkins, Robert
The writer describes a problem for students to work out in order to better understand units of conversion.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Chemistry Handbook (Summers, Donald B.)  Bock, James S., Jr.
A review of a handbook that provides many values, units, conversion tables, definitions, symbols, and equations.
Bock, James S., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 252.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The synthesis of 4,4'-di-tertbutyl biphenyl: a sophomore organic chemistry experiment  Horne, Deane A.
A brief note providing a sequence of experiments for an introductory organic course that is inexpensive and does not pose a health hazard.
Horne, Deane A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 246.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Catalysis |
Alkylation |
Solutions / Solvents
The misuse of the circle notation to represent aromatic rings  Belloli, Robert C.
This chemistry educator has noticed confusion and erroneous conclusions resulting from the overuse and misuse of the circle notation to represent aromaticity in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Belloli, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 190.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A novel classification of concentration units  MacCarthy, Patrick
Concentration units can be a source of confusion for students. This article presents a treatment on this topic that may help students understand the differences between these units.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 187.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Production of aromatic hydrocarbons according to extractive distillation process  Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J.
A theme that deals with the study of the recovery of benzene from petroleum hydrocarbon mixture by means of an extractive distillation processes emerges from a pilot project that has been proposed to the graduating students.
Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 148.
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds
Group names  Fernelius, W. Conard
Chemists are continually creating new words to obtain more precise meanings.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 140.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Flow chart for naming inorganic compounds  Robson, David
The flow chart presented in this paper can aid students that are learning to name inorganic compounds.
Robson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 131.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Correct representation of conformational equilibria  Fulop, F.; Bernath, G.; Szabo, J. A.; Dombi, Gy
This article draws attention to a recurring error in representations of conformations of carbocyclic compounds in the literature.
Fulop, F.; Bernath, G.; Szabo, J. A.; Dombi, Gy J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 95.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Degas' dancers: an illustration for rotational isomers  Hargittai, Istvan
Two drawings by Degas provide an opportunity to introduce the concepts of staggered and eclipsed conformations of A2B-BC2 molecules in a concrete, interesting, and aesthetic way.
Hargittai, Istvan J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 94.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Constitutional Isomers |
Diastereomers
Highly stereoselective synthesis and rearrangement of beta-amino alpha-bromo chalcones  Arnould, J. C.; Feigenbaum, A.; Henin, F.
The authors propose an experiment for advanced students which involves a sequence of easy steps illustrating important reactions and concepts of organic chemistry.
Arnould, J. C.; Feigenbaum, A.; Henin, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 82.
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Amino Acids |
Phenols |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Naming chemical compounds: Calculator drill   Holdsworth, David; Lacanienta, Evelyn
36. Bits and pieces, 13. A calculator can be programmed to drill students on chemical compound naming rules.
Holdsworth, David; Lacanienta, Evelyn J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 48.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Programming utilities for the APPLE II Plus   Nagel, Edgar H.
36. Bits and pieces, 13. Some new computer programs that can facilitate writing subscripts and superscripts are described in this note .
Nagel, Edgar H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 45.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The volume/volume problem  Robinson, Trevor
A short arrow is used to read as "made up to."
Robinson, Trevor J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 988.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Numbers in chemical names  Fernelius, W. Conard
Discusses the various ways that numbers are used in the formulas and names of chemical compounds.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 964.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State
The synthesis of 2-acetyl-1,4-naphthoquinone: A multi-step synthesis  Green, Ivan R.
Synthesis of the title compound is carried out through two different pathways that are then compared for their relative merits.
Green, Ivan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 698.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Nitration of naphthol: A laboratory experiment  Mowery, Dwight F.
The nitration of beta-naphthol to produce pyrotechnic snakes and the nitration of alpha-naphthol to produce Martius yellow dye.
Mowery, Dwight F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 689.
Aromatic Compounds
Chemical symbols on auto license plates  Mellon, M. G.
Identifying chemical symbols and simple chemical formulas on license plates.
Mellon, M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 669.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The underprepared student, scientific literacy and Piaget: Reflections on the role of measurement in scientific discussion  Kurland, Daniel J.
The need for an explicit instructional component that stresses the notion of measurement as a means of physical description.
Kurland, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 574.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
By any other name: Trademarks and "generic" names  Fernelius, W. Conard
Rules and guidelines for using trademark and generic names, particularly with regard to drugs.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 572.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Crystallographic and spectroscopic symmetry notations  Sharma, B. D.
Comparisons between the symmetry notations used by crystallographers (Hermann-Mauguin) and spectroscopists (Schoenflies).
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 554.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Proposed terminology for intermolecular hydrogen bonds  Isenberg, Norbert
Suggests the use of homomolecular and heteromolecular to describe hydrogen bonds found among the same molecules and between different molecules.
Isenberg, Norbert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 547.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The principle of vinylogy  Krishnamurthy, Subrahmanya
The principle of vinylogy recognizes the possibility that the inductive effect of a functional group is transmitted through a double bond or a conjugated system of double bonds.
Krishnamurthy, Subrahmanya J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 543.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkenes |
Esters |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amides |
Aromatic Compounds
Begone odious benzene, carbon tet, and chloroform  Carlton, Terry S.
Using benzene, carbon tet and chloroform safely and substituting them with safer solvents.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 530.
Aromatic Compounds
"Chemical Amount" or "Chemiance": Proposed names for the quantity measured in mole units  Gorin, George
The quantity measured in mole units does not have a generally accepted proper name.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 508.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Introduction to infrared spectroscopy: A simple undergraduate experiment  Reeder, Deborah M.; Sridharan, Srinivasa
The objective is to obtain two IR spectra, one on an aliphatic compound and the other on an aromatic compound in a first-semester organic laboratory.
Reeder, Deborah M.; Sridharan, Srinivasa J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 503.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An arbitrary aspect of science  Lagowski, J. J.
An opportunity to have input to IUPAC regarding the designation of A and B elements.
Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 439.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Administrative Issues
Pi bonding without tears  Akeroyd, F. Michael
A non-mathematical treatment of sigma-pi bonding applied to conjugation, hyperconjugation, Markovnikoff addition, aromaticity, and aromatic substitution.
Akeroyd, F. Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 371.
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
A novel bomb calorimetric determination of the resonance energy of benzene  Pickering, Miles
Improvements to an earlier experimental procedure.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 318.
Aromatic Compounds
Powers of ten  Herman Miller, Inc.
New version of the 1968 original.
Herman Miller, Inc. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 166.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The preparation of lucigenin: An experiment with charm  Amiet, R. G.
The preparation of lucigenin involves both nucleophilic and electrophilic aromatic substitution, nucleophilic aliphatic substitution, reductive coupling, and oxidation reactions.
Amiet, R. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 163.
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
How much cholesterol is in your body?  Chamizo G., Jose Antonio
Calculations involving the size and proportion of the body consisting of cholesterol.
Chamizo G., Jose Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 151.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
The IUPAC systematic names of the regular polyhedranes: An exercise in organic chemistry nomenclature  Moyano, Albert; Serratosa, Felix; Camps, Pelayo; Drudis, Josep M.
A simple procedure to assign IUPAC systematic names to all the polyhedranes, as well as other polycyclic hydrocarbons.
Moyano, Albert; Serratosa, Felix; Camps, Pelayo; Drudis, Josep M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 126.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
On naming the elements with atomic number greater than 100  Orna, Mary Virginia, O.S.U.
IUPAC's guidelines for naming newly created, heavy elements.
Orna, Mary Virginia, O.S.U. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 123.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The meaning of the word periodic  Chang, James C.
Challenges the cited author's meaning of the word "periodic".
Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 80.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The extinction coefficient: S.I. and the dilemma of its units-six options  Wigfield, Donald C.
Six options for dealing with units in regards to the extinction coefficient.
Wigfield, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 27.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Was there a conspiracy when Kekul's first German benzene-structure paper was frequently listed as published in 1865?  Wotiz, John H.; Rudofsky, Susanna
The question of whether Kekul was deliberately ambiguous cannot be answered without a search through editorial files and personal correspondence.
Wotiz, John H.; Rudofsky, Susanna J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 23.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Cyclohexane as a cryoscopic solvent   Steffel, Margaret J.
The author explores options for replacing benzene in the academic laboratory.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, A133.
Toxicology |
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Management
Carcinogens and mutagens in the undergraduate laboratory   Melnikow, Joy; Keeffe, James R.; Bernstein, R. L.
Identifying carcinogens and suspected carcinogens; methods for identification and safe disposal; results and specific recommendations for metals, organic solvents, and others.
Melnikow, Joy; Keeffe, James R.; Bernstein, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, A11.
Phenols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Toxicology |
Laboratory Management
High-strength/high-modulus fibers from aromatic polymers  Preston, J.
In this review, some of the lessons learned from the work on fibers from the rod-like polymers of the polyamide class will be summarized and the extensions of the early work to fibers from other rod-like polymers will be discussed.
Preston, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 935.
Aromatic Compounds |
Polymerization
Oxidation of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone by sodium hypochlorite  Zuczek, Norbert M; Furth, Paul S.
A laboratory that was previously published is modified for a smaller scale in this note.
Zuczek, Norbert M; Furth, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 824.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
What compound was discovered as a result of an insurance claim?  Julian, Maureen M.
The discovery of benzene can be attributed both to the insurance industry and to the gas-lighting industry.
Julian, Maureen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 793.
Aromatic Compounds |
Enrichment / Review Materials
What compound was discovered as a result of an insurance claim?  Julian, Maureen M.
The discovery of benzene can be attributed both to the insurance industry and to the gas-lighting industry.
Julian, Maureen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 793.
Aromatic Compounds |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Notation confusion in volume ratio dilution  Beaulieu, Patrick L.; Woodin, Terry S.
Volume used to indicate dilution is not universally the same throughout various disciplines.
Beaulieu, Patrick L.; Woodin, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 740.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Friedrich August Kekule   Lipeles, Enid S.
Kekule began his career as a student of architecture, went on to study chemistry and physics, and had a famous dream about a snake that would have stumped Freud.
Lipeles, Enid S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 624.
Aromatic Compounds |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Colmolaity   DiPippo, Ascanio G.
It is suggested that a more generally descriptive unit, "the colomole" be adapted in place of the "osmole" in discussions and calculations involving the colligative properties of solutions.
DiPippo, Ascanio G. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 619.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Another view of significant figures  Ward, Chares R.
Ambiguity surrounding the treatment of the trailing zero can be overcome by requiring that trailing zeros be written only if they are meant to be significant.
Ward, Chares R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 616.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How big is Avogadro's number (or how small are atoms, molecules and ions)  Fulkrod, John E.
Calculating the volume occupied by Avogadro's number of drops of water helps students understand the magnitude of this quantity while giving them practice at using scientific notation and the metric system.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 508.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Notation for order of addition  Niewahner, J. H.
The notation described here will enable a student to include in the chemical equation an implied statement regarding the order of addition.
Niewahner, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 461.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Molecular term symbols   Leung, A. F.; So, S. P.; Li, Wai-Kee

Leung, A. F.; So, S. P.; Li, Wai-Kee J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 431.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Elemental concentration   Enyedy, Zoe
This chemistry version of a popular TV game is a student favorite.
Enyedy, Zoe J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 426.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Introduction to chemical nomenclature  Friedstein, Harriet

Friedstein, Harriet J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Structure-resonance theory for pericyclic transition states  Herndon, William C.
The purpose of this article is to show that structure-resonance theory can be used to understand the effects of structure or substituents on the rates of thermal pericyclic reactions.
Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 371.
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Student response to simultaneous instruction in SI and conventional units  Grosser, Arthur E.
What do students think about the United States' speculated switch to SI units?
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 366.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Kathleen Lonsdale and the planarity of the benzene ring  Julian, Maureen M.
