TIGER

Journal Articles: 280 results
Assessing Nitration Products of Benzene Derivatives Using TLC Analysis  Rita K. Hessley
Thin layer chromatography is applied to an earlier published, guided discovery experiment using GCMS analyses to identify isomers formed by the nitration of mono-substituted benzenes.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1623.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds
Research Advances: New Molecule Key to Anti-Heart Attack Drug?; 12 Million Molecules, 143 Basic Shapes; Improving Non-Stick Surfaces at the Flip of a Switch  Angela G. King
Toward a chest pain pill. A lack of structural diversity. Nanonails: tunable hydrophobicity.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1598.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Mass Spectrometry |
Materials Science |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Biology |
Nanotechnology |
Receptors |
Steroids
Mass Spectrometry Theatre: A Model for Big-Screen Instrumental Analysis  John Allison
"Mass Spectrometry Theatre" is an example of how instrumental analysis can be effectively taught to a large group of students. With the computer display projected onto a large screen in the laboratory, any instrument with an attached computer can be presented in ways that involve all students and the instructor throughout the period.
Allison, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1582.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy  Jean-Michel Lavoie, Esteban Chornet, and André Pelletier
Using a simple extraction and a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer, this protocol allows students in analytical or organic chemistry to quantify and qualify monoterpenes from the peels of limes, grapefruits, and oranges.
Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, André. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1555.
Alkenes |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Dryer Lint  Robert Q. Thompson
In this advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment students analyze lint from clothes dryers for traces of flame retardant chemicalspolybrominated diphenylethersthrough negative chemical ionizationselected ion monitoring and tandem mass spectrometry with electron ionization and selected reaction monitoring.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1419.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Research Advances  Angela G. King
Reactive DESI detects steroids. Measuring the effect of altitude on athletes. NO exercise levels.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1310.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Steroids |
Mass Spectrometry
The Laser Synthesis of Linear Polyynes: The Particle in a Box Revisited  Bruce D. Anderson and Christopher M. Gordon
In this experiment, suitable for inclusion in a standard physical chemistry course or other upper-level laboratory where the principles of quantum mechanics are studied, linear polyynes are synthesized and then the predictions of a one-dimensional, particle in a box are used to calculate the quantum mechanical box length for the polyynes.
Anderson, Bruce D.; Gordon, Christopher M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1279.
Alkenes |
Lasers |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Research Advances  Angela G. King
Fertilizer a flush away. New test for anthrax. Winged PAH monitors. Hen or rooster? Raman to the rescue!
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1022.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Food Science |
Mass Spectrometry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Raman Spectroscopy
Using Single Drop Microextraction for Headspace Analysis with Gas Chromatography  Daniel Riccio, Derrick C. Wood, and James M. Miller
Describes the basic principles and practice of headspace gas chromatography using single drop microextraction, including a complete review of the literature and suggestions for possible experiments.
Riccio, Daniel; Wood, Derrick C.; Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 965.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
The Iodochlorination of Styrene: An Experiment That Makes a Difference  R. Gary Amiet and Sylvia Urban
This purpose of this laboratory exercise is to determine the various substitution and elimination products generated in the iodochlorination of styrene and their relative proportions through the application of mechanistic principles and a basic knowledge of GCMS and NMR.
Amiet, R. Gary; Urban, Sylvia. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 962.
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Student-Centered Learning
Determination of Cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon by SPME–GC–MS  Yimin Wang, Jessica Ocariz, Jennifer Hammersand, Evan MacDonald, Ashley Bartczak, Frank Kero, Vaneica Y. Young, and Kathryn R. Williams
Students analyze trans-cinnamaldehyde in commercial cinnamon using solid-phase microextraction and GCMS.
Wang, Yimin; Ocariz, Jessica; Hammersand, Jennifer; MacDonald, Evan; Bartczak, Ashley; Kero, Frank; Young, Vaneica Y.; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 957.
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Eating Your Greens Could Prove Life-Saving If a Heart Attack Strikes; "Dragon's Blood" Quenches Stomach Ulcer Bacteria  Angela G. King
Benefits of dietary nitrite. New compounds may explain the use of "Dragon's blood" in medicine.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 764.
Enzymes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy
A Nitration Reaction Puzzle for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Milton J. Wieder and Russell Barrows
Treatment of phenylacetic acid with different concentrations of nitric acid yields two different products. Using 1H NMR and IR spectral data, students are asked to deduce the structures of the two products, thus illustrating fundamental concepts in electrophilic aromatic substitution while posing an interesting structure elucidation puzzle.
Wieder, Milton J.; Barrows, Russell. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 549.
Constitutional Isomers |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Synthesis of Diapocynin  Mina S. Dasari, Kristy M. Richards, Mikaela L. Alt, Clark F. P. Crawford, Amanda Schleiden, Jai Ingram, Abdel Aziz Amadou Hamidou, Angela Williams, Patricia A. Chernovitz, Rensheng Luo, Grace Y. Sun, Ron Luchtefeld, and Robert E. Smith
Diapocynin is synthesized by the oxidative coupling of apocynin and analyzed by FTIR, 1H NMR, and negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization LCMS.
Dasari, Mina S.; Richards, Kristy M.; Alt, Mikaela L.; Crawford, Clark F. P.; Schleiden, Amanda; Ingram, Jai; Hamidou, Abdel Aziz Amadou; Williams, Angela; Chernovitz, Patricia A.; Luo, Rensheng; Sun, Grace Y.; Luchtefeld, Ron; Smith, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 411.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
HPLC |
Mass Spectrometry |
Phenols |
Synthesis
Air Toxics under the Big Sky: A Real-World Investigation To Engage High School Science Students  Earle Adams, Garon Smith, Tony J. Ward, Diana Vanek, Nancy Marra, David Jones, Melissa Henthorn, and Jim Striebel
This paper describes a chemistry program in which high school students collect air samples inside and outside their homes and teachers, students, and university researchers investigate the relationship between air pollutants and their harmful respiratory effects. Students experience scientific research, use scientific equipment, gain insight into the relationship between the environment and public health, and develop scientific hypotheses.
Adams, Earle; Smith, Garon; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Striebel, Jim. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 221.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Research Advances  Angela G. King
Snapping turtles monitor pollutant concentrations. New use for poultry waste. Fishy use of isotope ratios.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 174.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Metals |
Plant Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis in the Organic Teaching Lab: A Simple, Greener Wittig Reaction  Eric Martin and Cynthia Kellen-Yuen
A microwave-assisted Wittig reaction has been developed for the organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this technique, a variety of styrene derivatives have been synthesized from aromatic aldehydes in good yields. The mixture of cis and trans alkenes produced also provides instructors with opportunities to emphasize the spectroscopic analysis of product mixtures.
Martin, Eric; Kellen-Yuen, Cynthia. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2004.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Ruthenium–Indenylidene Complexes for Olefin Metathesis  Ted M. Pappenfus, David L. Hermanson, Daniel P. Ekerholm, Stacie L. Lilliquist, and Megan L. Mekoli
Presents a series of experiments that focus on the design of rutheniumindenylidene complexes for olefin metathesis. Included are the syntheses of two such complexes that display very different catalytic activity in a ring-closing metathesis reaction. Students also utilize several analytical methods in characterizing the complexes and quantifying their catalytic activity.
Pappenfus, Ted M.; Hermanson, David L.; Ekerholm, Daniel P.; Lilliquist, Stacie L.; Mekoli, Megan L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1998.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics
A Laboratory Preparation of Aspartame Analogs Using Simultaneous Multiple Parallel Synthesis Methodology  Nir Qvit, Yaniv Barda, Chaim Gilon, and Deborah E. Shalev
This experiment provides a unique opportunity for students to synthesize three analogues of aspartame. The students are introduced to the powerful and useful method of parallel synthesis while synthesizing three dipeptides in parallel using solid-phase peptide synthesis and simultaneous multiple parallel synthesis methodologies.
Qvit, Nir; Barda, Yaniv; Gilon, Chaim; Shalev, Deborah E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1988.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
HPLC |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Incorporating Biological Mass Spectrometry Into Undergraduate Teaching Labs, Part 1: Identifying Proteins Based on Molecular Mass  Isaac J. Arnquist and Douglas J. Beussman
This article presents the first in a series of experiments designed to introduce students to the analysis of biological molecules using mass spectrometry. In this experiment, students analyze and identify a medium-sized protein using electrospray ionization.
Arnquist, Isaac J.; Beussman, Douglas J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1971.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Qualitative Analysis
Illustrating the Concepts of Isotopes and Mass Spectrometry in Introductory Courses: A MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Experiment  Nancy Carter Dopke and Timothy Neal Lovett
This article describes a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry experiment in which students prepare peptide samples for mass analysis and then collect and analyze mass spectral data. The lab provides hands-on experience with research instrumentation and reinforces the concepts of isotopes, molecular masses, and molecular formulas.
Dopke, Nancy Carter; Lovett, Timothy Neal. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1968.
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides
Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones  Nicholas G. Angelo, Laura K. Henchey, Adam J. Waxman, James W. Canary, Paramjit S. Arora, and Donald Wink
Describes an experiment in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and ketone and make use of TLC, column chromatography, recrystallization, and characterization by 1H NMR, GCMS, and FTIR.
Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1816.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
GC–MS Analysis of γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs  Colin Henck and Luke Nally
Describes a forensic experiment involving the use of glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment ilustrates the use of silylation in GCMS analysis and the problem of analyzing an organic acid without derivatization.
Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1813.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Forensic Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Discovering Electronic Effects of Substituents in Nitrations of Benzene Derivatives Using GC–MS Analysis  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
Describes an organic lab in which students pool mass spectral data to identify the distribution of isomer products generated by the nitration of six benzene derivatives whose substituents differ in their electronic effects. Students also determine which substituents direct nitration predominantly to the ortho- or para- and to the meta positions.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1679.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Teaching Science in Art  Erich S. Uffelman
Describes two linked, interdisciplinary courses examining conservation science and the history of 17th-century Dutch painting. Strengths and limitations of the approaches taken are discussed and key resources cited.
Uffelman, Erich S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1617.
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy
A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions  A. Gilbert Cook
The product of a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction is identified through a guided prelab exercise of the synthesis of the Hagemann ester, and then through the analysis of GCMS, NMR, and IR spectra. The stereochemistry of the product is determined through the NMR spectrum and Karplus curve, and the student is required to write a mechanism for the reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1477.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
A Method for Analyzing A + 2 Isotope Patterns for Use in Undergraduate Organic Courses  Ray A. Gross, Jr.
Describes a new method for analyzing the characteristic molecular-ion peak intensities found in the low-resolution mass spectra of compounds that contain small numbers of bromine, chlorine, and sulfur atoms. The method affords students and instructors a useful tool for rapidly assessing the Br, Cl, or S stoichiometry of an unknown from its mass spectrum.
Gross, Ray A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 987.
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis |
Isotopes
Detection and Quantification of Valerenic Acid in Commercially Available Valerian Products  Ruth H. Douglas, Ciaran A. Muldowney, Rabab Mohamed, Fiona Keohane, Catherine Shanahan, John J. Walsh, and Pierce V. Kavanagh
This experiment involves the detection and quantification of valerenic acid from herbal medicinal products containing Valeriana officinalis through GCMS and highlights the fact that it may be necessary to carry out a selective extraction step before analysis can be performed on the constituent(s) of interest.
Douglas, Ruth H.; Muldowney, Ciaran A.; Mohamed, Rabab; Keohane, Fiona; Shanahan, Catherine; Walsh, John J.; Kavanagh, Pierce V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 829.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Natural Products
The GC–MS Observation of Intermediates in a Stepwise Grignard Addition Reaction  Devin Latimer
This article describes a three-hour laboratory experiment for the third-year organic chemistry lab whereby the stable organic intermediates and final product of the Grignard addition of 3 equivalents of phenylmagnesium bromide to diethyl carbonate are observed.
Latimer, Devin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 699.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Grignard Reagents |
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemical Composition of Latent Fingerprints by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry. An Experiment for an Instrumental Analysis Course  Brittany Hartzell-Baguley, Rachael E. Hipp, Neal R. Morgan, and Stephen L. Morgan
In this forensic-based experiment designed for upper-division chemistry majors in an instrumental analysis course, students collect their own fingerprints and extract various chemical components from the residue in order to demonstrate the potential for this technique to be used as a means of identification.
Hartzell-Baguley, Brittany; Hipp, Rachael E.; Morgan, Neal R.; Morgan, Stephen L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 689.
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
A Developmental History of Polymer Mass Spectrometry  Matthew J. Vergne, Robert P. Lattimer, and David M. Hercules
This review provides a historical perspective of the development of polymer mass spectrometry, divided into three eras: the small molecule era (1950s and 1960s); the macromass era (1970s and 1980s); and the modern era (the late 1980s to the present).
Vergne, Matthew J.; Lattimer, Robert P.; Hercules, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 81.
Mass Spectrometry |
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Understanding Isotopic Distributions in Mass Spectrometry  Juris Meija
Offers a simple graphical tool for obtaining complex isotopic distributions.
Meija, Juris. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes |
Chemometrics
Research Advances: Less Expensive and More Convenient Gaucher's Disease Treatment; Structural Loop Regions: Key to Multidrug-Resistance Transporters?; New Method Identifies Proteins in Old Artwork  Angela G. King
Molecular chaperones lead the way to new Gaucher's disease treatment. Researchers determine structure of the multidrug transporter EmrD. Whole egg proteins present in Renaissance art microsamples.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1738.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
X-ray Crystallography |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioorganic Chemistry
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Developing Critical Thinking Skills: The "Sabotaged" Synthesis of Methyl p-Bromobenzoate  Eric J. Mahan and Mary Alice Nading
Before beginning an experiment, students are told that someone might have sabotaged their experiment to produce other-than-expected results. The objective is to perform the experiment, determine if any sabotage has occurred, and, if so, identify the changes that were made to the reagents as well as the person responsible.
Mahan, Eric J.; Nading, Mary Alice. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1652.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis
3,5-Diarylisoxazoles: Individualized Three-Step Synthesis and Isomer Determination Using 13C NMR or Mass Spectroscopy  Chad E. Stephens and Reem K. Arafa
Describes the three-step synthesis and definitive characterization of a 3,5-diarylisoxazole via the chalcone and chalcone dibromide. The project is individualized with regard to compound purification, characterization, and literature searches as each student prepares a differently substituted chalcone.
Stephens, Chad E.; Arafa, Reem K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1336.
Alkenes |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy
Synthesis and Analysis of a Versatile Imine for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Jacqueline Bennett, Kristen Meldi, and Christopher Kimmell II
In this experiment students prepare and analyze N-p-methoxyphenyl (N-PMP) alpha-imino ethyl glyoxalate, an imine that has been used in the synthesis of biologically active molecules. The stability and versatility of this imine allow it to be used in subsequent reactions, offering a variety of possible multistep synthetic strategies.
Bennett, Jacqueline; Meldi, Kristen; Kimmell, Christopher, II. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1221.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Identification of Glue Vapors Using Electron Impact and Chemical Ionization Modes in GC–MS  Jeremy Richer, John Spencer, and Michael Baird
Students use both electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes of operation in GCMS to identify the volatile components in one of six commercial glues and are required to explain the production of specific mass fragments observed from both EI and CI operations in terms of their reactions in the ion source of the mass spectrometer.
Richer, Jeremy; Spencer, John; Baird, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1196.
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Student Empowerment through "Mini-microscale" Reactions: The Epoxidation of 1 mg of Geraniol  Thomas R. Hoye and Christopher S. Jeffrey
This experiment exposes students to important issues unique to working with very small amounts of materials. The enhanced self-confidence that accompanies this gain in expertise, in combination with the manipulation skills, makes this a particularly empowering experience.
Hoye, Thomas R.; Jeffrey, Christopher S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 919.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Analysis of the Thickening Agents in Automotive Greases by GC–MS  David Mayotte, Craig J. Donahue, and Cheryl A. Snyder
Describes a laboratory procedure for the identification of the thickening agents in lubricating greases by GCMS.
Mayotte, David; Donahue, Craig J.; Snyder, Cheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 902.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Fatty Acids
Microwave-Induced Chain Transfer Polymerization of a Stimuli-Responsive Polymer and Determination of Its Critical Solution Temperature  F. Fischer and R. Freitag
This experiment provides an introduction for undergraduate students to the concepts of living radical polymerization (oligomerization) and to stimuli-responsive materials, namely, those showing a critical solution temperature in aqueous solution.
Fischer, F.; Freitag, R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 447.
Addition Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Mass Spectrometry |
Materials Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Polymerization |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
4-Dimethylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Syntheses of Esters: A Comparison  Annemieke W. C. van den Berg and Ulf Hanefeld
Students compare acid-catalyzed ester synthesis and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed reaction. Based on the outcome of the experiments, students discuss the different reaction mechanisms and reason why different products are formed.
van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 292.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Multistep Synthesis for an Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Chang Ji and Dennis G. Peters
Presents a three-step procedure for the synthesis of 5-(2-sulfhydrylethyl)salicylaldehyde employing a Grignard reagent as a critical reactant.
Ji, Chang; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 290.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Grignard Reagents
Grubbs's Cross Metathesis of Eugenol with cis-2-Butene-1,4-diol To Make a Natural Product. An Organometallic Experiment for the Undergraduate Lab   Douglass F. Taber and Kevin J. Frankowski
Describes the ruthenium catalyzed cross metathesis of eugenol with cis-1,4-butenediol. The experiment is an excellent example of the powerful selectivity possible with the Grubbs' catalyst, demonstrating the preference for trans over cis alkene formation and for cross metathesis over homodimerization.
Taber, Douglass F.; Frankowski, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 283.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
Assaying α-Dicarbonyl Compounds in Wine: A Complementary GC–MS, HPLC, and Visible Spectrophotometric Analysis  Tammy J. Dwyer and Jeremiah D. Fillo
A facile, aqueous reaction coupled with gas chromatographymass spectrometry, visible spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography is used to quantify the amounts of a-dicarbonyl compounds in wine samples.
Dwyer, Tammy J.; Fillo, Jeremiah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 273.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Food Science |
HPLC |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a Natural Insecticide on Basic Montmorillonite K10 Clay. Green Chemistry in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Matthew R. Dintzner, Paul R. Wucka, and Thomas W. Lyons
Describes a microwave-assisted, solvent-free, one-pot synthesis of a naturally occurring insecticide catalyzed by naturally benign, base-washed Montmorillonite K10 clay. The reaction features several interesting mechanistic considerations, including an electrophilic aromatic addition, dehydration, and intramolecular hetero-DielsAlder cyclization.
Dintzner, Matthew R.; Wucka, Paul R.; Lyons, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 270.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Using Punnett Squares To Facilitate Students' Understanding of Isotopic Distributions in Mass Spectrometry  Lawrence T. Sein Jr.
Punnett squares are shown to be useful in teaching chemistryto interpret and predict low-resolution mass spectra.
Sein, Lawrence T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 228.
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry
Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests  Craig Anderson
Tests for illegal drugs were performed on unknowns obtained from over-the-counter cold medicines. Substances that tested positive for the qualitative Marquis color test were found to be false positives for illegal substances, while scopolamine hydrochloride shows a false positive for cocaine hydrochloride with the cobalt thiocyanate reagent.
Anderson, Craig. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1809.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
A GC–MS Analysis of an SN2 Reaction for the Organic Laboratory  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
This experiment utilizes an SN2 reaction between an alkyl bromide and potassium acetate to introduce the use of mass spectrometry for structural identification. It also provides students with experience in organic synthesis, the use of IR to identify functional groups, and the use of gas chromatography and response factors to determine product ratios.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1676.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Gas Chromatography
The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC–MS  A. E. Witter
An undergraduate experiment for the quantitative determination of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in chewing gum is described. A simple extraction procedure was used that did not require sample derivatization for analysis.
Witter, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1538.
Food Science |
Free Radicals |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Thermal Degradation and Identification of Heat-Sensitive Polymers. Applications of Pyrolysis and Distillation and Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Stuart C. Clough and Emma W. Goldman
An experiment for undergraduate teaching laboratories is described that involves the identification of samples of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate). This involves the thermal degradation of the polymers (a destructive distillation) into their respective monomers. The monomers are then identified using infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and gas chromatographymass spectrometry.
Clough, Stuart C.; Goldman, Emma W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1378.
Nonmajor Courses |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Polymerization
Introduction to Biological Mass Spectrometry: Determining Identity and Species of Origin of Two Proteins  Curt T. Reimann, Axel Mie, Carina Nilsson, and Arieh Cohen
We describe a laboratory exercise that is designed to give advanced undergraduate students in analytical chemistry a meaningful introduction to biological mass spectrometry. We ask the students to solve a mystery: given two proteins, what are they, and from which animals do they originate? This exercise involves use of two mass spectrometers available in our institution: a fairly basic matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDITOF) unit and an electrospray ionization (ESI) ion-trap unit. Our exercise can be completed in two days (including analysis) and provides several interesting and educational surprises.
Reimann, Curt T.; Mie, Axel; Nilsson, Carina; Cohen, Arieh. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1215.
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
Measuring Gas-Phase Basicities of Amino Acids Using an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer. A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Lee S. Sunderlin, Victor Ryzhov, Lanea M. M. Keller, and Elizabeth R. Gaillard
A new experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory has been developed that uses an ion trap mass spectrometer to measure the relative gas-phase basicities of amino acids. This experiment is based on the kinetic method, which connects kinetics measurements on two competing reaction rates to the thermodynamic properties of the reaction products. This method gives high precision on properties that are difficult to measure through other means. The experiment also introduces students to an active area of research in mass spectrometry and demonstrates the application of physical chemistry techniques to biochemistry.
Sunderlin, Lee S.; Ryzhov, Victor; Keller, Lanea M. M.; Gaillard, Elizabeth R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1071.
Kinetics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Thermodynamics |
Amino Acids
Introduction to Protein and Peptide Analysis with Mass Spectrometry (Fred Klink)  David T. Harvey
One of the more important recent advances in analytical biochemistry is the application of mass spectrometry to protein analysis. Because of the rapid growth in this area, the incorporation of units covering proteomic applications of mass spectrometry into analytical chemistry and biochemistry textbooks has been slow. This computer-based training course from Academy Savant aims to fill that gap.
Harvey, David T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1003.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides
Research Advances: Perchlorate in Dairy and Breast Milk Samples; NO Glow on Mars; Physical Chemistry to the Rescue: Differentiating Nicotinic and Cholinergic Agonists  Angela G. King
Perchlorate levels in milk suggest widespread presence of the chemical. NO emissions indicate circulation in Martian atmosphere. Modeling reveals subtle differences in drugmembrane receptor interactions.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 970.
Astrochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Deuterium Exchange in Ethyl Acetoacetate: An Undergraduate GC–MS Experiment  C.D. Heinson, J. M. Williams, W. N. Tinnerman, and T. B. Malloy
A simple experiment involving deuterium exchange of the enolizable protons in ethyl acetoacetate followed by GCMS has been developed. The principles demonstrated are the use of stable isotopes, ketoenol tautomerism, base catalysis, and the use of specific reagents to minimize or nullify side reactions. The changes in mass of specific fragment ions, as well as that of the molecular ions are indicative of the course of the reaction and illustrative of the fragmentation pathways.
Heinson, C. D.; Williams, J. M.; Tinnerman, W. N.; Malloy, T. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 787.
Catalysis |
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Understanding Mass Spectra, A Basic Approach, Second Edition (R. Martin Smith)  Bill Boggess
The interpretation of mass spectra represents arguably the most significant challenge to both newcomers and practitioners in the field of mass spectrometry (MS). For those of us who have ever struggled to use a mass spectrum to solve the structure of an organic compound, R. Martin Smith offers the second edition of Understanding Mass Spectra, A Basic Approach. Fortunately, the author manages to go well beyond the obvious and expected explanations of the common modes of fragmentation for ions generated during electron ionization (EI) by offering a rational approach to mass spectral problem solving. This ten-step approach, which represents the most important contribution of this text, appears in chapter 5 and is condensed into table 5.1.
Boggess, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 687.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Quantitation of Phenol Levels in Oil of Wintergreen Using Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring. A Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Experiment  Robert M. Sobel, David S. Ballantine, and Victor Ryzhov
A quantitative analysis or instrumental analysis laboratory experiment was created to perform a gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis of phenol level found in natural products. The analysis utilizes selected ion monitoring for the determination of phenol concentration in natural oil of wintergreen. The experimental design addresses the industrys need for increasing awareness of gas chromatographymass spectrometry techniques with shortened analysis time.
Sobel, Robert M.; Ballantine, David S.; Ryzhov, Victor. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 601.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Cars of the Future—Powered by Poison? Prehistoric Beverage Choices; Health Benefits of Chamomile  Angela G. King
This Report from Other Journals: Research Advances surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include a report on a new approach to hydrogen fuel cells; findings about alcoholic beverages from 7000 B.C. that have been subjected to modern analyses; and research that supports claims regarding chamomile's medicinal properties.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 506.
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Materials Science |
Medicinal Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Mass Spectrometry |
Plant Chemistry
Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts To Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon  Jee-Yon Lee, Hee-Soo Yoo, Jong Sook Park, Kwang-Jin Hwang, and Jin Seog Kim
In developing this laboratory, our initial motivation for the analysis of gases in a balloon was to answer simple and basic questions, such as, Why does a helium-charged balloon left in the air always drop in a few days? Is leakage of helium the only cause of the drop? What is the composition of the gas in the balloon when it falls after deflation? Students were intrigued by these questions, too, as they analyzed the variation over time in the composition in a balloon inflated with helium. Using the concepts of partial pressure and chemical potential, the laboratory experiment described effectively investigates the diffusion process and the behavior of gas molecules for teaching these concepts in general and physical chemistry.
Lee, Jee-Yon; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Park, Jong Sook; Hwang, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Jin Seog. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 288.
Transport Properties |
Gases |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis
Fundamentals of Biomolecule Analysis by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry. An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment  Andrea Weinecke and Victor Ryzhov
This article describes an undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory experiment dealing with fundamentals of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS). Several important aspects of applications of ESIMS for analysis of biomolecules are addressed. First, the formation of multiply charged ions and deconvolution of such ESI spectra to yield the molecular mass of the analyte is discussed. Second, the effects of isotopic contribution (mostly of 13C) are observed experimentally and verified by calculations. Last, the resolution of a mass spectrometer is probed as the ability to resolve individual peaks in isotopic clusters.
Weinecke, Andrea; Ryzhov, Victor. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 99.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides
Nature's Sedative: Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Valtrate from Centranthus ruber  Andrea M. Doyle, Joe Reilly, Niamh Murphy, Pierce V. Kavanagh, John E. O'Brien, Martin S. Walsh, and John J. Walsh
The importance of natural plant products and how they can be used as learning aids at senior undergraduate level are highlighted in this experiment. The experiment involves the isolation and structural determination of valtrate, a valepotriate occurring naturally in the roots and aerial parts of the medicinal plant, Valeriana officinalis, and its related species, Centranthus ruber. We present various isolation and structural elucidation methodologies, including thin layer and flash column chromatography, and detailed spectroscopic analysis by NMR, IR, and mass spectra.
Doyle, Andrea M.; Reilly, Joe; Murphy, Niamh; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; OBrien, John E.; Walsh, Martin S., Walsh, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1486.
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy
Wittig Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl trans-Cinnamate  Traci J. Speed, Jean P. McIntyre, and Dasan M. Thamattoor
The synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stabilized phosphorus ylid (carbethoxymethylene)triphenylphosphorane, serves as a useful experiment to illustrate the Wittig reaction in the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. The reaction is highly stereoselective and affords the product in excellent yield and purity. The stereochemistry of the product is established by examining the coupling constants displayed by the olefinic protons in the 1H NMR spectrum. The experiment highlights several important aspects of organic chemistry such as synthesis, stereochemistry, instrumental analysis, and molecular modeling.
Speed, Traci J.; McIntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1355.
Chromatography |
Computational Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry
Research Advances: Mass Spectrometric Monitoring of Animal Feed for BSE Spread; Ancient Oceans Had Less Oxygen; A Model for the Formation of Piezoelectric Single-Crystal Nanorings and Nanobows  Angela G. King
A quick and inexpensive test using mass spectrometry to detect the presence of mad cow disease protein in cattle feed has been discovered; through studies of Mo levels, geologists have come to the conclusion that ancient oceans had a global lack of oxygen dissolved in the seawater; and recent work by Zhong L. Wang and William Hughes at Georgia Tech demonstrates that ZnO nanorods and nanobows formed by bending single crystal, PSD ZnO nanobelts exclusively supports the electrostatic polar charge model as the dominant bending mechanism.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1242.
Mass Spectrometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Geochemistry |
Materials Science
Tetraglyme Trap for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Air. Projects for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry  Wilbert W. Hope, Clyde Johnson, and Leon P. Johnson
Students at Medgar Evers College use tetraglyme (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) to scrub a variety of VOCs from ambient air. The chilled tetraglyme traps VOCs as the air is bubbled through it. The VOCs are then dispersed in water, from which they are analyzed by purge-and-trap, followed by GC-MSD (gas chromatography-mass selective detector). This method has been used for a number of projects for the quantitative analysis course. Students are also introduced to the practical features of 23-factorial design of experiments to optimize the method; they monitor three variables (location, volume of tetraglyme, and sampling rate) simultaneously.
Hope, Wilbert W.; Johnson, Clyde; Johnson, Leon P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1182.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Introduction of Mass Spectrometry in a First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Quantification of MTBE or DMSO in Water  Mike Solow
An experiment has been developed to introduce first-semester general chemistry students to mass spectrometry. Students analyze water samples contaminated with a known compound, either DMSO or MTBE. Students are asked to determine the concentration of the compound in the water. In performing this experiment, students should learn (i) how the mass of an atom or molecule is determined, (ii) the effect of the presence of different isotopes on molecular mass, (iii) the role of an internal standard, and (iv) how mass spectrometry is used in answering various scientific questions.
Solow, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1172.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry for the Masses  Jared D. Persinger, Geoffrey C. Hoops, and Michael J. Samide
In this article, we describe an experiment for an introductory chemistry course that incorporates the use of mass spectrometry for sample analysis. Several different air samples are collected that represent various chemical processes, and the composition of the air sample is predicted on the basis of known chemical principles. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer is used to analyze these samples, and the relative quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and argon are calculated. On the basis of the data, the hypothesized sample composition is validated.
Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1169.
Mass Spectrometry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Gases
A Mass Spectral Chlorine Rule for Use in Structure Determinations in Sophomore Organic Chemistry  Ray A. Gross, Jr.
The number of chlorine atoms, n, is stoichiometrically related to the ratio of peak intensities of the lowest-mass-to-highest-mass molecular ions in ideal molecular-ion clusters displayed in the mass spectra of Br- and Cl-containing compounds. The chlorine rule provides a new tool for use in organic structure determination. A discovery exercise for the chlorine rule and the names of 69 compounds, the spectra of 68 of which have been successfully analyzed by students using the chlorine rule, are provided in the Supplemental Material.
Gross, Ray A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1161.
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Stoichiometry
Syntheses and Characterization of Ruthenium(II) Tetrakis(Pyridine) Complexes. An Advanced Coordination Chemistry Experiment or Mini-Project  Benjamin J. Coe
This experiment involves the syntheses of several coordination complexes of ruthenium(II) and their characterization by using various spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques.
Coe, Benjamin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 718.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
LC–MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2. Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI–MS and UV–Vis  Helen Cleary Stynes, Araceli Layo, and Richard W. Smith
This article describes an experiment employing LCMS where metmyoglobin is denatured to apomyoglobin and heme in a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile H2O with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The apomyoglobin is separated from the heme group by reversed-phase chromatography.
Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 266.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Conformational Analysis in an Advanced Integrated Laboratory Course  David B. Ball and Randy M. Miller
An interdisciplinary project is described that requires students to synthesize conformationally mobile and static a-bromocyclohexanones and to assess, qualitatively and quantitatively, and validate, using several spectroscopic tools, solvent effects on the conformational preferences of these molecules. The project exposes students to a variety of experimental and theoretical techniques that include organic synthesis, product purification, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, GCMS, molecular modeling, and IR and UV spectroscopy.
Ball, David B.; Miller, Randy M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 121.
Equilibrium |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Separation and Identification of a Mixture of Group 6 Transition-Metal Carbonyl Compounds Using GC–MS in the General Chemistry Curriculum  Lawrence K. Fong
From the mass spectral data, our students are able to determine the atomic mass of the transition metal. In addition, utilizing Mo(CO)6 as an internal standard, our students are able to quantify the quantity of Cr(CO)6 and W(CO)6 in an unknown mixture.
Fong, Lawrence K. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 103.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Transition Elements |
Gas Chromatography
Investigation of Imposter Perfumes Using GC–MS  Kelley A. Mowery, Daniel E. Blanchard, Stephanie Smith, and Thomas A. Betts
The minimal sample preparation required for this experiment enables students to spend significantly more time becoming familiar with GCMS hardware and software. After performing the experiment students should be familiar with the operation of a modern GCMS, headspace sampling, data analysis using GCMS software tools, and mass spectral library searching.
Mowery, Kelley A.; Blanchard, Daniel E.; Smith, Stephanie; Betts, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 87.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Mass Spectra  JCE Editorial Staff
Activity in which students solve puzzles analogous to finding the amino acid sequence of a peptide using mass spectrometry.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 176A.
Amino Acids |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides
A Series of Small-Scale, Discovery-Based Organic Laboratory Experiments Illustrating the Concepts of Addition, Substitution, and Rearrangement  Judith S. Moroz, Janice L. Pellino, and Kurt W. Field
Multistep, microscale organic laboratory experiments are presented that illustrate addition, substitution, and rearrangement reactions.
Moroz, Judith S.; Pellino, Janice L.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1319.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Base-Induced Reaction of Salicylaldehyde with 1-Bromobutane in Acetone: Two Related Examples of Chemical Problem Solving  Holly D. Bendorf and Chriss E. McDonald
Each student performs his or her own experimental work, running one of the two reactions, and acquiring the proton and carbon NMR, IR, and mass spectra. The students work in groups to propose structures for the products and mechanisms for their formation. The students are also asked to address why the reactions take different courses.
Bendorf, Holly D.; McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1185.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Phenols |
IR Spectroscopy
Foundations of Spectroscopy (Oxford Chemistry Primers No. 78) (Simon Duckett and Bruce Gilbert)  Jeffrey Kovac
Principles are clearly explained followed by the important applications that are then illustrated by worked examples. The appropriate quantum mechanical results are used, but not derived.
Kovac, Jeffrey. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1006.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Photocatalysis, A Laboratory Experiment for an Integrated Physical Chemistry–Instrumental Analysis Course  Steven Gravelle, Beth Langham, and Brian V. Geisbrecht
Investigating the decomposition of bezoquinone or 2-chlorophenol in aqueous solution and the oxidative decomposition of trichloroethylene in the gas phase.
Gravelle, Steven; Langham, Beth; Geisbrecht, Brian V. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 911.
Catalysis |
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Photochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Measurement of Organics Using Three FTIR Techniques: Absorption, Attenuated Total Reflectance, and Diffuse Reflectance  M. E. Gebel, M. A. Kaleuati, and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts
Determination of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ethanol in vodka using attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and total hydrocarbons in soil samples using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).
Gebel, M. E.; Kaleuati, M. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 672.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Environmental Analysis in the Instrumental Lab: More Than One Way...  M. Sittidech and S. Street
Laboratory practical in which students are asked to complete a problem of quantitative analysis drawn from environmental hazards (acrolein and acrylonitrile) using available instrumentation (spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrochemical, and mass spectrometric techniques).
Sittidech, M.; Street, S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 376.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Applications of Chemistry
Identifying a Protein by MALDI–TOF Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory  Anne E. Counterman, Matthew S. Thompson, and David E. Clemmer
Experiment that requires students to use mass spectral data (MALDI-TOF) to find the identity of an unknown protein sample by performing a database search on the Internet.
Counterman, Anne E.; Thompson, Matthew S.; Clemmer, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 177.
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
Using Mass Spectrometry for Proteins  Martha M. Vestling
Description of laser desorption ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and the development of these two revolutionary analytical techniques.
Vestling, Martha M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 122.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Qualitative Analysis
Organic Structures from Spectra, 3rd Edition (by L. D. Field, S. Sternhell, and J. R. Kalman)   Alan M. Rosan
277 spectroscopy problems for a junior-level, applied spectroscopy course.
Rosan, Alan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1323.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
Quantitative Determination of Nicotine and Cotinine in Urine and Sputum Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  A. E. Witter, D. M. Klinger, X. Fan, M. Lam, D. T. Mathers, and S. A. Mabury
Quantifying a naturally formed metabolite that is a biochemical indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke.
Witter, A. E.; Klinger, D. M.; Fan, X.; Lam, M.; Mathers, D. T.; Mabury, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1257.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching Experimental Design Using a GC–MS Analysis of Cocaine on Money: A Cross-Disciplinary Laboratory  Christopher A. Heimbuck and Nathan W. Bower
An opportunity for students to develop and use experimental designs to refine and optimize an extraction technique from the literature.
Heimbuck, Christopher A.; Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1254.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research
Organic Spectroscopy–A Capstone Experience  Jan M. Fleischer
Experiment requiring students to make decisions regarding the likely structure of their sample based upon an IR spectrum before a final analysis with NMR spectroscopy.
Fleischer, Jan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1247.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Applications of Inorganic Mass Spectrometry (by John R. de Laeter)  Bill Boggess
Development of the field of inorganic mass spectroscopy.
Boggess, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1206.
Mass Spectrometry
Spectroscopy for Schools and Colleges [CD-ROM] (by the Royal Society of Chemistry and GlaxoWellcome)  Thomas H. Eberlein
Interactive CR-ROM to assist in learning the fundamentals of interpreting spectroscopy in organic chemistry.
Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1204.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Quantitative Measurement of Bromoform in Swimming Pool Water Using SPME with GC-MS. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Experiment  John R. Hardee, John Long, and Julie Otts

Hardee, John R.; Long, John; Otts, Julie. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 633.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Water / Water Chemistry
A One-Pot Synthesis of m-Terphenyls: A Guided Exploration of Reaction Chemistry, Chromatography, and Spectroscopy. A Miniproject for the Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Kishorekumar T. Anam, Michael P. Curtis, Muhammad J. Irfan, Michael P. Johnson, Andrew P. Royer, Kianor Shahmohammadi, and Thottumkara K. Vinod

Anam, Kishorekumar T.; Curtis, Michael P.; Irfan, Muhammad J.; Johnson, Michael P.; Royer, Andrew P.; Shahmohammadi, Kianor; Vinod, Thottumkara K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 629.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Reactive Intermediates
Determination of the Natural Abundances of Krypton and Xenon Isotopes Using Mass Spectrometry: A Demonstration of Isotopes and the Basis of Atomic Mass  David N. Blauch, Merlyn D. Schuh, and Felix A. Carroll

Blauch, David N.; Schuh, Merlyn D.; Carroll, Felix A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 584.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry
Identification of Flavor Components in Perfumes by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  Gerd Knupp, Peter Kusch, and Michael Neugebauer
Experiment for the identification of flavor components in commercial perfume through headspace-solid-phase extraction (HS-SPME) followed by GC-MS.
Knupp, Gerd; Kusch, Peter; Neugebauer, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 98.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry
Biocatalytic Lactone Generation in Genetically Engineered Escherichia coli and Identification of Products by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy  Chad Slawson, Jon Stewart, and Robert Potter
Performing Baeyer-Villiger oxidations using the enzyme cyclohexanone monooxygenase genetically engineered into a biocatalytic microorganism; analysis of the product through spectroscopy or chromatography (MS, TLC, or GC)
Slawson, Chad; Stewart, Jon; Potter, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1533.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Bioorganic Chemistry
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Practices and Techniques (by Howard E. Taylor)   John K. Sanders
Introductory text to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
Sanders, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1465.
Mass Spectrometry
Mass Spectral Fragmentation Patterns of Deuterated Butyl and Ethyl Acetates: An Easy Microscale Isotopic Labeling Experiment  Hengameh Zahedkargaran and Leverett R. Smith
Microscale experiment that illustrates the use of isotopic labeling to help confirm and interpret mass spectral fragmentation patterns.
Zahedkargaran, Hengameh; Smith, Leverett R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1379.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Gas Chromatography
Who Set the Fire? Determination of Arson Accelerants by GC-MS in an Instrumental Methods Course  David A. Sodeman and Sheri J. Lillard
Forensic-based experiment to motivate correct analytical procedures and careful interpretation of data by using gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy to identify the presence of an arson accelerant.
Sodeman, David A.; Lillard, Sheri J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1228.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Personalized Combined Organic Spectroscopy Problems--Online and in the Lab  Marjorie Kandel and Peter J. Tonge
Assigning individualized spectroscopy problems from SDBS, the Japanese National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research Spectroscopic Database, combined with a laboratory unknown.
Kandel, Marjorie; Tonge, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1208.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
News from Online: Teaching with Chemical Instrumentation on the Web  Thomas G. Chasteen
Variety of web-based animations on analytical instrumentation; WWW addresses for software, plug-ins, sites for images and animations, references for designing sites, and sites regarding specific analytical techniques.
Chasteen, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1144.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
A Model for Substantial Deviations from the Traditional Lecture Format for Graduate and Upper-Level Undergraduate Courses in Science--Lecture and Learning Classes  John Allison
Described here is one faculty member's attempt to make changes from the traditional lecture format that he believed in, to a format in which he was more involved in students' mastery of the material, a course with two 75-minute sessions per week: a formal, extended lecture day and a "learning day", the latter being a period dedicated to working through problems and examples.
Allison, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 965.
Mass Spectrometry |
Learning Theories
Determination of the Fatty Acid Content of Biological Membranes: A Highly Versatile GC-MS Experiment  Emeric Schultz and Michael Eugene Pugh
Analyzing bacterial membranes using GC-MS.
Schultz, Emeric; Pugh, Michael E. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 944.
Lipids |
Chromatography |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Membranes
Metal Complexes of Trifluoropentanedione. An Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Robert C. Sadoski, David Shipp, and Bill Durham
Investigation of the transition-metal complexes produced by the reactions of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) with 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedione; mass spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction products.
Sadoski, Robert C.; Shipp, David; Durham, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 665.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Mass Spectrometry |
Transition Elements |
Stoichiometry
A Strategy for Incorporating Hands-On GC-MS into the General Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Courses  Perry C. Reeves and Kim L. Pamplin
Students use the GC-MS to obtain spectra of the various halobenzenes. This vividly illustrates the differences in isotopic distributions of the halogens and the complications these differences present in calculating molar masses of compounds. The isotopic distribution of iron is then obtained from the mass spectrum of Fe(CO)5, and the students calculate the atomic mass of iron from this data.
Reeves, Perry C.; Pamplin, Kim L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 368.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds
Ruthenium Vinylidene and Acetylide Complexes. An Advanced Undergraduate Multi-technique Inorganic/Organometallic Chemistry Experiment  Andrew M. McDonagh, Geoffrey J. Deeble, Steph Hurst, Marie P. Cifuentes, and Mark G. Humphrey
This experiment describes the isolation and characterization of complexes containing examples of two important monohapto ligands; the particular strength of this experiment is in demonstrating the utility of a range of spectroscopic and analytical techniques in inorganic complex identification.
McDonagh, Andrew M.; Deeble, Geoffrey J.; Hurst, Steph; Cifuentes, Marie P.; Humphrey, Mark G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 232.
Electrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Mass Spectrometry Desk Reference (by O. David Sparkman)   Bill Boggess
Informative lexicon of mass spectrometric terminology.
Boggess, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 168.
Mass Spectrometry
Use of a Dynamic Headspace GC-MS Method for the Study of Volatile Organic Compounds in Polyethylene Packaging. An Undergraduate Experiment in Polymer Analysis  Steven C. Hodgson, R. John Casey, John D. Orbell, and Stephen W. Bigger

Hodgson, Steven C.; Casey, R. John; Orbell, John D.; Bigger, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1631.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Qualitative Analysis
ELISA and GC-MS as Teaching Tools in the Undergraduate Environmental Analytical Chemistry Laboratory  Ruth I. Wilson, Dan T. Mathers, Scott A. Mabury, and Greg M. Jorgensen

Wilson, Ruth I.; Mathers, Dan T.; Mabury, Scott A.; Jorgensen, Greg M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1619.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
A Biochemical GC-MS Application for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Determination of Fatty Acid Composition of Arabidopsis thaliana Lipids  Jared D. Bender, Arthur J. Catino III., Kenneth R. Hess, Michael E. Lassman, Phyllis A. Leber, Michael D. Reinard, Neil A. Strotman, and Carl S. Pike
A biochemical application of GC-MS in which students determine the qualitative and quantitative lipid composition of plant leaf samples is described.
Bender, Jared D.; Catino, Arthur J., III.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Lassman, Michael E.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Reinard, Michael D.; Strotman, Neil A.; Pike, Carl S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1466.
Chromatography |
Lipids |
Mass Spectrometry |
Plant Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
No, the Molecular Mass of Bromobenzene Is Not 157 amu: An Exercise in Mass Spectrometry and Isotopes for Early General Chemistry  Steven M. Schildcrout
Even with no background in bonding and structure, students can successfully interpret the output of a modern research instrument. They learn to identify an isotope pattern, assign chemical formulas to ions giving mass spectral peaks, calculate an average atomic weight (for bromine) from measured isotopic abundances, and write balanced equations for ion fragmentation reactions.
Schildcrout, Steven M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1433.
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  H. Robert Bergen III, Linda M. Benson, and Stephen Naylor
High school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry.
Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1325.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis
GC/MS: A Practical User's Guide
by Marvin McMaster and Christopher McMaster

  John K. Sanders
Important aspects of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry systems and techniques.
Sanders, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1282.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry

Significant Figures, the Periodic Table, and Mass Spectrometry: The Challenge of Large Biomolecules  Nancy Carter Dopke, Paul M. Treichel, and Martha M. Vestling
The number of significant figures required for meaningful mass spectrometric data for biomolecules is considered. Both resolution and calibration issues are addressed.
Dopke, Nancy Carter; Treichel, Paul M., Jr.; Vestling, Martha M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1065.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Proteins / Peptides
Chemical Actinometry: Using o-Nitrobenzaldehyde to Measure Lamp Intensity in Photochemical Experiments  Kristine L. Willett and Ronald A. Hites
The photochemical reaction of o-nitrobenzaldehyde (NBA) irradiated with a medium-pressure mercury vapor lamp is used to calculate the intensity of light over the wavelength range of 300-410 nm. The reactant disappearance rate can be quantitated by gas chromatography or by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry.
Willett, Kristine L.; Hites, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 900.
Kinetics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Photochemistry
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry and the European Discovery of America  R. S. Houk
The background and initial experimental results in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are juxtaposed with similar events from the voyages of Christopher Columbus, particularly with the first voyage.
Houk, R. Samuel. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 598.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Applications of Chemistry
Complete Analysis of a Biologically Active Tetrapeptide: A Project Utilizing Thin-Layer Chromatography and Tandem Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry  Joseph W. LeFevre and David W. Dodsworth
The biologically active tetrapeptide d-Ala-Gly-l-Phe-d-Leu ([des-Tyr1-d-Ala2-d-Leu5]enkephalin) is analyzed for its amino acid content and stereochemistry by normal and reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and its sequence is determined by tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.
LeFevre, Joseph W. ; Dodsworth, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 503.
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Stereochemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab
Gaseous-Ion Fragmentation Mechanisms in Chlorobenzenes by GC/MS and GC/MS/MS: A Physical-Chemical Approach for Undergraduates  Steven M. Schildcrout
Students use a tabletop PC-controlled ion-trap mass spectrometer with a GC inlet to obtain positive-ion electron-ionization mass spectra and collision-induced-dissociation mass spectra (MS/MS) for chlorobenzene and 1,2- and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.
Schildcrout, Steven M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 501.
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Gas Chromatography
Reaction of Morpholine with t-Butyl Acetoacetate: A Study in Kinetic vs Thermodynamic Control, Product Identification, and Molecular Modeling  A. Gilbert Cook and Pamela K. Kreeger
The reaction of morpholine with t-butyl acetoacetate in a one-to-one molar ratio will produce the corresponding enaminoester under kinetic control conditions and the ketoamide under thermodynamic control conditions.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Kreeger, Pamela K. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 90.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Computational Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Molecular Modeling
Analysis of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Fuels Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  Tal M. Nahir
The analysis of diesel fuel using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is described. The experiment is especially appropriate for courses in instrumental analysis and environmental chemistry. Results from the injections of small amounts of liquid samples include total-ion- and single-ion-mode chromatograms as well as mass spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives.
Nahir, Tal M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1695.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Pesticides in Drinking Water: Project-Based Learning within the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum  Patricia B. O'Hara, Jon A. Sanborn, and Meredith Howard
A new introductory chemistry module is described, which has as its central theme the measurement of trace levels of these xenoestrogens in the form of pesticides in the Town of Amherst's public drinking water. After a basic introduction to sample handling and measurement of pH, temperature, and conductivity, the students travel in small groups to several sites to collect water and perform preliminary characterization of their samples.
OHara, Patricia B.; Sanborn, Jon A.; Howard, Meredith. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1673.
Mass Spectrometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Toxicology |
Applications of Chemistry
The Separation and Identification of Some Brominated and Chlorinated Compounds by GC/MS: An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory  Rebecca M. O'Malley and Hsiao C. Lin
All the compounds used in the experiment contain more than one bromine or chlorine atom. Both bromine and chlorine occur naturally as two isotopes, and this leads to the observation of some interesting ion patterns in the mass spectra. The students use the relative intensities of the peaks within the patterns to help identify the molecular ion and major fragment ions in each of the mass spectra.
O'Malley, Rebecca M.; Lin, Hsiao C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1547.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Antacids Revisited with Modern Chemical Instruments: GCMS, AAS, and CCT  Stanley L. Burden and Christopher J. Petzold
This paper describes a novel experiment that requires students to obtain and interpret data from several analytical techniques to identify the brand name of a commercial antacid. They are required to design a set of experiments utilizing computer controlled titrations (CCT), atomic absorption (AA), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS), and careful quantitative manual titrations using a visual indicator of their choice to determine the brand name of their sample from a list of six to eight choices.
Burden, Stanley L.; Petzold, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1544.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
MacMS: A Mass Spectrometer Simulator: Abstract of Issue 9906M  Stephen W. Bigger and Robert A. Craig
MacMS is a program for Mac-OS compatible computers that simulates a magnetic sector mass spectrometer designed to operate in the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio range of 1-200 amu.
Bigger, Stephen W.; Craig, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1464.
Mass Spectrometry
Gradualism: A Method for Primary Instruction on Spectroscopic Analysis in Introductory Organic Chemistry  Christopher W. Alexander, Gary L. Asleson, Charles F. Beam, Marion T. Doig, Frederick J. Heldrich*, and Shannon Studer-Martinez
The pedagogical style of gradualism is described for the instruction of spectroscopic analysis in the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. Gradualism is defined as a series of steps or lessons that build one upon the other until the student is able to solve complex problems.
Alexander, Christopher W.; Asleson, Gary L.; Beam, Charles F.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J.; Studer-Martinez, Shannon. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1297.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Learning Theories
Spectroscopic Instruction in Introductory Organic Chemistry: Results of a National Survey  Christopher W. Alexander, Gary L. Asleson, Marion T. Doig, and Frederick J. Heldrich*
The survey results indicated that the spectroscopic techniques of IR, MS, proton NMR, and carbon NMR are core techniques in most courses. A considerable amount of the instruction in spectroscopy is occurring in both the laboratory and the lecture portions of the course.
Alexander, Christopher W.; Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1294.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Quantitative Determination of PAHs in Diesel Engine Exhausts by GC-MS  Paul Fleurat-Lessard, Karine Pointet, and Marie-France Renou-Gonnord
A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical protocol for quantitation of PAHs in diesel exhaust particles, adapted for a single laboratory period, is proposed. Gravitational chromatography is first used to isolate aromatic compounds. Then quantitative determination of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) is performed by GC-MS, using deuterated PAHs as internal standards.
Fleurat-Lessard, Paul; Pointet, Karine; Renou-Gonnord, Marie-France. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 962.
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Learning Theories |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gas Chromatography
Correction to "How Mathematics Figures in Chemistry: Some Examples" (J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 258-267)  John Andraos
With respect to the widths of parabolas discussed in Problem 3, shallow wells should be characterized as having the a parameter between 0 and 1 (0 < a < 1). The words "deep" and "shallow" appearing in the paragraph following eq 17 are incorrectly transposed.
Andraos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 897.
Mass Spectrometry |
Photochemistry
A Puzzling Alcohol Dehydration Reaction Solved by GC–MS Analysis  Michael W. Pelter and Rebecca M. Macudzinski
The reaction of 2-methyl-2-propanol with ~50% sulfuric acid at 100 C yields isobutylene, which reacts further by a "puzzling" reaction. By coupling the GC/MS analysis of the product mixture with their knowledge of the mechanism of alcohol dehydration and alkene reactivity, students are able to identify the major products of this reaction.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 826.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Alcohols |
Alkenes
An Introduction to the Fourier Transform: IntroFourierTransform.mcd and LectureIntroFT.mcd  Scott E. Van Bramer
IntroFourierTransform.mcd includes substantial student interaction by changing variables and written reflection exercises. The companion document, LectureIntroFT.mcd, designed for instructors to use interactively during lecture, is the abbreviated version of IntroFourierTransform.mcd.
Van Bramer, Scott E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 286.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Instrumental Methods
How Mathematics Figures in Chemistry: Some Examples  John Andraos
Four fundamental problems encountered in the education of chemists at the undergraduate and graduate levels are presented, with insightful solutions using mathematics as an important tool.
Andraos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 258.
Mass Spectrometry |
Photochemistry |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Analysis of Volatile Fragrance and Flavor Compounds by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction and GC-MS: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Experiment  Randolph C. Galipo, Alfredo J. Canhoto, Michael D. Walla, and Stephen L. Morgan
A senior-level undergraduate laboratory experiment that demonstrates the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the identification of volatile compounds in consumer products. SPME minimizes sample preparation and concentrates volatile analytes in a solvent-free manner.
Galipo, Randolph C.; Canhoto, Alfredo J.; Walla, Michael D.; Morgan, Stephen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 245.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Fundamentals, Instrumentation & Applications (edited by Richard B. Cole)  Howard D. Dewald
The text itself is divided into four parts constituting 15 chapters. The chapter contributors are leading users of ESI-MS. Part I addresses fundamental aspects of ESI; Part II covers ESI coupling to each of the common mass analyzers; Parts III and IV get to the important interfacing of solution techniques and applications.
Dewald, Howard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 33.
Mass Spectrometry |
Organometallics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Lipids
Incorporation of GC-MS into an Environmental Science Curriculum  Audrey E. McGowin and George G. Hess
Incorporating modern analytical instrumentation such as GC-MS into an interdisciplinary environmental science program presents many challenges. The most daunting challenge is the variety of disciplines from which students come and their limited understanding of chemistry and chemical analysis.
McGowin, Audrey E.; Hess, George G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 23.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
A New GC-MS Experiment for the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory in Environmental Chemistry: Methyl-t-butyl Ether and Benzene in Gasoline  Dinh T. Quach, Nancy A. Ciszkowski, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
In addition to illustrating the fundamentals of GC and MS, this experiment demonstrates (i) the use of internal standards to improve precision; (ii) the application of the method of standard additions; and (iii) the importance of techniques such as selected ion extraction/monitoring in the identification and measurement of specific highly volatile organic compounds in complex environmental mixtures.
Quach, Dinh T.; Ciszkowski, Nancy A.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1595.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers
Chemical Analysis of an Endangered Conifer: Environmental Laboratory Experiments  Royce S. Woosley and David J. Butcher
Elemental analysis of foliage was used to assess the effects of acidic deposition and pollution levels. Volatile compounds were identified and determined in foliage and other plant tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC. Chlorophylls a and b were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy by simultaneous analysis of a two-component mixture.
Woosley, Royce S.; Butcher, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1592.
Plant Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
A Scientific Approach to Cultural Heritage Preservation: A Case Study of Vandalistic Acts on Important Roman Mosaics  Enrico Ciliberto, Giuseppe Spoto, Mauro Matteini, and Concetto Puglisi
As an example of the way in which a scientific study can help the restorer in the restoration of important artistic works, the authors report the case study of vandalistic acts on important Roman mosaics.
Ciliberto, Enrico; Spoto, Giuseppe; Matteini, Mauro; Puglisi, Concetto. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1302.
Mass Spectrometry |
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
Forensic Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Understanding the Quadrupole Mass Filter through Computer Simulation  Colin Steel and Michael Henchman
The main features of the stability diagram for a quadrupole mass filter can be understood qualitatively using two concepts: (i) moderate RF voltages stabilize a trajectory; (ii) large RF voltages destabilize a trajectory. The trajectories of the ions traveling in the quadrupole are readily displayed pictorially for any set of operating conditions.
Steel, Colin; Henchman, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1049.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Mass Spectrometry |
Computational Chemistry
Design and Operation of a Portable Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer for the Undergraduate Curriculum  Michael Henchman and Colin Steel
We describe the design and construction of a teaching mass spectrometer from components that are available commercially. The instrument is transportable, robust, and inexpensive. It yields a mass spectrum 3 minutes after being switched on and is designed to be used by undergraduates and maintained by faculty without special instrumental skills.
Henchman, Michael; Steel, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1042.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Mass Spectrometry |
Computational Chemistry
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Instrumentation and Applications  David C. Muddiman, Ray Bakhtiar, Steven A. Hofstadler, and Richard D. Smith
This article introduces educators and researchers to the theory, principles, instrumentation, and some applications of MALDI-MS. Reflectron time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers are described in detail, since TOF is the most common mass analyzer for ions produced by MALDI.
Muddiman, David C.; Bakhtiar, Ray; Hofstadler, Steven A.; Smith, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1288.
Mass Spectrometry |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Ozonolysis Experiments Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Charlene M. Rhoads, George R. Farquar, and William F. Wood
A general method was developed for undergraduate laboratory instruction using ozonolysis at room temperature followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The simple ozonolysis apparatus described can be constructed from material found in most chemistry laboratories.
Rhoads, Charlene M.; Farquar, George R.; Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1220.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control in the Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclopentanol: A Two-Part Laboratory Experiment Utilizing the Gignard Reaction and GC-MS  Thomas Poon, Bradford P. Mundy, Jean McIntyre, Lesley Woods, Frank G. Favaloro Jr., and Christina A. Goudreau
A two part organic laboratory experiment illustrating the Grignard reaction and the concept of kinetic versus thermodynamic control is described. The dehydration is monitored by GC/MS and the experiment can be performed using macro and microscale techniques.
Poon, Thomas; Mundy, Bradford P.; MnIntyre, Jean; Woods, Lesley; Favaloro Jr.; Frank G.; Goudreau, Christina A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1218.
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Grignard Reagents
Quantitative Determination of Caffeine in Beverages Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  Janusz Pawliszyn, Min J. Yang, and Maureen L. Orton
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been applied to the analysis of various caffeinated beverages. Unlike the current methods, this technique is solvent free and requires no pH adjustments. The simplicity of the SPME-GC/MS method lends itself to a good undergraduate laboratory practice.
Pawliszyn, Janusz; Yang, Min J.; Orton, Maureen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1130.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils  Judith F. Rubinson and Jennifer Neyer-Hilvert

Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1106.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Identification of Volatile Flavor Components by Headspace Analysis: A Quick and Easy Experiment for Introducing GC/MS  Richard Kjonaas, Jean L. Soller, and Leslee A. McCoy
By placing a piece of chewing gum (Wrigley's) or a crushed piece of hard candy (LifeSavers or Runts) into a vial, followed by GC/MS analysis of a five microliter sample of the headspace, students are able to identify several of the volatile flavoring components which are present.
Kjonaas, Richard; Soller, Jean L.; McCoy, Leslee A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1104.
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
A General Chemistry Experiment Incorporating Synthesis and Structural Determination  Hal Van Ryswyk
An experiment for the general chemistry laboratory is described wherein gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) are used to characterize the products of a series of microscale reactions on vanillin.
Van Ryswyk, Hal. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 842.
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy
News from On-Line  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Helpful chemistry WWW sites.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 620.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Acyclic Saturated Ketones (the author replies)  Rowland, Alex T.
Use of deuterium exchange to identify ketones.
Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A296.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Acyclic Saturated Ketones  Harvey, T.G.
Use of deuterium exchange to identify ketones.
Harvey, T.G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A295.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Part III: Applications in Inorganic Chemistry and Synthetic Polymer Chemsitry  Cornelius E. C. A. Hop and Ray Bakhtiar
This paper extends the applications of ESI-MS in this series to a variety of inorganic systems.
Hop, Cornelius E. C. A.; Bakhtiar, Ray. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A162.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Polymerization |
Applications of Chemistry
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Part II: Applications in Characterization of Peptides and Proteins  Ray Bakhtiar, Steven A. Hofstadler, and Richard D. Smith
It is our hope in this article to answer the question: What do ESI-MS measurements tell researchers and how does this information assist their research?
Bakhtiar, Ray; Hofstadler, Steven A.; Smith, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A118.
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectroscopy: Part I. Instrumentation and Spectral Interpretation  Steven A. Hofstadler, Ray Bakhtiar, and Richard D. Smith
ESI-MS is now one of the most widely utilized and fastest growing mass spectrometric techniques for the analysis of biomolecular species. This article is intended to introduce the theory, principles, and instrumentation of ESI-MS to teachers, researchers, and future researchers with a rudimentary knowledge of ion formation, separation, and detection processes.
Hofstadler, Steven A.; Bakhtiar, Ray; and Smith, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A82.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
An LC/Particle Beam/MS Experiment for Undergraduates  Norman Sproch, Kelly J. Begin, and Robert J. Morris

Sproch, Norman; Begin, Kelly J.; Morris, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A33.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC
An Environmentally Significant Experiment Using GC/MS and GC Retention Indices in an Undergraduate Analytical Laboratory  Rebecca Guisto-Norkus, Giv Gounili, Peter Wisniecki, John A. Hubball, S. Ruven Smith, James D. Stuart
Students extract and analyze the additives from plastic food wrap, Tygon tubing and plastic soda bottles that have been crushed in a bottle return machine. The modifiers are extracted from the plastics using methylene chloride and/or methanol as solvents and the extracts are analyzed by GC/MS.
Guisto-Norkus, Rebecca; Gounili, Giv; Wisniecki, Peter; Hubball, John A.; Smith, S. Ruven; Stuart, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1176.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers: An Intuitive Look at the Math  James J. Leary and Rebecca L. Schmidt
The equations that describe ion trajectories within quadrupole mass spectrometers are examined as certain limiting conditions are approached. At these limits the simplified forms of the equations can be examined at the intuitive level. This approach circumvents the need to solve a challenging differential equation, but still provides chemists with a basis for understanding how operating parameters are varied to obtain spectra.
Leary, James J.; Schmidt, Rebecca L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1142.
Mass Spectrometry |
Chemometrics
A Simple Digital Interface for the HP 5985 Mass Spectrometer Using a PC  K uruppu A. N. Dharmasiri, Michael Davenport, Curtis M. Regentin, Jack F. Holland, J. Throck Watson
189. The design and construction of a simple digital interface for controlling a quadrupole mass spectrometer (HP 5985) and collecting data using a PC with an Intel 486 CPU is described.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 881.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in Nonscience Major Course Laboratory Experiments  Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos
Our efforts have centered on introducing prospective science communicators (film, video, radio, television, and journalism majors) to science relative to their majors and personal interests. Quality lecture-discussion topics, "mystery"-based laboratory activities have assisted in introducing and/or explaining specific areas of chemistry that attempt to reduce fear of subject matter.
Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 565.
Nonmajor Courses |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Forensic Chemistry |
Separation Science
Recent Advances in Archaeological Chemistry: A Summary of the Three Major Papers Presented as an Introduction to the Archeological Chemistry Symposium, Anaheim, California  Wen Chen and Mary Virginia Orna, O.S.U.
With the development of chemical and biochemical analyses, the task of the archaeological chemist has become more complex than ever over the past decade.
Wen Chen and Mary Virginia Orna, O.S.U. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 485.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes
In This Issue  
The instruments that chemists use in their research have changed dramatically in the past decades. The explosion in new techniques and their instrumental counterparts has been made possible by two significant advances.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 288.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
GC/MS of Unknown Esters for Teaching MS Fragmentation Patterns: A Combination Organic Experiment for Esterifying Unknown Alcohols and Determining their Structures by GC/MS  Ernest C. McGoran, Cameron Melton, and Darren Taitch
Students work together in groups of three to match fragmentation rules with actual MS data to identify each of three different unknowns, assigned individually for the conversion of their acetates.
McGoran, Ernest C.; Melton, Cameron; Taitch, Darren. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 88.
Alcohols |
Esters |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Richard F. Smith and Gaetano M. Cristalli
A laboratory to introduce the concept and technique of mass spectroscopy to introductory organic students; sample data and analysis included.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A160.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Biological Mass Spectrometry Present and Future (Matsuo, Takekiyo; Caprioli, Richard M.; Gross, Michael L.; Seyama, Yousuke)  
Monograph.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A19.
Mass Spectrometry |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
Mass Spectrometry Analogy on the Overhead Projector  Nancy C. Grim and Jerry L. Sarquis
Overhead projector demonstration of the principle behind mass spectroscopy.
Grim, Nancy C.; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 930.
Mass Spectrometry
1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry of 1-Phenyl-1,2-Dihaloethanes  Joseph R. Gandler, Kevin W. Kittredge, and Oliver L. Saunders
Procedure to introduce organic chemistry students to spectroscopic methods for characterizing structure and calculating 13C NMR chemical shifts.
Gandler, Joseph R.; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Saunders, Oliver L. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 855.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
GC/MS Analysis of the Aromatic Composition of Gasoline  Keith S. Kostecka, Ashraf Rabah, and Charles F. Palmer, Jr.
Procedure for examining 11 aromatics species in three unleaded regular-grade commercial fuels using GC/MS analysis; includes sample data.
Kostecka, Keith S.; Rabah, Ashraf; Palmer, Charles F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 853.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Using GC-MS to Determine Relative Reactivity Ratios   R. Daniel Bishop, Jr.
Experiment that demonstrates the use of GC-mass spectrometry in the separation and analysis of mixtures; also uses the GC-mass spectrometer to find the relative reactivity of primary, secondary, and tertiary hydrogens.
Bishop, R. Daniel, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 743.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry for Large Undergraduate Laboratory Sections  A. Illies, P. B. Shevlin, G. Childers, M. Peschke and J. Tsai
A gas chromatography - mass spectrometry experiment that allows each student in a large laboratory class to analyze the products of a simple organic synthesis.
Illies, A.; Shevlin, P. B.; Childers, G.; Peschke, M.; Tsai, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 717.
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Bromination of Disubstituted Arenes: Kinetics and Mechanism: GC/MS Experiments for the Instrumental Analysis and Organic Chemistry Labs  Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.
Experimental procedure using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to trace the progression of a reaction over time and determine the several possible steps of its mechanism; sample data and analysis included.
Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 460.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds
Crayons, Boxes, and Books: A Model for Mass Spectrometry  Crute, Thomas D.; Myers, Stephanie A.
Analogy for helping students to understand the basic principle and operation of mass spectrometry.
Crute, Thomas D.; Myers, Stephanie A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 232.
Mass Spectrometry
Trihalomethanes Produced in Humic Acid Reactions: A GC-MS Experiment for Instrumental Analysis  Brush, Robert C.; Rice, Gary W.
This lab was developed for an instrumental analysis course to determine quantitatively trihalomethanes produced from the chlorination of humic acids in the presence of various levels of bromide.
Brush, Robert C.; Rice, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A293.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Interpretation of Mass Spectra, 4th ed. (McLafferty, Fred W.; Turecek, Frantisek)  
Monograph.
J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A54.
Mass Spectrometry
Many Students and Only One GC/MS  Lawrence, Stephen S.
A procedure that allows one lab section of 16-20 students to individually perform real-time analyses using one GC/MS instrument.
Lawrence, Stephen S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 530.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Management |
Administrative Issues
Interpretation of mass spectra: A direct learning approach through software   Lehman, Thomas; Vagenin, Grigory
Software available from NIST makes it possible for students to peruse 735 carefully chosen spectra.
Lehman, Thomas; Vagenin, Grigory J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A316.
Mass Spectrometry
Applications of autosampling GC-MS in an introductory organic chemistry laboratory   Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J.
Incorporation of an automated GC-MS has allowed students to have access to state-of-the-art instrumentation in a cost-effective and pedagogically sound manner.
Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A290.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Microscale qualitative organic analysis   Goller, Edwin J.; Miller, John H.
Students gain critical thinking skills in an organic chemistry course by selecting their own chemical tests.
Goller, Edwin J.; Miller, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A159.
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab
GC/MS experiments for the organic laboratory: II. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of p-xylene   Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie
Experiments for the sophomore organic chemistry laboratory that make use of capillary gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy(MS), teach the use of MS fragmentation patterns in structure determination, and also illustrate the effects of reaction conditions on the product distribution in well-known reactions.
Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A150.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkylation
Models and molecules: A laboratory-based course in spectroscopy for the nonscience major   Werner, T. C.; Hull, L. A.
Recent general education curriculum requirements at the authors' institution led to the development of several laboratory-based courses for nonscience majors. One such course is presented in this paper.
Werner, T. C.; Hull, L. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 936.
Nonmajor Courses |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Animated demonstrations II: Mass spectrometer; single-crystal X-ray diffraction  Pavlik, Philip I.
A review of the second installment of this series.
Pavlik, Philip I. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 763.
X-ray Crystallography |
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectra of multi-halogen compounds: A student practical project  Holdsworth, David; Ching, Goh Siah; Hamid, Mohd Jamil bin Hj Abd
Synthesis of bromochloro analogues of DDT and examination of the products by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.
Holdsworth, David; Ching, Goh Siah; Hamid, Mohd Jamil bin Hj Abd J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 856.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Integrating research instrumentation with the general chemistry curriculum. Part I: Mass spectrometry  Eichstadt, Karen E.
A three-part exercise entitled "A Glimpse of Mass Spectrometry" was designed for students enrolled in the third quarter of a one-year, nonmajor course that surveyed organic and biological chemistry.
Eichstadt, Karen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 48.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses
Mass spec simulator  Armitage, Bruce D.
Files for up to 80 compounds can be edited and/ or created. The instrument responds realistically in terms of whether or not sample and operating conditions are appropriate.
Armitage, Bruce D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 781.
Mass Spectrometry
The early history of spectroscopy  Thomas, Nicholas C.
The history of this important set of tools and techniques.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 631.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Quantitative determination of the amino acid composition of a protein using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  Hamann, Christian S.; Myers, David P.; Rittle, Karla J.; Wirth, Edward F.; Moe, Owen A., Jr.
The experiment presented here uses GC-MS analysis of volatile N-trifluoroacetyl-n-butyl ester derivatives of amino acids to determine amino acid composition of a protein.
Hamann, Christian S.; Myers, David P.; Rittle, Karla J.; Wirth, Edward F.; Moe, Owen A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 438.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Liquid Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (Brown, M. A.)  Renfrew, Malcolm M.
No. 420 in the ACS Symposium series and covers a program of the Division of Agrochemicals at the Dallas meeting in 1989; presents applications of LC/MS in agricultural, pharmaceutical, and environmental chemistry.
Renfrew, Malcolm M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A221.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometer interface with an Apple II computer   Stahl, John W.
The author upgraded a low-cost mass spectrometer into a very functional instrument using a commercial computer interface, some hardware modification, and custom-written software.
Stahl, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A72.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Mass Spectrometry
From cyclohexanol to 2-alkylated cyclopentanones: An open-ended set of experiments for an upper level organic laboratory  Wintner, Claude E.
Students are given 50 g of cyclohexanol and asked to convert this to the maximum amount of adipic acid that they can.
Wintner, Claude E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 984.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Qualitative amino acid analysis of small peptides by GC/MS  Mabbott, Gary A.
Besides being appealing to students the exercise described here gives them experiences in derivation methods that are often necessary in order to make nonvolatile samples amenable to gas chromatography separation.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 441.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
The Wiley / NBS Registry of Mass Spectral Data, Volumes 1-7 (McLafferty, Fred W.; Stauffer, Douglas B.)  Johnston, Christine
40,000 spectra from the EPA / NIH database and over 70,000 spectra from the Wiley collection.
Johnston, Christine J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A256.
Mass Spectrometry
Organic spectroscopy  Hiatt, Richard
Six programs that generate and display infrared, proton NMR, carbon-13 NMR, and mass spectra.
Hiatt, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 927.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
An inexpensive sample holder for storage and introduction of air-sensitive organometallic compounds into a mass spectrometer with inert-atmosphere blanketing  Messerle, Louis; Mallis, Larry M.; Hatch, Peter J.
A simple sample holder that provides a rigorous inert gas blanketing of air-sensitive samples without the need for elaborate inert atmosphere enclosures on the spectrometer inlet.
Messerle, Louis; Mallis, Larry M.; Hatch, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 618.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Organometallics |
Mass Spectrometry
Some reminiscences of mass spectrometry and the Manhattan Project   Nier, Alfred O.
The need of the petroleum industry to find better means for analyzing complex hydrocarbon mixtures and the uranium isotope separation and atomic bomb production program (known as the Manhattan Project) stimulated the design and construction of new improved mass spectrometers.
Nier, Alfred O. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 385.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes
The mass spectrum of sulfur  Dudek, Gerald; Dudek, Emily P.
The concepts of isotopic abundance, mass defect, fragmentation, and nuclear binding energies are all illustrated in the readily interpretable spectrum of a nonorganic material.
Dudek, Gerald; Dudek, Emily P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 304.
Mass Spectrometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A personal-computer-based mass spectrometer data collection and interpretation program  Shofstahl, James H.; Hardy, James K.
MASSPEC is a series of programs developed for a PC that allows it to collect, display, manipulate, and store mass spectral data acquired with a mass spectrometer.
Shofstahl, James H.; Hardy, James K. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A205.
Mass Spectrometry
Simulation of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry experiment with a commercial spreadsheet program  Ghosh, Amit; Morison, David S.; Anderegg, Robert J.
A commercial spreadsheet program that can simulate gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.
Ghosh, Amit; Morison, David S.; Anderegg, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A154.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
An analogy for teaching interpretation of mass spectra  Mabbott, Gary A.
Some clever games and puzzles that scaffold student understanding of mass spectra.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1052.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
An integrated first-year laboratory experiment involving synthesis, spectroscopy, and chromatography of metal acetylacetonates  Glidewell, Christopher; McKenchnic, James S.
This article presents a comprehensive experiment, involving synthesis, thin-layer chromatography, interpretation of two types of NMR and mass spectra.
Glidewell, Christopher; McKenchnic, James S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1015.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Quantitative analysis by isotopic dilution using mass spectroscopy: The determination of caffeine by GC-MS  Hill, Devon W.; Mcsharry, Brian T.; Trzupek, Larry S.
The authors present a procedure for the determination of caffeine by isotopic dilution that is a reasonable exercise for an upper-level course in instrumental analysis.
Hill, Devon W.; Mcsharry, Brian T.; Trzupek, Larry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 907.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Algebraic enumeration and generation of molecular formulas for a given molecular weight  Morikawa, Tetsuo
This paper discusses how to find f(w) for given w and to construct all of the f(w) molecular formulas.
Morikawa, Tetsuo J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1053.
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry
Introducing plastic in the laboratory: Synthesis of a plasticizer, dioctylphthalate and evaluation of its effects on the physical properties of polystyrenes  Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L.
These authors are proposing a two-stage experimental approach that combines preparative organic chemistry and polymer characterization.
Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 811.
Esters |
Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Radioactive dating: A method for geochronology  Rowe, M. W.
The discovery of radioactivity, radioactive dating, and various dating methods.
Rowe, M. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 580.
Geochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry
Iron-sulfur-carbonyl and -nitrosyl complexes: A laboratory experiment  Glidewell, Christopher; Hyde, Andrew R.; McKechnie, James S.; Pogorzelec, Peter J.
Preparation of Fe3(CO)12 and Fe2(CO)6(SMe)2; involves the use of inert atmosphere techniques, thin-layer and flexible column chromatography, and the interpretation of IR, 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectral data.
Glidewell, Christopher; Hyde, Andrew R.; McKechnie, James S.; Pogorzelec, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 534.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
"Delta plots"A new way to visualize electronic excitation  Morrison, Harry; Jorgensen, William L.; Bigot, Bernard; Severance, Daniel; Munoz-Sola, Yldefonso; Strommen, Randy; Pandey, Bipin
Generating electron density surfaces to illustrate electronic transitions in organic molecules (with examples and applications from photochemistry and mass spectrometry).
Morrison, Harry; Jorgensen, William L.; Bigot, Bernard; Severance, Daniel; Munoz-Sola, Yldefonso; Strommen, Randy; Pandey, Bipin J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 298.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy
A modern GS/MS/data system  Karasek, Francis W.; Viau, Alan C.
Describes the design, use, and advantages of a gas chromatography / mass spectrometer / computerized data system.
Karasek, Francis W.; Viau, Alan C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A233.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Employing data management software for the production and searching of customized mass spectral libraries  Gouge, Edward M.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. Creating a customized computer data base for mass spectra and similar data.
Gouge, Edward M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 787.
Mass Spectrometry
Analytical chemistry of surfaces. Part III. Ion spectroscopy  Hercules, David M.; Hercules, Shirley H.
Analysis of surfaces through secondary-ion mass spectrometry and ion-scattering spectroscopy.
Hercules, David M.; Hercules, Shirley H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 592.
Surface Science |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Is sugar from sugar beets the same as sugar from sugar cane?  Fernelius, W. Conard
It is possible to determine whether sugar came from cane or beets using a mass spectrometer.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 249.
Carbohydrates |
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes |
Plant Chemistry
Updated student-use programs for the calculation of mass spectral isotope patterns   Mattson, B. M.; Carberry, Edward
44. Bits and pieces, 16. An updated and improved computer program that quantitatively calculates the theoretical values for the relative intensities of the mass spectrum peaks for compounds containing any of the first 92 elements.
Mattson, B. M.; Carberry, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 736.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Mass spectral interpretation using the "rule of '13'"  Bright, J. W.; Chen, E. C. M.
A simple method for the determination of potential chemical formulae for a given molecular weight has been developed in undergraduate and graduate spectroscopic identification courses at the University of Houston at Clear Lake City. This procedure has proven to be a useful supplement to the conventional methods of mass spectral interpretation.
Bright, J. W.; Chen, E. C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 557.
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Separation and analysis of citral isomers: an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A.
In this laboratory, the authors have introduced students to HPLC, mass spectrometric analysis, and the separation of thermally sensitive materials by vacuum distillation.
Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 434.
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Mass spectral analysis of halogen compounds   Holdsworth, David K.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A pocket calculator can be programmed to decide and display the halogen combination in a molecular-ion cluster by examination of the (M+2)/M or (X+2)/X percentage values.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 103.
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry
The determination of the natural abundance of isotopes of chlorine: An introductory experiment in mass spectrometry  O'Malley, Rebecca M.
Analysis of the mass spectra of dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and trichlorotrifluoroethane are used to determine the natural abundance of isotopes of chlorine.
O'Malley, Rebecca M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1073.
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry
Mass-selective laser photoionization  Smalley, R. E.
Theory and method for detecting single molecules. From the State-of-the-Art Symposim V, Counting molecules - Approaching the limits of chemical analysis.
Smalley, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 934.
Lasers |
Mass Spectrometry
Counting molecules by desorption ionization and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry  Cooks, R. G.; Busch, K. L.
Discusses desorption ionization and mass spectrometry / mass spectrometry and shows how they can increase signal and signal-to-noise ratios. From the State-of-the-Art Symposim V, Counting molecules - Approaching the limits of chemical analysis.
Cooks, R. G.; Busch, K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 926.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Methods of analysis of picogram quantities of organic substances in real samples  Gross, Michael L.
Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy can be used to reliably detect picogram quantities of organic chemical substances in real samples. From the State-of-the-Art Symposim V, Counting molecules - Approaching the limits of chemical analysis.
Gross, Michael L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 921.
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Counting the atoms: Some applications in chemistry  Hurst, G. S.
Methods for counting atoms using resonance ionization spectroscopy and some of its applications. From the State-of-the-Art Symposim V, Counting molecules - Approaching the limits of chemical analysis.
Hurst, G. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 895.
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Geochemistry
Transport of caffeine through Millipore filter  Rujimethabhas, Manit; Crossley, John
Examines the permeation of caffeine through a prepared diffusion cell.
Rujimethabhas, Manit; Crossley, John J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 876.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Membranes
Mass spectra of organic compounds containing bromine and chlorine  Holdsworth, David K.
32. Bits and pieces, 12.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 780.
Mass Spectrometry
APPLESEARCH - A mass spectral search system  Traeger, John C.
32. Bits and pieces, 12.
Traeger, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 779.
Mass Spectrometry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simulation of chemical instrumentation. II: A program for the synthesis of mass spectral isotopic abundances  Brownawell, Marilyn L.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr.
31.
Brownawell, Marilyn L.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 663.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes
Spectroscopy in organic chemistry at the introductory level  Gurst, Jerome E.
This author has found that the use of a limited series of compounds allow students to focus attention on the spectra rather than the structural formulas of many compounds. This allows students to grasp the significance of the spectral measurements in a minimal time period.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 511.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Ion-molecule reactions in gas phase radiation chemistry  Willis, Clive
In this paper the authors explore some of the aspects of the radiation chemistry of gases and focus on the ion-molecule and charge neutralization reactions which set study of the gas phase apart. Understanding of the radiation chemistry of gases draws heavily on inputs from other disciplines.
Willis, Clive J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 88.
Gases |
Mass Spectrometry |
Astrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Reactions
A simple system to illustrate mass spectrometry principles  Finet, Daniel
A simple didactic system that enables one to simulate the different operations of a mass spectrometer and the necessary conditions for ionic refocusing.
Finet, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 232.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
High resolution mass spectra analysis with a programmable calculator  Holdsworth, David K.
Calculator programs to analyze mass spectra data.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 99.
Mass Spectrometry
An interpretive experiment in ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy  Burnier, R. C.; Freiser, B. S.
Provides the student with typical ICR spectra with directives aimed toward their interpretation and analysis as they apply to ion identification, ion-molecule reaction sequences, acid-base properties, kinetics, and thermochemistry.
Burnier, R. C.; Freiser, B. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 687.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The bond energy of CH3-H: A physical chemistry experiment  Dorain, Paul B.
Requires a mass spectrometer coupled with a digital voltmeter.
Dorain, Paul B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 622.
Covalent Bonding |
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometer ionizer filament assembly repair  Melrose, Floyd C.
The authors share experience in the local repair of ionizer assemblies for the Finnigan model 300 Mass Spectrometer.
Melrose, Floyd C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 674.
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis
Pocket peak height intensity normalizer for mass spectra  Moore, Wilfred; Nelson, Derek; Goldsack, R. J.
The authors report a small, portable normalizer which can be readily fabricated from a transparent plastic such as Perspex.
Moore, Wilfred; Nelson, Derek; Goldsack, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 573.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
But if atoms are so tiny...  Kolb, Doris
Reviews the atomic theory, the laws of chemical combination, atomic weight scales, Avogadro's hypothesis, the development of the mass spectrograph, the meaning of atomic weight, and the difference between mass and weight in answering the question "If atoms are so small, how can we know how much they weigh?" [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 543.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Mass Spectrometry
A compact inexpensive gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer silicone rubber membrane separator  Scott, Richard B.; Brown, Peter
This interface should prove especially pertinent for those having a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph but unable to purchase a combination GC/MS instrument.
Scott, Richard B.; Brown, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 40.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Structural assignment of a C10H12O3 ester by mass spectroscopy. An undergraduate organic problem  Marchand, Alan P.; Jackson, Danny
The authors provide challenging problems to help students integrate spectroscopic methods.
Marchand, Alan P.; Jackson, Danny J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 390.
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Mass Spectrometry
Program FINL: A minicomputer based fragment loss analysis for mass spectroscopy  Evans, Joseph E.
This program provides users with a list of possible structures for the fragment ions and neutral losses occurring in an unknown mass spectrum of low or medium resolution.
Evans, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 198.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The latent heat of vaporization of an organic solid: An undergraduate experiment  Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O.
A series of experiments based on a mass spectrometer to help students visualize the latent heat of vaporization for a relatively involatile solid.
Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 730.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Illustrating gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. An undergraduate experiment  Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken
One lab period is used to separate and collect the components of a ketone mixture; the second lab period is used to explain and demonstrate the MS instrumentation and the interpretation of ketone spectra; and in part three the spectra of the separated ketones are analyzed by individual students.
Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 535.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Minicourses for many people. A format for the future?  Hill, John W.; Murray, Bruce B.; Pavlik, James W.
Describes a series of chemistry minicourses designed to meet the needs of a variety of students.
Hill, John W.; Murray, Bruce B.; Pavlik, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 515.
Food Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Isomer analysis by spectral methods  Poulton, Gerald A.
The use of NMR, UV and mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography to introduce students to the use of spectra to determine the products of a reaction and their relative amounts.
Poulton, Gerald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 397.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
The preparation and spectral analysis of toluene-a[alpha]-d  Ellis, Jerry W.; Buchanan, David H.
Provides dramatic visual evidence of the changes in IR, NMR, and mass spectra upon substitution of deuterium for hydrogen in a simple molecule.
Ellis, Jerry W.; Buchanan, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 265.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy
The effects of aryl substituents on ir, nmr, and mass spectra of N-t-butylbenzamides  Rubottom, George M.
The authors have developed this experiment in order to give students the opportunity to carry out a high yield synthetic reaction coupled with an analysis of the effects of substituents on the IR, NMR, and mass spectral properties of the compounds prepared.
Rubottom, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 616.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Computer analysis of isotope clusters in mass spectrometry  Bell, Harold M.
The author has made an effort to avoid some of the typical difficulties a encountered when students first learn to perform computer analysis.
Bell, Harold M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 548.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Isotopes
Adaptation of a mass spectrometer for gaseous samples  Miller, D. P.
Gas samples are excellent for teaching students how to use a mass spectrometer.
Miller, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 519.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gases
Identification of mass spectrum peaks  Mantei, Kenneth A.; Hunter, Richard L.
An interactive Basic language program has been written to aid the assignment of mass numbers to peak on output charts of mass spectrometers which scan logarithmically.
Mantei, Kenneth A.; Hunter, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 213.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Mass Spectrometry  

J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 644.
Mass Spectrometry
Relative isotopic abundances in halogenated methane fragments. An undergraduate experiment  Leech, J. R.; Daugherty, K. E.
A mass spectrometer experiment at the sophomore level in analytical chemistry is designed for the determination of the relative isotopic abundances of halogenated methane fragments and the subsequent comparison with known abundances.
Leech, J. R.; Daugherty, K. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 569.
Mass Spectrometry
A new program for the calculation of mass spectrum isotope peaks  Mattson, Bruce; Carberry, Edward
A Fortran V program that calculates the theoretical values for the relative intensities of the mass spectrum peaks for compounds containing any of the first 92 elements.
Mattson, Bruce; Carberry, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 511.
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometer for solid samples  Maestro, Carlos Jose; Maestro, Juan Carlos
This article describes the construction and operation of a mass spectrometer for solid samples.
Maestro, Carlos Jose; Maestro, Juan Carlos J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 439.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Spectroscopic Tricks. Volume 2 (May, Leopold)  Kagel, R. O.

Kagel, R. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A398.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Analytical applications of high resolution mass spectrometry  Abramson, Fred P.
Elaborates on the analytical applications of high resolution mass spectrometry
Abramson, Fred P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A283.
Mass Spectrometry
An interactive mass spectral search system  Heller, Stephen R.; Fales, Henry M.; Milne, G. W. A.
Briefly describes an interactive mass spectral search system and the options for searching the database.
Heller, Stephen R.; Fales, Henry M.; Milne, G. W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 725.
Mass Spectrometry
Rapid calculation of molecular formulas from mass values  Lederberg, Joshua
Presents a table of mass fractions for all combinations of H, N, O, for the rapid calculation of molecular formulas from mass values.
Lederberg, Joshua J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 613.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry
A general approach to calculating isotope abundance ratios in mass spectroscopy  Hugentobler, E.; Loliger, J.
Presents a mathematical model for determining isotope abundance ratios in mass spectroscopy.
Hugentobler, E.; Loliger, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 610.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry
Variable scale for mass spectral relative ion abundance measurement  Katcher, M. L.
The use of a variable scale allows one to obtain the relative ion abundances directly from the mass spectrum without the necessity of using arithmetic manipulations and/or desk calculators.
Katcher, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 567.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Practical problems in the cement industry solved by modern research techniques  Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Robertson, Les D.
Discussion of several problems encountered in the authors' investigations of problems in the cement industry.
Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Robertson, Les D. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 522.
Industrial Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Applications of Chemistry
Calculated relative intensities of the first eight isotopic lines in mass spectra of compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and chlorine atoms  Demayo, A.; Green, D. A.
Availability of a computer program that calculates the relative intensities of the first eight isotopic lines in mass spectra of compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and chlorine atoms.
Demayo, A.; Green, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 397.
Mass Spectrometry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of basic chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 328.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes
Fragmentation mechanisms in mass spectrometry  Campbell, M. M.; Runquist, O.
Presents a precise mechanistic notation that is useful in teaching fragmentation processes.
Campbell, M. M.; Runquist, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 104.
Mass Spectrometry |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Ethers |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Amides
A computer program for the prediction of mass spectrum isotope peaks  Dombek, Bernard D.; Lowther, John; Carberry, Edward
The authors designed a computer program in FORTRAN II for the IBM 1130 that calculates the theoretical values for the relative intensities of the mass spectrum peaks for compounds containing any number of and any combination of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, silicon, and germanium.
Dombek, Bernard D.; Lowther, John; Carberry, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 729.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Organometallics |
Isotopes
Appearance potential measurements by mass spectrometry. A physical chemistry experiment  Fass, Richard A.; Kendall, Steven G.
This paper describes an experiment used in a physical chemistry laboratory course, designed to introduce junior or senior students to the mass spectrometer.
Fass, Richard A.; Kendall, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 545.
Mass Spectrometry |
Electrochemistry
Laboratory computer analysis of mass spectrometric metastable ion signals  Brady, Leonard E.
Types of information available from mass spectroscopy.
Brady, Leonard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 469.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Mass Spectrometry
A mass spectroscopy experiment  Morse, Robert I.
The experiment described here demonstrates the use of mass spectrometry in determining the reaction path for CH3CH2OH+ and its homologs.
Morse, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 398.
Mass Spectrometry |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Atlas of mass spectral data. 3 Vol. (Stenhagen, E.; Abrahamsson, S.; McLafferty, F. W.)  Lippincott, W. T.

Lippincott, W. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A64.
Mass Spectrometry
The calculation of relative abundance of isotope clusters in mass spectrometry  Gorman, Mel; DeMattia, Dennis; Doonan, Daniel; Gohlke, R. S.
Describes the calculation of relative abundance of isotope clusters in mass spectrometry.
Gorman, Mel; DeMattia, Dennis; Doonan, Daniel; Gohlke, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 467.
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Chemometrics
Mass spectrometers - Part three - Commercial spectrometers  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines a variety of commercial mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A233.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mass spectrometers - Part two  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines mass-analyzer systems and detectors as well as the resolution and performance of mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A149.
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Mass spectrometers. Part 1  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines ion sources, sample handling, vacuum systems, and using the mass spectrometer to monitor the effluent from a gas chromatograph.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A69.
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
Mass spectrometry of organic compounds (Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Djerassi, Carl; Williams, Dudley H.)  Meyerson, Seymour

Meyerson, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A438.
Mass Spectrometry
Problems in spectroscopy - Organic structure determination by NMR, IR, UV, and mass spectra (Trost, Barry M.)  Danforth, Joseph D.

Danforth, Joseph D. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A242.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Spectrometric identification of insect sex attractants  Silverstein, Robert M.
Uses spectrometric methods to identify the sex attractants of three types of beetle pests.
Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 794.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy
Preparation and characterization of mesitylene tricarbonyl molybdenum (O): An experiment in organometallic chemistry  Angelici, Robert J.
This procedure illustrates a preparation conducted under an inert atmosphere, compound purification by sublimation, and identification of a product by infrared and proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy.
Angelici, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 119.
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Interpretation of mass spectra: An introduction (McLafferty, F. W.)  Meyerson, Seymour

Meyerson, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 430.
Mass Spectrometry
Introduction to mass spectrometry and its applications (Kiser, Robert W.)  Rosenstock, Henry

Rosenstock, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 394.
Mass Spectrometry
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part three: Miscellaneous  Eisner, Leonard
Considers magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, atomic beam spectroscopy, mass spectrometers, chromatography, electrochemistry, electron diffraction, field emission microscopes, glass blowing and vacuum systems, high and low temperatures, and ultrasonics.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A607.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Magnetic Properties |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mass spectrometry (McDowell, C. A., ed.)  Gohlke, R. S.

Gohlke, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A472.
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry, part two  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A.
Considers the applications of mass spectrometry and various commercial mass spectrometers.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A153.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A.
Examines the theory of mass spectroscopy and factors that influence mass spectra.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A75.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Interpretation of mass spectra of organic compounds (Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Djerassi, Carl; Williams, Dudley H.)  Silverstein, Robert M.

Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 464.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Mass spectrometry: Organic chemical applications (Biemann, Klaus)  Silverstein, R. M.

Silverstein, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A596.
Mass Spectrometry
The chemical behavior of ions in gases  Franklin, J. L.
Presents research regarding the chemical behavior of ions in gases as examined using a mass spectrometer.
Franklin, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 284.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gases |
Reactions
Spectrometric identification of organic compounds  Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton
Presents a sequence of procedures for identifying an unknown organic liquid using mass, NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy, along with specific examples of unknowns and their spectra,
Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 546.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Advances in Mass Spectrometry (Waldron, J. D., ed.)  Moore, Walter J.

Moore, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A486.
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Ion-molecule reactions  Hamill, William H.
The study of the reactions between gaseous ions and molecules is currently the subject of renewed activity, both because of its intrinsic interest and because of its fundamental significance to radiation chemistry.
Hamill, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 346.
Reactions |
Gases |
Mass Spectrometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Continuous analysis  Lewis, C. D.
Describes the history and instrumentation involved in continuous analysis.
Lewis, C. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 87.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Instrumental analysis and physical measurement  Voter, R. C.
Examines a variety of spectrophotometric methods, including mass spectrometry, emission spectroscopy, microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy.
Voter, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 83.
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties
The use of mass spectrometry in organic analysis  Eliel, Ernest L.; Prosser, Thomas J.; Young, George W.
Examines the applications of mass spectroscopy to organic chemistry, particularly with respect to quantitative analysis.
Eliel, Ernest L.; Prosser, Thomas J.; Young, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 72.
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis