TIGER

Journal Articles: 337 results
NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils  Molly W. Crowther
This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of five edible and structurally similar fats and oils for average chain length, degree of unsaturation, and trans fat content.
Crowther, Molly W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1550.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Fatty Acids
A More Challenging Interpretative Nitration Experiment Employing Substituted Benzoic Acids and Acetanilides  Edward M. Treadwell and Tung-Yin Lin
An experiment is described involving the nitration of ortho or meta, monosubstituted benzoic acids and monochlorinated acetanilides with nitric acid to evaluate the regioselectivity of addition through computational methods and 1H NMR spectroscopy.
Treadwell, Edward M.; Lin, Tung-Yin. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1541.
Aromatic Compounds |
Computational Chemistry |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Quantitative Analysis of Nail Polish Remover Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Revisited  Markus M. Hoffmann, Joshua T. Caccamis, Mark P. Heitz, and Kenneth D. Schlecht
Substantial modifications intended for a second- or third-year laboratory course in analytical chemistry are presented for a previously described procedure using NMR spectroscopy to quantitatively determine analytes in commercial nail polish remover. The revised experiment introduces student collaboration to critically interpret a relatively large set of data.
Hoffmann, Markus M.; Caccamis, Joshua T.; Heitz, Mark P.; Schlecht, Kenneth D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1421.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
"As Simple as Possible, but Not Simpler"—The Case of Dehydroascorbic Acid  Robert C. Kerber
Textbooks routinely assign dehydroascorbic acid a tricarbonyl structure that is highly improbable in aqueous solution and inconsistent with its colorless appearance. Studies of oxidized forms of ascorbic acid are summarized here, and a plea is entered for accurate descriptions of chemical structures in this and other cases, even at the cost of some simplicity.
Kerber, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1237.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Vitamins
An Exercise on Structure Elucidation Based on a Tricky Aldol Reaction  Manuel González Sierra, Silvina C. Pellegrinet, María I. Colombo, and Edmundo A. Rúveda
To determine the structure of an unknown product, students are required to use spectra in conjunction with an organic chemistry mechanism. This exercise exemplifies a common research procedure, highlights the potential of modern one- and two-dimensional NMR, and helps students develop problem-solving skills.
González Sierra, Manuel; Pellegrinet, Silvina C.; Colombo, María I.; Rúveda, Edmundo A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1094.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy
The Iodochlorination of Styrene: An Experiment That Makes a Difference  R. Gary Amiet and Sylvia Urban
This purpose of this laboratory exercise is to determine the various substitution and elimination products generated in the iodochlorination of styrene and their relative proportions through the application of mechanistic principles and a basic knowledge of GCMS and NMR.
Amiet, R. Gary; Urban, Sylvia. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 962.
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Student-Centered Learning
Magnetic Field Gradient Calibration as an Experiment To Illustrate Magnetic Resonance Imaging  Steven J. Seedhouse and Markus M. Hoffmann
Describes an experiment that illustrates how images are obtained in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and allows students to experience the relationships between gradient strength, spectral width, and the quality of the obtained projection images as they calibrate the maximum field gradient strength of a NMR spectrometer.
Seedhouse, Steven J.; Hoffmann, Markus M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 836.
Calibration |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Polymer-Supported Reagents and 1H–19F NMR Couplings: The Synthesis of 2-Fluoroacetophenone  Nicola Pohl and Kimberly Schwarz
Describes an experiment in which 2-bromoacetophenone is converted to 2-fluoroacetophenone using a solid-phase nucleophilic fluorine source. The experiment introduces students to the utility of solid-phase reagents in organic synthesis, to NMR-active nuclei other than 1H without the requirement of a special NMR probe, and to the unique uses of fluorine in molecular design.
Pohl, Nicola; Schwarz, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 834.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Mosher Amides: Determining the Absolute Stereochemistry of Optically-Active Amines  Damian A. Allen, Anthony E. Tomaso, Jr., Owen P. Priest, David F. Hindson, and Jamie L. Hurlburt
In this experiment, teams of students are given an optically-pure amine of known structure but unknown stereochemistry. Different teams derivatize samples of the amine with (R) and (S) conformations of Mosher's acid chloride. The resulting diastereomers are analyzed by NMR to determine the absolute configuration of the initial, unknown amine.
Allen, Damian A.; Tomaso, Anthony E., Jr.; Priest, Owen P.; Hindson, David F.; Hurlburt, Jamie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 698.
Amides |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Diastereomers |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Use of the Chemical Literature as a Template To Probe Stereoselective Reactions by NMR  Thomas P. Clausen, Thomas K. Green, and Benjamin Steiner
The approach to the organic laboratory described here presents students with literature studies that form the basis of developing new unpublished experiments to answer specific questions. As a result, students are better exposed to the chemical literature, gain experience in experimental design, and are forced to interpret rather than simply match spectra.
Clausen, Thomas P.; Green, Thomas K.; Steiner, Benjamin. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 692.
Grignard Reagents |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Undergraduate Research
Stereochemical Control in Carbohydrate Chemistry  Rhys Batchelor, Peter T. Northcote, Joanne E. Harvey, Emma M. Dangerfield, and Bridget L. Stocker
Describes a sequence of experiments that leads students from the derivatization of naturally occurring D-glucose through to the formation of simple alkyl and aryl glycosides. In doing so, this experiment provides an overview of glycoside synthesis with a focus on the control of stereochemistry at the anomeric center and structural elucidation through NMR spectroscopy.
Batchelor, Rhys; Northcote, Peter T.; Harvey, Joanne E.; Dangerfield, Emma M.; Stocker, Bridget L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 689.
Carbohydrates |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
A Nitration Reaction Puzzle for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Milton J. Wieder and Russell Barrows
Treatment of phenylacetic acid with different concentrations of nitric acid yields two different products. Using 1H NMR and IR spectral data, students are asked to deduce the structures of the two products, thus illustrating fundamental concepts in electrophilic aromatic substitution while posing an interesting structure elucidation puzzle.
Wieder, Milton J.; Barrows, Russell. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 549.
Constitutional Isomers |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
NMR Spectroscopy and Its Value: A Primer  Sudha Veeraraghavan
Presents a strategy for introducing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to beginning graduate students possessing no previous experience with NMR.
Veeraraghavan, Sudha. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 537.
Applications of Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides
Alternative pH-Shift Ion-Exchange Chromatography: Quantitative Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Progress of a Reaction   Concepción López, Manuel Martínez, Mercè Rocamora, and Laura Rodríguez
In this experiment, the solvolysis of [CoCl(NH3)5]2+ in nonaqueous (H3PO4) is followed by an alternative way of using ion-exchange chromatography that relies on changing the charge of the product through a shift in pH. Subsequent hydrolysis of the resulting complex is monitored and compared using UVvis and 31P NMR spectroscopy.
López, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Rocamora, Mercè; Rodríguez, Laura. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 426.
Chromatography |
Coordination Compounds |
Ion Exchange |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Synthesis and Symmetry of Two Cobalt(III) Complexes with Tetradentate Ligands  Mark McClure
In this laboratory exercise, students synthesize two series of cobalt(III) complexes. Although the two resulting ligands have the same chemical formula, one is linear and the other is branched, giving rise to complexes with different symmetries that are examined through the use of 13C NMR spectroscopy.
McClure, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 420.
Coordination Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Why Are 1H NMR Integrations Not Perfect? An Inquiry-Based Exercise for Exploring the Relationship Between Spin Dynamics and NMR Integration in the Organic Lab  Haim Weizman
When FT-NMR is used to collect data without a sufficient delay time between subsequent pulses, the integrated area under certain peaks may result in a lower value than should be observed under appropriate conditions. This exercise is designed to raise awareness of this issue in students and to serve as an inquiry-based stepping-stone into basic FT-NMR.
Weizman, Haim. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 294.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy
Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories  Caleb A. Arrington, Jameica B. Hill, Ramin Radfar, David M. Whisnant, and Charles G. Bass
This article describes a discovery experiment in which organic chemistry students act as mentors to general chemistry students. Members from both groups work together to isolate an unknown compound using distillation. The structure of the product is then determined collaboratively using IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 288.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Extensions of a Basic Laboratory Experiment: [4+2] and [2+2] Cycloadditions  Hazem Y. Amarne, Alex D. Bain, Karen Neumann, and Paul M. Zelisko
Describes an extended third-year undergraduate chemistry laboratory exercise in which a number of techniques and concepts are applied to the photochemical and thermal cycloadditions of -nitrostyrene and 2,3-dimethylbutadiene. The exercises include synthesis, NMR spectroscopy, and computer-based molecular modeling.
Amarne, Hazem Y.; Bain, Alex D.; Neumann, Karen; Zelisko, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 104.
Alkenes |
Conformational Analysis |
MO Theory |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis in the Organic Teaching Lab: A Simple, Greener Wittig Reaction  Eric Martin and Cynthia Kellen-Yuen
A microwave-assisted Wittig reaction has been developed for the organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this technique, a variety of styrene derivatives have been synthesized from aromatic aldehydes in good yields. The mixture of cis and trans alkenes produced also provides instructors with opportunities to emphasize the spectroscopic analysis of product mixtures.
Martin, Eric; Kellen-Yuen, Cynthia. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2004.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Ruthenium–Indenylidene Complexes for Olefin Metathesis  Ted M. Pappenfus, David L. Hermanson, Daniel P. Ekerholm, Stacie L. Lilliquist, and Megan L. Mekoli
Presents a series of experiments that focus on the design of rutheniumindenylidene complexes for olefin metathesis. Included are the syntheses of two such complexes that display very different catalytic activity in a ring-closing metathesis reaction. Students also utilize several analytical methods in characterizing the complexes and quantifying their catalytic activity.
Pappenfus, Ted M.; Hermanson, David L.; Ekerholm, Daniel P.; Lilliquist, Stacie L.; Mekoli, Megan L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1998.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics
Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts of Tricyclic Cationic Drugs: A One-Pot Synthesis for the Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Linda S. Brunauer, Abid C. Mogannam, Won B. Hwee, and James Y. Chen
Describes a one-pot conversion of tricyclic cationic drugs to their quaternary ammonium forms for a widely used bioactive drug, chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine-based antipsychotic. The conversion of parent drug to the methylated form was evaluated by qualitatively measuring its ability to induce alterations in the shape of mammalian erythrocytes.
Brunauer, Linda S.; Mogannam, Abid C.; Hwee, Won B.; Chen, James Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1992.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Isolation of Betulin and Rearrangement to Allobetulin  Brian Green, Michael D. Bentley, Bong Y. Chung, Nicholas G. Lynch, and Bruce L. Jensen
Betulin is obtained by extraction from birch bark and converted to allobetulin. Both compounds display 1H NMR spectra that include axialequatorial coupling characteristic of a C3-alcohol, conformational analysis by the use of dihedral angles and the Karplus equation, coupling patterns caused by diastereotopic protons and long-range interactions, and chemical shift values that are influenced by electronegativity and stereochemistry.
Green, Brian; Bentley, Michael D.; Chung, Bong Y.; Lynch, Nicholas G.; Jensen, Bruce L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1985.
Biosynthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Natural Products
Determination of Solvent Effects on Keto—Enol Equilibria of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds Using NMR  A. Gilbert Cook and Paul M. Feltman
Expands the classic physical chemistry experiment using of proton NMR to determine the equilibrium position of tautomeric 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in various solvents.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Feltman, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Equilibrium |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions  A. Gilbert Cook
The product of a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction is identified through a guided prelab exercise of the synthesis of the Hagemann ester, and then through the analysis of GCMS, NMR, and IR spectra. The stereochemistry of the product is determined through the NMR spectrum and Karplus curve, and the student is required to write a mechanism for the reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1477.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
"Audibilization" in the Chemistry Laboratory: An Introduction to Correlation Techniques for Data Extraction  James W. Hovick, Michael Murphy, and J. C. Poler
Describes a sequence of experiments that use small differences in an acoustic signal to "audibilize" how the data correlation process helps extract useful data. This technique is then compared to more traditional methods such as Fourier transform and phase locked loop analysis.
Hovick, James W.; Murphy, Michael; Poler, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1331.
Applications of Chemistry |
Calibration |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
Assigning the NMR Spectrum of Glycidol: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Exercise  Eric Helms, Nicholas Arpaia, and Melissa Widener
This exercise combines conformational analysis and 1-D and 2-D NMR spectroscopy to correctly assign the proton and carbon NMR spectra of 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol (glycidol). In the process, students learn how to read DEPT-135, HETCOR, and COSY spectra.
Helms, Eric; Arpaia, Nicholas; Widener, Melissa. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1328.
Conformational Analysis |
Diastereomers |
Epoxides |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy
Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  William J. Hagan, Jr., Dennis L. Edie, and Linda B. Cooley
An experiment is described that employs the 1H-NMR signal of aqueous imidazole to determine the pH of an unknown solution. The procedure involves the preparation of a calibration curve, which is then used for the analysis of the unknown(s).
Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1188.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Calibration |
NMR Spectroscopy |
pH
A New Tool To Aid Students in NMR Interpretation  John V. McClusky
Presents a tool that allows students to logically analyze NMR spectra and to visualize how peak multiplicity reveals molecular connectivity.
McClusky, John V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 983.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
A Short History of Three Chemical Shifts  Shin-ichi Nagaoka
Regrettably, the term "chemical shift" to designate the position of a spectral signal has a poor reputation as a technical term. Nevertheless, the "chemical" environment around an atom of interest influences the electronic environment and hence, leads to spectral shifts, making the prefix "chemical" appropriate.
Nagaoka, Shin-ichi. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 801.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Green Alternative to Aluminum Chloride Alkylation of Xylene  Grigoriy A. Sereda and Vikul B. Rajpara
Presents a simple laboratory experiment that introduces organic chemistry students to the basic principles of green technologies, such as lack of toxic or bulk byproducts, nontoxicity, and reusability of the catalyst.
Sereda, Grigoriy A.; Rajpara, Vikul B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 692.
Alkylation |
Green Chemistry |
Catalysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Molecular Structures from 1H NMR Spectra: Education Aided by Internet Programs  Barbara Debska and Barbara Guzowska-Swider
The article presents the way in which freeware Internet programs can be applied to teach 1H NMR spectroscopy. The computer programs described in this article are part of an educational curriculum that explores spectroscopy and spectra interpretation.
Debska, Barbara; Guzowska-Swider, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 556.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy. An Advanced Undergraduate Experiment  Michael T. Huggins and Freida Billimoria
Describes an advanced laboratory experiment in which students prepare a set of compounds to study both the configuration of a newly formed double bond (E or Z) and the conformation of the molecule.
Huggins, Michael T.; Billimoria, Freida. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 471.
Alkenes |
Conformational Analysis |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Analyzing and Interpreting NMR Spin–Spin Coupling Constants Using Molecular Orbital Calculations  Boris Le Guennic and Jochen Autschbach
Demonstrates how molecular orbital calculations may be used to analyze and interpret the origin of NMR spinspin coupling (J coupling) constants. An analysis of computational results gives an example how chemical-bond concepts may be used to gain an understanding of J coupling.
Le Guennic, Boris; Autschbach, Jochen. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 156.
Computational Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
MO Theory |
Physical Properties
Greening Wittig Reactions: Solvent-Free Synthesis of Ethyl trans-Cinnamate and trans-3-(9-Anthryl)-2-Propenoic Acid Ethyl Ester  Kim Chi Nguyen and Haim Weizman
Presents solvent-free alternatives to published procedures of Wittig reactions. Spectral data provide a basis for an inquiry-based discussion of (i) the factors influencing the chemical shifts of alkenyl proton, (ii) the analysis of NMR spectrum containing a mixture, and (iii) the role of strong dipoledipole interactions in dictating the stereochemical outcome of the Wittig reaction.
Nguyen, Kim Chi; Weizman, Haim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 119.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Green Chemistry
Keeping Your Students Awake: Facile Microscale Synthesis of Modafinil, a Modern Anti-Narcoleptic Drug  Evangelos Aktoudianakis, Rui Jun Lin, and Andrew P. Dicks
Describes the microscale preparation of modafinil, a pharmaceutical recently approved for the treatment of narcolepsy, by a sulfide oxidation reaction. An unusual feature of modafinil is the presence of a chiral sulfoxide functionality where a sulfur atom acts as a stereocenter, demonstrating that atoms other than carbon can act as centers of chirality.
Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Lin, Rui Jun; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1832.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry
3,5-Diarylisoxazoles: Individualized Three-Step Synthesis and Isomer Determination Using 13C NMR or Mass Spectroscopy  Chad E. Stephens and Reem K. Arafa
Describes the three-step synthesis and definitive characterization of a 3,5-diarylisoxazole via the chalcone and chalcone dibromide. The project is individualized with regard to compound purification, characterization, and literature searches as each student prepares a differently substituted chalcone.
Stephens, Chad E.; Arafa, Reem K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1336.
Alkenes |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy
Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams  Jennifer K. Woodworth, Jacob C. Terrance, and Markus M. Hoffmann
A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1065.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Regiospecific Epoxidation of Carvone: A Discovery-Oriented Experiment for Understanding the Selectivity and Mechanism of Epoxidation Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Y. M. Lai, and Yuk-Hong Siu
Peroxy acids and alkaline H2O2 are two commonly used reagents for alkene epoxidation. The former react preferentially with electron-rich alkenes while the latter works better with a,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The selectivity of these two reagents on carvone, a naturally occurring compound that contains both types of C=C bonds, is investigated.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Lai, Y. M.; Siu, Yuk-Hong. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1058.
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Epoxides |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond. A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Thomas K. Green and Charles A. Lane
A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites.
Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1046.
Computational Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Evaluating the Internal Charge-Transfer in Benzylidene Derivatives of N,N′-Dimethylbarbituric Acid  Marcos Caroli Rezende, Francisco Jara, and Moisés Domínguez
Four benzylidene derivatives of N,N'-dimethylbarbituric acid are prepared and their UVvisible and 1H NMR spectra used to characterize the molecular internal charge-transfer in the molecules.
Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Jara, Francisco; Domínguez, Moisés. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 937.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Enhancements on the Photochromism of 2-(2,4-Dinitrobenzyl)pyridine: Molecular Modeling, NMR Spectrometry, Photo- and Solvent-Bleaching  Ernest C. McGoran, Kevin Hintz, Kristin Hoffman, and Ramon Iovin
Describes molecular-modeling studies on the photochromism of 2-(2,4-dinitrobenzyl)pyridine (a-DNBP) that focus on the hydrogen atom migratory distances and the energies for the two very different tautomers arising from the photo-induced proton transfers.
McGoran, Ernest C.; Hintz, Kevin; Hoffman, Kristin; Iovin, Ramon. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 923.
Constitutional Isomers |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry
Student Empowerment through "Mini-microscale" Reactions: The Epoxidation of 1 mg of Geraniol  Thomas R. Hoye and Christopher S. Jeffrey
This experiment exposes students to important issues unique to working with very small amounts of materials. The enhanced self-confidence that accompanies this gain in expertise, in combination with the manipulation skills, makes this a particularly empowering experience.
Hoye, Thomas R.; Jeffrey, Christopher S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 919.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Characterization of (σ2-terpyridyl)Re(CO)3Cl with Determination of Chemical Ring Exchange Constant  Andrea Freyer, Alan Freyer, and Christine DiMeglio
A coordination complex is synthesized according to a straight-forward literature preparation and then purified by re-crystallization. The solid-state properties of the complex produced are characterized by means of X-ray crystallography.
Freyer, Andrea; Freyer, Alan; DiMeglio, Christine. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 788.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Enantiomers |
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
X-ray Crystallography
Use of 1H NMR in Assigning Carbohydrate Configuration in the Organic Laboratory  John L. Sorensen, Ross Witherell, and Lois M. Browne
This article describes a laboratory experiment suitable for an advanced undergraduate organic laboratory class that combines synthetic organic chemistry and 1H NMR in the determination of the identity of a simple carbohydrate.
Sorensen, John L.; Witherell, Ross; Browne, Lois M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 785.
Carbohydrates |
Chromatography |
Conformational Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Study of an AB System within the 1H NMR Spectrum of a Maleamic Acid: Application of Chemical Exchange between Acid–Base Conjugates  Pierre Fellman, Alain Gevertz, and Christine Cordier
The 1H NMR spectrum of the system of two coupled protons shows two dissymmetric doublets; the frequency and intensity of the four lines are defined by calculations in the field of quantum chemistry. This article presents an experimental verification of these results employing two vicinal olefinic protons.
Fellman, Pierre; Gevertz, Alain; Cordier, Christine. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 432.
Acids / Bases |
Alkenes |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
A Laboratory Assignment in 1H NMR Spectroscopy: A Comparative Analysis of Calculated and Experimental 1H NMR Chemical Shifts  Susan D. Van Arnum
A computer program is used to determine the proton NMR chemical shifts of endo- and exo-norbornenyl ketones and these values are compared to empirical results.
Van Arnum, Susan D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 429.
Constitutional Isomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry
Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Alkynes via the Alkylation of Sodium Acetylides. An Introduction to Synthetic Design for Organic Chemistry Students  Jennifer N. Shepherd and Jason R. Stenzel
Teams of students design a microscale synthesis of an unsymmetrical alkyne using commercially available terminal alkynes and alkyl halides and characterize the resulting products using TLC, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Depending on the chosen reactants, students observe both substitution and elimination products, or in some cases, no reaction at all.
Shepherd, Jennifer N.; Stenzel, Jason R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 425.
Alkylation |
Alkynes |
Elimination Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Propanol to Propane: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment Using Heterogeneous Catalysts for Two Successive Gas-Phase Reactions  Bruce Mattson, Martin Hulce, Wes Cheng, Jaclyn Greimann, Trisha Hoette, and Peter Menzel
This article describes two organic reactions involving gas-phase heterogeneous catalysis. In the first reaction, 2-propanol is converted to propene using heated alumina beads as the catalyst. In the second, the propene is hydrogenated to propane using a palladium catalyst.
Mattson, Bruce; Hulce, Martin; Cheng, Wes; Greimann, Jaclyn; Hoette, Trisha; Menzel, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 421.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Dynamic NMR of Intramolecular Exchange Processes in EDTA Complexes of Sc3+, Y3+, and La3+  Yong Ba, Steven Han, Lily Ni, Tony Su, and Andres Garcia
Describes an advanced physical chemistry lab experiment on dynamic NMR of intramolecular exchange processes in EDTA complexes of Sc3+, Y3+, and La3+. Three, six-hour laboratory sessions are required to obtain rate constants at different temperatures and activation energies of the nitrogen inversion processes for these EDTA complexes.
Ba, Yong; Han, Steven; Ni, Lily; Su, Tony; Garcia, Andres. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 296.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy
Convenient Microscale Synthesis of a Coumarin Laser Dye Analog  Evangelos Aktoudianakis and Andrew P. Dicks
Describes the Knoevenagel synthesis of 3-acetyl-7-(diethylamino)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, a fluorescent coumarin laser dye analog.
Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 287.
Aromatic Compounds |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
An Azulene-Based Discovery Experiment: Challenging Students To Watch for the "False Assumption"  Charles M. Garner
Abundant inconsistencies between the "expected" structure of a product and its observed color, solubility, polarity, and NMR spectra causes students to be much more observant and critical of their results, particularly with respect to interpretation of NMR spectra.
Garner, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1686.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Chromatography
Measurement of the Isotopic Ratio of 10B/11B in NaBH4 by 1H NMR  Murray Zanger and Guillermo Moyna
A simple and remarkably accurate method for estimating the isotopic ratio between 10B and 11B through the use of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented. The experiment relies on the splitting caused by 10B (I = 3) and 11B (I = 3/2) on the 1H signal of a proton directly bound to boron, a phenomenon readily observed on an aqueous sample of NaBH4. In combination with a brief lecture or prelaboratory presentation, this laboratory can serve to introduce students to magnetic properties as well as theoretical and experimental aspects of NMR spectroscopy as early as the freshman-level chemistry.
Zanger, Murray; Moyna, Guillermo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1390.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
Monoterpene Unknowns Identified Using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, and HETCOR  Lisa T. Alty
This set of NMR experiments can be a capstone experience for a spectroscopy or advanced laboratory course following organic chemistry. Students are given a monoterpene to identify using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and DEPT data. Once the unknown is identified, they can fully interpret and assign each carbon and each proton signal to the structure using COSY and HETCOR along with the one-dimensional NMR data. The rigidity of the ring systems and the chiral centers in all of the compounds present diastereotopic hydrogens and, in some cases, diastereotopic methyl groups.
Alty, Lisa T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1387.
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research
NMR Analysis of Unknowns: An Introduction to 2D NMR Spectroscopy  David E. Alonso and Steven E. Warren
Second-year organic chemistry students analyze and compare the spectral data of three unknown ketones (2-heptanone, 3-heptanone, and 4-heptanone). Students acquire one-dimensional proton and carbon NMR data for each unknown and make signal assignments based on chemical shifts, integration values, and splitting patterns of signals. Difficulties are encountered during interpretation of NMR data for 2- and 3-heptanone. Acquiring and analyzing the two-dimensional NMR spectra of the heptanones resolve these problems.
Alonso, David E.; Warren, Steven E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1385.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance  Neil M. Glagovich and Timothy D. Shine
An undergraduate organic laboratory designed to teach the use of IR and NMR spectra interpretation in the identification of an unknown substance has been developed. This laboratory requires the student to obtain the IR spectrum of an unknown substance and, from the interpretation of that spectrum, determine which of several possible functional groups is present in the molecule. Using this information and either the melting point or boiling point of the unknown, the student is able to determine a list of likely candidates (usually between eight and twelve suspects collated from a supplied table of possible compounds). The student will then draw the structures for all candidate compounds and, from those structures, predict the 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra for each.
Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1382.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solids |
Liquids
Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated 13C Chemical Shifts and pKa Values of para-Substituted Benzoic Acids  Hongyi Wang
An application of ChemDraw NMR Tool was demonstrated by correlation of program-generated 13C NMR chemical shifts and pKa values of para-substituted benzoic acids. Experimental 13C NMR chemical shifts were analyzed in the same way for comparison. The project can be used as an assignment at the end of the first-year organic chemistry course to review topics or explore new techniques: Hammett equation, acidbase equilibrium theory, electronic nature of functional groups, inductive and resonance effects, structurereactivity relationship, NMR spectroscopy, literature search, database search, and ChemDraw software.
Wang, Hongyi. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1340.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Cytochrome c: A Biochemistry Laboratory Course  John B. Vincent and Stephen A. Woski
A unified biochemistry laboratory course has been developed. Rather than using miscellaneous laboratory experiments, the concept behind this course is to focus on a theme: the process of biochemical research. The laboratory deals entirely with one protein, cytochrome c, simulating the experience of a real-world research project. The laboratory is built around team-learning: groups of students isolate cytochrome c, characterize it by a variety of biochemical and bioinorganic methods, attempt to determine its function, and finally alter the protein to produce a modifier of oxidative nucleic acid damage.
Vincent, John B.; Woski, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1211.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Enzymes |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Differentiations of Enantiomers via Their Diastereomeric Association Complexes—There Are Two Ways of Shaking Hands  Albrecht Mannschreck and Roland Kiesswetter
The following practical applications of the formation of two diastereomeric association complexes that may differ with respect to their physical and chemical properties are briefly described: the small- and large-scale preparation of the enantiomers of organic compounds; the analysis of chiral nonracemic mixtures by chromatography and by NMR spectroscopy; and the growing use of drugs in the form of one of the enantiomers. It is proposed to emphasize the similarity of the association-based differentiations.
Mannschreck, Albrecht; Kiesswetter, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1034.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Stereochemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Enantiomers |
Medicinal Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Receptors |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Combined 31P and 1H NMR Experiments in the Structural Elucidation of Polynuclear Thiolate Complexes  Elena Cerrada and Mariano Laguna
The use of diphosphines such as bis(diphenylphosphine)ethane (dppe) or bis(diphenylphosphine)methane (dppm) with dithiolate gold(I) derivatives induces the isolation of dithiolate gold(I) complexes with two different structures and stoichiometries depending on the diphosphine: [Au2(-dppe)(1,2-S2C6H4)] and [Au4(dppm)2(1,2-S2C6H4)2], respectively. Such structures and stoichiometries can be determined by NMR experiments, not only 1H NMR and 31P{1H} NMR, but also 1H{31P}NMR experiments.
Cerrada, Elena; Laguna, Mariano. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 630.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
DielsAlder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including A Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling  Roosevelt Shaw, Ashika Severin, Miguel Balfour, and Columbus Nettles
The MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhancement) technique has been used successfully to prepare two DielsAlder [p2 + p4] cycloaddition adducts, racemic exo, endo-2,3-dibenzoylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene and racemic exo, endo-2,3-dibenzoylbicyclo[2.2.2]octa-5-ene, in high purity and good yields. Microwave synthesis of these two dienes serves as an excellent organic laboratory experiment to demonstrate the rate enhancement advantage of using microwave heating over conventional heating in preparing selected DielsAlder cycloaddition products.
Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 625.
Addition Reactions |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkenes
The Rearrangement of an Allylic Dithiocyanate: An Experiment for Organic or Physical Chemistry Using NMR Analysis  David W. Emerson, Spencer M. Steinberg, and Richard L. Titus
An experiment suitable for students who have taken either organic chemistry or organic and physical chemistry is described. The simple preparation and molecular rearrangement of thiocyanic acid, 2-methylene-1,3-propanediyl ester to 1-propene, (3-isothiocyanato-2-isothiocyanatomethyl) occurs readily in the temperature range of 6590C and progress of the reaction is readily tracked by proton NMR. The buildup and decline of the intermediate, thiocyanic acid, 2-(isothiocyanatomethyl)-2-propenyl ester, is readily seen.
Emerson, David W.; Steinberg, Spencer M.; Titus, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 466.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Research, Teaching, and Professional Development at a Comprehensive University  David B. Ball, Mike Wood, Craig Lindsley, Paul Mollard, D. J. Buzard, Randy Vivian, Max Mahoney, and Benjamin R. Taft
The interrelationships between teaching, research, and professional development at comprehensive undergraduate institutions continue to be a focus of the National Science Foundation, university administrators, and chemistry faculty. The role that research plays in chemistry undergraduates' education is becoming more important as requirements for tenure and promotion for faculty at these institutions become more stringent. The Council on Undergraduate Research has defined undergraduate research as "an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline".
Ball, David B.; Wood, Mike; Lindsley, Craig; Mollard, Paul; Buzard, D. J.; Vivian, Randy; Mahoney, Max; Taft, Benjamin R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1796.
Administrative Issues |
Professional Development |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research
Two-Step Semi-Microscale Preparation of a Cinnamate Ester Sunscreen Analog  Ryan G. Stabile and Andrew P. Dicks
The two-step synthesis and characterization of a sunscreen analog (ethyl trans-4-methoxycinnamate) is presented. This experiment is tailored towards students with a sound theoretical understanding of organic chemistry and related laboratory techniques. Appropriate synthetic discussion topics include carbonyl condensation reactions, carboxylic acid esterifications, and the so-called "cesium effect" in organic synthesis.
Stabile, Ryan G.; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1488.
Conductivity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry
Nature's Sedative: Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Valtrate from Centranthus ruber  Andrea M. Doyle, Joe Reilly, Niamh Murphy, Pierce V. Kavanagh, John E. O'Brien, Martin S. Walsh, and John J. Walsh
The importance of natural plant products and how they can be used as learning aids at senior undergraduate level are highlighted in this experiment. The experiment involves the isolation and structural determination of valtrate, a valepotriate occurring naturally in the roots and aerial parts of the medicinal plant, Valeriana officinalis, and its related species, Centranthus ruber. We present various isolation and structural elucidation methodologies, including thin layer and flash column chromatography, and detailed spectroscopic analysis by NMR, IR, and mass spectra.
Doyle, Andrea M.; Reilly, Joe; Murphy, Niamh; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; OBrien, John E.; Walsh, Martin S., Walsh, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1486.
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy
Wittig Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl trans-Cinnamate  Traci J. Speed, Jean P. McIntyre, and Dasan M. Thamattoor
The synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stabilized phosphorus ylid (carbethoxymethylene)triphenylphosphorane, serves as a useful experiment to illustrate the Wittig reaction in the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. The reaction is highly stereoselective and affords the product in excellent yield and purity. The stereochemistry of the product is established by examining the coupling constants displayed by the olefinic protons in the 1H NMR spectrum. The experiment highlights several important aspects of organic chemistry such as synthesis, stereochemistry, instrumental analysis, and molecular modeling.
Speed, Traci J.; McIntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1355.
Chromatography |
Computational Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry
A Solid–State NMR Experiment: Analysis of Local Structural Environments in Phosphate Glasses  Stanley E. Anderson, David Saiki, Hellmut Eckert, and Karin Meise-Gresch
The solid state 31P NMR wideline spectra of a series of student-prepared sodium phosphate glasses can easily be measured using a standard multinuclear FTNMR spectrometer.
Anderson, Stanley E.; Saiki, David; Eckert, Hellmut; Meise-Gresch, Karin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1034.
Solid State Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging  Charles G. Fry
A review is given of the crucial work performed by Paul C. Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield that lead to their being awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2003.
Fry, Charles G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 922.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry
The Complexation of the Na+ by 18–Crown–6 Studied via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  Steven J. Peters and Cheryl D. Stevenson
A novel NMR experiment used in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described.
Peters, Steven J.; Stevenson, Cheryl D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 715.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium
Use of Optical Rotation and NMR Signal Counting To Identify Common Aldoses  John Almy
An inexpensive, small scale experiment for second semester organic students describes the unambiguous identification of a common aldose "unknown" from five possible candidates: glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, or xylose
Almy, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 708.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Chemical Equilibrium in Supramolecular Systems as Studied by NMR Spectrometry  Gustavo González-Gaitano and Gloria Tardajos
This experiment exposes undergraduate students to the field of supramolecular chemistry by means of an inclusion equilibrium between cyclic oligosaccharides (- or ?-cyclodextrin) and surfactants (sodium octanoate or sodium decanoate) as studied by 1H NMR. This technique is especially suitable in molecules that neither absorb nor emit optical radiation when excited.
González-Gaitano, Gustavo; Tardajos, Gloria. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 270.
Equilibrium |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy
A Simplified Approach to Product Operator Formalism  Christopher E. Spiese
In this article, a new method of approaching the product operator formalism is presented, using the vector model as the basis, instead of the spin-density function from which the formalism is derived. By using this method, the undergraduate with a basic understanding of the vector model is able to learn the product operator formalism and apply it to pulse sequences.
Spiese, Christopher E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 134.
NMR Spectroscopy
Conformational Analysis in an Advanced Integrated Laboratory Course  David B. Ball and Randy M. Miller
An interdisciplinary project is described that requires students to synthesize conformationally mobile and static a-bromocyclohexanones and to assess, qualitatively and quantitatively, and validate, using several spectroscopic tools, solvent effects on the conformational preferences of these molecules. The project exposes students to a variety of experimental and theoretical techniques that include organic synthesis, product purification, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, GCMS, molecular modeling, and IR and UV spectroscopy.
Ball, David B.; Miller, Randy M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 121.
Equilibrium |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Microscale Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Flutamide, an Antiandrogen Prostate Cancer Drug  Ryan G. Stabile and Andrew P. Dicks
The synthesis involves N-acylation of a trisubstituted aromatic compound, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitroaniline. The procedure is easily adapted to generate structural analogues of flutamide. A significant feature is the curricular flexibility afforded by this experiment.
Stabile, Ryan G.; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1439.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
The Base-Induced Reaction of Salicylaldehyde with 1-Bromobutane in Acetone: Two Related Examples of Chemical Problem Solving  Holly D. Bendorf and Chriss E. McDonald
Each student performs his or her own experimental work, running one of the two reactions, and acquiring the proton and carbon NMR, IR, and mass spectra. The students work in groups to propose structures for the products and mechanisms for their formation. The students are also asked to address why the reactions take different courses.
Bendorf, Holly D.; McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1185.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Phenols |
IR Spectroscopy
Studying a Ligand Substitution Reaction with Variable Temperature 1H NMR Spectroscopy: An Experiment for Undergraduate Inoganic Chemistry Students  Jeffery A. Orvis, Basant Dimetry, Jeffery Winge, and T. Corbin Mullis
Synthesis and characterization of two Co(III) complexes, and a mechanistic study of the aquation of one of the complexes using variable-temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy.
Orvis, Jeffery A.; Dimetry, Basant; Winge, Jeffery; Mullis, T. Corbin. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 803.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Reactions
Bromination and Debromination of Cholesterol: An Inquiry-Based Lab Involving Structure Elucidation, Reaction Mechanism, and 1H NMR  Andrew Grant and Devin Latimer
An experiment designed to examine a reaction mechanism and its stereochemical consequences; students propose the product and a mechanism for its production before conducting the experiment and analyzing the product with 1H NMR.
Grant, Andrew S.; Latimer, Devin. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 670.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Steroids
A General Chemistry Laboratory Theme: Spectroscopic Analysis of Aspirin  Houston Byrd and Stephen E. O’Donnell
A laboratory sequence designed for introductory chemistry students that focusses on the synthesis and spectroscopic (IR and NMR) and chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of aspirin as an alternative to traditional general chemistry laboratories.
Byrd, Houston; O’Donnell, Stephen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 174.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Using NMR to Determine Protein Structure in Solution  Silvia Cavagnero
Determination of the structure of proteins in aqueous solution using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Cavagnero, Silvia. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 125.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides
Organic Structures from Spectra, 3rd Edition (by L. D. Field, S. Sternhell, and J. R. Kalman)   Alan M. Rosan
277 spectroscopy problems for a junior-level, applied spectroscopy course.
Rosan, Alan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1323.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
1H NMR Measurement of the Trans–Cis Photoisomerization of Cinnamic Acid Derivatives  Basil Danylec and Magdy N. Iskander
Procedure that illustrates trans-cis photoisomerization.
Danylec, Basil; Iskander, Magdy N. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1000.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Structure and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. An Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Rosa M. Dávila and R. K. Widener
Lab exercise to introduce first-year students to the concepts of functional groups and isomerism, as well as using NMR spectroscopy to determine simple molecular structures.
Dávila, Rosa M.; Widener, R. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 997.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Hydrogen Bonding Using NMR: A New Look at the 2,4-Pentanedione Keto–Enol Tautomer Experiment  Alexander Grushow and Theresa Julia Zielinski
Modifications to the classic keto-enol experiment that take advantage of improvements in NMR instrumentation.
Grushow, Alexander; Zielinski, Theresa Julia. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 707.
Equilibrium |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Hydrogen Bonding
NMR and Chemistry: An Introduction to Modern NMR Spectrocopy, 4th Edition (by J. W. Akitt and B. E. Mann)  Manish Mehta
Text intended to impart a working knowledge of NMR spectroscopy to a student of chemistry.
Mehta, Manish. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 677.
NMR Spectroscopy
Keto-Enol Tautomers in a Carbonyl Phosphonium Salt  David E. Berry and G. W. Patenaude
Observations of keto-enol tautomers of a phosphonium ion.
Berry, David E.; Patenaude, G. W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 498.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Resonance Theory
Experiments with Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) Compounds: 59Co NMR and the Resolution of Enantiomeric [Co(en)3] 3+ Ion and Analysis by Formation of Diastereomeric Ion Pairs  L. L. Borer, J. G. Russell, R. E. Settlage, and R. G. Bryant
Using a cobalt(III) compound to illustrate techniques in coordination chemistry.
Borer, L. L.; Russell, J. G.; Settlage, R. E.; Bryant, R. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 494.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Coordination Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
129Xe NMR of Zeolite NaY in the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Tanja Pietra
Using NMR spectroscopy to introduce students to the porous structure of zeolites.
Pietraß, Tanja. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 492.
Gases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An Organic Puzzle Using Meldrum's Acid  R. David Crouch and Michael S. Holden
Organic synthesis in which the product is not easily predicted, requiring identification through an analysis of the data and consideration of possible reactions of the reagents and solvent.
Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 477.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Esters |
Synthesis
The Cis-Trans Equilibrium of N-Acetyl-L-Proline. An Experiment for the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory  Kathryn R. Williams, Bhavin Adhyaru, Igor German, and Eric Alvarez
A cis-trans equilibrium system that demonstrates the effect of solvent polarity and aqueous pH.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin; German, Igor; Alvarez, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 372.
Amino Acids |
Biophysical Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Equilibrium |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
An ABMX Spin System Study: From Experimental to Calculated Spectra  Christine Cordier, René Thouvenot, Hani Amouri, and Michel Gruselle
Comparing empirical and calculated spectra.
Cordier, Christine; Thouvenot, René ; Amouri, Hani; Gruselle, Michel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 234.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Theoretical Chemistry
Microscale Synthesis of a Diphenylisoxazoline by a 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition  William B. Martin, Laura J. Kateley, Dawn C. Wiser, and Catherine A. Brummond
Synthesis in which two possible pathways are possible; students use NMR to identify the product and molecular modeling to explain the preferred pathway.
Martin, William B.; Kateley, Laura J.; Wiser, Dawn C.; Brummond, Catherine A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 225.
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Heterocycles
Use of 15N Label in Organic Synthesis and Spectroscopy. Part I: Preparation of 15N-Labeled tert-Butylamine  Erach R. Talaty, Christopher A. Boese, Sanni M. Adewale, Mohammed S. Ismail, Frank A. Provenzano, and Melissa J. Utz
Procedure for preparation of 15N-labeled tert-butylamine through the Ritter reaction followed by hydrolysis.
Talaty, Erach R.; Boese, Christopher A.; Adewale, Sanni M.; Ismail, Mohammed S.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Utz, Melissa J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 221.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Synthesis of Quinolines and Their Characterization by 2-D NMR Spectroscopy  Pamela J. Seaton, R. Thomas Williamson, Abhijit Mitra, and Ali Assarpour
Synthesis of quinolines and their characterization by 2-D NMR spectroscopy.
Seaton, Pamela J.; Williamson, R. Thomas; Mitra, Abhijit; Assarpour, Ali. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 106.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles
Effect of Anisotropy on the Chemical Shift of Vinyl Protons in trans- and cis-1,2-Dibenzoylethylenes. A Small-Group or Recitation Activity  Roosevelt Shaw, David Roane, and Sean Nedd
Procedure to help students explain chemical shift differences for vinyl protons in alkene diastereomers.
Shaw, Roosevelt; Roane, David; Nedd, Sean. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 67.
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chemistry in Cages: Dinucleating Azacryptand Hosts and Their Cation and Anion Cryptates  Michael Arthurs, Vickie McKee, Jane Nelson, and Raewyn M. Town
Synthesis and 1H NMR characterization of free imino and amino cryptands, followed by their use in encapsulation of Cu(I) and Cu(II) cations in dinuclear mode and physiochemical characterization of the products.
Arthurs, Michael; McKee, Vickie; Nelson, Jane; Town, Raewyn M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1269.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Molecular Recognition |
NMR Spectroscopy |
X-ray Crystallography
Discovery-Oriented Approach To Organic Synthesis: Tandem Aldol Condensation-Michael Addition Reactions. Identifying Diastereotopic Hydrogens in an Achiral Molecule by NMR Spectroscopy  Nanette Wachter-Jurcsak and Kendra Reddin
Procedure illustrating aldol condensation and Michael addition reactions.
Wachter-Jurcsak, Nanette; Reddin, Kendra. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1264.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
NMR of a Phospholipid: Modules for Advanced Laboratory Courses  Holly C. Gaede and Ruth E. Stark
A battery of NMR experiments designed to investigate egg phosphatidylcholine (lecithin).
Gaede, Holly C.; Stark, Ruth E. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1248.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Lipids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solid State Chemistry
Investigation of Secondary Metabolites in Plants. A General Protocol for Undergraduate Research in Natural Products  Jonathan Cannon, Du Li, Steven G. Wood, Noel L. Owen, Alexandra Gromova, and Vladislav Lutsky
Typical experimental procedures to extract and isolate individual chemical constituents from a plant, suggestions for some simple procedures to test for selected bioactivity, and explain how the molecular structures of natural products may be determined using spectroscopic techniques.
Cannon, Jonathan; Li, Du; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.; Gromova, Alexandra; Lutsky, Vladislav. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1234.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Separation Science
Simple Preparation and NMR Analysis of mer and fac Isomers of Tris(1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedionato)cobalt(III). An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Ashley W. Jensen and Brian A. O'Brien
A one-step procedure for the preparation of tris(1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedionato)cobalt(III) from hydrated cobalt(II) carbonate and 10% hydrogen peroxide, in which tert-butyl alcohol is used as a component of the solvent.
Jensen, Ashley W.; O'Brien, Brian A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 954.
Chromatography |
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Isolation and Spectral Analysis of Naturally Occurring Thiarubrine A  Juan Reyes, Melita Morton, Kelsey Downum, and Kevin E. O'Shea
An experiment in which students isolate (from ragweed) and characterize thiarubrine A; thiarubrines are an important class of compounds which have recently received attention because of their unusual reactivity, unique biological activity, and potential medicinal applications.
Reyes, Juan; Morton, Melita; Downum, Kelsey; O'Shea, Kevin E. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 781.
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry
A Short History of the Chemical Shift  Samuel G. Levine
The term chemical shift is shown to have originated in the mistaken assumption that nuclei of a given element will all undergo resonance at the same frequency regardless of their environment.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 133.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy
Ab Initio Calculations of NMR Parameters for Diatomic Molecules. An Exercise in Computational Chemistry  David L. Bryce and Roderick E. Wasylishen
An undergraduate-graduate-level exercise in the computational quantum chemistry of NMR parameters for a series of fluorine-containing diatomic molecules for which experimental spin-rotation data are available. Calculations carried out at the RHF/6-311++G(2d,2p) level demonstrate the relationship between Ramsey's paramagnetic term, sP, and C.
Bryce, David L.; Wasylishen, Roderick E. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 124.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Teaching 1H NMR Spectrometry Using Computer Modeling  Yoichi Habata and Sadatoshi Akabori
Use of computer modeling for teaching 1H NMR spectroscopy is described. The direction of the induced magnetic field is clarified by displaying the electrostatic potential on the molecule, when the magnetic anisotropy effect is taught.
Habata, Yoichi; Akabori, Sadatoshi. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 121.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling
Synthesis of [RuCl2(dppb)(PPh3)] and Identification of the cis- and trans-[RuCl2(dppb)(phen)] Geometrical Isomers via 31P{1H} NMR Spectroscopy. An Undergraduate Experiment for Inorganic Chemistry  Salete L. Queiroz, Márcio P. de Araujo, Alzir A. Batista, Kenneth S. MacFarlane, and Brian R. James
Demonstrates the use of 31P{1H} NMR to distinguish between cis and trans geometric isomers of coordination compounds in solution, describes the concept of spin-spin coupling for P atoms by assigning signals to equivalent and nonequivalent P atoms, and offers an introduction to synthesis and in situ NMR work requiring semirigorous, inert-atmosphere conditions.
Queiroz, Salete L.; de Araujo, Márcio P.; Batista, Alzir A.; MacFarlane, Kenneth S.; James, Brian R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 87.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Transition Elements |
Diastereomers |
NMR Spectroscopy
Linkage Isomerization by Two-Dimensional 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. An Undergraduate Inorganic Laboratory Experiment  Rathindra N. Bose, Ahmad M. Al-Ajlouni, and Erika Volckova
The experiment provides background information on 2-D NMR spectroscopy including the significance of pulse calibration, relaxation, evolution and mixing times, data processing, and finally, hands-on training for performing 2-D NMR experiments.
Bose, Rathindra N.; Al-Ajlouni, Ahmad M.; Volckova, Erika. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 83.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 4. Epoxidation of p-Methoxy-trans-b-methylstyrene: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for Sophomore Organic Laboratories  Rebecca S. Centko and Ram S. Mohan
Illustrates epoxidation of alkenes as well as the reactivity of epoxides toward acids. The experiment involves reaction of p-methoxy-trans-beta-methylstyrene (trans-anethole) with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (MCPBA), in both the absence and presence of a buffer, followed by product identification using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and IR spectroscopy
Centko, Rebecca S.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 77.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Epoxides |
Alkenes
Synthesis of a Partially Protected Azidodeoxy Sugar. A Project Suitable for the Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Peter Norris, Scott Freeze, and Christopher J. Gabriel
Two-step synthesis of a partially protected azidodeoxy sugar demonstrating several important concepts (alcohol activation, steric hindrance, nucleophilic substitution), offering products amenable to analysis by high field NMR, and involving techniques such as monitoring reactions by TLC, workup of reaction mixtures, and isolation by flash chromatography.
Norris, Peter; Freeze, Scott; Gabriel, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 75.
Carbohydrates |
Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of a Cyclic Acetal: A Dehydration Performed in Aqueous Solution  David M. Collard, Adolphus G. Jones, and Robert M. Kriegel
Treatment of pentaerythritol with benzaldehyde in aqueous acid to produce the monoacetal, 5,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-phenyl-1,3-dioxane. The reaction has a number of interesting features: the isolated product is the monobenzal not the dibenzal, and the reaction, a dehydration, is performed in water.
Collard, David M.; Jones, Adolphus G.; Kriegel, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 70.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Understanding Chemical Shifts in pi-Systems: 13C, 15N, 17O NMR  H. Dahn
Explanation of chemical shifts in pi-systems.
Dahn, H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 905.
NMR Spectroscopy |
MO Theory
Proton NMR Studies of the Conformation of an Octapeptide. An NMR Exercise for Biophysical Chemistry  Anne Rehart and J. T. Gerig
An exercise intended to introduce students to the proton NMR experiments used to define the molecular conformation of biological molecules in solution. The exercise demonstrates the utility of COSY, TOCSY, and NOESY types of experiments, while underscoring the limitations of these experiments in the determination of structure.
Rehart, Anne; Gerig, J. T. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 892.
Biophysical Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides
The Discovery Approach to NMR: Development of Chemical-Shift Additivity Tables and Application to Product Identification  Eric Bosch
A discovery-based approach to the preparation and application of chemical-shift additivity tables is presented to give students insight into the development of NMR spectral prediction software.
Bosch, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 890.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging  Joel A. Olson, Karen J. Nordell, Marla A. Chesnik, Clark R. Landis, and Arthur B. Ellis, M. S. Rzchowski, S. Michael Condren, and George C. Lisensky
Several demonstrations of resonance phenomena associated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are described. Complete instructions for the construction of the demonstrations, which can be used on an overhead projector, are included.
Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Landis, Clark R.; Lisensky, George C.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 882.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy
Multicomponent Reactions: A Convenient Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment  Ricardo Bossio, Stefano Marcaccini, Carlos F. Marcos, and Roberto Pepino
Two experiments for the synthesis of a -lactam and a succinimide, based on a 4-component Ugi condensation. The experimental procedures for both syntheses are identical except for the choice of the starting amine, whose electron richness is controlled by the presence or absence of an electron-withdrawing group.
Bossio, Ricardo; Marcaccini, Stefano; Marcos, Carlos F.; Pepino, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 382.
Synthesis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Isolating trans-Anethole from Anise Seeds and Elucidating Its Structure: A Project Utilizing One- and Two-Dimensional NMR Spectrometry  Joseph W. LeFevre
This three-week project involves isolating and purifying a natural product and determining its structure. trans-Anethole is isolated from anise seeds by steam distillation and liquid-liquid extraction. The crude product is analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and purified by flash chromatography.
LeFevre, Joseph W. . J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 361.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Catalytic Asymmetric Epoxidation Using a Fructose-Derived Catalyst  Andy Burke, Patrick Dillon, Kyle Martin, and T. W. Hanks
Modern epoxidation methods are able to create two adjacent stereocenters with very high enantioselectivity. Opening of the epoxides with nucleophiles permits rapid entry into complex organic systems, making this powerful synthetic methodology one of the fundamental reactions in organic synthesis.
Burke, Andy; Dillon, Patrick; Martin, Kyle; Hanks, Timothy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 271.
Catalysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers
Understanding NMR Multiplet Structure with WinDNMR  N. Bampos and A. Vidal-Ferran
Employing interactive, user-friendly software packages (such as WinDNMR) on a conventional personal computer to investigate the effect of changing the constituent coupling constants on the appearance of a multiplet. As an example, a multiplet representing a proton coupled to three neighboring environments (four-spin system) is treated in detail.
Bampos, N.; Vidal-Ferran, A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 130.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Examination of Electron Transfer Self-Exchange Rates Using NMR Line-Broadening Techniques: An Advanced Physical Inorganic Laboratory Experiment  Donald L. Jameson and Rajan Anand
This article describes the determination of the decamethylferrocene(Fc*)/decamethylferrocenium (Fc*+) electron transfer self-exchange rate by NMR line-broadening techniques. NMR spectra of Fc*, Fc*+, and several mixtures yield frequency and peak-width data that are used to solve for the self-exchange rate constant.
Jameson, Donald L.; Anand, Rajan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 88.
Kinetics |
Organometallics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy
Preparation of nido-Carborane Derivatives: Variation of the 31P{1H} NMR Pattern by Changing the Coordinating Ligand. A Microscale Laboratory   O. Crespo, M. Concepción Gimeno, and Antonio Laguna
An easy synthesis that illustrates how a slight change of the ligands in a complex can determinate the pattern in the NMR spectrum. We have chosen two o-carborane derivatives because of the growing interest in the applications of such complexes.
Crespo, Olga; Gimeno, M. Concepcin; Laguna, Antonio. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 86.
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Student-Determined Values for the Calculation of Chemical Shifts of Methylene Protons in Different Chemical Environments  Gary W. Breton
A laboratory experiment in which students themselves determine values for the calculation of chemical shifts of methylene protons in a variety of chemical environments. Although these values come from single determinations of representative compounds from several different classes, the alpha-parameter values obtained are in close agreement with literature data.
Breton, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 81.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy
Keep Going with Cyclooctatetraene!  Addison Ault
This paper shows how some simple properties of cyclooctatetraene can indicate important ideas about the structure of cyclooctatetraene.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 55.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
Organic Chemistry Course Development in a Forensic Science Program: Use of FT-NMR  Ronald Callahan, Lawrence Kobilinsky, and Robert Rothchild
The acquisition of a modern, multinuclear, medium-field (7 tesla) FT-NMR, with partial support from NSF-ILI, has made possible the introduction of a major special project for second-semester organic chemistry laboratory, within a forensic science program.
Callahan, Ronald; Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Rothchild, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1332.
Forensic Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry
A Simple and Convenient Method for Generation and NMR Observation of Stable Carbanions  Hamid S. Kasmai
A simple and convenient method for the generation and NMR study of stable carbanions is described. The data and sample spectra illustrate that reliable and good quality NMR spectra of stable carbanions may be obtained. The experiments described provide a good opportunity for students to apply the basic principles of 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry and the interesting topic of the exchange phenomenon in NMR.
Kasmai, Hamid S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Reactive Intermediates |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Employing NMR Spectroscopy To Evaluate Transmission of Electronic Effects in 4-Substituted Chalcones  Nanette Wachter-Jurcsak and Hossein Zamani
Described is an organic synthesis experiment that demonstrates the electronic transmission by substituents. The effect of substitution at the para-position of the styryl ring of 1,3-diphenyl-2-propenones (chalcones) by typical electron-donating or -accepting groups can be observed by proton and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy.
Wachter-Jurcsak, Nanette; Zamani, Hossein. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 653.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
A Complete Introduction to Modern NMR Spectroscopy (by Rodger S. Macomber)  Raymond L. Ward
Text for a beginning student or research person starting or thinking about using NMR as a method to obtain structural information about organic molecules.
Ward, Raymond L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 473.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Microscale Synthesis and 1H NMR Analysis of Tetraphenylporphyrins  RaeAnne E. Falvo, Larry M. Mink, and Diane F. Marsh
The synthesis of tetraphenylporphyrin, H2[TPP], and para-substituted tetraphenylporphyrins, H2[(p-X)4TPP], where X = CN, CH3, and OCH3, is easily accomplished using microscale glassware. The compounds are synthesized from inexpensive starting reagents.
Falvo, RaeAnne E.; Mink, Larry M.; Marsh, Diane F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 237.
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Micropreparation of [RuH2{P(C6H5)3}4]: A Transition Metal Hydride Compound  Donald E. Linn Jr.
A microscale laboratory is described to prepare the compounds [RuH2L(P{C6H5)3}3] (L = P(C6H5)3, H2, CO, and N2 in a pedagogical introduction to inert atmosphere inorganic syntheses.
Linn, Donald E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 70.
Organometallics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements
Conformation Interchange in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  Keith C. Brown, Randy L. Tyson, and John A. Weil
Intramolecular dynamics are readily discernible by use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. A relatively simple laboratory tutorial experiment demonstrating such motion, an internal interchange of conformations, in a readily available nitroaromatic hydrazine (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine in liquid solution) is presented and discussed.
Brown, Keith C.; Tyson, Randy L.; Weil, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1632.
Magnetic Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Reduction of 2,6-Dimethylcyclohexanone with Sodium Borohydride Revisited: A Correction on the Structural Assignments of the Products, and the Discovery of a Solvent Effect  Bruce A. Hathaway
Changing the solvent from methanol to ethanol produced a different ratio of cis-cis to trans-trans than was reported in the original work. Therefore, a short series of solvents was investigated to determine if there was a solvent effect. The results indicate that as the size and bulk of the solvent increase, the proportion of the trans alcohol product increases.
Hathaway, Bruce A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1623.
Stereochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
A 19F NMR Study of Enzyme Activity  Keith E. Peterman, Kevin Lentz, and Jeffery Duncan
This basic enzyme activity laboratory experiment demonstrates how 19F NMR can be used in biochemical studies and presents the advantages of 19F NMR over 1H NMR for studies of this nature. This is a viable laboratory experiment for junior/senior-level courses in instrumental analytical chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, or spectroscopy.
Peterman, Keith E.; Lentz, Kevin; Duncan, Jeffery. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1283.
Instrumental Methods |
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Experiment for Undergraduate and Graduate Students  Matthew A. Doscotch, John F. Evans, and Eric J. Munson
We have designed a FT-NMR spectrometer composed of self-contained components (i.e. mixers, switches, amplifiers) that has been successfully incorporated into laboratory experiments for both undergraduate and graduate students. The undergraduate instrumental analysis experiment allows students to examine the spectrometer on a component by component basis.
Doscotch, Matthew A.; Evans, John F.; Munson, Eric J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1008.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
A Strategy for Incorporating 13C NMR into the Organic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Courses  Perry C. Reeves and Chris P. Chaney
The use of spectroscopy in establishing the structures of molecules is an important component of the first course in Organic Chemistry. However, the point in the course at which these techniques are best introduced remains uncertain. We suggest that carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy should be introduced at an early stage of the lecture course, specifically while studying the alkanes, and used extensively for structure determination throughout the course.
Reeves, Perry C.; Chaney, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1006.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Magnetic Nonequivalence in Proton NMR (the author replies)  Welch, Christopher J.
The parameters that determine the complexity of a proton NMR spectrum.
Welch, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 829.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Magnetic Nonequivalence in Proton NMR  Ault, Addison
The parameters that determine the complexity of a proton NMR spectrum.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 803.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Spectra Interpretation of Organic Compounds (by Erno Pretsch and Jean Thomas Clerc)  Phyllis A. Leber
An interactive spectroscopy course via the iterative solution of 15 spectral problems. An ancillary CD-ROM containing the SpecTeach version of the SpecTool software is provided with the text.
Leber, Phyllis A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 695.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Guided Inquiry Approach to NMR Spectroscopy  Laura E. Parmentier, George C. Lisensky, and Brock Spencer
The authors present a novel way to introduce NMR spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum as part of a week-long aspirin project in their one-semester introductory course. Purity is determined by titration and IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Laura E. Parmentier, George C. Lisensky, and Brock Spencer. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 470.
Learning Theories |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)-(-)-gamma-Methyl-gamma-butyrolactone from Racemic Methyl gamma-hydroxypentanoate Using Porcine Pancreatic Lipase: A Microscale Advanced Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory Project  Moses Lee
An advanced lab project utilizing a chiral auxiliary to induce asymmetry into organic reactions. The project includes many chemical and spectroscopic techniques - extraction, filtration, rotavaporation, infrared, proton-NMR, polarity, and circular dichroism.
Lee, Moses. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 217.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry
Educational NMR Software  Peter Lundberg
A description of a compilation of computer programs (EduNMRSoft) suitable for teaching NMR at an introductory to advanced level is presented. Each program is categorized and described by function, hardware requirements, availability, author, and references in the list.
Lundberg, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1489.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
False AA'X Spin-Spin Coupling Systems in 13C NMR: Examples Involving Phosphorus and a 20-Year-Old Mystery in Off-Resonance Decoupling  William H. Hersh
An example involving 13C off-resonance decoupling in the NMR spectra of maleic anhydride was shown to depend on decoupler power: at low power, the system is ABX, while at the high power normally used it is AA'X. The chemical inequivalence of the "AA'" pair in this 1H213C system is not due to an isotopic shift, but rather to the off-resonance irradiation itself, and the results explain a 20-year-old discrepancy in published spectra.
Hersh, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1485.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics
A General Approach for Calculating Proton Chemical Shifts for Methyl, Methylene and Methine Protons When There Are One or More Substituents within Three Carbons  Philip S. Beauchamp and Rodolfo Marquez
A general method is provided to calculate chemical shifts for protons attached to sp3 carbons (methyl, methylene and methine). the approach is similar to rules developed by J. N. Shoolery in 1959. His rules are extended to allow calculations of proton chemical shifts in molecules that have multiple substituents within three carbons of the calculated proton chemical shifts.
Beauchamp, Philip S.; Marquez, Rodolfo. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1483.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Useful Examples for Discussion of Proton-NMR Spectroscopy: N-Substituted alpha-Aminobenzenebutanenitriles-Anisotropy of Diastereotopic Methylene Protons  John Almy, R. Martinez Alverez, A. Herrera Fernandez, and A. Sanchez Vazquez
The degree of anisochrony is not always a function of the distance from a chiral center and will vary with the solvent used in the analysis. We report here a summary of the study we made to explore this phenomenon.
Almy, John; Martinez Alverez, R.; Fernandez, A. Herrera; Vazquez, A. Sanchez. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1479.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Nitrogen Spin-Spin Coupling in NMR Spectroscopy: Simple Examples Based on Isotope-Labeled Glycines  Leif Grehn, Ulf Ragnarsson, and Christopher J. Welch
The phenomena of carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen spin-spin coupling, not visible in 13C and 15N NMR spectra recorded at natural abundance, are demonstrated using routine conditions primarily in a series of 13C/15N-labeled t-butoxycarbonyl- glycine isotopomers. Doublet and doublet of doublet signals, originating from one and two bond homo- and/or heteronuclear spin-spin coupling, are thereby obtained. Furthermore, from all these NMR spectra the presence of each isotopomer in two con formations is clearly demonstrated.
Grehn, Leif; Ragnarsson, Ulf; Welch, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1477.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes
Photosensitized Peroxidation of Lipids: An Experiment Using 1H-NMR  Marion W. Smith, Renee Brown, Steven Smullin, and Jon Eager
The photoperoxidation of methyl linoleate, using 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl porphyrin as photosensitizer, was monitored by 60 MHz 1H-NMR. Samples were irradiated for 10-24 hours in front of a 15 W fluorescent light, and NMR indicated peroxidation products were formed. The absorption of oxygen from the air was measured by attaching the sample tube to a gas burette. When vitamin E was added to the mixture the extent of peroxidation was reduced, showing the protective effect of the antioxidant.
Smith, Marion W.; Brown, Renee; Smullin, Steven; Eager, Jon. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1471.
Instrumental Methods |
Photochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Lipids
Investigation of Atropisomerism in ortho-Substituted Tetraphenylporphyrins: An Experimental Module Involving Synthesis, Chromatography, and NMR Spectroscopy  Ruth Freitag Beeston, Shannon E. Stitzel , and Mitchell A. Rhea
It is shown that as the number of cofacial methyl neighbors for a particular methyl group decreases, the chemical shift of the methyl protons increases. This experiment leads to a greater understanding of chromatography and NMR spectroscopy in addition to introducing students to porphyrin synthesis and the concepts of atropisomerism and statistical distributions.
Beeston, Ruth Freitag; Stitzel, Shannon E.; Rhea, Mitchell A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1468.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry
The Diels-Alder Reaction of 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol with Maleic Anhydride: A Novel Preparation for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Course  Keith F. McDaniel and R. Matthew Weekly
The reaction of 2,4-hexadien-1-ol with maleic anhydride provides an excellent exercise for undergraduate laboratory courses. In addition to the expected Diels-Alder reaction, which takes place readily in refluxing toluene, subsequent intramolecular cleavage of the resulting bicyclic anhydride by the pendant hydroxy group generates a lactone. Thus, two important organic reactions can be carried out in a single laboratory session.
McDaniel, Keith F.; Weekley, R. Matthew. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1465.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols
A Thermostable Microbial Enzyme for Fast Preparative Organic Chemistry: The Preparation of (R)-(+)-1-Phenylethanol from (+)-1-Phenylethyl Pentanoate and n-Butanol  Jacques Drouin, Jeanne Costante, Eryk Guibe-Jampel
Enantiopure (+)-1-phenylethanol is conveniently obtained from (+)-1-phenylethyl pentanoate in a fast enzymatic transesterification reaction using n-butanol and an immobilized thermostable enzyme. The enantiomeric excess and the absolute configuration of the alcohol are ascertained.
Drouin, Jacques; Costante, Jeanne; Guibe-Jampel, Eryk. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 992.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry
Kinetics of Internal Rotation of N,N-Dimethylacetamide: A Spin-Saturation Transfer Experiment  Russell L. Jarek , Robert J. Flesher, Seung Koo Shin
A new experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is presented for the application of dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR) spectroscopy to the study of internal rotation kinetics in N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMA).
Jarek , Russell L. ; Flesher, Robert J. ; Shin, Seung Koo. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 978.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy
Synthesis of Tetrahydro-2-(2-propynyloxy)-2H-pyran: Illustrating Markownikov Addition, Protecting Groups, and Advance 1H-NMR Phenomena  Ronald G. Brisbois, William G. Batterman, and Scott R. Kragerud
Synthesis of the target compound illustrates Markownikov Addition and formation of a THP-ether protecting group, produces an acetal functional group, and models a recently developed resin used in combinatorial chemistry. Purification of the target compound via flash column chromatography exposes students to a central technique of modern synthetic methodology.
Brisbois, Ronald G. ; Batterman, William G. ; Kragerud, Scott R. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 834.
Catalysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Combinatorial Chemistry
endo- and exo-Stereochemistry in the Diels-Alder Reaction: Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control  James H. Cooley and Richard Vaughan Williams
In these experiments, which were used in the problem-solving mode, the stereoselectivity of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of N-phenylmaleimide to furan is deduced by the characteristic splitting patterns in the proton-NMR spectra. The relationship of coupling constants to dihedral angle, as described by the Karplus equation, is illustrated.
Cooley, James H.; Williams, Richard Vaughan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 582.
Kinetics |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The Synthesis, Characterization, and Lewis Acidity of SnI2 and SnI4  Richard W. Schaeffer, Benny Chan, Michael Molinaro, Susan Morissey, Claude H. Yoder, Carolyn S. Yoder, and Stephanie Shenk
In this project the student has the opportunity to learn about: a) the direct synthesis of compounds from the elements, b) stoichiometry and limiting reagent, c) isolation by recrystallization, d) use of inert atmosphere, e) identification by melting point, gravimetric analysis, powder x-ray diffraction, and NMR spectroscopy, and f) at least one method for determination of relative Lewis acidity.
Schaeffer, Richard W. ; Chan, Benny ; Molinaro, Michael; Morissey, Susan ; Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.; Shenk, Stephanie. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 575.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Stoichiometry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy
An Experiment to Demonstrate Magnetic Nonequivalence in Proton NMR  Christopher J. Welch
The bicyclic compound, 3a,6a-diethoxycarbonyl-2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole, prepared by a literature procedure is used to demonstrate magnetic nonequivalence for methylene protons in the proton NMR experiment.
Welch, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 247.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
NMR Titration Used to Observe Specific Proton Dissociation in Polyprotic Tripeptides: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Lab  J. L. Yarger, R. A. Nieman, A. L. Bieber
Despite the establishment of NMR in biochemical research, this technique has not been incorporated into many biochemistry laboratory courses. The paucity of advanced biochemistry laboratory experiments motivated us to create this experiment, which illustrates basic 1- and 2-D NMR techniques used to study specific proton dissociation in peptides.
Yarger, J. L.; Nieman, R. A.; Bieber, A. L. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 243.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
An Analogy To Assist Understanding of Splitting Patterns in NMR Spectra  Dianne A. Thoben and Thomas H. Lowry
An analogy to the "point of view shot" as used in the movies is used to help students understand and interpret splitting patterns in proton NMR spectra.
Thoben, Dianne A.; Lowry, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 68.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Complete Assignment of Proton Chemical Shifts in Terpenes: An Experiment Combining 2D NMR Spectroscopy with Molecular Modeling  Nancy S. Mills
COSY spectroscopy of a set of four bicyclic[3.1.1]terpenes is described. The unexpected coupling which is shown clearly in the COSY spectrum can be illuminated by molecular modeling of the terpenes. Thus students learn both to use COSY spectroscopy to assign peaks in the 1H spectrum of a terpene but also to use the results from molecular mechanics calculations to understand the results from unusual geometries.
Mills, Nancy S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1190.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
Four Programs for Windows: Abstract of Volume 4D, Number 2: SPECPNMR: A Proton NMR Slide Show  Adrian J. Blackman
SPECPNMR is one of a set of programs developed as an aid for teaching introductory spectroscopy to organic chemistry students. It includes a brief introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy followed by a detailed look at proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The program generates electronic slides for display in a lecture theatre on a large screen using a video projector or LCD panel and overhead projector. The slides are designed to help a lecturer teach spectroscopy.
Blackman, Adrian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1078.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Four Programs for Windows: Abstract of Volume 4D, Number 2: HIPPO-CNMRS: Highly Improved Prediction Program of Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Shifts  Helmut Honig
HIPPO-CNMRS is a "highly improved" version of a 13C-NMR program previously available from the author. It can predict the 13C NMR spectrum for most substituted alicyclic saturated and aromatic ring systems (cyclopropane to cyclooctane; benzene, naphthalene, anthracene; cis- and trans-decaline; some heterocyclic systems like furan, tetrahydofuran, pyridine, piperidine and quinoline; most substituted acyclic compounds with up to six carbons in the parent structure; and simple olefins and alkynes.
Honig, Helmut. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1078.
NMR Spectroscopy
The Quantitative Analysis of an Analgesic Tablet: An NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Course   Thomas A. Schmedake, Lawrence E. Welch
Initial work utilizes a known compound (acenapthene) to assess the type of NMR experiment necessary to achieve a proportional response from all of the carbons in the compound. Once the experiments with the known compound have illuminated the merits of the differing strategies for obtaining a proportional carbon response, a quantitative assessment of an unknown analgesic tablet is undertaken. The amounts of the two major components of the tablet, acetaminophen and aspirin, are determined following addition of an internal standard to the mixture.
Schmedake, Thomas A.; Welch, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1045.
Quantitative Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Synthesis of n2-Dihydrogen Complex, trans-{Fe(n2H2)(H)[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)-ethane]2}[BF4]: An Experiment for an Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Involving Synthesis and NMR Properties of an n2-H2 Complex  Maria T. Bautista, Lynikka D. Bynum, Cynthia K. Schauer
An experiment for an advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory involving synthesis and NMR properties of the molecular hydrogen complex [Fe(?2-H2)(H)(dppe)2](BF4). (dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane) is described. The precursor to the dihydorgen complex, Fe(H)2(dppe)2, is prepared by refluxing anhydrous FeCl2 with excess dppe and NaBH4 under an inert atmosphere.
Bautista, Maria T.; Bynum, Lynikka D.; Schauer, Cynthia K. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 988.
Organometallics |
Catalysis |
NMR Spectroscopy
A New Photochemistry Experiment, A Simple 2+2 Photocycloaddition that Poses an Interesting NMR Problem   John T. Magner, Matthias Selke, Arlene A. Russell, Orville L. Chapman
The cycloaddition of -nitrostyrene to 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene provides an extremely clean example of 2 + 2 cycloaddition. This laboratory exercise combines theory, technique, spectroscopy, and data interpretation.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 854.
Photochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
NMR Spectroscopy Using a Chiral Lanthanide Shift Reagent to Assess the Optical Purity of 1-Phenylethylamine  Tito Viswanathan and Alan Toland
An experiment to exemplify the use of NMR in determining the resolution of a racemic mixture separation.
Viswanathan, Tito; Toland, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 945.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Explorations in Organometallic Synthesis: Characterization and Structure Determinations of Binuclear Phosphine-Bridged Complexes of Platinum Using Multinuclear NMR and IR Spectroscopy.   Kimberly A. Brittingham, Serge Schreiner, and Thomas N. Gallaher
A multistep synthesis that allows students to obtain NMR spectra for 31P and 195Pt; includes sample data and analysis.
Brittingham, Kimberley A.; Schreiner, Serge; Gallagher, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 941.
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds
1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry of 1-Phenyl-1,2-Dihaloethanes  Joseph R. Gandler, Kevin W. Kittredge, and Oliver L. Saunders
Procedure to introduce organic chemistry students to spectroscopic methods for characterizing structure and calculating 13C NMR chemical shifts.
Gandler, Joseph R.; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Saunders, Oliver L. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 855.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Structure Determination Using 19-F NMR: A Simple Fluorination Experiment of Cinnamyl Alcohol  Daniel J. deMendonca, Cheryl A. Digits, Erin W. Navin, Tanya C. Sander, and Gerald B. Hammond
Use of FT-NMR to analyze the product of the replacement of an allylic hydroxyl group with fluorine.
deMendonca, Daniel J.; Digits, Cheryl A.; Navin, Erin W.; Sander, Tanya C.; Hammond, Gerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 736.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Proton NMR Basics  Carolyn S. Judd, Joel D. Morrisett, Mohan V. Chari, and Jeffrey L. Browning
Multimedia tutorial to introduce and develop understanding of NMR spectroscopy concepts and techniques.
Judd, C. Sweeney; Morrisett, J. D.; Chari, M. V. ; Browning, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 706.
NMR Spectroscopy
Hammett Correlations of Amide Proton Chemical Shifts: An Organic or Spectroscopy Experiment  Setliff, F. L.; Soman, N. G.; Toland, A. D.
Experiment designed to illustrate the quantitative relationship between an easily measurable property (amide proton NMR chemical shift) and the electronic effect of several different substituents on substituted benzanilides; includes sample data and analysis.
Setliff, F. L.; Soman, N. G.; Toland, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 362.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amides
Hydrogen-Bonding Equilibrium in Phenol Analyzed by NMR Spectroscopy  Lessinger, Leslie
Experimental procedure for determining the equilibrium constant for the hydrogen-bonding equilibrium of phenol in carbon tetrachloride solution; data and analysis included.
Lessinger, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 85.
Equilibrium |
Noncovalent Interactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols
Platinum(II) Chemistry Monitored by NMR Spectroscopy  Berry, David E.
Preparation and characterization of three platinum coordination compounds.
Berry, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 899.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds
Synthesis and Conformational Analysis of 1,2:3,4-Di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-galactopyranose: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Molecular Modeling Experiment  Midland, M. Mark; Beck, John J.; Peters, John L.; Rennels, Roger A.; Asirwatham, Gitanjali
Determining that the twist-boat conformation is favored in 1,2:3,4-Di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-galactopyranose.
Midland, M. Mark; Beck, John J.; Peters, John L.; Rennels, Roger A.; Asirwatham, Gitanjali J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 897.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
Carbohydrates |
Synthesis |
Conformational Analysis
A Modern View of the Past: Verifying the Work of Pioneering Organic Chemists through Examination of Remnants of Their Sample Archives  Howarth, Joshua
NMR analysis of a small collection of organic samples obtained from Heidelberg University and representing the research efforts of Theodore Curtius.
Howarth, Joshua J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 726.
NMR Spectroscopy
Computer-Generated Edited DEPT NMR Spectra  Gurst, Jerome E.
159. Bits and pieces, 51. Modification to simplify an earlier approach to sophomore organic chemistry.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 234.
NMR Spectroscopy
Nitration of phenols: A two-phase system  Zeegers, Petrus J.
Nitration of phenols is often overlooked in undergraduate organic chemistry courses.
Zeegers, Petrus J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1036.
Phenols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
Whether organic qual will wither?   Zieger, Herman E.
Author argues the important pedagogic purposes of organic qualitative analysis.
Zieger, Herman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 230.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
A Simplified Version of a Classic Proton Exchange NMR Experiment  Pagnotta, Marco; Carter, James; Armsby, Carrie
A simple upgrade of a classic alcohol exchange experiment that demonstrates changes in chemical shift, spin-spin coupling, and integration for use as an introduction to using NMR.
Pagnotta, Marco; Carter, James; Armsby, Carrie J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 162.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Meso and dl diastereomers: Synthesis and 1H NMR study of the 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-diols: An advanced undergraduate project in physical organic chemistry  Depres, Jean-Pierre; Morat, Claude
An integrated laboratory project that gives students an experimental approach to diastereomerism in molecular structure and to first- and second-order NMR spectroscopic analysis.
Depres, Jean-Pierre; Morat, Claude J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A232.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.  Lee, Moses.
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.
Lee, Moses. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A172.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Structure, chirality, and FT-NMR in sophomore organic chemistry  Chapman, Orville L.; Russell, Arlene A.
An experimental approach (NMR) to teaching organic structure.
Chapman, Orville L.; Russell, Arlene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 779.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Elimination Reactions
Identification of methylcyclohexanones by NMR  Gurst, Jerome E.
Distinguishing between three isomeric methylcyclohexanones using NMR.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 774.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers
Using spin-spin decoupling NMR for structure elucidation in the extraction of cinnamaldehyde.  Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J.
Interesting extraction in which students learn to interpret spectra and see the power of second-order spectral analysis in NMR work.
Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 511.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An introduction to NMR titration for studying rapid reversible complexation  Macomber, Roger S.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrospcopy is one of the most useful techniques available to chemists for the investigation of dynamic molecular processes.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 375.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Utilizing the Evans method with a superconducting NMR spectrometer in the undergraduate laboratory  Schubert, Ernest M.
Using the Evans method has become a standard experiment in many physical chemistry laboratory texts. However, these texts make no mention of the inherent difference between conventional and high field NMR instruments.
Schubert, Ernest M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 62.
NMR Spectroscopy
Proton and carbon-13 NMR simulation of mixtures  Bell, Harold M.
133. Bits and pieces, 47. The program for simulation of spectra of mixtures can accommodate five components, each containing as many as six coupled nuclei.
Bell, Harold M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 44.
NMR Spectroscopy
The microscopic protonation constants of N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine: An NMR titration experiment  Onasch, O. F.; Schwartz, H. M.; Aikens, D. A.; Bunce, S. C.
An NMR titration experiment examining microscopic protonation.
Onasch, O. F.; Schwartz, H. M.; Aikens, D. A.; Bunce, S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 791.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Amides |
pH |
Equilibrium
Hydroboration-oxidation of (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene to isopinocampheol: A microscale experiment that displays regio- and stereochemistry using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations  Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes is an important route to alcohols and therefore receives considerable treatment in standard organic textbooks. These authors present their findings of an example (an alkene that undergoes the hydroboration oxidation process) that displays both regiochemistry and stereochemistry.
Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 693.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols
Undergraduate organic and polymer lab experiments that exemplify structure determination by NMR  Viswanathan, T.; Watson, F.; Yang, D. T. C.
Where in the curriculum is the best place to teach experimental NMR methods that are so essential to chemists and chemistry? These authors are of the opinion that NMR must be given more than a cursory introduction involving a single experiment, and present a series of experiments.
Viswanathan, T.; Watson, F.; Yang, D. T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 685.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy
Determination of rates of proton exchange of thiamine hydrochloride by 1H NMR spectroscopy: A bioorganic experiment for the undergraduate laboratory  Murray, Christopher J.; Duffin, Kay L.
A lab demonstrating the reactivity of carbon acids.
Murray, Christopher J.; Duffin, Kay L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 683.
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
Synthesis and characterization of dinuclear tungsten carbonyl anions  McNeese, Timothy J.
The purpose of the synthesis and characterization of the compounds discussed here is to introduce upper level inorganic chemistry students to certain fundamental principles and laboratory techniques of organometallic chemistry.
McNeese, Timothy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 678.
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid  Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J.
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid.
Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 436.
Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Diastereomers
Proton-carbon chemical shift correlations  Macomber, Roger S.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlation between H-1 chemical shifts and C-13 chemical shifts in some detail.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 284.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A novel NMR tube design for external referencing  Rana, Fazale R.; Blazyk, Jack; Sultany, Catherine M.
A simple approach to external referencing that is inexpensive, easily removable from the NMR tube, and reusable.
Rana, Fazale R.; Blazyk, Jack; Sultany, Catherine M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 269.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy
Determining the conformation of a ligand bound to an enzyme: Application of NMR spectroscopy in drug design  Craik, David J.; Higgins, Kerry A.; Kneen, Malea M.; Munro, Sharon L. A.; Waterman, Katherine J.
NMR spectroscopy is used to study small molecule-large molecule interactions.
Craik, David J.; Higgins, Kerry A.; Kneen, Malea M.; Munro, Sharon L. A.; Waterman, Katherine J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 258.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes
A convenient synthesis of 3,4-pentadien-1-ol from 3-butyn-1-ol: Spectral analysis and unusual durability of the allene moiety  Price, William A.; Patten, Timothy E.
Description of a convenient synthesis of 3,4-pentadien-1-ol from 3-butyn-1-ol: Spectral analysis and unusual durability of the allene moiety.
Price, William A.; Patten, Timothy E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 256.
Synthesis |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 2-chloroacrylonitrile: A simple AB spin system  Hoskins, L. C.
Using 2-chloroacrylonitrile to demonstrate the quantum mechanical basis of NMR spectra interpretation.
Hoskins, L. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 83.
Quantum Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Fourier transform in chemistry--NMR: Part 4. Two-dimensional methods   Williams, Kathryn R.; King, Roy W.
This article will conclude the series with an examination of some of the most important types of two-dimensional spectra.
Williams, Kathryn R.; King, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A125.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy
The Fourier transform in chemistry--NMR: A glossary of NMR terms   King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.
This glossary is a resource for anyone new to the literature of the Fourier transform.
King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A100.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy
The Fourier transform in chemistry--NMR: Part 3. Multiple-pulse experiments   Williams, Kathryn R.; King, Roy W.
This paper will provide the average chemist with an introduction to the information that can be gained from Fourier transform in chemistry.
Williams, Kathryn R.; King, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A93.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy
Spectral Interpretation (Pavia, Donald L.)  Young, Sidney H.
This software is designed to assist in teaching the use of proton - NMR and Infared Spectra for structural determination of organic molecules.
Young, Sidney H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A82.
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Synthesis of 5-nitrofurfural diacetate and 5-nitrofurfural semicarbazone: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Li, Xiaorong; Liu, Qianguang; Chang, James C.
Demonstrates how to nitrate an aromatic compound having an aldehyde group that can be oxidized by nitrating agents.
Li, Xiaorong; Liu, Qianguang; Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 986.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Ethers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy
Polymers in the physical chemistry laboratory: An integrated experimental program  Hardgrove, George L.; Tarr, Donald L.; Miessler, Gary L.
Procedure for polymerizing mixtures of styrene and methylmethacrylate.
Hardgrove, George L.; Tarr, Donald L.; Miessler, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 979.
Polymerization |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Proton NMR simulator  Black, Kersey A.
Software designed to help students learn how to correlate proton NMR spectral data with molecular structure.
Black, Kersey A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 589.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The addition of hydrogen bromide to unsymmetrical alkenes: Introductory experiments in NMR spectroscopy and mechanistic chemistry  Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Ellis, Robert
As an introduction to NMR the authors center their work around the addition of hydrogen bromide to unsymmetrical alkenes and use the coupling patterns in the proton NMR spectra to establish whether the addition product is consistent with the Markovnikov rule.
Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Ellis, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 518.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Magnetic nonequivalence in 1,2-disubstituted ethanes: An organic experiment in NMR spectroscopy  Colborn, Robert E.
The main purpose of this experiment is to help students consider the various couplings available in organic molecules and determine whether specific groups will have identical chemical shifts or not.
Colborn, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 438.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Preparation, analysis, and reactivity of bis[N,N-bis(trimethylsilyl)amino]tin(II): An advanced undergraduate laboratory project in organometallic synthesis  Schaeffer, Charles D., Jr.; Myers, Lori K.; Coley, Suzanne M.; Otter, Julie C.; Yoder, Claude H.
As a part of the authors continuing series on advanced undergraduate laboratory projects involving synthesis and multimuclear NMR spectroscopy, they offer a project that explores the preparation and analysis of tin(II) amine.
Schaeffer, Charles D., Jr.; Myers, Lori K.; Coley, Suzanne M.; Otter, Julie C.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 347.
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The Fourier transform in chemistry. Part 2. Nuclear magnetic resonance: The single pulse experiment  King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.
The use of FT-NMR to obtain a single-pulse proton or carbon spectrum.
King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A243.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy
The Fourier transform in chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear magnetic resonance: Introduction  King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.
Provides a fundamental understanding and appreciation of FT-NMR.
King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A213.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Organic spectroscopy  Hiatt, Richard
Six programs that generate and display infrared, proton NMR, carbon-13 NMR, and mass spectra.
Hiatt, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 927.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
An NMR study of enzyme activity  Peterman, Keith E.; Labenski, James P.; Hamberger, Terry L.; Pinkowski, Charlene; Raub, Michael
NMR spectra are analyzed following the asymmetric hydrolysis of N-acetyl-L-methionine with acylase.
Peterman, Keith E.; Labenski, James P.; Hamberger, Terry L.; Pinkowski, Charlene; Raub, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 875.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Enzymes
1H-NMR spectral analysis: Phenoxathiin-1-oxide: A classic first-order, four spin system  Klein, Robert F. X.; Svoronos, Paris D. N.; Hammer, Charles F.
Phenoxathiin-1-oxide is an ideal molecule for an introduction to four-spin data analysis.
Klein, Robert F. X.; Svoronos, Paris D. N.; Hammer, Charles F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 870.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles
Chiral lanthanide NMR shift reagents and equilibria with substrate enantiomers: Rationale for the observed signals  Rothchild, Robert
An analogy illustrating the two chemical equations that describe the simple view of the dynamic equilibria in which two enantiomers of substrate rapidly and reversibly bind to an optically pure lanthanide shift reagent to form two different bound complexes.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 814.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Transition Elements |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
Spin-lattice relaxation times in 1H NMR spectroscopy  Wink, Donald J.
The measurement of spin-lattice relaxation times, mechanism of nuclear magnetic relaxation, and applications of relaxation times.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 810.
NMR Spectroscopy
Student comparisons of analytical chemical methods in undergraduate chemistry courses  Harrison, Aline M.; Peterman, Keith E.
Four experiments in which different analytical methods are used to make the same measurement for purposes of comparison.
Harrison, Aline M.; Peterman, Keith E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 772.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Enzymes |
Quantitative Analysis
The reduction of a nitrile (CN) group by sodium borohydride: The preparation of phosphineamine and phosphine-imidate complexes of tungsten carbonyl  Faust, Kristen E.; Storhoff, Bruce N.
Experiments designed to reinforce and extend student experiences with recording and interpreting IR and NMR spectra and assigning probable structures for organometallic structures based on that data.
Faust, Kristen E.; Storhoff, Bruce N. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 688.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Organometallics |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Teaching magnetic resonance imaging using computer animation  Browne, David S.; Ellsworth, Presley E., IV; Hornak, Joseph P.
105. Bits and pieces, 41. A computer-based teaching package for the principles of NMR imaging written in Turbo Pascal.
Browne, David S.; Ellsworth, Presley E., IV; Hornak, Joseph P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 647.
NMR Spectroscopy
Polymer tacticity in simulated NMR spectra  Ober, Christopher K.
105. Bits and pieces, 41. A subroutine that has been used to simulate the 1H-NMR spectra of poly(methylacrylate) with different tacticities.
Ober, Christopher K. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 645.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
A tandem Michael-aldol reaction sequence: An undergraduate research organic experiment  Coutlangus, Marilyin L.; Filla, Sandra A.; Rowland, Alex T.
A short reaction sequence that allows students to determine by spectroscopic methods the constitutions of and stereochemistry in the reaction products.
Coutlangus, Marilyin L.; Filla, Sandra A.; Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 520.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
The isolation of sesquiterpenes from Artemisia annua  Roth, Ronald J.; Acton, Nancy.
Artemisia annua is a Eurasian import in North America and has been found growing in diverse parts of the United States. Procedures have been reported for the isolation of arteannuin B and of arteannuic acid.
Roth, Ronald J.; Acton, Nancy. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 349.
Plant Chemistry |
Natural Products |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
The proton NMR spectrum of ascorbic acid: A relevant example of deceptively simple second-order behavior  Reid, R. Stephen
To dispel student misconceptions, the use of the proton NMR spectrum of asorbic acid in D20 as an example has proven very effective.
Reid, R. Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 344.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Carboxylic Acids |
Vitamins
Fourier analysis and structure determination. Part II. Pulse NMR and NMR imaging  Chesick, John P.
In this paper the authors seek to extend and amplify two previous articles dealing with pulse NMR with extension in more detail to the application of NMR imaging.
Chesick, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 283.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in biochemistry   Cheatham, Steve
This review will discuss the nature of the NMR experiment, the techniques used, the types of structural and dynamic information one obtains, and how one can view and refine structures using computer graphics techniques in combination with NMR data.
Cheatham, Steve J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 111.
NMR Spectroscopy
Trifluoroacetylation of unknown alcohols: An integrated microscale organic experiment using spectroscopic methods  Piers, Kenneth; Hsung, Richard
The authors have found that trifluoroacetylation of unknown alcohols is a fast, clean, easily performed microscale experiment that integrates a number of aspects of laboratory work, viz. synthesis, isolation, characterization, spectroscopic measurement, and interpretation, and unknown identification.
Piers, Kenneth; Hsung, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 90.
Alcohols |
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
A simple computer program for the calculation of 13C-NMR chemical shifts  Olivieri, Alejandro C.; Kaufman, Teodoro S.
99. Bits and pieces, 39. The authors have written a computer program in which the characteristics of any given carbon atom are introduced as a succession of letter and numbers in a predetermined order.
Olivieri, Alejandro C.; Kaufman, Teodoro S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 53.
NMR Spectroscopy
Aromatic ring currents illustrated-NMR spectra of tin(IV) porphyrin complexes: An advanced undergraduate experiment  Arnold, Dennis P.
The aromatic ring currents illustrated-NMR spectra of tin(IV) porphyrin complexes prove to be a great model for instruction.
Arnold, Dennis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1111.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Heterocycles |
Coordination Compounds |
Organometallics
An integrated laboratory project in NMR spectroscopy  Hudson, Reggie L.; Pendley, Bradford D.
This paper describes an advanced NMR project that can be done with a 60-MHz continous-wave proton spectrometer.
Hudson, Reggie L.; Pendley, Bradford D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1107.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
An integrated first-year laboratory experiment involving synthesis, spectroscopy, and chromatography of metal acetylacetonates  Glidewell, Christopher; McKenchnic, James S.
This article presents a comprehensive experiment, involving synthesis, thin-layer chromatography, interpretation of two types of NMR and mass spectra.
Glidewell, Christopher; McKenchnic, James S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1015.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
An improved experiment to illustrate the effect of electronegativity on chemical shift   Boggess, Robert K.
The author suggests some modifications to classic experiments that illustrate the effect of electronegativity on chemical shift.
Boggess, Robert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 819.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
NMR Spectroscopy
Cation hydration constants by proton NMR: A physical chemistry experiment   Smith, Robert L.; Rodgers, Michael L.; Olesen, Bjorn
There is a dearth of experiments that involve NMR studies of electrolyte solutions, prompting the authors to contribute this article.
Smith, Robert L.; Rodgers, Michael L.; Olesen, Bjorn J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 817.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy   McQuarrie, Donald A.
In this article, the author will demonstrate the interpretation of NMR spectra and use them to determine molecular structures.
McQuarrie, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 426.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties
The correlation of multinuclear spectral data for selectively fluorinated organic compounds  Everett, T. Stephen
This article presents a general discussion of fluorine-19 NMR spectroscopy, spectral data for two series of selectively fluorinated compounds, and the detailed correlation of multinuclear data for one specific compound.
Everett, T. Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 422.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes
Analysis of xylene mixtures using binuclear lanthanide(III) silver(I) NMR shift reagents  Wenzel, Thomas J.; Russett, Mark D.
An alternative to IR spectroscopy for the quantification of xylene mixtures employing NMR spectroscopy and involving the use of binuclear lanthanide(III)-silver(I) NMR shift reagents.
Wenzel, Thomas J.; Russett, Mark D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 979.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
A very brief, rapid, simple, and unified method for estimating carbon-13 NMR chemical shifts: The BS method  Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C.
The "BS" method is so brief and simple that students can memorize and use it to interpret 13C NMR spectra with ease.
Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 915.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Instrumental Methods
A straightforward way to determine relative intensities of spin-spin splitting lines of equivalent nuclei in NMR spectra  Orcutt, Ronald H.
Because of the increasingly widespread availability of FT-NMR spectrometers with multinuclear capability, it is desirable to have a simple rule for predicting relative intensities to be expected in spin systems other than {-1/2, +1/2}.
Orcutt, Ronald H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 763.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
Characterizing a tetrahedral intermediate in an acyl transfer reaction: An undergraduate 1H NMR demonstration  Rzepa, Henry S.; Lobo, Ana M.; Marques, M. Matilde; Prabhakar, Sundaresan
A simple experiment involving the detection by 1H NMR spectroscopy of a stable intermediate formed by nucleophilic attack and its characterization as a chiral species.
Rzepa, Henry S.; Lobo, Ana M.; Marques, M. Matilde; Prabhakar, Sundaresan J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 725.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Lewis acid catalysis of a Diels-Alder cycloaddition: An undergraduate organic experiment  Marchand, Alan P.; Vidyasagar, V.; Buckner, Mark B.; Holman, Philmore O.
Experiment based upon the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of methylcyclopentadiene to p-benzoquinone with characterization of the products through proton NMR.
Marchand, Alan P.; Vidyasagar, V.; Buckner, Mark B.; Holman, Philmore O. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 642.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
"Solvent" effects in 1H NMR spectroscopy: A simple undergraduate experiment  Cavaleiro, Jose A. S.
A series of simple NMR experiments to familiarize students with "solvent effects" on 1H NMR chemical shifts.
Cavaleiro, Jose A. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 549.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents
The use of Pascal-like triangles in describing first order NMR coupling patterns  Lash, Timothy D.; Lash, Susan Shirkey
Example of a Pascal triangle that describes the first-order patterns observed for the resonance of a nucleus that is coupled to n equivalent nuclei with spin I = 1 (e.g. deuterium).
Lash, Timothy D.; Lash, Susan Shirkey J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 315.
NMR Spectroscopy
Synthesis and proton NMR spectrum of p-xylylenebis(2-(2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol))  Lisensky, George C.; Friedman, Robert M.
An experiment that is suitable for a second semester organic class where both the isolation of the product and the NMR spectral interpretation are straightforward.
Lisensky, George C.; Friedman, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 644.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
NMR simulation program for the ZX81 computer  Starkey, Ronald
73. Bits and pieces, 29. A report of an NMR simulation program the author created.
Starkey, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 625.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A qualitative quantitative 1H-NMR experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory  Phillips, John S.; Leary, James J.
The authors present a novel experiment in that it requires the student to combine both quantitative and qualitative information from H-NMR spectra.
Phillips, John S.; Leary, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 545.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Extending a mathematical methodology for the spectrophotometric evaluation of equilibrium constants: Applications to solution calorimetry and to NMR  Collins, Michael J.
Extending a mathematical methodology for the spectrophotometric evaluation of equilibrium constants: Applications to solution calorimetry and to NMR.
Collins, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 457.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thermal Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Chemometrics
Empirical NMR chemical shift correlation's for methine protons  Friedrich, Edwin C.; Runkle, Katherine Gates
Empirical NMR chemical shift correlation's for methine protons.
Friedrich, Edwin C.; Runkle, Katherine Gates J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 127.
NMR Spectroscopy
NMR Chemistry: An Introduction to the Fourier Transform-Multinuclear Era (Akitt, J. W.)  Acrivos, Juana V.
A thorough review of the theory of spin-spin coupling necessary to interpret 1H and 13C NMR spectra.
Acrivos, Juana V. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A134.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
The esterification of trifluoroacetic acid: An NMR kinetics experiment  Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C.
Procedure to determine pseudo-first-order rate constants for the esterification of trifluoroacetic acid.
Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 911.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Instrumental Methods
Acetylation of an unknown alcohol: An introductory 1H-NMR experiment  Branz, Stephen E.
Students use NMR analysis to identify the acetylation product of an unknown alcohol.
Branz, Stephen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 899.
Alcohols |
NMR Spectroscopy
Deuterium exchange kinetics by NMR: An undergraduate physical chemistry experiment  Roper, G. C.
A physical chemistry laboratory that deals with chemical kinetics, catalysis, NMR coupling constants, isotope shifts, and the use of NMR for quantitative measurements.
Roper, G. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 889.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Isotopes |
Catalysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Proton NMR spectra: Deceptively simple and deceptively complex examples  Gurst, J. E.; Dellinger, C. M.; Jacobus, John
NMR experiments that result in deceptively simple and deceptively complex spectra.
Gurst, J. E.; Dellinger, C. M.; Jacobus, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 871.
NMR Spectroscopy
Synthesis and multinuclear lanthanide shift reagent NMR analysis of 1- and 2-adamantanol: An advanced undergraduate laboratory project  Schaeffer, Charles D., Jr.; Yoder, Claude. H.
Preparation of two alcohols, their characterization, and the use of a shift reagent for structure determination and peak assignment.
Schaeffer, Charles D., Jr.; Yoder, Claude. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 537.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols
An analogy of the NMR effect  Lee, Albert W. M.
Analogy using the difference between standing upright and on one's head in the earth's gravitational field.
Lee, Albert W. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 319.
NMR Spectroscopy
Structural isomer identification via NMR: A nuclear magnetic resonance experiment for organic, analytical, or physical chemistry  Szafran, Zvi
This experiment examines the ability of NMR to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts.
Szafran, Zvi J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 260.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
A short set of 13C-NMR correlation tables  Brown, D. W.
The object of these tables is to enable a student to calculate rapidly approximate d values for 13C nuclei in as wide a variety of compounds as possible.
Brown, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 209.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
Sensitivity enhancement by signal averaging in pulsed/Fourier transform NMR spectroscopy  Rabenstein, Dallas L.
The behavior of the nuclear magnetization during the repetitive application of the pulse-data acquisition sequence is considered from the classical point of view, from which some relations between signal intensity and experimental parameters can be obtained.
Rabenstein, Dallas L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 909.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Instrumental Methods
Empirical NMR chemical shift correlations for methyl and methylene protons  Friedrich, Edwin C.; Runkle, Katherine Gates
Provides Shoolery-type chemical shift substituent constants and observed and calculated chemical shifts of XCH2Y protons for selected methylene derivatives.
Friedrich, Edwin C.; Runkle, Katherine Gates J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 830.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nuclear magnetic resonance interpretation with graphics  Draper, R. D.; Penfold, B. R.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. A suite of programs to help students interpret NMR spectra.
Draper, R. D.; Penfold, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 789.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Interpreting infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of simple organic compounds for the beginner  Ingham, A. M.; Henson, R. C.
Flowcharts to help the beginner become proficient in interpreting infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of simple organic compounds.
Ingham, A. M.; Henson, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 704.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An analysis of a commercial furniture refinisher: a comprehensive introductory NMR experiment  Markow, Peter G.; Cramer, John A.
The author presents a laboratory experiment which introduces undergraduate students to the techniques of NMR through the analysis of a commercial furniture refinisher.
Markow, Peter G.; Cramer, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1078.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry
The NMR time scale  Bryant, Robert G.
The author states that it is common jargon to talk about slow or fast process in relation to the "NMR time scale" as if such a time scale had been carefully defined and agreed on by all. He examines each of the physical or chemical process associated with NMR spectra and correlates them to their time-scale ranges.
Bryant, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 933.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
NMR spectra of cobaloximes: unexpected nonequivalence of methyl groups  Clifford, Ben; Cullen, William R.
Students are often puzzled by the doublet for the four ligand methyl groups. This author helps explain this phenomenon.
Clifford, Ben; Cullen, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 554.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds
Prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton NMR spectra   Macomber, Roger S.
Undergraduates generally become equipped only to handle only first-order coupling patterns. This means that they have a hard time understanding a real spectra. By scaffolding students through the synthesis level of Bloom's taxonomy, students can work toward a more expert level of understanding.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 525.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Learning Theories
A study of stereospecificity: the Beckmann rearrangement  Stradling, S. S.; Hornick, D.; Lee, J.; Riley, J.
These authors have developed a Beckmann rearrangement which explores the concept of stereospecificity, and concurrently exposes the student to synthetic, spectrometric, and chromatographic processes for an advanced laboratory.
Stradling, S. S.; Hornick, D.; Lee, J.; Riley, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 502.
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkenes |
Phenols
Computer simulation of NMR spectra   Ellison, A.
40. A new PASCAL program has been written to provide for the interactive analysis and display of the high resolution NMR spectra.
Ellison, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 425.
NMR Spectroscopy
NMR titration of carnosine as a model biochemistry experiment  Burt, C. Tyler
Modification of an earlier, proton NMR, biochemical experiment.
Burt, C. Tyler J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1056.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Synthesis, characterization, and use of a cobalt(II) complex as an NMR shift reagent: An integrated laboratory experiment  Goff, Harold M.; Hines, Jody; Griesel, Jean; Mossman, Craig
Co(AcAc)2(H2O)2 is prepared, isoltated, characterized, and employed as an NMR shift reagent to simplify the spectrum of a complex alcohol.
Goff, Harold M.; Hines, Jody; Griesel, Jean; Mossman, Craig J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 422.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis
Hydrogen bonding and proton transfer  Joesten, Melvin D.
A review of the types of hydrogen bonds and discussion of the application of spectroscopic and diffraction methods to studies of moderate and strong hydrogen bonds.
Joesten, Melvin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 362.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Nuclear magnetic resonance coupling constants and electronic structure in molecules  Venanzi, Thomas J.
Describes the theory of NMR spin-spin coupling constants, the nature of the three types of coupling mechanisms contributing to the overall spin-spin coupling constant, and the results for two different types of coupling constants in molecules (carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen coupling).
Venanzi, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 144.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An undergraduate laboratory program project involving photocyclizations in independent syntheses of novel chrysenes and phenanthrenes  Letcher, R. M.
This experiment attempts to fulfill such objectives as providing meaningful and viable preparative reactions, providing an opportunity for independent laboratory work within a project framework and under conditions of nearly equal opportunity and experience.
Letcher, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1020.
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Spectroscopy in organic chemistry at the introductory level  Gurst, Jerome E.
This author has found that the use of a limited series of compounds allow students to focus attention on the spectra rather than the structural formulas of many compounds. This allows students to grasp the significance of the spectral measurements in a minimal time period.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 511.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
The synthesis and proton NMR spectrum of methyl 7-cycloheptatrienylacetate: An advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment  Jurch, G. R., Jr.; Johnston, M. D., Jr.; Perry, J. W.; Detty, T. E.
Gives students an opportunity to apply several synthetic and purification techniques and then provides several opportunities for the application of NMR spectroscopy, including experiments in spin coupling and shift reagents.
Jurch, G. R., Jr.; Johnston, M. D., Jr.; Perry, J. W.; Detty, T. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 743.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy
Esters of some phosphorus acids: A laboratory experiment  Glidewell, Christopher; Pogorzelec, Peter J.
Introduces students two reactions in organophosphorus chemistry, the Azbuzov and Atherton-Todd reactions, and involves the use of infrared and 1H and 31P NMR spectra for the identification of the products.
Glidewell, Christopher; Pogorzelec, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 740.
Esters |
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Co(acac)3 Synthesis, reactions, and spectra: An experiment for general chemistry  Shalhoub, George M.
Students demonstrate that nitration of Co(acac)3 has occurred through proton NMR and IR spectroscopy.
Shalhoub, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 525.
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Use of a lanthanide NMR shift reagent in the analysis of the trans-retinol spectrum  Heldman, Debra A.; Gilde, Hans-Georg
This experiment demonstrates the value of the shift reagent Eu(fod)3 in the NMR spectral analysis of trans-retinol.
Heldman, Debra A.; Gilde, Hans-Georg J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 390.
NMR Spectroscopy
Chemical shift equivalence and magnetic equivalence in conformationally mobile molecules  Silverstein, Robert M.; LaLonde, Robert T.
Refines and extends upon an earlier article on chemical shift equivalence and magnetic equivalence in NMR spectrometry.
Silverstein, Robert M.; LaLonde, Robert T. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 343.
NMR Spectroscopy
Allyl alcohol plant stream analysis: Relating industrial chemistry to the undergraduate laboratory  Bard, James R.; Sandoval, Antonio A.
Exercise that seeks to familiarize students with an industrial chemical process using a reaction not normally found in undergraduate textbooks and to broaden appreciation of NMR spectroscopy to include its analytical capabilities and limitations by showing how NMR could be used for analysis of a typical plant stream.
Bard, James R.; Sandoval, Antonio A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 218.
Alcohols |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy
A rapid method for estimating NMR shifts for protons attached to carbon  Jefferys, J. A. D.
Deshielding values that allow interpretation of the spectrum of a compound of known structure, labeled protons within selected compounds, and calculated and observed chemical shifts for those compounds.
Jefferys, J. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 806.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Use of general purpose microcomputers to synthesize hypothetical spectra for the nmr recorder  Wright, John R.; Robinson, Jack L.

Wright, John R.; Robinson, Jack L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 643.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
An nmr protonation study of metal diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complexes: An integrated senior chemistry experiment  Letkeman, Peter
A protonation study of an aminocarboxylic acid and its metal complexes that can be expanded to cover topics from instrumental techniques to a study of the kinetics of metal-ligand bond formation.
Letkeman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 348.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Carboxylic Acids |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
A change in the sign of the nmr coupling constant: An advanced undergraduate experiment  Hoff, Judy L.; Furtsch, Thomas A.; Mills, Jerry L.
This experiment graphically demonstrates a change in the sign of the P-C-H coupling constant between trivalent phosphorus and tetravalent phosphorus.
Hoff, Judy L.; Furtsch, Thomas A.; Mills, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 125.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Study by NMR of a three-component system. A physical-organic experiment  Claasen, Randy; Wolcott, Randy; Reinbold, Paul E.
The experimental study of a ternary phase system is rarely attempted at the undergraduate level. This is unfortunate since the ternary phase diagram can yield important information in the areas of physical and organic chemistry, such as the optimum conditions for an extraction, the thermodynamic factors which affect distribution, and the effect of a solute on two immiscible phases.
Claasen, Randy; Wolcott, Randy; Reinbold, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 542.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Group electronegativity by NMR  Greever, Joe C.
The purpose of this experiment is to allow the student to observe the correlation between chemical shift and electronegativity.
Greever, Joe C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 538.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Boron-11 nmr  Smith, Wayne L.
Principles of 11B NMR and the interpretation of representative spectra.
Smith, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 469.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Titration of alanine monitored by nmr spectroscopy. A biochemistry laboratory experiment  Waller, Francis J.; Hartman, Iclal S.; Kwong, Shirley T.
Demonstrates the application of proton nmr spectroscopy to the study of biological problems.
Waller, Francis J.; Hartman, Iclal S.; Kwong, Shirley T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 447.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids
Dischler equations and the bismethylene fragment  Lambert, Joseph B.; Khan, Shakil A.; Sun, Hsiang-ning
A description of the equations developed by Dischler and coworkers and the best approach to analyze the AA'BB' spectrum of bismethylene fragments.
Lambert, Joseph B.; Khan, Shakil A.; Sun, Hsiang-ning J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 422.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis
A "simple" approach to teaching hydrogen chemical shifts  Smith, S. L.
An approach that aids students in organizing information on inductive substituent effects on chemical shifts and has the pedagogical advantage of building on previously learned basic material from the periodic table.
Smith, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 255.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
NMR resolution analogy  Bank, Shelton
A visual analogy for the resolving power of the NMR spectrometer.
Bank, Shelton J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 237.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Analysis of complex NMR spectra. A dry-lab spectral analysis experiment  Bell, Harold M.
Affords students the opportunity to obtain practical experience in the techniques of spectral analysis of some more complex systems.
Bell, Harold M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 180.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the stereochemistry and non-rigidity of titanium-[beta]-diketonate complexes. An interpretive NMR experiment applied to metal complexes  Kranbuehl, David E.; Metzger, Patricia M.; Thompson, David W.; Fay, Robert C.
An interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry.
Kranbuehl, David E.; Metzger, Patricia M.; Thompson, David W.; Fay, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 119.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Kinetics
NMR chemical shift correlations. A student oriented project  Sikorski, John; Schaffhausen, John G.
The authors propose a project that utilizes NMR technology to serve as a learning aid for the student and as a tool for the researcher.
Sikorski, John; Schaffhausen, John G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 761.
NMR Spectroscopy
NMR spectral analysis. An experiment involving complete lineshape analysis of a two-site exchange problem  Bell, Harold M.
The experiment described in this article is designed to avoid problems such as insufficient access to computers for analysis and lack of access to an NMR machine that can alter temperatures.
Bell, Harold M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 665.
NMR Spectroscopy
Interpretation of a 13C magnetic resonance spectrum  Dorn, Harry C.; Kingston, David G. I.; Simpers, Bruce R.
The analysis and interpretation of the cmr spectrum of bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (I) provides an instructive and simple example of the utility of this technique. [Original feature title: Interpretative Experiments.]
Dorn, Harry C.; Kingston, David G. I.; Simpers, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 584.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
NMR Spectroscopy
An NMR study of keto-enol tautomerism in [beta]-dicarbonyl compounds  Drexler, Edward J.; Field, Kurt W.
A procedure for an NMR study of keto-enol tautomerism in beta-dicarbonyl compounds.
Drexler, Edward J.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 392.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Catalysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Dimethylaminodifluorophosphine - Preparation and NMR spectra  Dobbie, R. C.
Instructions for the preparation and analysis of dimethylaminodifluorophosphine.
Dobbie, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 129.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
The design of integrated inorganic experiments. An example from organo-transition-element chemistry  Hunt, G. R. A.
This lab was designed in response to a need for an integrated exercise in undergraduate practical chemistry.
Hunt, G. R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 53.
Descriptive Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Transition Elements
a[alpha]- and [bet]a-D-glucose pentaacetate. An experiment in structure assignment using NMR  Pearson, Wesley A.; Spessard, Gary O.
The synthesis and structural determination of alpha- and beta-D-glucose pentaacetate.
Pearson, Wesley A.; Spessard, Gary O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 814.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Synthesis
Structural determinations in organic chemistry. Synthesis of isomeric allylic alcohols  Arnaud, Christian
The experiment described here represents a two month laboratory study problem for second-year students in the synthesis of isomeric allylic alcohols.
Arnaud, Christian J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 819.
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
NMR Spectroscopy
Test for chemical shift and magnetic equivalence in nmr  Ault, Addison
The purpose of this paper is to present a straightforward procedure by which these decisions regarding chemical shift equivalence can be made.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 729.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties
2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine: An illustration of the use of nmr spectroscopy  Keiser, Jeffrey K.
This experiment fills the need for experiments which show the application of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to organic chemistry.
Keiser, Jeffrey K. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 599.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Relative carbonium ion stabilization energies: an nmr experiment for the undergraduate organic laboratory  Kenny, David H.; Sandel, Vernon R.; Osterby, Bruce R.
An nmr experiment for the undergraduate organic laboratory studying relative arbonium ion stabilization energies.
Kenny, David H.; Sandel, Vernon R.; Osterby, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 253.
NMR Spectroscopy
A series of related organic experiments with optional structure determinations  Fairless, Billy J.; Ragsdale, Gary; Kerby, Claudia
The authors wish to report three related experiments that have been received with enthusiasm by organic students.
Fairless, Billy J.; Ragsdale, Gary; Kerby, Claudia J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 61.
Phenols |
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy
Experimental determination of the nuclear Overhauser effect  Van Antwerp, Craig L.
Discusses procedures used to obtain experimental intramolecular nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) enhancements on commercial student spectrometers.
Van Antwerp, Craig L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 638.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Experimental determination of pKa values by use of NMR chemical shift  Handloser, Carolyn S.; Chakrabarty, M. R.; Mosher, Melvyn W.
A new technique for the determination of the pKa of a heterocyclic base using NMR spectrometry.
Handloser, Carolyn S.; Chakrabarty, M. R.; Mosher, Melvyn W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 510.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases |
Heterocycles |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Troublesome concepts in NMR spectrometry  Silverstein, Robert M.; Silberman, Robert G.
Offers definitions, explanations, and suggests references for NMR topics, including spin system, set of nuclei, chemical shift equivalence, magnetic equivalence, and virtual coupling.
Silverstein, Robert M.; Silberman, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 484.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
The calculation of NMR spectra for many-site exchange problems  Johnson, Charles S., Jr.; Moreland, Charles G.
Illustrates use of Kubo-Sack probability matrices to set up line shape calculations for NMR spectra.
Johnson, Charles S., Jr.; Moreland, Charles G. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 477.
Chemometrics |
NMR Spectroscopy
NMR Hammett correlation. A laboratory experiment  Salmon, Manuel; Jimenez, Adolfo; Salazar, Ignacio; Zawadzki, Rainer
A simple NMR experiment to familiarize students with the concept and uses provided by the Hammett equation, as well as introduce them to the use of NMR apparatus, chemical shift tabulation, and the application of linear regression analysis.
Salmon, Manuel; Jimenez, Adolfo; Salazar, Ignacio; Zawadzki, Rainer J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 370.
NMR Spectroscopy
Lanthanide nmr shift reagents. A powerful new stereochemical tool  Peterson, Max R., Jr.; Wahl, George H., Jr.
Examines the effect of adding certain lanthanide complexes to an nmr solution of a compound possessing an appropriate lone pair of electrons.
Peterson, Max R., Jr.; Wahl, George H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 790.
Transition Elements |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Magnetic Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization  Pine, Stanley H.
Presents a non-theoretical, historical, description of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization.
Pine, Stanley H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 664.
Reactive Intermediates |
NMR Spectroscopy
Paramagnetic moment measurements by nmr. A micro technique  Loliger, J.; Scheffold, R.
Design of a coaxial cell consisting of a simple melting point tube that is used to to determine the paramagnetic moment of a given substance.
Loliger, J.; Scheffold, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 646.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Magnetic Properties |
Instrumental Methods
The ring-inversion barrier of 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane. An introduction to dynamic nmr  Greenberg, A.
This experiment is designed for use by upper-level undergraduate and graduate students as a means of gaining an empirical feeling for molecular dynamics.
Greenberg, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 575.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
An interactive NMR chemical shift search program  Heller, Stephen R.; Feldmann, Richard J.
A computer program has been developed to rapidly search for spectra containing specified chemical shifts from proton nmr spectral data.
Heller, Stephen R.; Feldmann, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 291.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers-Part one. Instrument designs  Howery, Darryl G.
The main objectives of this article are to discuss the essential aspects of the instrumentation of current high-resolution NMR spectrometers and to describe NMR models now sold in the United States.
Howery, Darryl G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, A327.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
The reaction of vitamin K3 with sodium bisulfite. An undergraduate organic experiment  Greenberg, Fred H.; Leung, Kwoh Kee; Leung, Martin
The authors have contributed this experiment because there are few experiments that illustrate kinetic and thermodynamic control of a reaction.
Greenberg, Fred H.; Leung, Kwoh Kee; Leung, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 632.
Vitamins |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
NMR Spectroscopy
Quantitative studies of conformational energies in some cyclic compounds  Wyn-Jones, E.
The authors discuss methods that have proved to be versatile in determining conformational energies especially in heterocyclic molecules and in this article the principles involved in these methods and some complimentary results will be discussed.
Wyn-Jones, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 402.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Thermodynamics |
Constitutional Isomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium
Temperature dependent magnetic measurements and structural equilibria in solution  Crawford, Thomas H.; Swanson, John
The authors describe their work with an experiment in temperature dependent magnetic measurements and structural equilibria in solution.
Crawford, Thomas H.; Swanson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 382.
Equilibrium |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents
Experiments in nmr  Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H.
The authors present two NMR experiments that can be clearly and quickly performed so that students better understand nuclear magnetic resonance to undergraduates.
Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 202.
NMR Spectroscopy
Classification of spin systems in NMR spectroscopy  Ault, Addison
The author develops the two steps involved in the interpretation of spin-spin splitting patterns in terms of the structural and configurational relationships among the magnetic nuclei of the molecules of the sample.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 812.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Synthesis and NMR spectrum of triphenyltin hydride: An organometallic chemistry experiment  Allen, Christopher W.
This experiment reacts an alkali metal salt of the triphenylstannyl ion with the ammonium ion in liquid ammonia and employs NMR to identify different isotopes of tin in the resulting product.
Allen, Christopher W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 479.
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes
An integrated NMR and synthetic organic chemistry experiment  Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H.
Presents a synthetic sequence that involves procedures of general utility and results in products illustrative of the basic principles of NMR spectroscopy.
Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 854.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
Nmr analysis of water-acetic acid solutions  Brabson, G. Dana
Presents an experiment intended to teach the operation of NMR instrumentation and the interpretation of the data it collects, as well as demonstrate a significant principle of chemistry.
Brabson, G. Dana J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 754.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
A NMR laboratory-problem for introductory quantum chemistry  Kuhlmann, Karl F.; Braun, Charles L.
Presents a "programmed solution" of the NMR spectrum of two strongly coupled protons that allows students to work out this problem with a minimum of coaching.
Kuhlmann, Karl F.; Braun, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 750.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
NMR of boron compounds  Eaton, G. R.
Examines the NMR spectra of boron compounds and presents some related exercises and their answers.
Eaton, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 547.
NMR Spectroscopy
Calculation of NMR shift using particle in a box wave functions: An undergraduate exercise  Flewwelling, R. B.; Laidlaw, W. G.
Presents an exercise in the calculation and use of energy eigen values and eigen functions as applied to the NMR shift of a series of polyenylic ions.
Flewwelling, R. B.; Laidlaw, W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 355.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
An NMR determination of optical purity: An advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment  Jacobus, John; Raban, Morton
Presents an advanced organic laboratory applying NMR spectroscopy to the determination of optical purity that illustrates several important stereochemical concepts.
Jacobus, John; Raban, Morton J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 351.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Magnetic resonance spectra of multispin systems  Corio, P. L.; Hirst, R. C.
Presents an elementary description of the theory of irreducible components of multispin systems and several illustrative examples.
Corio, P. L.; Hirst, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 345.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Kinetics of proton exchange of trimethylammonium ion by NMR: A laboratory experiment  Leyden, Donald E.; Morgan, W. R.
In this experiment several plausible reactions for the hydration of pyruvic acid are suggested and the student makes use of the data collected to select the most probable ones.
Leyden, Donald E.; Morgan, W. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 169.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Determination of the rate of solvolysis of benzydryl bromide: An NMR experiment  Horman, Ian; Strauss, Michael J.
NMR spectroscopy offers several distinct advantages over more traditional, volumetric methods in determining the rate of solvolysis of benzydryl bromide.
Horman, Ian; Strauss, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 114.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Rate Law
Analysis of complex NMR spectra for the organic chemist: III. Four spin systems of the ABC2, ABX2, ABK2, AA'BB', and AA'XX' types  Garbisch, Edgar W., Jr.
The perturbation approach is applied to the ABX2, ABK2, AA'BB', and AA'XX' systems containing I = 1/2 nuclei.
Garbisch, Edgar W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 480.
NMR Spectroscopy
Analysis of complex NMR spectra for the organic chemist. I. Second-order approach with specific application to the two spin system  Garbisch, Edgar W., Jr.
Complex spectra of systems containing up to four spins can often be analyzed satisfactorily by hand and offer advantages at the instructive level.
Garbisch, Edgar W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 311.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
A proton magnetic resonance coordination number study. AlCl3 in aqueous solvent mixtures  Fratiello, Anthony; Schuster, Ronald E.
Coordination numbers can be evaluated directly and unambiguously by integrating separate nmr peaks.
Fratiello, Anthony; Schuster, Ronald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 91.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Spectroscopy
High resolution NMR in polymers  Slichter, W. P.
Reviews the principles and application of high resolution NMR in polymers.
Slichter, W. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 10.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nuclear magnetic resonance for organic chemists (Mathieson, D. W., ed.)  Lambert, Joseph B.

Lambert, Joseph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A758.
NMR Spectroscopy
The acetone-chloroform system: An nmr study  Bell, Jerry A.; Snider, William H.
The procedure involves an introduction to NMR analysis and includes sample spectra and other data so that even those without an NMR spectrometer may conduct the activity.
Bell, Jerry A.; Snider, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 200.
NMR Spectroscopy
Simulation of NMR spectra: Computers as teaching devices  Wilkins, Charles L.; Klopfenstein, Charles E.
Presents nuclear magnetic resonance theory and describes an NMR simulation program.
Wilkins, Charles L.; Klopfenstein, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 10.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
NMR spectra: Appearance of patterns from small spin systems  Becker, Edwin D.
This article seeks to clarify some confusing points in the interpretation of NMR spectra.
Becker, Edwin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 591.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Measurements based on the symmetry of NMR spectra  Anderson, Jay Martin
The purpose of this paper is to examine a number of measurement processes taken from NMR spectroscopy.
Anderson, Jay Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 363.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part three: Miscellaneous  Eisner, Leonard
Considers magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, atomic beam spectroscopy, mass spectrometers, chromatography, electrochemistry, electron diffraction, field emission microscopes, glass blowing and vacuum systems, high and low temperatures, and ultrasonics.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A607.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Magnetic Properties |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An NMR demonstration of isotopic exchange  Lapidot, Aviva; Reuben, Jack; Samuel, David
Hydracrylonitrile (beta-hydroxypropionitrile) is used in a simple NMR experiment to demonstrate the isotopic exchange of deuterium.
Lapidot, Aviva; Reuben, Jack; Samuel, David J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 570.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Characteristic NMR spectral positions for hydrogen in organic structures  Mohacsi, Erno
This is a table indicating the characteristic NMR spectral positions for hydrogen in organic structures.
Mohacsi, Erno J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 38.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A qualitative approach to the study of complex NMR spectra  McGreer, Donald E.; Mocek, M. M.
Presents an extension of an earlier description of NMR that involves transforming a simple spectrum into a more complex spectrum.
McGreer, Donald E.; Mocek, M. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 358.
NMR Spectroscopy
NMR and EPR spectroscopy (The NMR-EPR Staff of Varian Associates)  Hollahan, John R.

Hollahan, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A136.
NMR Spectroscopy |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  Roberts, J. D.
Presents nuclear magnetic spectroscopy in a manner that makes it suitable for presentation to undergraduates.
Roberts, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 581.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
NMR spectroscopy as an analytical tool in organic chemistry  Martin, J. C.
This article introduces the theory of NMR spectroscopy and its use as an analytical tool in organic chemistry.
Martin, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 286.
NMR Spectroscopy
Nuclear magnetic resonance  Richter, Henry L.
This review summarizes the many applications of nuclear magnetic resonance to various fields of chemistry and physics.
Richter, Henry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 618.
NMR Spectroscopy