Dr. Lonsdale "suspected that the departure of the crystal symmetry from hexagonal was due to packing effects involving the hydrogen atoms and made a gallant attempt to narrow down their positions; much later, Brockway and Robertson confirmed and refined her conclusions".
Julian, Maureen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 365.
Aromatic Compounds |
Women in Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Errors in retrospect  Eberhardt, W. H.
A broadening of the "Textbook Errors" feature (1955-1980). Common textbook problems are related to meanings, representations, implications of probability densities radial distribution functions, and contour diagrams of atomic and molecular orbitals. [Debut]
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 359.
MO Theory |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Menschutkin reaction: A group experiment in a kinetic study  Barnard ,P. W. C.; Smith, B. V.
A description of a laboratory experiment that demonstrate the application of kinetic methods to nucleophilic aliphatic substitution.
Barnard ,P. W. C.; Smith, B. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 282.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Kinetics
Benzene-the polymer former   Wittcoff, Harold
Benzene is crucial to the petrochemical industry.
Wittcoff, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 270.
Aromatic Compounds |
Industrial Chemistry
Benzene, a familiar hazard?  Smith, Roger M.
Reviews the hazards of benzene.
Smith, Roger M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A85.
Aromatic Compounds |
Toxicology
N and Na - The Egyptian connection  Feldman, Martin R.
Among the fascinating stories in the history of chemical nomenclature, few are as complex historically and geographically as the origins of the names and symbols for nitrogen and sodium.
Feldman, Martin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 877.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Evolution of a process: The manufacture of diphenyl oxide  Fravel, Harold G., Jr.
An understanding of the chemistry involved in this reaction provides the basis for converting an unprofitable process and plant to a profitable business without a substantial use of capital or a major change in operating procedures.
Fravel, Harold G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 873.
Industrial Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Groups and subgroups in the periodic table of the elements: A proposal of modification in the nomenclature  Araneo, Antonio
A proposal to eliminate the "A" and "B" designations of subgroups and replace them with letters referring directly to the electronic structures of atoms.
Araneo, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The 1A1g > 1B2u Transition of benzene: A physical chemistry experiment  Campbell, Mary K.
The group-theoretical analysis of the vibronic coupling permits the assignment of the more prominent UV spectral peaks that appear and shows the applicability of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.
Campbell, Mary K. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 756.
Aromatic Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Balancing equations and nomenclature  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 730.
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Balancing equations and nomenclature  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 730.
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An applied exam in coordination chemistry  Pantaleo, Daniel C.
Students draw from a pool of stock chemicals and answer questions based on its formula and observed properties.
Pantaleo, Daniel C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Confusion over D and L Nomenclature  Yuan, Sun-Shine
The use of the (R,S) convention will eliminate (D,L) confusion.
Yuan, Sun-Shine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 528.
Amino Acids |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Compact comments  Rhodes, Gale; Goodmanson, David
A clear derivation of a temperature scale interconversion equation can be carried out by plotting temperatures of one scale against corresponding temperatures of the other.
Rhodes, Gale; Goodmanson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 506.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chem-deck: How to learn to write the formulas of chemical compounds (or lose your shirt)  Sherman, Alan; Sherman, Sharon J.
A game that helps students learn to name compounds and write chemical formulas.
Sherman, Alan; Sherman, Sharon J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 503.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Sir William Crookes, Victorium, and the Library of Congress  Elder, Eleanor S.
Victorium, an "element" discovered by William Crookes, was actually a mixture.
Elder, Eleanor S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 421.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Acylation of ferrocene: Effect of temperature on reactivity as measured by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography  McKone, Harold T.
A reverse-phase separation of the products of the Friedel-Crafts acylation of ferrocene.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 380.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Separation Science
Correlating Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures by the "unit calculus"  Gorin, George
Deriving the mathematical relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 350.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Purple benzene revisited  Doheny, Anthony J., Jr.; Ganem, Bruce
A variant of the referenced demonstration using crown ethers.
Doheny, Anthony J., Jr.; Ganem, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 308.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Ethers
Adopting SI units in introductory chemistry  Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.
Conventions associated with SI units, conversion relationships commonly used in chemistry, and a roadmap method for solving stoichiometry problems.
Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 303.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
An undergraduate organic laboratory project involving independent synthesis of novel flavones  Letcher, R. M.
each student is provided different starting materials to produce different flavones, many of which have not been described in the literature.
Letcher, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 220.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
The preparation of p-cresyl propyl ether by phase transfer catalysis  Rowe, Jeffrey E.
Modifying the referenced procedure to produce aromatics ethers.
Rowe, Jeffrey E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 162.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers
Bioactivity in organic chemistry courses  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
Considers the antibacterial activity of hydroxy compounds, the carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, structure-activity correlations, and bioactivity.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 46.
Aromatic Compounds |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Response to Comments on "SI Units? A Camel is a Camel"  Adamson, Arthur W.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters on SI Units  Dingledy, David
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Dingledy, David J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters on SI Units  Heslop, R. B.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Heslop, R. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An apologia for accepting at least an approximation to SI  Wright, P. G.
Comments on earlier articles regarding SI units.
Wright, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 663.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On finding a middle ground for SI  Nelson, Robert A.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Nelson, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 661.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Quantitative hydrocarbon energies from the PMO method  Cooper, Charles F.
Perturbational molecular orbital theory is used to determine the total energies for conjugated hydrocarbons.
Cooper, Charles F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 568.
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Empirical formulas  Ryan, Dennis P.
This question forces one to duplicate the line of reasoning used by Dalton in his initial formulation of atomic weights; it tests for the ability to deduce atomic sizes and to calculate empirical formulas.
Ryan, Dennis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 528.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Friedel-Crafts acylation: An experiment incorporating spectroscopic structure determination  Schatz, Paul F.
Students use IR and NMR methods to determine the product of an aromatic substitution.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 480.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
Synthesis of some unreported derivatives of sulfonamides: A laboratory in organic chemistry  Gilow, Helmuth
Preparation of N4-benzylsulfanilamide.
Gilow, Helmuth J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 419.
Synthesis |
Amides |
Aromatic Compounds
The aromatic ring  Kolb, Doris
Historic analysis and attempts to explain the structure of benzene, the concept of resonance, Huckel's rule, polycyclic aromatic compounds, non-classical aromatic compounds, and a definition for aromaticity.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 334.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
Hey, watch your language!  Herron, J. Dudley
If we do not use our words with care, we introduce and reinforce confusion.
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 330.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The ambit of chemistry  Vitz, Edward W.
Proposal to revise the standard definition of chemistry to one that focusses on atoms and molecules rather than simply matter.
Vitz, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 327.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Computer-assisted instruction in stereochemical configuration analysis  Bishop, Marvin; Nowak, Maria

Bishop, Marvin; Nowak, Maria J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 318.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
B or H? A chemist's guide to modern teachings on magnetism  Crooks, J. E.
A brief outline of the derivation of magnetic units and their application to various problems of interest to chemists.
Crooks, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 301.
Magnetic Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How many significant digits in 0.05C?  Power, James D.
Textbooks abound with erroneous examples, such as 33F = 0.56C.
Power, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Dealkylation-isomerization of p-di-t-butylbenzene  Hawbecker, Byron L.; Kurtz, David W.; Elliott, Howard A.
The experiment described here can be conveniently used to explore several important facets of electrophilic aromatic substitution often ignored in typical laboratory programs.
Hawbecker, Byron L.; Kurtz, David W.; Elliott, Howard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 777.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution
Periodic sub-groups   Mazieres, Ch.
Why are the elements of the periodic table still being labeled with A and B? This author suggests it is time to leave that convention behind.
Mazieres, Ch. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 750.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Para-bond or "Dewar" benzene?  Baker, Wilson; Rouvray, Dennis H.
The name "Dewar" benzene stems from a misreading of Sir James Dewar's paper.
Baker, Wilson; Rouvray, Dennis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 645.
Aromatic Compounds
A m3 is bigger than a breadbox  Lambert, Jack L.
This chemist contributes his concerns and thoughts over the conversion to the metric system.
Lambert, Jack L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 638.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI units? A camel is a camel  Adamson, Arthur W.
This paper is a summary of remarks made at a recent symposium on "New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Chemistry" in which the author took exception to both the claims made for the SI system and to the manner in which it has been promoted.
Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 634.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Schemes and transformations in the (CH)8 series. The "valence isomers" of cyclooctatetraene  Smith, Leverett R.
The authors provide a scheme for deriving valence isomers.
Smith, Leverett R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 569.
Aromatic Compounds |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
Aldol condensation: A simple teaching model for organic laboratory  Hawbecker, Byron L.; Kurtz, David W.; Putnam, Theodore D.; Ahlers, Patricia A.; Gerber, Gregory D.
The authors share a teaching model for the organic laboratory that was developed to be accomplished in a three-hour-period and clearly illustrate a number of concepts which serve to enrich the student's understanding of organic reaction chemistry.
Hawbecker, Byron L.; Kurtz, David W.; Putnam, Theodore D.; Ahlers, Patricia A.; Gerber, Gregory D. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 540.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions
Use of hand models for assigning configurational nomenclature  Garrett, James M.
A subject which often produces consternation in a beginning student in organic chemistry is that of sequential nomenclature involving chiral centers. After having studied the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules of nomenclature a student may be asked to examine a structure as shown in this article.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 493.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers
Z- and E-stereoisomerism: An experiment using photochemistry  Bourelle-Wargnier, F.; Feigenbaum, A.; Muzart, J.
The authors' report on the preparation of 2-benzylidenecyclohexanone E(I).
Bourelle-Wargnier, F.; Feigenbaum, A.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 339.
Stereochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds  Chenier, Philip J.
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds: This can be classified as an intramolecular rearrangement from carbon to carbon, involving a migrating group Z moving without its electrons from migrating origin A to an electron-rich terminus B.
Chenier, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 286.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Sweet organic chemistry  Bragg, Rose Wilson; Chow, Yvonne; Dennis, Lawrence; Ferguson, Lloyd N.; Howell, Susan; Morga, George; Ogino, Craig; Pugh, Harriet; Winters, Manque
The purpose of this paper is to examine some observed structure-taste correlation, and to explore one or two generalizations which might help elucidate the mechanism of taste stimulation. The sweetest compounds known to date are dipeptides; L-aspartyl-aminomalonic diester is reported to have relative sweetness of 22,000-33,200X.
Bragg, Rose Wilson; Chow, Yvonne; Dennis, Lawrence; Ferguson, Lloyd N.; Howell, Susan; Morga, George; Ogino, Craig; Pugh, Harriet; Winters, Manque J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 281.
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Aromatic Compounds |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Basic organic nomenclature  Breneman, G. L.
A series of three computer programs have been developed in the Basic Language to give students practice in naming branched alkanes, compounds with various functional groups, and benzene derivatives.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 224.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
The discovery of saccharin  Wotiz, John H.
The controversy and drama behind the discovery of saccharin.
Wotiz, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 161.
Aromatic Compounds |
Natural Products
Vibronic analysis of the visible absorption and fluorescence spectra of the fluorescein dianion  Kurucsev, Tomas
This laboratory exercise incorporates the study of the absorption spectrum of benzene. It is possible to demonstrate that remarkably simple interpretation may often be given to the solution spectra of quite complex organic aromatic molecules.
Kurucsev, Tomas J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 128.
Aromatic Compounds |
Spectroscopy |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
The chemical formula. Part II: Determination  Kolb, Doris
Kinds of chemical formulas, determination of a chemical formula, and problem formulas.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 109.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Notation for powers of ten   Freeman, Robert D.
The author proposes a simpler scheme for notations of power of ten.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 103.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Synthesis of caprolactam and Nylon 6  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
This experiment allows the illustration of the Beckman rearrangement and ring opening reactions. [Debut]
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 51.
Aromatic Compounds
Lecture notes or facts that are hard to work into a conversation  Smith, Douglas D.
An overview of chemistry news from around the globe.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 49.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Nitration of alkylbenzenes: A lecture demonstration   Davis, M.; Deady, L. W.; Paproth, T. G.
The firsthand experimental data provided by this experiment enriches a discussion of aromatic compounds.
Davis, M.; Deady, L. W.; Paproth, T. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 34.
Aromatic Compounds
Derivatives of oxo acids III. Functional derivatives  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
The authors consider some general aspects of nomenclature for the so-called functional derivatives of the inorganic oxo acids.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 30.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Applications of the perturbational molecular orbital method  Freeman, Fillmore
In this paper, the author shows that simple properties of AHpMO's with the PMO formulas, make qualitative calculations particularly facile.
Freeman, Fillmore J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 26.
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry
Pittacal - The first synthetic dyestuff  Kauffman, George B.
The story of the discovery of the first synthetic dyestuff by Karl Ludwig von Reichenbach.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 753.
Dyes / Pigments |
Aromatic Compounds
What is an element?  Kolb, Doris
Reviews the history of the discovery, naming, and representation of the elements; the development of the spectroscope and the periodic table; radioactive elements and isotopes; allotropes; and the synthesis of future elements.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 696.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Isotopes
Phthalimide, anthranilic acid, benzyne. An undergraduate organic laboratory sequence  Dougherty, C. M.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Sweeney, A., Jr.; Concepcion, E.
A synthetic sequence: phthalic anhydride to phthalimide to anthranilic acid to methyl anthranilate or to 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylnaphthalene.
Dougherty, C. M.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Sweeney, A., Jr.; Concepcion, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 643.
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Selectivity and specificity in organic reactions  Ault, Addison
Distinguishes between various forms of selectivity and specificity (e.g. the us of and differences between stereoselective and stereospecific).
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 614.
Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Derivatives of oxo acids II. Insertion or infix nomenclature (the Drake Report)  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Considers the general pattern for naming acids containing phosphorus; also examines the systematic nomenclature for new elements.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 610.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Equations of electromagnetism from CGS to SI  Cvitas, T.; Kallay, N.
A general procedure for changing any CGS formula into SI.
Cvitas, T.; Kallay, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 530.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic derivatives of oxo acids II. Acids, salts, and esters of Groups IIIA-IVA elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Considers the nomenclature of acids, salts, and esters of groups IIIA-VA elements.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 509.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
Substituent effects in electrophilic aromatic substitution. A laboratory in organic chemistry  Gilow, Helmuth
The acid catalyzed bromination of aromatic substrates with hydrobromous acid.
Gilow, Helmuth J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 450.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
Catalytic dehydrogenation of tetrahydrocarbazole  Van Verth, James E.; Ulmer, Simon W.
The conversion of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole to carbazole illustrates the synthesis of a common heterocyclic system.
Van Verth, James E.; Ulmer, Simon W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 383.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles
Experiments with electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions  Cox, B.; Kubler, D. G.; Wilson, C. A.
Comparing the bromination and nitration of benzene.
Cox, B.; Kubler, D. G.; Wilson, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 379.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
A convenient notation for powers of ten and logarithms  Oesterreicher, H.
A convenient notation for powers of ten and logarithms that does not require superscripts.
Oesterreicher, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 367.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Sodium perborate oxidation of an aromatic amine  Huestis, Laurence
Upon learning that the mechanism and even the nature of the oxidizing species is unknown, this reaction assumes new significance and provides an excellent opportunity for speculation on the nature of the reaction and a review of factors that affect the yield.
Huestis, Laurence J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 327.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Organic derivatives of oxo acids. Part I. Acids, salts, and esters of group VIA elements / Knowledge is ready cash  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Nomenclature of organic derivatives of oxo acids and their salts and esters that are derived from the polybasic acids of the nonmetallic elements of Group IIIA through Group VIA.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 299.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
Where does resonance energy come from? A nonmathematical approach to the theory of aromaticity  Sardella, D. J.
In confronting the central issue of why aromatic systems are aromatic, the author provides a verbal application of perturbational molecular orbital theory.
Sardella, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 217.
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory
Rate constant for fluorescence quenching. An undergraduate experiment using the Spectronic 20  Legenza, Michael W.; Marzzacco, Charles J.
An experiment that uses fluorescence intensity measurements to determine the rate constant for the fluorescence quenching of various aromatic hydrocarbons by CCl4 in an ethanol solvent.
Legenza, Michael W.; Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 183.
Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Lower valent oxo acids of phosphorus and sulfur  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Reviews current practice and some of the problems with partial solutions.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 30.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
"Chemantics" - A new chemical education card game  Sawyer, Albert K.
Learning the symbols and charges of ions and combining them to make formulas of compounds is often tedious for a beginner.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 780.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Noncovalent Interactions
Differences between "organic" and "inorganic" nomenclature  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
The authors caution chemists to make certain that the organic and inorganic systems of nomenclature completely compatible and that a word segment used in one pattern does not have a different meaning in the other.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 773.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Isomerism about a double bond: Use of cis and trans   Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Limitations of the cis and trans nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 727.
Diastereomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Some U. S. nomenclature practices at variance with those recommended by IUPAC  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Chemists don't always seem to realize what a valuable asset they have in their schemes of systematic nomenclature. Mineralogist and biologists do not have this asset.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 726.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical nomenclature versus that of other sciences  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
IUPAC recommendations combine the two words whereas U.S. practice is to keep them separated.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 726.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching aromaticity, conjugation, and enolization  Schambach, Robert A.
An understanding of the delocalization of electrons in organic compounds is central knowledge. In teaching undergraduates about aromaticity, conjugation, and enoliztion, this author has found it useful to present examples of compounds in which delocalization. Effects are sustained in the presence of potentially interfering saturated carbon atoms.
Schambach, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 711.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions
Absolute scales for temperature and reduction potentials  Haight, G. P., Jr.
A situation regarding the units of measurement is developing with electrode potentials or reduction potentials that is analogous to the adoption of temperature scales.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 693.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
SI stands for student improvement   Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.; Collins, Ronald W.
The united states is out of step with the rest of the scientific world when it comes to our units of measurement.
Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.; Collins, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 681.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Micelle catalysis of an aromatic substitution reaction  Corsaro, Gerald; Smith, J. K.
This article describes an experiment which demonstrates micelle catalysis.
Corsaro, Gerald; Smith, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 589.
Micelles |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Molecular design of compounds via intermolecular Diels-Alder reactions  Mehta, Goverdhan
The Diels-Alder reaction involving a cycloaddition between a diene and dienophile is one of the most versatile and useful reactions in the armory of the synthetic organic chemists.
Mehta, Goverdhan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 551.
Synthesis |
Addition Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
The Friedel-Crafts pathway to diarylcyclopropenones. An undergraduate organic experiment  Agranat, Israel; Tapuhi, Yitzhak
The authors describe a facile entry into the cyclopropenone series which may conveniently be practiced in an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory.
Agranat, Israel; Tapuhi, Yitzhak J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 531.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions
Preparation of the sweetening agent P4000. A student project  de Koning, A. J.
The author presents the procedure for preparation of the sweetening agent P4000 that can be performed by students.
de Koning, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 521.
Synthesis |
Food Science |
Carbocations |
Aromatic Compounds
New edition of the green book  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
A new edition of "Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemimcal Quantities and Units" is available.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Levels of communication via nomenclature  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Certain aspects of names for chemicals are not unlike names for people.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 495.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Systematic versus index nomenclature  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Chemistry nomenclature has undergone profound extension and revision.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 495.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The motion of ions in solution under the influence of an electric field  Vincent, Colin A.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nature of the motion of ions in an electric field and to reappraise the units and nomenclature of the subject.
Vincent, Colin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 490.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
2,2-Dichlorobicyclo[4.1.0]heptane from cyclohexene and dichlorocarbene by phase transfer catalysis  Ault, Addison; Wright, Bradley
The authors have developed a procedure for the addition of dichlorocarbene to cyclohexane to give dichloronorcarane.
Ault, Addison; Wright, Bradley J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 489.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Catalysis
The scope of the Haworth synthesis  Agranat, Israel; Shih, Yu-Shan
The duality of the Haworth synthesis as revealed most conspicuously in the preparation of both anthracene and phenanthrene, widens the scope of the method. On the basis of the reversibility of Friedel-Crafts acylation in PPA, the Haworth synthesis may serve as a route to linearly annelated-as well as to angularly annelated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.
Agranat, Israel; Shih, Yu-Shan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 488.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Preparation of phenanthridone. A multipurpose experiment for the organic laboratory  Hawbecker, Byron L.; Radovich, David A.; Tillotson, Loyal G.
It is desirable to have a series of multipurpose reactions available which can illustrate a variety of reaction types within a single, three hour lab period.
Hawbecker, Byron L.; Radovich, David A.; Tillotson, Loyal G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 398.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Metal replaced hemoproteins. A review with introductory laboratory preparation of cobaltmyoglobin.  Dickinson, L. Charles.
This paper deals with a different class of metal-containing enzymes-hemoproteins- where metal replacement requires rather more chemistry related to the metal substitution in porphyrin rings.
Dickinson, L. Charles. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 381.
Aromatic Compounds |
Enzymes |
Bioinorganic Chemistry
Renaissance of concern with the nascent condition  Bauer, S. H.
The author argues that it is time to restore the term "nascent" to legitimacy.
Bauer, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 372.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases
Equivalents - A winner or a dead horse  Brescia, Frank
The object of this article is to review the history of the stoichiometric term "equivalent" and examine its relevance over a century after the International Congress of 1860 was held at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 362.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Information sources for nomenclature practices  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Why don't chemists practice a more faithful adherence to good nomenclature? This note features a list of resources to obtain reliable nomenclature information.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Historical development of chemical nomenclature  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
A list of titles on the historical development of chemical nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 354.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Addition compounds  Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
The need for general terms to include all compounds with "water of crystallization" and all compounds with "ammonia of crystallization" has led to the widespread use of "ammoniates" and "hydrates" for this purpose. However, the extension of this practice has certain pitfalls since the ending -ate is now the accepted ending for anions generally.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 354.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Computer assisted instruction in organic synthesis  Feldman, Martin; Bishop, Marvin
The authors have used two successful Basic programs where students had practice with a series of interconversions involving alphatic and aromatic compounds.
Feldman, Martin; Bishop, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 91.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Electrolyte theory and S.I. units  Holliday, R. I.
The purpose of this paper is to outline the essential differences between the basic equations of the two systems of units when the equations are used to develop Debye- Huckel and Onsager Theories of Electrolytic Conductance.
Holliday, R. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 21.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Chemometrics
Coordination nomenclature. III  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Discusses the nomenclature of polynuclear compounds with bridging groups.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 793.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The preparation and photochemistry of stilbenes. A synthetic organic chemistry experiment  Davy, J. R.; Jessup, P. J.; Reiss, J. A.
The synthesis of 3,6-dimethylphenanthrene.
Davy, J. R.; Jessup, P. J.; Reiss, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 747.
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
The mole: A number of a mass?  Herron, J. Dudley
Recommended definition of the mole.
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 726.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Cancer. How can chemists help?  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
A summary of cancer topics of interest to chemists, including carcinogens, cancer treatment, and designing cytotoxic agents.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 688.
Aromatic Compounds
The Gabriel synthesis of benzylamine: An undergraduate organic experiment  Nigh, W. G.
The Gabriel synthesis involves the reaction of the conjugate base of phthalimide and an alkyl halide to give an alkyl phthalimide which is subsequently hydrolyzed to the primary alkyl amine; the reaction is important historically for the synthesis of pure primary amines uncontaminated by secondary or tertiary by-products.
Nigh, W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 670.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
What happened to alabamine, virginium, and illinium?  Trimble, R. F.
History of the nomenclature of three elements at one time named after states of the Union.
Trimble, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 585.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Names for elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
System for naming new, heavy elements.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 583.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Trademarks and trade names / Publications on nomenclature  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Defines trademarks and trade names and distinguishes between the two, giving examples of each. / Additional publications on nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 482.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A simple lecture demonstration of aromatic nucleophilic substitution  Smith, N. H. P.
Colors produced when various aromatic substrates are attacked by various nucleophiles (DMF, DMSO, EtOH).
Smith, N. H. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 238.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Stereoisomerism about a double bond (1-3)  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Rules for specifying E and Z configurations.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 60.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkenes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Davy, Coleridge, and chemical nomenclature  Knight, David
The useful term "substrate" was first used in print in 1817 by the author of "The Ancient Mariner".
Knight, David J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 54.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The sequence rules  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
The authors explain the usefulness of the sequence rules in learning about chirality.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 735.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Coordination Compounds
The Planck constant  Kipling, B.; Kirk, A. W.
A random survey of twelve well-known chemistry texts revealed that only one took the trouble to add a quantity unit to the value quoted for Planck's Constant, and other shocking findings.
Kipling, B.; Kirk, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 679.
Photochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Huckel theory and aromatically  Schaad, L. J.; Hess, B. A., Jr.
After several years in disrepute, the simple Huckel molecular orbital method, when used with proper reference structure, now appears to give accurate predictions of aromatically.
Schaad, L. J.; Hess, B. A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 640.
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory
A novel photochemistry experiment using a Diels-Alder reaction  Nash, E. G.
The authors present a two-step experiment incorporating a novel, but general photochemical reaction that is rapid, does not require special equipment, and which yields an interesting product worthy of further study.
Nash, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 619.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Photochemistry
Coordination nomenclature. II  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
This note deals with the designation of structure and the principles covering the nomenclature of various configurations.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 603.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
G and gammaG/ upsilon  Spencer, J. N.
A discussion on whether symbol changes in thermodynamics are needed.
Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 577.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Coordination Nomenclature. I  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
This note describes the general pattern, names for central atoms, and names for ligands.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 468.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A metric (SI) energy scale: Conversions and comparisons  Petrakis, L.
Textbooks have yet to catch up the contemporary chemical units of measurement.
Petrakis, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 459.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Conversion of a primary alcohol to an alkyl halide via a tosylate intermediate  Wiseman, Park A.; Betras, Steve; Lindley, Barry
The experiment in this article was designed primarily for and has been performed successfully by sophomore chemistry majors.
Wiseman, Park A.; Betras, Steve; Lindley, Barry J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 348.
Alcohols |
Alkylation |
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy
The number of possible isomers in the porphyrins  Pilgrim, R. L. C.
The author examines problems within the discussion of porphyrin compounds in biochemistry textbooks.
Pilgrim, R. L. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 316.
Constitutional Isomers |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Aromatic Compounds
Stereochemistry of carbonyl addition reactions  Goller, Edwin J.
This article is a brief summary of some of the more important unifying concepts that have been proposed in the study of the stereo chemistry of carbonyl addition reactions.
Goller, Edwin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 182.
Addition Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
A laboratory study of strike and inductive effects  Fulkrod, John E.
The authors describe a general reaction that can be successfully used to teach both strike and inductive effects in the laboratory by discovery.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 115.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
Naming organic polymers. II. Structure-based polymer nomenclature  Fox, Robert B.
This note is an attempt to devise a precise method for communicating in words the structure of polymers. It is hoped that most possible combinations of atoms have been covered in the rules. At the same time, it is also hoped that chemists have been given another research tool for which they will find use for many years to come.
Fox, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 113.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A crossed aldol condensation for the undergraduate laboratory  Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E.
This two-step experiment for undergraduate organic chemistry students illustrates three basic ideas: organic chemistry students illustrate three basic ideas (1) crossed aldol condensation; (2) the acidity of benzylic hydrogen in hydrocarbons; and (3) reduction of a double bond in hydride transfer.
Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 64.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
A simulated research project in synthetic organic chemistry: An undergraduate laboratory  Bobbitt, J. M.; Huang, Samuel J.
An undergraduate laboratory of a simulated research project in synthetic organic chemistry.
Bobbitt, J. M.; Huang, Samuel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 58.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Naming organic polymers. I. Problems with present-day nomenclature  Fox, Robert B.
Present-day nomenclature needs to evolve and respond to the changing landscape of chemistry brought on by polymers.
Fox, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 41.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Aromaticity (Garratt, P. J.)  Paquette, Leo A.

Paquette, Leo A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A598.
Aromatic Compounds
A rapid and convenient lecture demonstration of dyeing with azo colors  Smith, N. H. P.
Lists colors obtained from diazonium salts and naphthol AS analogs, as well as a procedure for a rapid and convenient lecture demonstration of dyeing with azo colors.
Smith, N. H. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 790.
Dyes / Pigments |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
A demonstration of charge-transfer complex formation using octachlorofulvalene  West, Robert; Smith, R. Martin
A striking demonstration of charge-transfer complexation can be carried out using the unusual molecule octachlorofulvalene.
West, Robert; Smith, R. Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 723.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
Computer program for identifying alkane structures  Davidson, Scott
A Fortran IV computer program to identify and name alkane structure having C1-C16 main chains and C1-C4 side chains is available.
Davidson, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 707.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
What mean these words?  Mellon, M. Guy
Examines inconsistent and questionable usage of terms and names in analytical chemistry.
Mellon, M. Guy J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 690.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The boat form of cyclohexane as viewed by Midwestern sailors  Lyle, Gloria; Lyle, Robert E.
Possible confusion regarding the boat analogy in describing the positions of hydrogens in cyclohexane.
Lyle, Gloria; Lyle, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 655.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Laboratory safety with sodium bis(2-methoxy-ethoxy) aluminum hydride  Bull, L. S.
Safety information on benzene should be included with the referenced article.
Bull, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 655.
Toxicology |
Aromatic Compounds
Biological asymmetry of glycerol  Blackmore, P. R.; Williams, J. F.; Clark, M. G.
In order to be both correct and properly educate the student, authors of biochemistry textbooks should be consistent and accurate with their nomenclature in naming glycerol phosphate and all symmetrical intermediate compounds and products.
Blackmore, P. R.; Williams, J. F.; Clark, M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 555.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Structures containing cationic carbon  Dermer, O. C.; Traynham, James C.
Reviews nomenclature conventions for structures containing cationic carbon.
Dermer, O. C.; Traynham, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 545.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbocations
Temperature conversions and the new IPTS-68 temperature scale  Estok, George K.
Lists important temperature reference points for Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Rankin temperature scales.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 495.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Calibration
Electron affinity. The zeroth ionization potential  Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C.
It is the purpose of this article to present the merits of adopting the terminology zeroth ionization potential to describe the energy change that occurs when a gaseous anion loses an electron.
Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 487.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Some early usages of chemical terms  Oldroyd, D. R.
Investigates the origin of some of the important terms that one commonly meets in the early year's of one's chemical education.
Oldroyd, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 450.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The synthesis and nitration of benzene-d1  Todd, David
The synthesis of labeled benzene-d1 and its conversion to meta-dinitrobenzene.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 366.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Isotopes |
IR Spectroscopy
Derivatives of oxo acids. IUPAC Publications on Nomenclature. Other International Reports. SI Units  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes the nomenclature of oxo acid derivatives.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 341.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
A first-order four coupled nuclei nmr spectrum: 2-bromo-4-fluoroanisole  Canselier, J. P.
Few molecules are found to represent four magnetically non-equivalent nuclei, the chemical shifts of which are sufficiently different to allow a first-order analysis; 2-bromo-4-fluoroanisole is one such molecule.
Canselier, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 291.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
Report of the High School Subcommittee of the Curriculum Committee  
Presents some preliminary performance objectives for different tracks of high school chemistry.
J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 257.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Demonstrating the nomenclature for absolute configurations in octahedral complexes  Alexander, M. Dale
Using cardboard octahedral and transparent cylinders to help students visualize the nomenclature for absolute configurations in octahedral complexes.
Alexander, M. Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 125.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Oxoacids and their salts  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Reviews the conventions for naming oxoacids and their salts.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 123.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A socially relevant problem in unit and dimension conversions  Bernstein, Stanley
An activity in which students determine the cheapest source of nutritional iron by considering a variety of food products.
Bernstein, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 65.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nutrition |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
SI chemical data (Aylward, G. H.; Findlay, T. J. V.)  Campbell, J. A.

Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A656.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Positive ions and binary compounds  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Guidelines for the names of positive ions and binary compounds; also errata from past articles in this series.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 844.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Experiencing relevancy in organic chemistry. Hexachlorophene - manufacturing the great clean-all  Moye, Alfred L.
Presents an experiment developed from a term paper by a student who had a serious dislike for organic chemistry.
Moye, Alfred L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 770.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Significant digits in logarithm-antilogarithm interconversions  Jones, Donald E.
Most textbooks are in error in the proper use of significant digits when interconverting logarithms and antilogarithms.
Jones, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 753.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Decimalization of time  Smeaton, W. A.
The decimalization of time suggested by the cited author has been suggested before.
Smeaton, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 720.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Bases and types of names  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Examines the requirements of a good name and different types of names, including inorganic and organic names.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 699.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Gimmicks for mid-year motivation  Adams, Richard C.
Suggestions include directions for making peanut brittle, examining common, antiquated names for chemical compounds, and periodic puns.
Adams, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 536.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Effective magnetic moment  Hoppe, J. I.
The dimensionless nature of the effective magnetic moment in both the CGS and SI approaches is demonstrated using relevant equations.
Hoppe, J. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 505.
Magnetic Properties |
Coordination Compounds |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How Should Abbreviations be Used? / The Second Edition of the "Red Book"  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Presents IUPAC rules regarding the use of abbreviations. New IUPAC publication.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 488.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Use Of Punctuation Marks and Spaces. Order of Constituents  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes how punctuation marks and spaces are used in nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 333.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Decimal time units proposed  Purandare, Yeshwant K.
Proposes that the United States adopt a decimal system of time.
Purandare, Yeshwant K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 300.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Use of enclosing marks and letters  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes how parentheses, brackets, braces, and letters are used in nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 253.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Selective reduction of dinitrobenzenes. An organic laboratory experiment  Idoux, John P.; Plain, Wendell
Different students are assigned different reducing agents and asked to explain why their particular selective reduction occurs as their results indicate.
Idoux, John P.; Plain, Wendell J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 133.
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
Directive effects in electrophilic aromatic substitution. An organic chemistry experiment  Beishline, Robert R.
The student is given the procedure for the monobromination of acetanilide in glacial acetic acid, but is not told where on the ring the bromine will substitute; he is required to prove the structure of the product through an independent synthesis of the preparation of a known derivative.
Beishline, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 128.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Synthesis |
Alkylation
Magnetochemistry in SI units  Quickenden, Terence I.; Marshall, Robert C.
Explains the conversion of magnetochemical formulas from the frequently used CGS-EMU system to the International System of Units (SI).
Quickenden, Terence I.; Marshall, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 114.
Magnetic Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Pretenders to the throne  Morgenstern, Christian; Trimble, R. F. (trans.)
A short poem on the units of temperature.
Morgenstern, Christian; Trimble, R. F. (trans.) J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 109.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Benzoxazinone synthesis. An organic chemistry experiment  Eckroth, David R.
The preparation of 2-methyl-4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one and 2(2'-methanesulfonamido)phenyl-4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one exposes students to reactive intermediates.
Eckroth, David R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 66.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactive Intermediates
Numbers in nomenclature  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Examines how multiplying affixes are used, particularly in inorganic nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 49.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A note on the notation and terminology of thermodynamics  Bent, Henry A.
Presents notation that enables one to express the first and second laws of thermodynamics in symmetrical, analogous, and easily remembered forms.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 44.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Liquid crystals - Synthesis and properties. An experiment for the integrated organic and physical laboratory  Verbit, Lawrence
Outlines some of the history behind the synthesis of liquid crystals, and presents a procedure for the synthesis and examination of two types of liquid crystals.
Verbit, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 36.
Aromatic Compounds
Carbonium ion-carbanion nomenclature   Sinclair, Dean L.
The author writes in to add his voice to the many others who have pled that the chemical world adopt consistent nomenclature systems and stick to them.
Sinclair, Dean L. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, A105.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI units in physico-chemical calculations  Norris, A. C.
This article demonstrates how the adoption of SI units affects some of the more important physico-chemical calculations found at the undergraduate level.
Norris, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 797.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Names of groups and elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
A brief history on the naming of elements and element groups.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 730.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Bridgehead reactivity. An experiment in organic chemistry  Jefford, C. W.; McCreadie, R. M.; Muller, P.; Siegfried, B.
The experiment featured in this article illustrates bridgehead reactivity.
Jefford, C. W.; McCreadie, R. M.; Muller, P.; Siegfried, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 708.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
The two faces of D and L nomenclature  Slocum, D. W.; Surgarman, D.; Tucker, S. P.
This paper reviews the conflicts and ambiguities in two older nomenclature methods.
Slocum, D. W.; Surgarman, D.; Tucker, S. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 597.
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The periodic tables  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
How should groups and subgroups be designed? What are the transition elements, inner transition elements, and rare earth elements?
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 594.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Transition Elements |
Inner Transition Elements
Policy for NBS of SI Units  National Bureau of Standards; US Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.
The International System of Units was defined and given official status by the General Convergence on Weights and Measures in 1960. While the basic policy remains unchanged, experience has shown the need for slight revisions of interpretation, which are incorporated in this article.
National Bureau of Standards; US Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 569.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Preparation of 2,3-diphenyl-1-indenone and related compounds  Clark, Thomas J.
The author describes a series of preparative experiments which students in organic chemistry have found enjoyable and instructive.
Clark, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 554.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) What is the significance of negative absolute temperatures? (2) What role do nitrogen atoms play in dyes?
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 529.
Dyes / Pigments |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aromatic Compounds
Dewar resonance energy  Baird, N. C.
In the present paper, some of the general properties of the Dewar Resonance Energy definition are developed. In particular, the DRE value for a compound is shown to be independent of the numerical values used to bond energies, and the use of DRE in judging the aromaticity of organic molecules is illustrated.
Baird, N. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 509.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Mechanism of aromatic iodination  Butler, A. R.
The general halogenation process is given in inaccurate equilibrium textbooks.
Butler, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 508.
Aromatic Compounds
Carbonium nomenclature   Hurd, Charles D.
A brief history on carbonium nomenclature.
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 490.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An abbreviation for the word mole   Benson, John E.
Is the abbreviation for "mole" too confusing?
Benson, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 490.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Introduction: Why do a series of discussions on nomenclature?  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
What is the role of nomenclature for professional chemists? [Debut]
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 433.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The s-and p-inductive effects  Katritzky, A. R.; Topsom, R. D.
The authors consider, in the absence of the usual terminology or symbols, the possible modes of electric disturbance that can be thought of as contributing to the overall electron distribution.
Katritzky, A. R.; Topsom, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 427.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Nitrenes  Belloli, Robert
The purpose of this article is to present some important general concepts in nitrene chemistry and to concentrate on the chemistry of more thoroughly studied nitrenes, ethoxycarbonylnitrene and cyanontirene.
Belloli, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 422.
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Free Radicals
Equivalent weights. Unnecessary confusion   Wauchope, R. D.
This is a short plea to eliminate a source of confusion from the General Chemistry course and textbook-the concept of equivalent weights.
Wauchope, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 420.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Diazonium salts as spot test and synthetic reagents  Stone, DeWitt B.
The laboratory experiment outlined in this article includes the paper chromatography of phenols, the use of p-nitrobenzenediazonium chloride to locate and identify the phenols on the chromatogram, and the use of this diazonium salt in syntheses involving coupling or replacement of the diazonium functional group.
Stone, DeWitt B. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 413.
Chromatography |
Phenols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Substituent effects on aromatic electrophilic substitution. An "experimental" class exercise  Fergwon, Philip R.
The exercise described here illustrates aromatic electrophilic substitution.
Fergwon, Philip R. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 405.
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
Vibronic spectra and energy levels of polyatomic molecules. A physical chemistry experiment  Moomaw, William R.; Skinner, James F.
In the experiment described here, the student measures and assigns the vapor phase vibronic spectrum of an aromatic and an azaaromatic molecule.
Moomaw, William R.; Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 304.
Aromatic Compounds |
Quantum Chemistry |
Gases |
Spectroscopy
Demonstration of the relative nucleophilic properties of aromatic primary amines  Yeadon, Alan
It is possible to demonstrate this simple nucleophilic substitution by examining the initial stages of the methylation of aniline and other aromatic amines.
Yeadon, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 256.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution
An integrated nmr and photochemical organic chemistry experiment  Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H.
The authors describe a photochemical experiment involving a compound that was prepared in the authors' previous paper.
Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 204.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers
Measurement of magnetic susceptibilities and the adoption of SI units  Pass, G.; Sutcliffe, H.
The intention of this article is to demonstrate how the adoption of SU units affects the calculation required for the determination of magnetic susceptibility.
Pass, G.; Sutcliffe, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 180.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Magnetic Properties |
Chemometrics
Recent advances in stereochemical nomenclature  Eliel, Ernest L.
It is the purpose of this brief article to deal with the most significant of the recent nomenclature changes and additions.
Eliel, Ernest L. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
Vibronic energy transfer. A physical chemistry experiment  Wettack, F. Sheldon; Bibart, C. H.
In order to familiarize chemistry majors with work in this area of physical chemistry, the authors have developed a new experiment for the third year laboratory course. This experiment involves a study of the quenching of the fluorescence of benzene by various added molecules in the gas phase, and serves to introduce the student to such concepts as excited state energy levels and energy transfer rates and to the techniques involved in measuring fluorescence in the gas phase.
Wettack, F. Sheldon; Bibart, C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 126.
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gases
Nonlinear Hammett relationships  Schreck, James 0.
The author provides examples of nonlinear structure-reactivity , Hammett correlation's, and summarize most of the types of reactions in which deviations due to change in mechanism or rate-controlling step occur.
Schreck, James 0. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 103.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
The symmetries and multiplicities of electronic states in polyatomic molecules  Ellis, R. L.; Jaffe, H. H.
A simple approach has been presented for determining the symmetries and multiplicities of electronic states arising from configurations containing both equivalent and nonequivalent electrons. This method is based on the use of different "building blocks" for each set of electrons described by the same space function.
Ellis, R. L.; Jaffe, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 92.
Quantum Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory
Hydrolysis of benzenediazonium ion  Sheats, John E.; Harbison, Kenneth G.
Presents a more convenient approach to studying the kinetics of the hydrolysis of benzenediazonium ion.
Sheats, John E.; Harbison, Kenneth G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 779.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics
Fluorine compounds as teaching aids in organic theory  Young, John A.
Fluorine compounds do obey the fundamental tenets of organic theory, but their frequent reversal of polarity, relative to hydrocarbon analogs, and the change in emphasis from a positive hydrogen ion to a negative fluoride ion allow the instructor to frame questions that demand reasoning rather than reiteration on the part of the student.
Young, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 733.
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Aromatic nitro musk synthesis  Nash, E. Gary; Nienhouse, Everett J.; Silhavy, Thomas A.; Humbert, Dale E.; Mish, Mary Jo
This synthesis involves the preparation of the nitro-musks, musk xylene and/or musk ketone, from readily available m-xylene.
Nash, E. Gary; Nienhouse, Everett J.; Silhavy, Thomas A.; Humbert, Dale E.; Mish, Mary Jo J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 705.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Preparation of 6-aminosaccharin  Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford
This synthesis involves the substitution of a chlorosulfonyl group onto an aromatic ring at a position predictable on the basis of the directing ability of the groups already present, the oxidation of a methyl group, a cyclization that is an example of the ease with which five-membered rings are formed, and the reduction of a nitro group.
Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 649.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
The photoaddition of maleic anhydride to benzene: A simple organic experiment in a complicated system  Bozak, R. E.; Alvarez, V. E.
Presents the photochemical synthesis of benzopinacol as a pedagogical example of organic photochemistry suitable for the first-year organic course.
Bozak, R. E.; Alvarez, V. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 589.
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Organic nomenclature, I  Liotta, Charles
It is the purpose of this article to call attention to errors and misconceptions in the application of IUPAC Rules of Organic Nomenclature.
Liotta, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 471.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols |
Heterocycles
Measure for measure  Fried, Rainer
The author draws attention to the use of units in popular publications like the New York Times and National Geographic.
Fried, Rainer J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 450.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The mole again!  Haack, N. H.
Discusses the definition of the mole.
Haack, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 324.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Inexpensive molecular models of metallocenes  Sutton, John R.
Describes the construction of sandwich compounds such a ferrocene.
Sutton, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 305.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Coordination Compounds
The rearrangement of diazotized 4-bromobenzophenone hydrazone: A stereospecific reaction  Hawbeker, Byron L.
This procedure involves the synthesis of hydrazone and its subsequent diazotization / rearrangement to produce an anilide.
Hawbeker, Byron L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 218.
Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Intensive and extensive properties  Redlich, Otto
Defines and discusses the differences between intensive and extensive properties.
Redlich, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Physical versus chemical change  Gensler, Walter J.
Defines and discusses the differences between physical and chemical changes.
Gensler, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Intensive and extensive properties  Redlich, Otto
Defines and discusses the differences between intensive and extensive properties.
Redlich, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An experiment to illustrate nucleophilic aromatic substitution and tautomerism  Farmer, J. L.; Haws, E. J.
Students hydrolyze 2-chloropyridine and then examine the tautomeric mixture produced using infrared spectroscopy.
Farmer, J. L.; Haws, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 41.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
An Introduction to Chemical Nomenclature (Cahn, R. S.)  Hurd, Charles D.

Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A830.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An integrated NMR and synthetic organic chemistry experiment  Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H.
Presents a synthetic sequence that involves procedures of general utility and results in products illustrative of the basic principles of NMR spectroscopy.
Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 854.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
Oxidative coupling: A new approach to azo chemistry  Hunig, S.
By looking for the important structural features of p-phenylenediamines that constitute their ability to couple oxidatively, it was possible to construct three new systems that are also capable of undergoing this reaction. The enormous variety possible in these systems permits the syntheses of a great number of unusual azo compounds.
Hunig, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 734.
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
SI Units  Socrates, G.
This article discusses the history of the International System of Units and presents tables of basic and derived SI units, prefixes, conversions, and physical constants in SI units.
Socrates, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 710.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Preparation of sulfanilamide from aniline: An organic chemistry experiment  Hurdis, Everett C.; Yang, Josephine W.
Presents the preparation of sulfanilamide from aniline, a synthesis that is shorter than the tradition method.
Hurdis, Everett C.; Yang, Josephine W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 697.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Fuel conversion in transport phenomena  Gerlach, E. R.
Calculations comparing the fuel efficiency of a hummingbird with that of a Volkswagen.
Gerlach, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 455.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A.
(1) Suggestions for presenting the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales. (2) Why are 4s rather than 3d electrons involved in the first and second ionizations of the first row transition elements? - answer by Haight. (3) The basis for the mnemonic ordering of atomic orbitals. (4) What is a liquid-liquid membrane electrode? Is it the same as an ion-selective electrode? - answer by Rechnitz.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 444.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Membranes
A system of notation and classification for typical close-packed structures  Ho, Shih-Ming; Douglas, Bodie E.
A system of notation is proposed to describe the essential features of a structure in terms of the broad close-packing concept.
Ho, Shih-Ming; Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 207.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Description of Fahrenheit's thermometer  Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1798
A short description of Fahrenheit's thermometer and his development of a temperature scale.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1798 J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 192.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Metalation of metallocenes  Slocum, D. W.; Engelmann, T. R.; Ernst, C.; Jennings, C. A.; Jones, W.; Koonsivitsky, B.; Lewis, J.; Shenkin, P.
Examines the metalation of unsubstituted metallocenes and the mono- and dimetalation of substituted ferrocenes.
Slocum, D. W.; Engelmann, T. R.; Ernst, C.; Jennings, C. A.; Jones, W.; Koonsivitsky, B.; Lewis, J.; Shenkin, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 144.
Aromatic Compounds |
Metals
The languages of chemistry. Reading, writing, and understanding equations (Walker, Ruth A.; Johnston, Helen)  Fiekers, Bernard A.

Fiekers, Bernard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A620.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Undergraduate experiments with tetrachlorobenzyne  Heaney, H.; Marples, B. A.
Presents the preparation and experiments involving tetrachlorobenzyne.
Heaney, H.; Marples, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 801.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactive Intermediates
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John
(1) Is the mole a number or a weight? (2) Is there an easy way to locate a compound by volume and page in Beilstein? (3) What are the stages evident in a gas discharge tube as the pressure of the gas and the voltage are changed? - answer by Bolte
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 718.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Gases
Mole fraction versus molality  Creak, G. Alan
Mole fractions are not always unambiguous when used in the context of ionic solutions.
Creak, G. Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 622.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The generation of benzyne - A warning  Mich, Thomas F.; Nienhouse, Everett J.; Farino, Thomas E.; Tufariello, Joseph J.
The synthesis of benzyne by the diazotization of anthranilic acid may result in an explosion; an improved procedure to avoid this problem is presented.
Mich, Thomas F.; Nienhouse, Everett J.; Farino, Thomas E.; Tufariello, Joseph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 272.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Normality and molality: The expendables  Sacks, L. J.
Discusses objections against normality and molality.
Sacks, L. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 183.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letter to the editor  Winterburn, John
Praises the usefulness of an earlier published synthesis.
Winterburn, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 70.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Chemical queries. Especially for high school teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) Which is correct, Celsius or centigrade? (2) How is the paddle wheel effect in the Crookes tube explained? (3) How does pH influence the chemistry of the Cu-Cu+2 cell? (4) How does concentration influence the formation of a precipitate between tin(II) chloride and mercury(II) chloride? (5) Is it Avogadro's Law, Theory, or Hypothesis?
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 38.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Stoichiometry
Letter to the editor  Brescia, Frank
Calls on instructors not to confuse students with inappropriate definitions of work.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 771.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Significant figures and correlation of parameters  DeTar, DeLos F.
Examines the two quite different meanings for the term significant figures as applied to the parameters of an equation.
DeTar, DeLos F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 759.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letter to the editor  Ewing, Galen W.; Fitgerald, J. M.
The cited paper contains a erroneous statement regarding the cm-1 being a unit of energy.
Ewing, Galen W.; Fitgerald, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 622.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letter to the editor (the author replies)  Luder, W. F.
Replies to the concerns raised by the cited letter.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letter to the editor  Sementsov, A.
Questions the configuration of benzene supported by the theory discussed in the cited paper.
Sementsov, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Photochemical reactivity  Turro, Nicholas J.
It is the purpose of this paper to clarify some confused and confusing concepts employed by photochemists concerning the reactivity of molecules in related photochemical reactions.
Turro, Nicholas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 536.
Photochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letter to the editor  Neville, G. A.
Identifies a more appropriate reference for the cited article.
Neville, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 427.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Organic nomenclature: A programmed introduction (Traynham, James G.)  Hiatt, Richard

Hiatt, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 309.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The significance of significant figures  Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E.
This paper is an attempt to clarify some of our ideas about numerical data, measurements, mathematical operations, and significant figures.
Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 232.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Patentese: A dialect of English?  Singer, T. E. R.; Smith, Julian F.
Discusses the wording and usage of patent attorneys.
Singer, T. E. R.; Smith, Julian F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 111.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Textbooks errors. Miscellanea no. 5  Mysels, Karol J.
Considers inconsistencies in the units involved in thermodynamic expressions, incorrect units given for equivalent conductivity, oscillations in polargraphic measurements, and inconsistencies in dealing with catalysis.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 44.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis
Electrophilic substitution in benzenoid compounds (Norman, R. O. C.; Taylor, R.)  Bunnett, Joseph F.

Bunnett, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A358.
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
Letter to the editor  Goldman, James A.
The author questions the significance of new terms presented in some textbooks.
Goldman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 680.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An experiment in activated aromatic nucleophilic substitution  Dyall, L. K.
This experiment involves preparing the intermediates formed during activated aromatic nucleophilic substitution and a study of their decomposition on treatment with mineral acid.
Dyall, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 663.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
IR Spectroscopy
The MKS temperature scale  Georgian, John C.
A temperature scale to fit into the MKS system of units is proposed.
Georgian, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Selective reduction of dinitro compounds  Weiss, Hilton M.
The selective reduction of aromatic dinitro compounds by ammonium sulfide is an opportunity to consider an open-ended question.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 384.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Letter to the editor  Onwood, D. P.
Discusses variations in the usage of the terms "acid" and "base," including Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis systems.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 335.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The activating effect of fluorine in electrophilic aromatic substitution  Ault, Addison
It is demonstrated here that in certain electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions fluorine is actually an activating substituent.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 329.
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Xylene analysis: Integrated experiment in instrumental analysis  Hanrahan, E. S.
Xylene containing major amounts of ethylbenzene, toluene, and three xylene isomers, is analyzed using infrared and gas chromatographic analysis.
Hanrahan, E. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 321.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds
Molecules versus moles  Guggenheim, E. A.
Now that the mass of molecules is known with great accuracy, there is nothing to be gained in continuing to use moles.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 250.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
1-bromo-3-chloro-5-iodobenzene: An eight-step synthesis from benzene  Ault, Addison; Kraig, Raymond
Presents an eight-step synthesis of 1-bromo-3-chloro-5-iodobenzene from benzene.
Ault, Addison; Kraig, Raymond J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 213.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Sonnet on a benzene ring  Moje, Stephen
Sonnet on a benzene ring.
Moje, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 151.
Aromatic Compounds
Who proposed the Dewar formula of benzene?  Sementsov, A.
The bridged formula of benzene was first proposed by two German chemists in 1868.
Sementsov, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 151.
Aromatic Compounds
Aromatic substitution  Duewell, H.
Reports on the use of the molecular orbit theory in a qualitative approach to the activation and orientation of substitution in aromatic systems.
Duewell, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 138.
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
It is not poor teaching to admit that mystery remains and that much of our chemical language is an oversimplification.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 111.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching dimensionless groups in chemical engineering  Gall, C. E.; Hudgins, R. R.
A paradigm is presented to show visually the structure of chemical engineering dimensionless groups.
Gall, C. E.; Hudgins, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 611.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Brady, Leonard E.
Notes the danger of benzene vapors.
Brady, Leonard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 577.
Aromatic Compounds
Qualitative test for ketones, aromatic aldehydes, and aliphatic aldehydes  Morrison, James D.
The Bordwell-Wellman solution of chromic anhydride in aqueous sulfuric acid is an excellent reagent for distinguishing aldehydes from ketones.
Morrison, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 554.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Units of measurement: An early application of Avogadro's number  Brasted, Robert C.
A comparison is made between the measured volume of a regular metallic solid and its theoretical volume as calculated using Avogadro's number.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Metals |
Physical Properties
A temperature-independent concentration unit  Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr.
Describes a new system of concentration, termed molicity by the authors.
Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 420.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical vocabulary and principles. Survey of high school texts and popular literature  Morgan, Ashley C., Jr.; Koelsche, Charles L.
This study was conducted to answer two questions: Are the principles presented in the new high school chemistry textbooks different from those of 30 years ago? How do the principles and vocabularies of the new curricular materials compare with those found in popular literature?
Morgan, Ashley C., Jr.; Koelsche, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 379.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Simplified temperature conversion  Midgley, Calvin P.
This simple method for temperature conversion can be done without pencil and paper.
Midgley, Calvin P. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 322.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Derivation of equations for the interconversion of concentration units  Mills, Alfred P.
Presents the derivation of equations for the interconversion of concentration units.
Mills, Alfred P. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 314.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A three-step synthesis: 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine from benzene  Ault, Addison
Presents a synthetic sequence for use in the introductory organic chemistry laboratory: the synthesis of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine from benzene by way of bromobenzene and 2,4-dinitrobromobenzene.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 267.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
Kekule's benzene ring theory: A subject for lighthearted banter  Wilcox, David H., Jr.; Greenbaum, Frederick R.
Presents a nineteenth century analogy between benzene and six monkeys.
Wilcox, David H., Jr.; Greenbaum, Frederick R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 266.
Aromatic Compounds
Editorially speaking  
Does the scientist have consistent and different meanings for the terms "law" and "theory"?
J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An introduction to chemical nomenclature (Cahn, R. S.)  Hurd, Charles D.

Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 234.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Modified exponential number notation  Frigerio, Norman A.
Suggests the notation 1P3 and 1N3 to represent 1000 and 0.001, respectively.
Frigerio, Norman A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 213.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Thermally stable polymeric materials  Bruck, S. D.
The object of this article is to discuss some of the factors responsible for high thermal stability in polymers, to review a few of the most important advances that have recently been made in the synthesis of such materials, and to present some of the results of the thermal degradation of an aromatic polyimide under investigation in the author's laboratory.
Bruck, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 18.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Thermal Analysis
An MKS system of units for chemists  Strong, Frederick C.
It would be worth investigating whether the MKS system would be useful in chemistry.
Strong, Frederick C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 621.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Systematic names for the tartaric acids  Baxter, J. N.
Examines the use of the small capital letters D and L in naming tartaric acids.
Baxter, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 619.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
The structures and reactions of the phosphorus sulfides  Cowley, Alan H.
Examines the nomenclature, preparation and properties, structures and bonding, and reactions of the phosphorus sulfides.
Cowley, Alan H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 530.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Lexicon of international and national units (Clason, W. E.)  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 519.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Signs of tensions in electrochemistry  Van Rysselberghe, Pierre
Discusses conventions and definitions for electrochemical terms and relationships.
Van Rysselberghe, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 486.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Relative rates of electrophilic aromatic substitution  Casanova, Joseph, Jr.
An experiment involving the bromination of various aromatic substrates that covers several aspects of kinetic phenomena.
Casanova, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 341.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
The Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene: A first year organic laboratory experiment  Dunathan, H. C.
This experiment involves the alkylation of benzene with each of the four butyl chlorides and aluminum chloride; the monobutylbenzenes from each reaction are then analyzed by vapor phase chromatography and IR spectroscopy.
Dunathan, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 278.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
A pseudo first-order-second-order kinetics experiment: An illustration of the Guggenheim method  Ahmad, Mushlaq; Hamer, Jan
The rate of one of the typical reactions of the aromatic nitroso group is determined spectrophotometrically employing the Guggenheim method.
Ahmad, Mushlaq; Hamer, Jan J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 249.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aromatic Compounds |
Spectroscopy
Phthalocyanine compounds  Moser, Frank H.; Thomas, Arthur L.
Examines the properties of phthalocyanine, the nomenclature of phthalocyanine compounds, and phthalocyanine polymers.
Moser, Frank H.; Thomas, Arthur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 245.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The ultraviolet spectra of aromatic hydrocarbons: Predicting substitution and isomerism changes  Stevenson, Philip E.
Presents a theory that allows one to predict the UV spectra of many benzene derivatives and their isomers.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 234.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Letters  Fang, Fabian T.
Suggests corrections to an earlier published article.
Fang, Fabian T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 170.
Aromatic Compounds
An introduction to the sequence rule: A system for the specification of absolute configuration  Cahn, R. S.
This paper describes the relatively simple methods that suffice for specifying the absolute configuration of the majority of optically active organic compounds - those containing asymmetric carbon atoms.
Cahn, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 116.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chromatographic glossary  Lewin, S. Z.
Presents thin layer and gas chromatography terms in English, German, French, and Spanish.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A167.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography
The use of the Perkin reaction in organic chemistry classes  Buckles, R. E.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Buckles, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Benzene clathrate  Bhatnagar, Vijay Mohan
Describes the properties and investigations of a benzene clathrate, [Ni(CN)2.NH3.C6H6].
Bhatnagar, Vijay Mohan J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 646.
Aromatic Compounds
Scientific communication  Eyring, Henry
Discusses the vagaries of written English and the English system of measurement.
Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 617.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Wu, Chisung
Commentary on Chinese symbols for elements.
Wu, Chisung J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 388.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Chang, J. C.
Commentary on Chinese symbols for elements.
Chang, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 388.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Tung, Cheng Ta
Commentary on Chinese symbols for elements.
Tung, Cheng Ta J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 388.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Conversion grids for ternary systems  Heric, E. L.
This article describes the basics of conversion grids and their construction and applies a conversion grid to a system of benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and n-hexane.
Heric, E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 325.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Linde, Charlotte
Suggests the term "ionocule" for the opposite of molecule.
Linde, Charlotte J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 270.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Naming chemical elements in Chinese  Suter, Rufus
Examines the naming and use of characters to represent chemical elements in Chinese.
Suter, Rufus J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 44.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Conventions defining thermodynamic properties of aqueous ions and other chemical species  Noyes, Richard M.
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the conventions presently used to tabulate thermodynamic properties of chemical species, to show the reaction types for which these tabulations are and are not applicable, and to suggest alternative conventions that could extend the applicability of the conventions.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 2.
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The preparation of nitrosobenzene  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests some research activities based on an article published previously in the Journal.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A962.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Undergraduate Research
An algorithm for translating chemical names to molecular formulas (Garfield, Eugene)  Landee, F. A.

Landee, F. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A557.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Goldberg, David E.
The author suggests using the term "continuous chain" rather than "straight" chain so as to reduce confusion regarding the geometry of carbon chains.
Goldberg, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 319.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The rate of iodination of aniline: A physical chemistry experiment  Brice, L. K.
The rate of iodination of aniline is determined by measuring the optical density of the reaction medium.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 632.
Aromatic Compounds |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Ultramacro and ultramicro science terms  de Ment, Jack
Proposes a convenient and consistent set of metric prefixes for very large and very small multiples and sub-multiples.
de Ment, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 587.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discussion of the conventions, definitions, and symbols of thermodynamics.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
The stability of the "aromatic sextet"  Waack, Richard
The calculation of the pi-electron molecular orbitals for planar monocyclic conjugated polyolefins gives an explanation for the observation that the 4n + 2 number of pi-electrons forms a highly stable aromatic molecule.
Waack, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 469.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The carbon-12 scale of atomic masses  Labbauf, Abbas
Examines the concept of atomic weight and the rise and coexistence of the oxygen and carbon scales of atomic mass.
Labbauf, Abbas J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 282.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Functionally-substituted aromatic silanes  Neville, Roy G.
The purpose of this article is to present a brief account of the functionally-substituted aromatic silanes.
Neville, Roy G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 276.
Aromatic Compounds |
Organometallics
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discusses differences between mass and weight.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 275.
Physical Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The nature of essential oils. II. Chemical constituents, analysis  Sterrett, Frances S.
Examines aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and terpenes and terpenoids.
Sterrett, Frances S. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 246.
Aromatic Compounds |
Natural Products
A new method of defining the activity functions of non-ideal gases and solutions  Ben-Naim, A.
The aim of this paper is to discuss the various definitions given to the different activity functions as they appear in a variety of textbooks, and to propose a new and exact definition of these quantities.
Ben-Naim, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 242.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The acylation of aliphatic unsaturated hydrocarbons  Sharefkin, Jacob G.
Introductory organic chemistry textbooks discuss the Friedel-Crafts synthesis of aromatic ketones but usually do not treat the corresponding reaction in the aliphatic series.
Sharefkin, Jacob G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 206.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemical equilibrium: The hydrogenation of benzene  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
This procedure examines the reversible reaction between benzene and hydrogen, forming cyclohexane, in the presence of a metal catalyst.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 91.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Catalysis
Structural variety of natural products  Roderick, William R.
Classes of natural products examined includes alkynes; quinones; benzpyrones; small and large rings; sulfur, nitrogen, and halogen-containing compounds; and new amino acids.
Roderick, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 2.
Natural Products |
Amino Acids |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds
Letters  Crawford, Crayton M.
Comments on use of the term equivalent weights and the determination of equivalent mass.
Crawford, Crayton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 637.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Determination of saponification equivalents of phenolic esters  Tobey, Stephen W.; McGregor, S. D.; Cottrill, Sharon L.
The objective of this paper is to show that by making a few key changes in existing techniques, a procedure of saponification determination is evolved that is not only applicable to ordinary alkyl esters of carboxylic acids, but gives excellent results with a wide variety of esters of phenol and other aromatic hydroxyl compounds.
Tobey, Stephen W.; McGregor, S. D.; Cottrill, Sharon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 611.
Esters |
Carboxylic Acids |
Phenols |
Aromatic Compounds
Molecular weights by cryoscopy: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Mikulak, Robert; Runquist, Olaf
Presents an experiment determining the cryoscopic constant of cyclohexanol.
Mikulak, Robert; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 557.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Moles and equivalents: Quantities of matter  Cohen, Irwin
Examines the various means of describing and measuring quantities of matter, including the mole and the equivalent.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 555.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Foy, John R.
Suggests a modification to an earlier proposed definition for the term mole.
Foy, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Bieber, Theodore I.
Provides a concise definition for the mole.
Bieber, Theodore I. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Cohen, Irwin
Proposes use of the term cardinal weight.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The mole in quantitative chemistry  Copley, George Novello
The purpose of this paper is to show how the mole concept can be applied more consistently and efficiently to all aspects of quantitative chemistry.
Copley, George Novello J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 551.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis
A redefinition of "mole"  Lee, Shiu
Proposes improvements to a set of terms related to gram formula weights.
Lee, Shiu J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 549.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Translating and re-jargonizing the little-languages of science  de Ment, Jack
Examines the need for and challenges posed by the translation of scientific jargon into language suitable or the masses.
de Ment, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 415.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Laughton, P. M.
A short discussion on the meaning of empirical formula.
Laughton, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 378.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Is there an alternative to pH?  Crane, Francis E., Jr.
Provides some alternatives to the traditional definition of pH that introductory students may find more intuitive and less confusing.
Crane, Francis E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 365.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The basis for a new conception of an electrode potential: Escaping tendency of electrons in the electrode of electrode systems at equilibrium  Ramsey, J. B.
This article develops a definition of electrode potential that is essentially different from that of either of two definitions in current usage.
Ramsey, J. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The chemistry of benzyne  Bunnett, Joseph F.
Examines the chemistry of benzyne and alkynes.
Bunnett, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 278.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkynes
The mole and related quantities  Guggenheim, E. A.
Examines some of the terminology associated with the mole and expressing amounts of substances.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 86.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The general philosophy of organic nomenclature  Hurd, Charles D.
A discussion of the underlying principles of nomenclature that are basic to all systems of organic nomenclature.
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 43.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Abbreviations in Russian chemical literature  Smith, Julian F.
Describes some common abbreviations found in the Russian chemical literature and discusses related issues.
Smith, Julian F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 41.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The side-chain halogenation of n-alkyl benzenes  Goldwhite, H.
A number of textbooks state that in the halogenation of the side-chains of normal alkyl benzenes with elemental halogens there is a strong tendency for halogenation to take place preferentially at the carbon atom next to the aromatic nucleus; the literature does not support this conclusion.
Goldwhite, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 295.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkylation |
Reactions
MolonA new concentration unit  Gillespie, R. J.; Solomons, C.
Suggests the use of the molon, defined as moles of solute per kilogram of solution.
Gillespie, R. J.; Solomons, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 202.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
New Prefixes for Units  
Outlines new recommendations for standardized metric prefixes.
J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 85.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A simplified preparation of anthraquinone  Wilcox, C. R., Jr.; Stevens, M.
The cyclization of ortho-benzoylbenzoic acid to anthraquinone by strong acids is an instructive reaction for elementary organic laboratory course because it is a model of the industrial preparation of the important anthraquinone dye intermediates and serves as a point of entry into the area of polycyclic aromatic chemistry.
Wilcox, C. R., Jr.; Stevens, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 633.
Synthesis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aromatic Compounds
Aniline by a modified Jones reductor method  Stubbs, U. Simpson, Jr.; Atkins, Cyril F.
By making certain simple modifications in the Jones reductor aniline can be prepared from nitrobenzene.
Stubbs, U. Simpson, Jr.; Atkins, Cyril F. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 611.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Letters to the editor  Hall, Arthur C.
The molality-molarity paradox presented in an earlier article is artificial rather than apparent.
Hall, Arthur C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 584.
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Japanese organic chemical nomenclature: Problems of translation and transliteration  Urushibara, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Masao
In Japan, Chinese characters and a set of Japanese phonetic letters are used in scientific papers, books, and other documents almost exclusively; this presents many challenges to representing organic compounds.
Urushibara, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Masao J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 482.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Fifty foreign languages at Chemical Abstracts  Heumann, K. F.; Bernays, P. M.
Examines the various languages used in Chemical Abstracts and issues related to their application.
Heumann, K. F.; Bernays, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 478.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The contributions of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory  Campaigne, E.
Examines the contribution of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory and his work regarding the nature of bonds in pyrone ring systems.
Campaigne, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 336.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
A molality-molarity paradox?  Toby, Sidney
The author points out that there seems no obvious reason why molality could not equal molarity in a solution whose density is less than unity.
Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 230.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discusses efforts to establish a unified scale of atomic weight.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 103.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
Letters to the editor  Kraus, Charles A.
The author defines science, mathematics, engineering, and education.
Kraus, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 100.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Notations in physics and chemistry  Guggenheim, E. A.
A review and evaluation of five different forms of notation that have been used in chemistry and physics.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 606.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Grades of chemicals  Ramsey, James C., Jr.
Most students are generally unfamiliar with the various grade labels of chemicals and the significance of various grade classifications, such as reagent grade, chemically pure, and technical grade.
Ramsey, James C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 558.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Copley, G. N.
The author proposes terms and symbolism to represent different phase changes.
Copley, G. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 528.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Fused ring systems: Designation of fusion points  Krupp, Robert G.; Kondas, Michael
Addresses the challenges of nomenclature with respect to fused ring systems.
Krupp, Robert G.; Kondas, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 397.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Rutledge, Charles H.
The author reminds us that the term "nylon" was never trademarked.
Rutledge, Charles H. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 367.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Substituent effects on the benzene ring: A demonstration  Lambert, Frank L.
In a series of simple experiments it can be visually demonstrated that -OH, -OR, and -NR2 powerfully activate the benzene ring.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 342.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Representation of polycyclic aromatic compounds  Bieber, Theodore I.
Reviews the representation of polycyclic aromatic compounds and the matter of pi-electron sharing by adjacent sextets.
Bieber, Theodore I. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 235.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters  Fisher, D. Jerome
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Donohue, Jerry
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Nomenclature of phase transition  McDonald, James E.
Discusses the curious situation in which the terminology of chemistry and physics has only five words to describe the six possible transitions between three states of matter.
McDonald, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 205.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Peter GriessDiscoverer of diazo compounds  Heines, Sister Virginia
Summarizes the life of Peter Griess and his research with diazo compounds.
Heines, Sister Virginia J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 187.
Dyes / Pigments |
Aromatic Compounds
Letters  Pokras, Lewis
The author proposes the term "senacule" as analagous to molecule and to be used to refer to ionic species.
Pokras, Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 159.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Simplified stoichiometric formula index  Skolnik, Herman; Hopkins, Jane K.
Contrasts several systems for organizing chemical formulas.
Skolnik, Herman; Hopkins, Jane K. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 150.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Revised inorganic (Stock) nomenclature for the general chemistry student  Brasted, Robert C.
Examines the Stock System as applied to teaching general chemistry and naming binary compounds of nonmetals and metals, complex entities, and oxy-anions.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 136.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The small scale preparation of azobenzene and of hydrazobenzene  Vogel, A. I.; Watling, A.; Watling, J.
A satisfactory procedure for the preparation of azobenzene consists of the reduction of pure nitrobenzene with magnesium turnings and anhydrous methanol; hydrazobenzene may be prepared by reduction of nitrobenzene either with Devarda's alloy and sodium hydroxide solution or with excess of magnesium and anhydrous methanol.
Vogel, A. I.; Watling, A.; Watling, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 40.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Ciphered formulas in carbohydrate chemistry  Difini, Alvaro; Neto, Jose Difini
Describes the use of schematic formulas as an aid to rapidly representing configurations for monosaccharides.
Difini, Alvaro; Neto, Jose Difini J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 38.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
August Kekule and the birth of the structural theory of organic chemistry in 1858  Benfey, O. Theodore
Translation of a speech made by Kekule in 1890 in which he discusses his development of the structural theory and the importance of creativity and imagination in scientific research.
Benfey, O. Theodore J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 21.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
A suggested convention for the representation of ionic substances  Sunderwirth, Stanely G.
The author suggests conventions for the representation of ionic substances that may prove less confusing for introductory students.
Sunderwirth, Stanely G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 520.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Fisher, D. Jerome
The author responds to criticism of his suggestions for naming classes of crystals.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 458.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Our constantly changing language: Alice through the magnetooptical, electrooptical looking glass  Wilson, John H.
A technical editor writes on the challenges of being a technical editor.
Wilson, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 447.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials  Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J.
It is the purpose of this paper to review recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials, particularly with respect to single electrode potential, half-reaction potential, and half-cell electromotive force.
Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 433.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Letters to the editor  Freedman, Jules
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Freedman, Jules J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters to the editor  Pickering, Roger A.
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Pickering, Roger A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids  Vickery, Hubert Bradford
Discusses conventions regarding the assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids.
Vickery, Hubert Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 339.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Donohue, Jerry
Commentary of the terminology of crystal classes.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 310.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ferrocene: A novel organometallic compound  Rausch, Marvin; Vogel, Martin; Rosenberg, Harold
Examines the preparation, physical properties, structure, aromatic character, reactions, and applications of ferrocene.
Rausch, Marvin; Vogel, Martin; Rosenberg, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 268.
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: The Wohl conventions  Abernethy, John Leo
Examines the Wohl system for designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Abernethy, John Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 150.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Acids / Bases
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: An unsettled stereochemical question  Nenitzescu, Costin D.
Examines the Wohl and Freudenberg systems of designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Nenitzescu, Costin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 147.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
The ultraviolet absorption spectra of aromatic compounds adsorbed on silicic acid  Robin, Melvin
Presents ultraviolet absorption spectra of benzene, phenol, fluorobenzene, n-methylaniline, and their analysis.
Robin, Melvin J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 526.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols
Letters to the editor  Gorin, George
Amplifies the discussion of proper configurational prefixes for the tartaric acids.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 478.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters to the editor  Foster, Laurence S.
Thanks a reader for pointing out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Foster, Laurence S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Mayper, Stuart A.
Points out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Mayper, Stuart A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronic configurations and atomic term symbols  Gregory, N. W.
It is valuable for senior or first-year graduate student to correlate assigned electronic configurations with spectroscopic evidence in the form of term symbols for ground states of various atoms or monatomic ions.
Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 144.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Some difficulties and common errors related to the designation of sugar configurations  Abernethy, John Leo
Examines some difficulties and common errors related to the designation of sugar configurations.
Abernethy, John Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 88.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Movable symbols and formulas as a teaching aid  Lippincott, W. T.; Wheaton, Roger
Movable magnetic squares with symbols and formulas printed on them are used as a visual teaching aid involving a variety of fundamental chemistry concepts.
Lippincott, W. T.; Wheaton, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 15.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Letters to the editor  Weiner, Samuel
Discusses some of the semantic confusions that plague teaching in chemistry.
Weiner, Samuel J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Aromatic substitution by free radicals  Nelson, Peter F.
This article summarizes recent investigations upon orientation and reaction rates with respect to homolytic substitution.
Nelson, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 606.
Free Radicals |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nomenclature for conductance  Fuoss, Raymond M.
The author offers several new terms to be used in association with work on conductance and demonstrates their usefulness.
Fuoss, Raymond M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 527.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Conductivity
A mnemonic for dicarboxylic acids  Cox, Gerald J.
This short note provides a mnemonic for the names of the dicarboxylic acids.
Cox, Gerald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 363.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
A notation for the study of certain stereochemical problems  Newman, Melvin S.
Newman introduces the projections of compounds containing two adjacent asymmetric carbons that would later bear his name.
Newman, Melvin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 344.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Editor's outlook  Rakestraw, Norris W.
Unless the prospects of a scientific career include the spirit of freedom, we are unlikely to attract to it the kind of young men and women who in the long run will pursue it most effectively and productively.
Rakestraw, Norris W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 343.
Student / Career Counseling |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides
Nucleophilic substitution in aromatic systems  Gillis, Richard G.
Classifies and examines various categories of nucleophilic substitution in aromatic systems.
Gillis, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 296.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
Trends in chemical education  Currier, Arnold J.
Topics examined include chemical nomenclature, the organization of subject matter in chemistry, carbon chemistry versus qualitative analysis, the laboratory versus the textbook, and supplies in chemistry teachers.
Currier, Arnold J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 286.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Qualitative Analysis
A mnemonic acid for aldoses  Deloach, Will S.; Brandon, Ann
Presents a mnemonic aid for remembering the D-aldoses (through the hexoses).
Deloach, Will S.; Brandon, Ann J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 136.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
Gram equivalent weights  Meldrum, William B.
The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the subject of equivalent weights and the more directly applicable gram equivalents and to offer a general method by which they may be deduced from chemical equations.
Meldrum, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 48.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
The orientation and mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
Electrophilic aromatic substitution apparently takes place by the formation of an intermediate pentadienate cation, +ArG, where Ar is an aromatic molecule and G is a portion of the reagent.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 42.
Electrophilic Substitution |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
A sequence of synthesis in the general organic laboratory class  Lange, Erwin F.; Teranishi, Roy; Christensen, Bert E.
This synthesis involves the oxidation of p-xylene, nitration and esterfication of terephthalic acid, reduction of nitroterephthalic acid, and the preparation of 4-quinazolone-7-carboxylic acid.
Lange, Erwin F.; Teranishi, Roy; Christensen, Bert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 40.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Crossword puzzle solution  Brown, Curtis L.
Solution to a crossword puzzle appearing earlier in this issue of the Journal.
Brown, Curtis L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 330.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Geneva Congress on Organic Nomenclature, 1892  Evieux, E. A.
Describes the work of the Geneva Congress on Organic Nomenclature, which constituted the basis of a new system of nomenclature that has since been designated the Geneva system.
Evieux, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 326.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Crossword puzzle of chemical symbols  Brown, Curtis L.
A crossword puzzle of chemical symbols and molecular formulas.
Brown, Curtis L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 298.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr.
The author replies to a commentary on his earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 217.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Rosenbaum, E. J.
Commentary on an earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Rosenbaum, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 216.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Kekule's theory of aromaticity  Gero, Alexander
Examines what Kekule really wrote in his famous paper on the structure of benzene.
Gero, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 201.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
Letters to the editor  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
Points out an additional reference that should have been made in an earlier article.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution
Letters to the editor  Lash, M. E.
The author clarifies the definition of critical temperature, which is often stated uncritically in textbooks.
Lash, M. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The definition of "Spectrum"  Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr.
The author examines the word "spectrum" and several related terms.
Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Spectroscopy
Letters  Wolfrom, Melville L.
The author encourages American chemists to familiarize themselves with the conventions of representing configurational formulas.
Wolfrom, Melville L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 479.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Directive influence of substituents in the benzene ring  Varshni, Yatendra Pal
The author describes a new rule regarding the directive influence of substituents in the benzene ring.
Varshni, Yatendra Pal J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 465.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
Hlasiwetz and BarthPioneers in the structural aspects of plant products  McConnell, Virginia F.
Examines the contributions made by Heinrich Hlasiwetz and Ludwig Barth von Barthenau to uncovering the structural aspects of plant products, including resins, tannins, proteins, and benzene.
McConnell, Virginia F. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 380.
Plant Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Aromatic Compounds |
Proteins / Peptides
The organization of subject matter in elementary organic chemistry  MacKenzie, Charles A.
Describes a curricular approach in which aliphatic and aromatic compounds are treated simultaneously rather than separately.
MacKenzie, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 243.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Aspects of isomerism and mesomerism. I. (a) Formulas and their meaning (b) Mesomerism  Bent, Richard L.
Examines molecular, empirical, structural, configurational, and projection formulas, as well as mesomerism (electronic isomers) and various types of resonance.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 220.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Editor's Outlook  Rakestraw, Norris W.
The editor suggests shortening the names of metric units.
Rakestraw, Norris W. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 219.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V.
The author suggests that valence electrons be called "valentrons."
Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Fischer indole synthesis  Roussel, Philip A.
Examines the discovery of indole and Fischer's work to develop a means of its synthesis.
Roussel, Philip A. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 122.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
History of the chemical sign language  Winderlich, Rudolf
Traces the historic development of chemical symbolism.
Winderlich, Rudolf J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 58.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The genesis of the metric system and the work of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures  Moreau, Henri
This paper provides the broad outlines of the origin of the metric system and the contributions of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.
Moreau, Henri J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 3.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Brescia, Frank
The author calls for someone to invent another term for the word resonance as applied to the field of molecular structure.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 261.
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The preservation and availability of chemical knowledge  Dyson, G. Malcolm
The author examines the nature, collection, organization, and dissemination of chemical knowledge through literature.
Dyson, G. Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 239.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Peter Griess and the phenylene diamines  Smith, Manning A.; Gower, William R.
Contrary to the claim made by some textbooks, Peter Griess did not isolate and decarboxylate the six diaminobenzooic acids.
Smith, Manning A.; Gower, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 176.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
On accenting observations in chemistry  Campbell, J. A.
A chemical equations is, for many a student, such a complete abstraction that he would be hard put to describe the actual observations that would be made in a process for which he was supplied the complete equation.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 634.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A new derivative for the identification of primary aromatic amines  Lappin, Gerald R.
Describe an investigation into the products reactions between various primary aromatic amines and ethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate as a means of identifying primary aromatic amines.
Lappin, Gerald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 126.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Synthesis
Letters  Swaine, D. J.
The author points out continuing errors regarding the names and symbols of the elements lutetium, samarium, and radon.
Swaine, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 53.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols