TIGER

Journal Articles: 556 results
Integrating Statistical Mechanics with Experimental Data from the Rotational–Vibrational Spectrum of HCl into the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Bret R. Findley and Steven E. Mylon
Presents a computer exercise that bridges spectroscopy and thermodynamics using statistical mechanics and the experimental data taken from the rotationalvibrational spectrum of HCl.
Findley, Bret R.; Mylon, Steven E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1670.
IR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Spectroscopy |
Statistical Mechanics
Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis  Miranda L. Cheney, Michael J. Zaworotko, Steve Beaton, and Robert D. Singer
Describes experiments that can easily be adapted to a typical undergraduate organic chemistry course and are inexpensive, relatively safe, require little or no solvent, have high atom economy, make use of non-toxic or low toxicity compounds, and generate negligible quantities of waste.
Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1649.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Solid State Chemistry |
Synthesis
Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex  Vincent Ritleng, Eric Brenner, and Michael J. Chetcuti
Describes a four-part experiment that provides an excellent example of N-heterocyclic carbeneligand preparation and its subsequent complexation to a transition metal, as well as opportunities for students to learn standard Schlenk techniques and characterize products through 1H NMR spectroscopy.
Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1646.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Synthesis
Designing and Conducting a Purification Scheme as an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Practical  Kate J. Graham, Brian J. Johnson, T. Nicholas Jones, Edward J. McIntee, and Chris P. Schaller
Describes an open-ended laboratory practical that challenges students to evaluate when different purification techniques are appropriate.
Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Schaller, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1644.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils  Molly W. Crowther
This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of five edible and structurally similar fats and oils for average chain length, degree of unsaturation, and trans fat content.
Crowther, Molly W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1550.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Fatty Acids
The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone  Patty L. Feist
This paper describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach and a compound with real-world applications. The experiment also affords students practice in extraction as well as IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1548.
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The Synthesis of N-Benzyl-2-azanorbornene via Aqueous Hetero Diels–Alder Reaction  Xavier Sauvage and Lionel Delaude
Characterization of the product of this organic synthesis through IR and NMR data analysis provides valuable material to familiarize students with different types of protonproton coupling patterns and their typical ranges, serves to illustrate the concepts of green chemistry and atom efficiency, and can be used to exemplify structural analysis and computational studies.
Sauvage, Xavier; Delaude, Lionel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1538.
Alkenes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
Borohydride Reduction of Estrone  Animesh Aditya, David E. Nichols, and G. Marc Loudon
This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity using chiral hindered ketones that undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride. The resulting diastereomeric estradiols can be analyzed and differentiated by thin-layer chromatography and melting point.
Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1535.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Steroids |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Electrochemical Synthesis of Transition-Metal Acetylacetonates  S. R. Long, S. R. Browning, and J. J. Lagowski
The electrochemical synthesis of transition-metal acetylacetonates can assist in the transformation of an entry-level laboratory course into a research-like environment where all members of a class are working on the same problem, but each student has a personal responsibility for the synthesis and characterization of a specific compound.
Long, S. R.; Browning, S. R.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1429.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Green, Guided-Inquiry Based Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Eric Eby and S. Todd Deal
This alternative, electrophilic aromatic substitutionan iodination reaction of salicylamide, a popular analgesicuses environmentally friendly reagents and serves as a guided-inquiry experiment in which students are asked to predict the orientation of the substitution reaction and determine the product's structure using FT-IR spectroscopy.
Eby, Eric; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1426.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Synthesis of the Commercial Antidepressant Moclobemide   Jesse D. More
Describes an experiment for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the commercial antidepressant drug moclobemide, marketed under the trade name Manerix, in one step using commercially available material. The purity and identity of the product are confirmed by melting point and NMR and IR spectroscopy.
More, Jesse D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1424.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Birge–Sponer Estimation of the C–H Bond Dissociation Energy in Chloroform Using Infrared, Near-Infrared, and Visible Absorption Spectroscopy  M. L. Myrick, A. E. Greer, A. A. Nieuwland, R. J. Priore, J. Scaffidi, Danielle Andreatta, and Paula Colavita
The fundamental and overtone vibrational absorption spectroscopy of the CH unit in CHCl3 is measured for transitions from the ? = 0 energy level to ? = 1 through ? = 5 energy levels. These data are then used as the basis for a BirgeSponer estimation of the dissociation energy for the CH bond in chloroform.
Myrick, M. L.; Greer, A. E.; Nieuwland, A. A.; Priore, R. J.; Scaffidi, J.; Andreatta, Daniele; Colavita, Paula. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1276.
Covalent Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Comparative Nucleophilicity of Naphthoxide Derivatives in Reactions with a Fast-Red TR Dye  Cheryl M. Mascarenhas
In this experiment, organic chemistry students perform reactions between three naphthyl acetate derivatives and the diazonium salt Fast-Red TR. Students discover under what conditions the hydrolysis and electrophilic aromatic substitution is fastest and slowest, allowing them to conclude that latter, rather than the former, is rate-limiting.
Mascarenhas, Cheryl M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1271.
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
An Exercise on Structure Elucidation Based on a Tricky Aldol Reaction  Manuel González Sierra, Silvina C. Pellegrinet, María I. Colombo, and Edmundo A. Rúveda
To determine the structure of an unknown product, students are required to use spectra in conjunction with an organic chemistry mechanism. This exercise exemplifies a common research procedure, highlights the potential of modern one- and two-dimensional NMR, and helps students develop problem-solving skills.
González Sierra, Manuel; Pellegrinet, Silvina C.; Colombo, María I.; Rúveda, Edmundo A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1094.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy
Understanding Why Researchers Should Use Synchrotron-Enhanced FTIR Instead of Traditional FTIR  Michelle R. Stem
Synchrotron-enhanced Fourier transform infrared (SRFTIR) excels over traditional FTIR at examining the detailed properties of IR-responsive speciesincluding trace elements, chemical structures, biological specimens, chemical reactions (pump-probe), small or dilute specimens, and molecular matriceswith superior signal-to-noise ratios, brightness, and ability to conduct long-duration scans without altering sample properties.
Stem, Michelle R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 983.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
The Preparation and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Library of Esters  Elizabeth M. Sanford and Traci L. Smith
In this investigative case study, students work collaboratively to prepare and characterize a library of esters using Fischer esterification and alcoholysis of acid chlorides and their subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis by pig liver and orange peel esterases.
Sanford, Elizabeth M.; Smith, Traci L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 944.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Esters |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Safe and Efficient Technique for the Production of HCl/DCl Gas  Steven G. Mayer, Raymond R. Bard, and Kevin Cantrell
Presents a safe and efficient, microscale technique to generate HCl/DCl gas at atmospheric pressure for use in the classic physical chemistry experiment that introduces students to ro-vibrational spectroscopy.
Mayer, Steven G.; Bard, Raymond R.; Cantrell, Kevin. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 847.
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab
Solution of the Schrödinger Equation for a Diatomic Oscillator Using Linear Algebra  Zbigniew L. Gasyna
Proposes a computational experiment in which a linear algebra method is applied to the solution of the Schrdinger equation for a diatomic oscillator. Calculations of the vibrationrotation spectrum for the HCl molecule are presented and the results show excellent agreement with experimental data.
Gasyna, Zbigniew L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 845.
Computational Chemistry |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Determination of Hammett Equation Rho Constant for the Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Benzoate Esters  Sheue L. Keenan, Karl P. Peterson, Kelly Peterson, and Kyle Jacobson
In this experiment, seven p-nitrophenyl benzoate esters are synthesized and characterized. Students then measure the rate constants for the base hydrolysis of these esters using UV-vis spectrophotometry and determine the Hammett equation constant for this hydrolysis reaction.
Keenan, Sheue L.; Peterson, Karl P.; Peterson, Kelly; Jacobson, Kyle. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 558.
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Synthesis and Characterization of 9-Hydroxyphenalenone Using 2D NMR Techniques  Benjamin Caes and Dell Jensen Jr.
The synthesis of 9-Hydroxyphenalenone produces a planar multicyclic beta-ketoenol, the tautomerization of which results in C2v symmetry on the NMR time scale, thus simplifying the spectra and providing a unique structure for teaching 2D NMR spectroscopy.
Caes, Benjamin; Jensen, Dell, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 413.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Integrating Advanced High School Chemistry Research with Organic Chemistry and Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Brian J. Kennedy
Describes the unique opportunities in chemistry available at a science and technology magnet high school. Students may select entry-level courses such as honors and advanced placement chemistry, take electives in organic chemistry with instrumental methods of analysis, and ultimately complete a senior chemical analysis research course.
Kennedy, Brian J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 393.
Applications of Chemistry |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Student-Centered Learning
Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories  Caleb A. Arrington, Jameica B. Hill, Ramin Radfar, David M. Whisnant, and Charles G. Bass
This article describes a discovery experiment in which organic chemistry students act as mentors to general chemistry students. Members from both groups work together to isolate an unknown compound using distillation. The structure of the product is then determined collaboratively using IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 288.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
A Simple Experiment in the Separation of a Solid-Phase Mixture and Infrared Spectroscopy for Introductory Chemistry  Paul S. Szalay
In this guided-inquiry experiment, a two-component solid mixture of caffeine and ibuprofen is separated through a series of solution extractions and precipitations. The components are then analyzed using IR spectrophotometry to determine how effectively they were separated.
Szalay, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
ATR–FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Jennifer D. Schuttlefield, Sarah C. Larsen, and Vicki H. Grassian
Discusses the use of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in upper-level physical chemistry laboratories and presents a new experiment involving the adsorption of ions from solution onto oxide particle surfaces that introduces students to surface adsorption, oxide surface chemistry, and environmental interfacial processes.
Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 282.
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Quantum Chemistry |
Surface Science
ATR–FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Jennifer D. Schuttlefield and Vicki H. Grassian
Presents several examples of the use of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, including measuring the infrared spectra of solid and liquid organic compounds commonly used as unknowns and of inorganic solids synthesized by students.
Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Grassian, Vicki H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 279.
IR Spectroscopy |
Liquids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Undergraduate Research
Introducing Chemometrics to the Analytical Curriculum: Combining Theory and Lab Experience  Michael K. Gilbert, Robert D. Luttrell, David Stout, and Frank Vogt
The capabilities and limitations of two common chemometric algorithms, classical least squares and principal component regression, are explored and a method for introducing these techniques into an analytical chemistry curriculum is described.
Gilbert, Michael K.; Luttrell, Robert D.; Stout, David; Vogt, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 135.
Calibration |
Chemometrics |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Liquids
Electroanalytical and Spectroscopic Studies of Poly(2,2′-bithiophene)-Modified Platinum Electrode To Detect Catechol in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid   S. K. Lunsford, Nicole Speelman, Jelynn Stinson, Amber Yeary, Justyna Widera, Hyeok Choi, and Dionysios D. Dionysiou
This article describes an undergraduate laboratory for an instrumental analysis course that integrates electroanalytical chemistry and infrared spectroscopy. Students learned how to prepare a poly(2,2'-bithiophene)-modified platinum sensor electrode for the detection of catechol in the presence of ascorbic acid.
Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Stinson, Jelynn; Yeary, Amber; Widera, Justyna; Choi, Hyeok; Dionysiou, Dionysios D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 128.
Alcohols |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products
Observation and Analysis of N2O Rotation–Vibration Spectra  Mark S. Bryant, Scott W. Reeve, and William A. Burns
The linear molecule N2O is presented as an alternative gas-phase species for the ubiquitous undergraduate physical chemistry rotationvibration spectroscopy experiment.
Bryant, Mark S.; Reeve, Scott W.; Burns, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 121.
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Regioselectivity in Organic Synthesis: Preparation of the Bromohydrin of α-Methylstyrene  Brad Andersh, Kathryn N. Kilby, Meghan E. Turnis, and Drew L. Murphy
In the described experiment, the regiochemical outcome of the addition of "HOBr" to a-methylstyrene is investigated. Although both "classic" qualitative analysis and instrumental techniques are described, the emphasis of this experiment is on the utilization 13C and DEPT-135 NMR spectroscopy to determine the regiochemical outcome of the addition.
Andersh, Brad; Kilby, Kathryn N.; Turnis, Meghan E.; Murphy, Drew L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 102.
Addition Reactions |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts of Tricyclic Cationic Drugs: A One-Pot Synthesis for the Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Linda S. Brunauer, Abid C. Mogannam, Won B. Hwee, and James Y. Chen
Describes a one-pot conversion of tricyclic cationic drugs to their quaternary ammonium forms for a widely used bioactive drug, chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine-based antipsychotic. The conversion of parent drug to the methylated form was evaluated by qualitatively measuring its ability to induce alterations in the shape of mammalian erythrocytes.
Brunauer, Linda S.; Mogannam, Abid C.; Hwee, Won B.; Chen, James Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1992.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Isolation of Betulin and Rearrangement to Allobetulin  Brian Green, Michael D. Bentley, Bong Y. Chung, Nicholas G. Lynch, and Bruce L. Jensen
Betulin is obtained by extraction from birch bark and converted to allobetulin. Both compounds display 1H NMR spectra that include axialequatorial coupling characteristic of a C3-alcohol, conformational analysis by the use of dihedral angles and the Karplus equation, coupling patterns caused by diastereotopic protons and long-range interactions, and chemical shift values that are influenced by electronegativity and stereochemistry.
Green, Brian; Bentley, Michael D.; Chung, Bong Y.; Lynch, Nicholas G.; Jensen, Bruce L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1985.
Biosynthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Natural Products
Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  Bruce M. Branan, Joshua T. Butcher, and Lawrence R. Olsen
This organic laboratory involves the ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil) followed by a reductive workup that generates an aldehyde easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra.
Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1979.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Maleic Acid at Moderate Pressures  Kwesi Amoa
This article demonstrates the reduction of maleic acid in about 90 minutes using moderate-pressure catalytic hydrogenation.
Amoa, Kwesi. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1948.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Correcting Two Long-Standing Errors in Point Group Symmetry Character Tables  Randall B. Shirts
Examines two long-standing errors in published point group character tables.
Shirts, Randall B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1882.
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
MO Theory |
Theoretical Chemistry |
X-ray Crystallography
Making Student-Acquired Spectra Available via a Web Browser  Jennifer L. Muzyka, Ian M. Kaster, and Lucas W. Hatcher
This paper reports on an approach to make student-acquired spectral data available via a Web browser that allows instrument time to be dedicated to acquisition of spectra rather than time-consuming integration and printing.
Muzyka, Jennifer L.; Kaster, Ian M.; Hatcher, Lucas W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1871.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones  Nicholas G. Angelo, Laura K. Henchey, Adam J. Waxman, James W. Canary, Paramjit S. Arora, and Donald Wink
Describes an experiment in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and ketone and make use of TLC, column chromatography, recrystallization, and characterization by 1H NMR, GCMS, and FTIR.
Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1816.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Coupling Molecular Modeling to the Traditional "IR-ID" Exercise in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Heather Stokes-Huby and Dale E. Vitale
In this exercise students are required to identify unknowns from their IR spectra, but must also match some of the absorptions with frequencies generate by computer molecular models. Animations of the corresponding bonds in the model are then used to obtain descriptions of the observed vibrations.
Stokes-Huby, Heather; Vitale, Dale E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1486.
Computational Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Liquids
A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions  A. Gilbert Cook
The product of a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction is identified through a guided prelab exercise of the synthesis of the Hagemann ester, and then through the analysis of GCMS, NMR, and IR spectra. The stereochemistry of the product is determined through the NMR spectrum and Karplus curve, and the student is required to write a mechanism for the reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1477.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
A Guided-Inquiry Approach to the Sodium Borohydride Reduction and Grignard Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds  Robert E. Rosenberg
Students teams identify unknowns and their reaction products and use their data to deduce that esters are less electrophilic than the other carbonyl compounds present, that Grignard reagents are more nucleophilic than sodium borohydride, and that carboxylic acid derivatives do not undergo the nucleophilic addition reactions that are characteristic of aldehydes and ketones.
Rosenberg, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1474.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
Multivariate Curve Resolution Methods Illustrated Using Infrared Spectra of an Alcohol Dissolved in Carbon Tetrachloride  Bjørn Grung, Egil Nodland, and Geir Martin Førland
The necessary steps in a successful curve resolution are illustrated using infrared spectra of an increasing concentration of 1-octanol in carbon tetrachloride. The number of non- and hydrogen-bonded species giving a unique contribution to the spectral variance is found using chemical rank analysis performed on the complete data matrix and its most interesting regions.
Grung, Bjørn; Nodland, Egil; Førland, Geir Martin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1193.
Alcohols |
Chemometrics |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
An Advanced Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Exploring NIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics  Randall Wanke and Jennifer Stauffer
Describes an experiment in which students measure NIR spectra of toluene, heptane, and isooctane solutions, develop a chemometrics calibration model to predict component concentrations, and discern the model's limitations.
Wanke, Randall; Stauffer, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1171.
Chemical Technicians |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Chemometrics
Quantitative Measurement of Trans-Fats by Infrared Spectroscopy  Edward B. Walker, Don R. Davies, and Mike Campbell
FTIR-ATR spectroscopy provides an efficient analytical tool to measure the percentage of trans-fat in several commercially available lipids and the degree of alkene isomerization induced by brominationdebromination chemical reactions.
Walker, Edward B.; Davies, Don R.; Campbell, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1162.
Alkenes |
Calibration |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lipids |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Enhanced Intensity Distribution Analysis of the Rotational–Vibrational Spectrum of HCl  Monty L. Fetterolf
Data are presented that indicates the best fit of intensity of the HCl vibrationalrotational FTIR spectrum, which includes a Boltzmann population profile, is accomplished by accounting for factors from the full transition moment integral and by relaxing the rigid-rotor approximation.
Fetterolf, Monty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1062.
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Statistical Mechanics
Synthesis, Purification, and Characterization of a μ-(1,3-propanedithiolato)-hexacarbonyldiiron  Carmen F. Works
Describes an experiment designed to teach students about bioinorganic and organometallic molecules through the preparation and spectroscopic characterization of a structural model of iron-only hydrogenase; the procedure involves air-sensitive inorganic synthesis, column chromatography, optical, IR and NMR spectroscopies, and mass spectrometry.
Works, Carmen F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 836.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Spectroscopy
Synthesis of Bis(1,2-dimethylimidazole)copper(I) Hexafluorophosphate: An Experiment Using a Glove Box  J. H. Niewahner and Keith A. Walters
Provides laboratory instructions for a glove box experiment involving the synthesis of bis(1,2-dimethylimidazole)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate.
Niewahner, James; Walters, Keith A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 702.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Coordination Compounds |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Using a Premade Grignard Reagent To Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment  Michael A. G. Berg and Roy D. Pointer
Describes the use of a commercially available Grignard reagent in a Grignard synthesis that avoided the failures typically associated with the Grignard reaction.
Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 483.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Synthesis
High-Resolution Vibration–Rotation Spectroscopy of CO2: Understanding the Boltzmann Distribution  Karen J. Castle
In this undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment, students acquire a high-resolution infrared absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide and use their data to show that the rotationalvibrational state populations follow a Boltzmann distribution.
Castle, Karen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 459.
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Quantum Chemistry |
Statistical Mechanics
Photochemical Synthesis and Ligand Exchange Reactions of Ru(CO)4(η²-alkene) Compounds  Jason Cooke, David E. Berry, and Kelli L. Fawkes
Irradiation of Ru3(CO)12 in the presence of either methyl acrylate (CH2=CHCO2CH3) or ethylene generates labile Ru(CO)4(?2-alkene) species that readily react with other two-electron donor ligands, such as triphenylphosphine or the more p-acidic alkene dimethyl fumarate (trans-CH3CO2CH=CHCO2CH3), to produce thermally stable Ru(CO)4L compounds.
Cooke, Jason; Berry, David E.; Fawkes, Kelli L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 115.
Alkenes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Organosulfur Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Synthesis |
Organometallics
π Backbonding in Carbonyl Complexes and Carbon–Oxygen Stretching Frequencies: A Molecular Modeling Exercise  Craig D. Montgomery
An exercise in molecular modeling, suitable for a third- or fourth-year course in organometallic or inorganic chemistry, is presented in which the effects of the metal center, the metal charge, and the electron-withdrawing properties of co-ligands upon the degree of p backbonding to carbonyl ligands are demonstrated.
Montgomery, Craig D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 102.
Valence Bond Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy of Acetylene in the Lecture  Thomas E. Briggs and Scott T. Sanders
Describes an in-class experiment to measure the absorption spectrum of acetylene and its dependence on gas pressure. The experiment is based on readily available telecommunications products including a broadband fiber-coupled light source and optical spectrum analyzer.
Briggs, Thomas E.; Sanders, Scott T. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1864.
Alkynes |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Keeping Your Students Awake: Facile Microscale Synthesis of Modafinil, a Modern Anti-Narcoleptic Drug  Evangelos Aktoudianakis, Rui Jun Lin, and Andrew P. Dicks
Describes the microscale preparation of modafinil, a pharmaceutical recently approved for the treatment of narcolepsy, by a sulfide oxidation reaction. An unusual feature of modafinil is the presence of a chiral sulfoxide functionality where a sulfur atom acts as a stereocenter, demonstrating that atoms other than carbon can act as centers of chirality.
Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Lin, Rui Jun; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1832.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Developing Critical Thinking Skills: The "Sabotaged" Synthesis of Methyl p-Bromobenzoate  Eric J. Mahan and Mary Alice Nading
Before beginning an experiment, students are told that someone might have sabotaged their experiment to produce other-than-expected results. The objective is to perform the experiment, determine if any sabotage has occurred, and, if so, identify the changes that were made to the reagents as well as the person responsible.
Mahan, Eric J.; Nading, Mary Alice. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1652.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis
Astrochemistry Examples in the Classroom  Reggie L. Hudson
In this article some recent developments in astrochemistry are suggested as examples for the teaching of acid-base chemistry, molecular structure, and chemical reactivity. Suggestions for additional reading are provided, with an emphasis on readily-accessible materials.
Hudson, Reggie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1611.
Acids / Bases |
Astrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Easy Synthesis of K–F Zeolite from Kaolin, and Characterization of This Zeolite  Carolina Belver and Miguel Angel Vicente
Describes the synthesis of KF zeolite from kaolin and potassium hydroxide and its subsequent characterization. The process illustrates the transformation of natural and common minerals to industrial materials with a high technological value.
Belver, Carolina; Vicente, Miguel Angel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Solids |
Synthesis |
X-ray Crystallography |
Undergraduate Research |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry
A Polymer in Everyday Life: The Isolation of Poly(vinyl alcohol) from Aqueous PVA Glues. An Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment   Yueh-Huey Chen and Jing-Fun Yaung
The IR spectra of three common and related polymers are used to identify functional groups and rationalize molecular structures.
Chen, Yueh-Huey; Yaung, Jing-Fun. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1534.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Research Advances: MgO/CaO in Floor Tile Glazes Affects Hardness; Lemongrass Extract's Architectural Application?; Heavy Metal Concrete?  Angela G. King
New insight into lasting ceramic floor tiles. Natural extract tunes NIR absorbance in anisotropic nanoparticles. Hg released from concrete.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1418.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology
3,5-Diarylisoxazoles: Individualized Three-Step Synthesis and Isomer Determination Using 13C NMR or Mass Spectroscopy  Chad E. Stephens and Reem K. Arafa
Describes the three-step synthesis and definitive characterization of a 3,5-diarylisoxazole via the chalcone and chalcone dibromide. The project is individualized with regard to compound purification, characterization, and literature searches as each student prepares a differently substituted chalcone.
Stephens, Chad E.; Arafa, Reem K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1336.
Alkenes |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy
The Step-by-Step Robinson Annulation of Chalcone and Ethyl Acetoacetate. An Advanced Undergraduate Project in Organic Synthesis and Structural Analysis  Lionel Delaude, Jean Grandjean, and Alfred F. Noels
The Robinson annulation is a three-step process involving a Michael addition followed by an internal aldol condensation and a dehydration. It is possible to stop the reaction after every step and to isolate the three products, allowing students to confirm the validity of the stepwise mechanism and develop a more thorough understanding of the whole process.
Delaude, Lionel; Grandjean, Jean; Noels, Alfred F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1225.
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Conformational Analysis |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Regiospecific Epoxidation of Carvone: A Discovery-Oriented Experiment for Understanding the Selectivity and Mechanism of Epoxidation Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Y. M. Lai, and Yuk-Hong Siu
Peroxy acids and alkaline H2O2 are two commonly used reagents for alkene epoxidation. The former react preferentially with electron-rich alkenes while the latter works better with a,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The selectivity of these two reagents on carvone, a naturally occurring compound that contains both types of C=C bonds, is investigated.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Lai, Y. M.; Siu, Yuk-Hong. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1058.
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Epoxides |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Stereospecific Synthesis of the Geometrical Isomers of a Natural Product  T. Grove, D. DiLella, and E. Volker
Presents an experiment for the synthesis of (Z) and (E) isomers that is presented to students as a puzzle in which they must determine the identity of the major component in anise oil. A necessary part of the analysis is the preparation the (E) and (Z) isomers of anethole. Molecular modeling is used to explore the conformation of and energy difference between isomers.
Grove, T.; DiLella, D.; Volker, E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1055.
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond. A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Thomas K. Green and Charles A. Lane
A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites.
Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1046.
Computational Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Iodolactonization of 4-Pentenoic Acid   R. David Crouch, Alexander Tucker-Schwartz, and Kathryn Barker
Describes an experiment in which 4-pentenoic acid is converted into a lactone via iodolactonization.
Crouch, R. David; Tucker-Schwartz, Alexander; Barker, Kathryn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 921.
Alkenes |
Carboxylic Acids |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Infrared Examination of the Transformation of Barium Sulfate into Barium Carbonate. An Inorganic Infrared Qualitative and Quantitative Experiment  Gene E. Kalbus, Van T. Lieu, and Lee H. Kalbus
This experiment provides an interesting pedagogical exercise that not only demonstrates the value of infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of inorganic systems, but also visually illustrates a procedure used in classical wet chemical qualitative analysis for sample preparation.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 910.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids
Acetal Protecting Groups in the Organic Laboratory: Synthesis of Methyl 4,6-O-Benzylidene-α-D-Glucopyranoside  Alexei V. Demchenko, Papapida Pornsuriyasak, and Cristina De Meo
The synthesis of methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-a-D-glucopyranoside provides an opportunity to synthesize a cyclic acetal; stereoselectively introduce a chirality center; and learn extraction, evaporation, precipitation, optical rotation, melting point measurement, thin-layer chromatography, IR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and various NMR techniques.
Demchenko, Alexei V.; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; De Meo, Cristina. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 782.
Carbohydrates |
IR Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Alkynes via the Alkylation of Sodium Acetylides. An Introduction to Synthetic Design for Organic Chemistry Students  Jennifer N. Shepherd and Jason R. Stenzel
Teams of students design a microscale synthesis of an unsymmetrical alkyne using commercially available terminal alkynes and alkyl halides and characterize the resulting products using TLC, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Depending on the chosen reactants, students observe both substitution and elimination products, or in some cases, no reaction at all.
Shepherd, Jennifer N.; Stenzel, Jason R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 425.
Alkylation |
Alkynes |
Elimination Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
4-Dimethylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Syntheses of Esters: A Comparison  Annemieke W. C. van den Berg and Ulf Hanefeld
Students compare acid-catalyzed ester synthesis and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed reaction. Based on the outcome of the experiments, students discuss the different reaction mechanisms and reason why different products are formed.
van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 292.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Multistep Synthesis for an Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Chang Ji and Dennis G. Peters
Presents a three-step procedure for the synthesis of 5-(2-sulfhydrylethyl)salicylaldehyde employing a Grignard reagent as a critical reactant.
Ji, Chang; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 290.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Grignard Reagents
Convenient Microscale Synthesis of a Coumarin Laser Dye Analog  Evangelos Aktoudianakis and Andrew P. Dicks
Describes the Knoevenagel synthesis of 3-acetyl-7-(diethylamino)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, a fluorescent coumarin laser dye analog.
Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 287.
Aromatic Compounds |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance  William H. Miles and Katelyn B. Connell
Describes the synthesis of a family of fragrances, including the commercially important Methyl Diantilis, and provides an excellent introduction to intellectual property laws.
Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 285.
Alcohols |
Food Science |
Catalysis |
Ethers |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Grubbs's Cross Metathesis of Eugenol with cis-2-Butene-1,4-diol To Make a Natural Product. An Organometallic Experiment for the Undergraduate Lab   Douglass F. Taber and Kevin J. Frankowski
Describes the ruthenium catalyzed cross metathesis of eugenol with cis-1,4-butenediol. The experiment is an excellent example of the powerful selectivity possible with the Grubbs' catalyst, demonstrating the preference for trans over cis alkene formation and for cross metathesis over homodimerization.
Taber, Douglass F.; Frankowski, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 283.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a Natural Insecticide on Basic Montmorillonite K10 Clay. Green Chemistry in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Matthew R. Dintzner, Paul R. Wucka, and Thomas W. Lyons
Describes a microwave-assisted, solvent-free, one-pot synthesis of a naturally occurring insecticide catalyzed by naturally benign, base-washed Montmorillonite K10 clay. The reaction features several interesting mechanistic considerations, including an electrophilic aromatic addition, dehydration, and intramolecular hetero-DielsAlder cyclization.
Dintzner, Matthew R.; Wucka, Paul R.; Lyons, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 270.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Environmentally Responsible Redox Chemistry: An Example of Convenient Oxidation Methodology without Chromium Waste  Robyn L. Crumbie
This article describes a simple experiment that uses recyclable Magtrieve as the oxidant in a simple reaction sequence emphasizing the reciprocity of oxidation and reduction processes in organic synthesis.
Crumbie, Robyn L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 268.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Derivatization of Fullerenes: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Charles T. Cox Jr. and Melanie M. Cooper
Presents two undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories detailing the synthesis of fullerene derivatives, using the Bingel (carbene insertion) and Prato (1,3-dipolar addition) protocols.
Cox, Charles T., Jr.; Cooper, Melanie M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 99.
Acids / Bases |
Addition Reactions |
Chromatography |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Just Click It: Undergraduate Procedures for the Copper(I)-Catalyzed Formation of 1,2,3-Triazoles from Azides and Terminal Acetylenes  William D. Sharpless, Peng Wu, Trond Vidar Hansen, and James G. Lindberg
In keeping with the defining aspects of click chemistry, this reaction is high-yielding, requires no chromatography, is easily monitored by TLC, and displays distinct peaks in both IR and 1H-NMR. Virtually all products precipitate, and with just a few different starting blocks, every student, or pair of lab partners, can produce a unique "clicked" compound.
Sharpless, William D.; Wu, Peng; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Lindberg, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1833.
Catalysis |
Heterocycles |
Alkynes |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests  Craig Anderson
Tests for illegal drugs were performed on unknowns obtained from over-the-counter cold medicines. Substances that tested positive for the qualitative Marquis color test were found to be false positives for illegal substances, while scopolamine hydrochloride shows a false positive for cocaine hydrochloride with the cobalt thiocyanate reagent.
Anderson, Craig. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1809.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis  Brian F. Woodfield, Merritt B. Andrus, Gregory L. Waddoups, Melissa S. Moore, Richard Swan, Rob Allen, Greg Bodily, Tricia Andersen, Jordan Miller, Bryon Simmons, and Richard Stanger
Describes a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. The purpose of these simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments.
Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1728.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Determination of the Rotational Barrier in Ethane by Vibrational Spectroscopy and Statistical Thermodynamics  Gianfranco Ercolani
The finite-difference boundary-value method is used to determine, in combination with vibrational spectroscopy and statistical thermodynamics, the torsional potential in ethane.
Ercolani, Gianfranco. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1703.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Statistical Mechanics |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Conformational Analysis |
Heat Capacity |
Thermodynamics
A GC–MS Analysis of an SN2 Reaction for the Organic Laboratory  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
This experiment utilizes an SN2 reaction between an alkyl bromide and potassium acetate to introduce the use of mass spectrometry for structural identification. It also provides students with experience in organic synthesis, the use of IR to identify functional groups, and the use of gas chromatography and response factors to determine product ratios.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1676.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Gas Chromatography
Preparation, Analysis, and Characterization of Some Transition Metal Complexes—A Holistic Approach  Kristy M. Blyth, Lindsay R. Mullings, David N. Phillips, David Pritchard, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
In this laboratory procedure, a wide range of complexes are characterized by IR and UVvis spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, and conductance. The results allow one to the deduce the nature and strength of the bonding of the ligand to the central atom and the number of ions that the complex produces in aqueous solution.
Blyth, Kristy M.; Mullings, Lindsay R.; Phillips, David N.; Pritchard, David; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1667.
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Conductivity
Cotton Effect in Copper–Proline Complexes in the Visible Region  Victor Volkov and Rolf Pfister
This article suggests taking advantage of the visible dd electronic transition of Cu2+, which allows one to contrast the normal optical rotatory dispersion response of d- and l-proline in aqueous solution with the strong Cotton effect observed when these amino acids are complexed with a metal cation.
Volkov, Victor; Pfister, Rolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1663.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Diels–Alder Synthesis of endo-cis-N-Phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide  Marsha R. Baar and Kristin Wustholz
endo-cis-N-Phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide was synthesized by a DielsAlder cycloaddition of 1,3-cyclohexadiene and N-phenylmaleimide in ethyl acetate. 1,3-Cyclohexadiene and N-phenylmaleimide were selected to illustrate the Alder rule, which reflects a preference for endo products and to overcome the difficulties associated with the traditional combination of 1,3-cyclopentadiene and maleic anhydride.
Baar, Marsha R.; Wustholz, Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1393.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Monoterpene Unknowns Identified Using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, and HETCOR  Lisa T. Alty
This set of NMR experiments can be a capstone experience for a spectroscopy or advanced laboratory course following organic chemistry. Students are given a monoterpene to identify using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and DEPT data. Once the unknown is identified, they can fully interpret and assign each carbon and each proton signal to the structure using COSY and HETCOR along with the one-dimensional NMR data. The rigidity of the ring systems and the chiral centers in all of the compounds present diastereotopic hydrogens and, in some cases, diastereotopic methyl groups.
Alty, Lisa T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1387.
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research
Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance  Neil M. Glagovich and Timothy D. Shine
An undergraduate organic laboratory designed to teach the use of IR and NMR spectra interpretation in the identification of an unknown substance has been developed. This laboratory requires the student to obtain the IR spectrum of an unknown substance and, from the interpretation of that spectrum, determine which of several possible functional groups is present in the molecule. Using this information and either the melting point or boiling point of the unknown, the student is able to determine a list of likely candidates (usually between eight and twelve suspects collated from a supplied table of possible compounds). The student will then draw the structures for all candidate compounds and, from those structures, predict the 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra for each.
Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1382.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solids |
Liquids
Thermal Degradation and Identification of Heat-Sensitive Polymers. Applications of Pyrolysis and Distillation and Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Stuart C. Clough and Emma W. Goldman
An experiment for undergraduate teaching laboratories is described that involves the identification of samples of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate). This involves the thermal degradation of the polymers (a destructive distillation) into their respective monomers. The monomers are then identified using infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and gas chromatographymass spectrometry.
Clough, Stuart C.; Goldman, Emma W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1378.
Nonmajor Courses |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Polymerization
The Effect of Anharmonicity on Diatomic Vibration: A Spreadsheet Simulation  Kieran F. Lim () and William F. Coleman
This WebWare paper describes how a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet simulation, Anharmonicity.xls, can be used to smoothly and continuously switch a plotted function between a Morse function and its quadratic approximation. It can be used as a classroom demonstration or incorporated into a student-centered computer-laboratory exercise to examine the qualitative behavior of vibrational quantization. A description of the spreadsheet, instructions for its use, and a discussion of the concepts are included.
Lim, Kieran F. () ; Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1263.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
IR Spectroscopy
Generation, Isolation, and Characterization of a Stable Enol from Grignard Addition to a Bis-Ester. A Microscale Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Olivier J.-C. Nicaise, Kyle F. Ostrom, and Brent J. Dalke
A microscale experiment for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory that consists of preparing and characterizing an alpha-ketoester and its corresponding, remarkably stable enol form, has been developed. The reaction is that of a Grignard reagent with a bis-ester. A difference in reaction temperature is responsible for the selective generation of the alpha-ketoester and the enol ester. Analysis of spectral data (1H NMR and IR) and a knowledge of organic reactions allows the students to determine the detailed structure of the two reaction products and also to suggest a mechanism for their formation. This experiment introduces students to the concept of stability of the tetrahedral intermediate in acyl-transfer reactions. It also gives them a taste of the unexpected.
Nicaise, Olivier J.-C.; Ostrom, Kyle F.; Dalke, Brent J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1059.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Reactive Intermediates |
Synthesis
The Ethylene Ketal Protecting Group Revisited: The Synthesis of 4-Hydroxy-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone  Marsha R. Baar, Charles E. Russell, and Kristin L. Wustholz
The multistep synthesis of 4-hydroxy-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone from ethyl acetoacetate illustrates the use of a ketal protecting group. Reaction of ethyl acetoacetate with ethylene glycol with p-TsOH in toluene produced the ketal ester. Reaction of the crude ketal ester with two equivalents of phenyl magnesium bromide followed by an aqueous acid workup generated the tertiary alcohol and simultaneously removed the ketal protecting group to produce the hydroxyketone. Our procedure is a modification of a previously published synthesis whose end product was 4,4-diphenyl-3-buten-2-one, the dehydrated analog.
Baar, Marsha R.; Russell, Charles E.; Wustholz, Kristin L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1057.
Synthesis |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy
Research Advances: Perchlorate in Dairy and Breast Milk Samples; NO Glow on Mars; Physical Chemistry to the Rescue: Differentiating Nicotinic and Cholinergic Agonists  Angela G. King
Perchlorate levels in milk suggest widespread presence of the chemical. NO emissions indicate circulation in Martian atmosphere. Modeling reveals subtle differences in drugmembrane receptor interactions.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 970.
Astrochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Formation of α-Tetralone by Intramolecular Friedel–Crafts Acylation  Michael S. Holden, R. David Crouch, and Kathryn A. Barker
A microscale procedure is described for the formation of the industrially-important compound alpha-tetralone. This is an example of an intramolecular FriedelCrafts acylation, utilizing 4-phenylbutanoic acid and a proton source. The title reaction demonstrates the concept of ring-forming reactions and highlights the use of carboxylic acids as an electrophile precursor in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions.
Holden, Michael S.; Crouch, R. David; Barker, Kathryn A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 934.
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Quantitative Determination of the Rotameric Energy Differences of 1,2-Dihaloethanes Using Raman Spectroscopy. An Experimental Project for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Mark D. Young, Natalia C. Borjemscaia, and Brian D. Wladkowski
The effects of structure and environment on the rotameric energy difference between gauche and trans conformations of 1,2-disubtitutedethanes are determined quantitatively through the use of Raman spectroscopy. Two 1,2-dihaloethanes (chloro- and bromo-) were analyzed in the condensed phase (pure liquid, carbon tetrachloride, and acetonitrile solutions). Since the gauche conformation of these molecules has a nonzero dipole, dissolving the compounds in solvents with increasing dielectric constant causes a stabilization of the gauche conformation, thus decreasing the absolute energy difference between the rotamers. The major factor governing the intrinsic stability is that of steric hindrance.
Young, Mark D.; Borjemscaia, Natalia C.; Wladkowski, Brian D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 912.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Conformational Analysis |
Stereochemistry
Green Chemistry Laboratory: Benign Synthesis of 4,6-Diphenyl[2,2']bipyridine via Sequential Solventless Aldol and Michael Addition Reactions  Gareth W. V. Cave and Colin L. Raston
Solventless reaction methodology avoids the use of hazardous and toxic solvents and minimizes generation of waste, thereby addressing some of the principles of green chemistry. 2,4,6-Trisubstituted pyridines are readily prepared in high yield using this methodology in three steps: (i) solventless aldol condensation of benzaldehyde and acetophenone, (ii) solventless Michael addition of 2-acetylpyridine to the previously formed 1,3-diphenylpropenone, and (iii) the ring closure of the resulting 1,5-diketone in acetic acid with ammonium acetate.
Cave, Gareth W. V.; Raston, Colin L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 468.
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Addition Reactions
Analog Spectrophotometers in the Digital Age: Data Acquisition on a Budget  Alexander Y. Nazarenko and Natalie A. Nazarenko
In this article we describe how to employ an inexpensive analog-to-digital converter and a user interface to Microsoft Excel to make a useful computerized spectrophotometer. Readily available types of data loggers, Vernier LabPro and digital multimeters with an RS-232 interface, were utilized. The proposed design does not compromise the quality of the measurements. The conversion of the data to the Microsoft Excel format makes it a convenient tool for a wide range of data processing applications.
Nazarenko, Alexander Y.; Nazarenko, Natalie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 294.
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions  Laura J. Medhurst
An environmental chemistry lab has been developed using FTIR spectroscopy to determine and compare the components of automobile exhaust for cold start and warm engine conditions. The results are compared with the EPA certification values for the same vehicle and the State of Virginia emissions test.
Medhurst, Laura J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 278.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Catalysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Bond Length Dependence on Quantum States as Shown by Spectroscopy  Kieran F. Lim
Undergraduate students often have the misconception that molecules have fixed, unchanging bond lengths. This article discusses how linear-molecule rotational band spacings in infrared spectroscopy can be used as a qualitative, visual demonstration of the elongation of average bond lengths on vibrational excitation. The method does not depend on a detailed mathematical analysis of the spectra. In UVvis spectroscopy, the rotational band spacings give rise to distinctive linear-molecule rotational contours, which easily show whether the average bond length has increased or decreased.
Lim, Kieran F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 145.
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
Safe Preparation of HCl and DCl for IR Spectroscopy  William R. Furlong and W. Tandy Grubbs
The widely used method of synthesizing HCl and DCl gases for infrared analysis by hydrolysis of benzoyl chloride includes a potentially dangerous final step whereby the frozen product is allowed to heat and expand into an infrared gas cell. The subsequent rapid rise in vapor pressure can "pop" open glass joints in the vacuum line and vent the sample in the face of the user. We describe an improvement on this procedure whereby the product is collected at atmospheric pressure in a large flask, which can subsequently be transferred to the vacuum line for expansion into the infrared gas cell under negative pressure.
Furlong, William R.; Grubbs, W. Tandy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 124.
IR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Laboratory Management
Rotor-shaped Cyclopentadienyltetraphenylcyclobutadienecobalt. An Advanced Inorganic Experiment  Darren K. MacFarland and Rebecca Gorodetzer
An advanced laboratory experiment involving the synthesis of the title compound is described. The suitability of the compound for teaching inert-atmosphere techniques and the stability of the product are discussed. The compound has interesting structural features that pique student interest.
MacFarland, Darren K.; Gorodetzer, Rebecca. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 109.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics
The Sharpless Asymmetric Dihydroxylation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  Christopher J. Nichols and Melissa R. Taylor
A six-period laboratory exercise has been developed that uses the convenient Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD) to illustrate the principles of a chiral synthesis. Using one particular alkene, students perform a racemic dihydroxylation, an AD using a commercially available AD-mix, and then an AD using an ester derivative of dihydroquinidine that they synthesized themselves. The structures of the products are confirmed with 1H NMR spectroscopy and the enantiomeric excesses of the diols are determined using a chiral GC column.
Nichols, Christopher J.; Taylor, Melissa R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 105.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions
Students' Attitudes toward and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Instrumentation  Larry S. Miller, Mary B. Nakhleh, John J. Nash, and Jeanne A. Meyer
Data collected from field notes, surveys, and interviews are used to evaluate (i) the attitudes students have toward using instrumentation, (ii) how students relate the underlying chemical concepts to the instrumentation, and (iii) how working in a group impacts students' attitudes toward, and their conceptual understanding of, chemical instrumentation.
Miller, Larry S.; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Nash, John J.; Meyer, Jeanne A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1801.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Discovery-Based Friedel–Crafts Acylation Experiment: Student-Designed Experimental Procedure  Anne McElwee Reeve
A discovery-based FriedelCrafts acylation experiment that includes a student-designed procedure, spectroscopic analysis of an unknown aromatic product, and molecular modeling is described. Students design the synthetic procedure and workup for the acylation of an unknown aromatic starting material in an instructor-guided classroom discussion that integrates concepts from the first semester of organic lab into a new context.
Reeve, Anne McElwee. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1497.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Two-Step Semi-Microscale Preparation of a Cinnamate Ester Sunscreen Analog  Ryan G. Stabile and Andrew P. Dicks
The two-step synthesis and characterization of a sunscreen analog (ethyl trans-4-methoxycinnamate) is presented. This experiment is tailored towards students with a sound theoretical understanding of organic chemistry and related laboratory techniques. Appropriate synthetic discussion topics include carbonyl condensation reactions, carboxylic acid esterifications, and the so-called "cesium effect" in organic synthesis.
Stabile, Ryan G.; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1488.
Conductivity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry
Nature's Sedative: Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Valtrate from Centranthus ruber  Andrea M. Doyle, Joe Reilly, Niamh Murphy, Pierce V. Kavanagh, John E. O'Brien, Martin S. Walsh, and John J. Walsh
The importance of natural plant products and how they can be used as learning aids at senior undergraduate level are highlighted in this experiment. The experiment involves the isolation and structural determination of valtrate, a valepotriate occurring naturally in the roots and aerial parts of the medicinal plant, Valeriana officinalis, and its related species, Centranthus ruber. We present various isolation and structural elucidation methodologies, including thin layer and flash column chromatography, and detailed spectroscopic analysis by NMR, IR, and mass spectra.
Doyle, Andrea M.; Reilly, Joe; Murphy, Niamh; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; OBrien, John E.; Walsh, Martin S., Walsh, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1486.
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy
Wittig Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl trans-Cinnamate  Traci J. Speed, Jean P. McIntyre, and Dasan M. Thamattoor
The synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stabilized phosphorus ylid (carbethoxymethylene)triphenylphosphorane, serves as a useful experiment to illustrate the Wittig reaction in the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. The reaction is highly stereoselective and affords the product in excellent yield and purity. The stereochemistry of the product is established by examining the coupling constants displayed by the olefinic protons in the 1H NMR spectrum. The experiment highlights several important aspects of organic chemistry such as synthesis, stereochemistry, instrumental analysis, and molecular modeling.
Speed, Traci J.; McIntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1355.
Chromatography |
Computational Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry
Water in the Atmosphere  Joel M. Kauffman
None of eight college-level general chemistry texts gave a mean value for water in the atmosphere, despite its being the third most prevalent constituent at about 1.5% by mass as vapor and about 2% if clouds and ice crystals are included. The importance of water as a greenhouse gas was omitted or marginalized by five of the eight texts. An infrared spectrum of humid air was determined to demonstrate that water vapor, because of its higher concentration, was more absorptive than carbon dioxide. The cooling effect of clouds, or other influences on the Earth's albedo, were not mentioned in most of the texts. These pervasive errors should be corrected in new or future editions of textbooks.
Kauffman, Joel M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1229.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
Applications of Group Theory: Infrared and Raman Spectra of the Isomers of 1,2-Dichloroethylene. A Physical Chemistry Experiment  Norman C. Craig and Nanette N. Lacuesta
An experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory, or an integrated analytical-physical laboratory, illustrates the application of spectroscopic selection rules for vibrational fundamentals as derived from group theory. The selection rules for the cis- and trans- isomers of 1,2-dichloroethylene are applied to assigning the vibrational fundamentals of these related but symmetrically distinct molecules. Applications of shapes of bands in gas-phase infrared spectra and of depolarization ratios of bands in liquid-phase Raman spectra are illustrated in making these assignments. The fundamental frequencies and the corresponding intensities in the infrared spectrum are compared with calculations made by DFT methods. Spectra are supplied in electronic format as part of the lab documentation.
Craig, Norman C.; Lacuesta, Nanette N. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1199.
Computational Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Modeling Stretching Modes of Common Organic Molecules with the Quantum Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator. An Undergraduate Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory Exercise  J. Mark Parnis and Matthew G. K. Thompson
An undergraduate exercise in vibrational spectroscopy is described, involving the prediction of wavenumber positions for absorptions associated with stretching vibrational modes of common organic molecules. This is done by modeling the portion of the molecule undergoing the bulk of the normal mode motion with a pseudodiatomic molecule, for which the known solution to the quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator is approximately valid. The exercise demonstrates that, for a well-behaved class of molecules, the major causes for the variation in the position of infrared spectroscopic absorptions due to stretching modes are (i) changes in the mass of the nuclei involved and (ii) changes in the order of the bond. The basic approach to refining a model is illustrated as well.
Parnis, J. Mark; Thompson, Matthew G. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1196.
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Preparation and Investigation of Monodentate and Bridging Pyrazole Complexes  Wynne Evans
This practical exercise describes the preparation and characterization of h1-coordinated pyrazole and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole nickel species and the investigation of their reactions with triethylamine. The latter reaction provides a route to preparing a polymer with bridging pyrazolato ligands, coordinating in an exobidentate (N, N?) fashion. We use this experiment, with undergraduate chemistry students, as part of a course providing an introduction to coordination chemistry. The exercise could be extended to take the form of an individual or class project. Suggestions for variations on the described experiment are included.
Evans, Wynne. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1191.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Organometallics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Transition Elements |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Spectroscopic Properties of Some Simple Esters. A Practical Application of Synthesis and Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  David P. Brown, Haris Durutlic, and Didier Juste
This exercise, the synthesis and spectroscopic analysis of the allyl esters of some aromatic carboxylic acids, consists of a series of open-ended experiments.
Brown, David P.; Durutlic, Haris; Juste, Didier. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1016.
Esters |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Multiple Linear Regression Using a Graphing Calculator. Applications in Biochemistry and Physical Chemistry  Seán P. Madden, Wayne Wilson, Aichun Dong, Lynn Geiger, and Christopher J. Mecklin
The use of multiple linear regression to analyze the IR vibrational spectra data of carbon monoxide and the structural characteristics of amino acids that contribute to beta sheet formation in proteins is demonstrated.
Madden, Seán P.; Wilson, Wayne; Dong, Aichun; Geiger, Lynn; Mecklin, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 903.
IR Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Chemometrics
Rotational Analysis of FTIR Spectra from Cigarette Smoke. An Application of Chem Spec II Software in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Alan R. Ford, William A. Burns, and Scott W. Reeve
A "real-world" sample source in the form of cigarette smoke has been incorporated and students are asked to identify the principal components present by analyzing the rotationally-resolved infrared spectra to determine fundamental molecular constants for each species observed.
Ford, Alan R.; Burns, William A.; Reeve, Scott W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 865.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry
A Reliable Homemade Electrode Based on Glassy Polymeric Carbon  André L. Santos, Regina M. Takeuchi, Herenilton P. Oliveira, Marcello G. Rodrigues, and Robert L. Zimmerman
The production of glassy polymeric carbon (GPC) through the thermal treatment of a phenolic resin is described.
Santos, André L.; Takeuchi, Regina M.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.; Rodrigues, Marcello G.; Zimmerman, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 842.
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
Lewis Acid–Base, Molecular Modeling, and Isotopic Labeling in a Sophomore Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Chip Nataro, Michelle A. Ferguson, Katherine M. Bocage, Brian J. Hess, Vincent J. Ross, and Daniel T. Swarr
Computational methods can be introduced to simulate IR spectra and to view the HOMO of the Lewis base and the LUMO of the Lewis acid. In addition to the computational exercise, NaBD4 can be used in the synthesis of the adduct in place of NaBH4. This allows the students to observe the effect of isotopic labeling on IR spectra.
Nataro, Chip; Ferguson, Michelle A.; Bocage, Katherine M.; Hess, Brian J.; Ross, Vincent J.; Swarr, Daniel T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 722.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Molecular Modeling |
Isotopes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Syntheses and Characterization of Ruthenium(II) Tetrakis(Pyridine) Complexes. An Advanced Coordination Chemistry Experiment or Mini-Project  Benjamin J. Coe
This experiment involves the syntheses of several coordination complexes of ruthenium(II) and their characterization by using various spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques.
Coe, Benjamin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 718.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Fluorescence and Light Scattering  Ronald J. Clarke and Anna Oprysa
This experiment allows students to discover the fundamental experimental difference between fluorescence and light scattering; namely, that the wavelength of fluorescence is independent of the excitation wavelength whereas the wavelength of scattered light increases with increasing excitation wavelength.
Clarke, Ronald J.; Oprysa, Anna. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 705.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
Modern Projects in Organic Chemistry: Miniscale and Standard Taper Microscale, 2nd Edition (Jerry R. Mohrig, Christina Noring Hammond, Paul F. Schatz, and Terence C. Morrill)  Richard Pagni
Modern Projects and Experiments in Organic Chemistry comes in two closely related versions, one for miniscale and standard taper microscale and the other for miniscale and Williamson microscale, in conjunction with the authors techniques in organic chemistry book.
Pagni, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 649.
Chromatography |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
Cautionary Comments  John J. Esteb and Anne M. Wilson
We never claimed that our procedure would work as written for any alcohol other than the three that we have included.
Esteb, John J.; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 641.
Alcohols |
IR Spectroscopy
Developing Investigation Skills in an Introductory Multistep Synthesis Using Fluorene Oxidation and Reduction  Mark G. Stocksdale, Steven E. S. Fletcher, Ian Henry, Paul J. Ogren, Michael A. G. Berg, Roy D. Pointer, and Barrett W. Benson
A two-step reaction sequence in the beginning organic laboratory provides a useful introduction to the importance of multistep synthesis. In addition to introducing several common synthetic methods and techniques, a two-step preparation can quickly establish the importance of testing alternative reactions in order to optimize intermediate yields.
Stocksdale, Mark G.; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Henry, Ian; Ogren, Paul J.; Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.; Benson, Barrett W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 388.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Use of Molecular Symmetry To Describe Pauli Principle Effects on the Vibration–Rotation Spectroscopy of CO2(g)  M. L. Myrick, P. E. Colavita, A. E. Greer, B. Long, and D. Andreatta
The present article presents a systematic method for obtaining the Pauli principle rules based on the analysis of a series of symmetry operations equivalent to the exchange of identical oxygen nuclei in CO2.
Myrick, M. L.; Colavita, P. E.; Greer, A. E.; Long, B.; Andreatta, D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 379.
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Pollution Police. How To Determine Spectroscopic Selection Rules  Jodye I. Selco and Janet Beery
Pollution Police is a laboratory or classroom project intended to show students how quantum mechanical selection rules can be developed. Students see how elementary linear algebra and group theory are used to describe molecular symmetry, how chemical character tables are constructed, and how spectroscopic selection rules are determined from the symmetry.
Selco, Jodye I.; Beery, Janet. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 225.
Computational Chemistry |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Microscale Syntheses, Reactions, and 1H NMR Spectroscopic Investigations of Square Planar Macrocyclic Tetraamido-N Cu(III) Complexes Relevant to Green Chemistry  Erich S. Uffelman, Jonathan R. Doherty, Carl Schultze, Amy L. Burke, Kristen R. Bonnema, Tanya T. Watson, and Daniel W. Lee, III
We describe a two- or three-week experiment for junior and senior chemistry majors that involves the microscale preparation, characterization, and reactivity of a square planar macrocyclic tetraamide Cu(III) complex relevant to green chemistry. The characterization process includes significant use of 1H NMR spectroscopy, along with the optional use of FTIR and UVvis spectroscopies.
Uffelman, Erich S.; Doherty, Jonathan R.; Schultze, Carl; Burke, Amy L.; Bonnema, Kristen R.; Watson, Tanya T.; Lee, Daniel W., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 182.
Coordination Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Conformational Analysis in an Advanced Integrated Laboratory Course  David B. Ball and Randy M. Miller
An interdisciplinary project is described that requires students to synthesize conformationally mobile and static a-bromocyclohexanones and to assess, qualitatively and quantitatively, and validate, using several spectroscopic tools, solvent effects on the conformational preferences of these molecules. The project exposes students to a variety of experimental and theoretical techniques that include organic synthesis, product purification, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, GCMS, molecular modeling, and IR and UV spectroscopy.
Ball, David B.; Miller, Randy M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 121.
Equilibrium |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Patty L. Feist
Students are given a mixture of a solid ketone and a solid alcohol and asked to separate and identify the two components. First the students use TLC to determine the optimum solvent system to separate the two compounds, then they separate the unknowns on a microscale flash chromatography column. The students acquire the melting point, and if possible, the IR and 1H NMR spectra for each separated compound and identify them by matching the observed data with that of known compounds.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 109.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Heterogeneous Catalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Ammonia  Jonathan D. Fischer and James E. Whitten
A 2.2 micron light-emitting diode and photodiode detector have been used to detect gaseous ammonia by infrared spectroscopy. A linear plot of absorbance versus pressure is observed when a stainless steel chamber, constructed from off-the-shelf vacuum hardware and fitted with two glass windows, is filled with ammonia. By installing a tungsten filament in the chamber, the heterogeneous catalytic decomposition of ammonia by a hot metal surface may be monitored.
Fischer, Jonathan D.; Whitten, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1451.
Catalysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Surface Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases
Measuring Breath Alcohol Concentrations with an FTIR Spectrometer  Adam Kneisel and Michael K. Bellamy
Students use aqueous ethanol solutions to make a calibration curve that relates absorbance signals of breath samples with blood alcohol concentrations. Students use their calibration curve to determine the time needed for their calculated blood alcohol levels to drop below the legal limit following use of a commercial mouthwash.
Kneisel, Adam; Bellamy, Michael K. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1448.
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Alcohols
Microscale Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Flutamide, an Antiandrogen Prostate Cancer Drug  Ryan G. Stabile and Andrew P. Dicks
The synthesis involves N-acylation of a trisubstituted aromatic compound, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitroaniline. The procedure is easily adapted to generate structural analogues of flutamide. A significant feature is the curricular flexibility afforded by this experiment.
Stabile, Ryan G.; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1439.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Vibrational Analysis for C60 and Other Fullerenes  Frank Rioux
Nakamoto and McKinney provided a symmetry analysis of the vibrational modes of C60 and other fullerenes. I would like to supplement their presentation with another approach, in widespread use, which records the number of atoms that are unmoved by each symmetry operation, yielding the reducible representation Guma.
Rioux, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1380.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Alkenes
Vibrational Analysis for C60 and Other Fullerenes  Frank Rioux
Nakamoto and McKinney provided a symmetry analysis of the vibrational modes of C60 and other fullerenes. I would like to supplement their presentation with another approach, in widespread use, which records the number of atoms that are unmoved by each symmetry operation, yielding the reducible representation Guma.
Rioux, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1380.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Alkenes
A Series of Small-Scale, Discovery-Based Organic Laboratory Experiments Illustrating the Concepts of Addition, Substitution, and Rearrangement  Judith S. Moroz, Janice L. Pellino, and Kurt W. Field
Multistep, microscale organic laboratory experiments are presented that illustrate addition, substitution, and rearrangement reactions.
Moroz, Judith S.; Pellino, Janice L.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1319.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
3DNormalModes  Michael P. Sigalas, Nickolas D. Charistos, Vasilios I. Teberekidis, and Constantinos A. Tsipis
3DNormalModes (for Windows-compatible computers) enables you or your students to choose one of 28 different molecules, orient it appropriately on the screen, choose any of its normal vibrational modes, and animate molecular vibrations in 3D.
Sigalas, Michael P.; Charistos, Nickolas D.; Teberekidis, Vasilios I.; Tsipis, Constantinos A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1222.
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The Base-Induced Reaction of Salicylaldehyde with 1-Bromobutane in Acetone: Two Related Examples of Chemical Problem Solving  Holly D. Bendorf and Chriss E. McDonald
Each student performs his or her own experimental work, running one of the two reactions, and acquiring the proton and carbon NMR, IR, and mass spectra. The students work in groups to propose structures for the products and mechanisms for their formation. The students are also asked to address why the reactions take different courses.
Bendorf, Holly D.; McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1185.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Phenols |
IR Spectroscopy
Foundations of Spectroscopy (Oxford Chemistry Primers No. 78) (Simon Duckett and Bruce Gilbert)  Jeffrey Kovac
Principles are clearly explained followed by the important applications that are then illustrated by worked examples. The appropriate quantum mechanical results are used, but not derived.
Kovac, Jeffrey. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1006.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Infrared Spectroscopy in the Study of Renal Lithiasis  Jesús Fernández-Almeida, Ana Fernández-Gacio, Carlos F. Marcos, and Maira Fernández-Gacio
IR lab applicable to human and veterinarian medicine.
Fernández-Almeida, Jesús; Fernández-Gacio, Ana; Marcos, Carlos F.; Fernández-Gacio, Maira. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 909.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Nonmajor Courses |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
A Solvent-Free Oxidation of Alcohols in an Organic Laboratory  John J. Esteb, Michael W. Schelle, and Anne M. Wilson
Oxidation of alcohols using potassium permanganate and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate.
Esteb, John J.; Schelle, Michael W.; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 907.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Solids
Spin-Coating of Polystyrene Thin Films as an Advanced Undergraduate Experiment  Mriganka Chakraborty, Devasish Chowdhury, and Arun Chattopadhyay
A method of thin polymer casting on glass slides using polystyrene packaging material; thickness of film is determined through UV-Vis absorption spectrum.
Chakraborty, Mriganka; Chowdhury, Devasish; Chattopadhyay, Arun. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 806.
Dyes / Pigments |
IR Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory: The Sunlight-Induced Photosynthesis of (η2-C60)M(CO)5 Complexes (M = Mo, W)   José E. Cortés-Figueroa
Procedure that provides chemical applications of group theory to predict the vCO spectrum of the inorganic moiety of metal carbonyl complexes, and the understanding of the concept of pi-acidity and its relation to the electronic structure of the ligand and the metal.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 799.
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Transition Elements
Measurement of Organics Using Three FTIR Techniques: Absorption, Attenuated Total Reflectance, and Diffuse Reflectance  M. E. Gebel, M. A. Kaleuati, and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts
Determination of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ethanol in vodka using attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and total hydrocarbons in soil samples using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).
Gebel, M. E.; Kaleuati, M. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 672.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Was the Suspect in Contact with the Victim? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Analysis of Single Fibers Using FT-IR Microscopy  Sharin Bender and Sheri J. Lillard
Forensic analysis of fiber samples using FT-IR microscopy to sustain interest and motivation in an upper-level analytical laboratory.
Bender, Sharin; Lillard, Sheri J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 437.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry
C–H and C–D Bonds: An Experimental Approach to the Identity of C–H Bonds by Their Conversion to C–D Bonds  Alex T. Rowland
Three experiments that allow students to determine the relative reactivity of C-H bonds that are aliphatic, alpha, benzylic, or aromatic by the ease of substitution of deuterium for oxygen.
Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 311.
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Signal Processing, and Spectral Information in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory  Jonathan P. Blitz and Douglas G. Klarup
Laboratory for an instrumental analysis course that shows how signal-to-noise ration can be increased for FTIR spectrometers by choice of conditions and data manipulation.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Klarup, Douglas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1358.
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy
Synthesis and Spectral and Thermal Properties of Pyrazine-Bridged Coordination Polymers of Copper(II) Nitrate: An Experiment for Advanced Undergraduates  Tom Otieno, Aaron R. Hutchison, Matthew K. Krepps, and David A. Atwood
An experiment involving the preparation of three pyrazine-bridged coordination polymers of copper(II) nitrate and their characterization.
Otieno, Tom; Hutchison, Aaron R.; Krepps, Matthew K.; Atwood, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1355.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thermal Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Organometallics
Organic Structures from Spectra, 3rd Edition (by L. D. Field, S. Sternhell, and J. R. Kalman)   Alan M. Rosan
277 spectroscopy problems for a junior-level, applied spectroscopy course.
Rosan, Alan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1323.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
Copper(III) Dithiocarbamates. An Undergraduate Experimental Project with Unexpected Challenges  Luis I. Victoriano
Synthesis of a coordination compound whose results are unpredictable yet understandable for undergraduates.
Victoriano, Luis I. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1252.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Microwave-Assisted Reflux in Organometallic Chemistry: Synthesis and Structural Determination of Molybdenum Carbonyl Complexes. An Intermediate-Level Organometallic–Inorganic Experiment  Michael Ardon, Philip D. Hayes, and Graeme Hogarth
Modifying a conventional microwave oven to carry out an organometallic synthesis through reflux.
Ardon, Michael; Hayes, Philip D.; Hogarth, Graeme. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1249.
IR Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Organic Spectroscopy–A Capstone Experience  Jan M. Fleischer
Experiment requiring students to make decisions regarding the likely structure of their sample based upon an IR spectrum before a final analysis with NMR spectroscopy.
Fleischer, Jan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1247.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Spectroscopy for Schools and Colleges [CD-ROM] (by the Royal Society of Chemistry and GlaxoWellcome)  Thomas H. Eberlein
Interactive CR-ROM to assist in learning the fundamentals of interpreting spectroscopy in organic chemistry.
Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1204.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Preparation and Characterization of Bayerite Samples: Use of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy to Monitor Purification  Nsoki Phambu, Bernard Humbert, and Andre Burneau
Experiment that gives students an opportunity to prepare an inorganic compound that is neither commercially available not found in catalogs.
Phambu, Nsoki; Humbert, Bernard; Burneau, Andre. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1117.
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Fourier Transform Techniques
Incorporation of the CrossFire Beilstein Database into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum at the Royal Danish School of Pharmacy  S. Brøgger Christensen, Henrik Franzyk, Bente Frølund, Jerzy W. Jaroszewski, Dan Stærk, and Per Vedsø
Using the online CrossFire Beilstein database in organic chemistry.
Christensen, S. Brøgger; Franzyk, Henrik; Frølund, Bente; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.; Stærk, Dan; Vedsø, Per. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 765.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis and Characterization of a Gasoline Oxygenate, Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether  Craig J. Donahue, Teresa D'Amico, and Jennifer A. Exline
Procedure for the synthesis and characterization of ethyl tert-butyl ether.
Donahue, Craig J.; D'Amico, Teresa; Exline, Jennifer A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 724.
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Ethers |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A One-Pot Synthesis of m-Terphenyls: A Guided Exploration of Reaction Chemistry, Chromatography, and Spectroscopy. A Miniproject for the Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Kishorekumar T. Anam, Michael P. Curtis, Muhammad J. Irfan, Michael P. Johnson, Andrew P. Royer, Kianor Shahmohammadi, and Thottumkara K. Vinod

Anam, Kishorekumar T.; Curtis, Michael P.; Irfan, Muhammad J.; Johnson, Michael P.; Royer, Andrew P.; Shahmohammadi, Kianor; Vinod, Thottumkara K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 629.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Reactive Intermediates
Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Investigate Protein Structure  Janet Olchowicz, Deidra R. Coles, Lori E. Kain, and Gina MacDonald
A laboratory that utilizes infrared spectroscopy to observe a protein's dominant form of secondary structure and allow distinction between primarily alpha-helix and beta-sheet proteins.
Olchowicz, Janet; Coles, Deidra R.; Kain, Lori E.; MacDonald, Gina. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 369.
Biophysical Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determination of the Rotameric Stability of 1,2-Dihaloethanes Using Infrared Spectroscopy. A Combined Experimental and Computational Project for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Brian D. Wladkowski and Steven J. Broadwater
Example of the quantitative application of IR spectroscopy in characterizing the physical properties of intermediate-sized molecules.
Wladkowski, Brian D.; Broadwater, Steven J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 230.
Computational Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Undergraduate Research |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Electrophilic Bromination of Toluene: Determination of the Ortho, Meta, and Para Ratios by Quantitative FTIR Spectrometry  Ross E. Smith IV, James R. McKee, and Murray Zanger
Determining the ratio of ortho:meta:para bromotoluenes when an electrophilic aromatic substitution is carried out on a monosubstituted benzene.
Smith, Ross E., IV; McKee, James R.; Zanger, Murray. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 227.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
Use of 15N Label in Organic Synthesis and Spectroscopy. Part I: Preparation of 15N-Labeled tert-Butylamine  Erach R. Talaty, Christopher A. Boese, Sanni M. Adewale, Mohammed S. Ismail, Frank A. Provenzano, and Melissa J. Utz
Procedure for preparation of 15N-labeled tert-butylamine through the Ritter reaction followed by hydrolysis.
Talaty, Erach R.; Boese, Christopher A.; Adewale, Sanni M.; Ismail, Mohammed S.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Utz, Melissa J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 221.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Physics Teacher: The Overlap of Chemistry and Physics  Roy W. Clark
Chemistry relevant articles appearing in The Physics Teacher.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 154.
IR Spectroscopy |
Surface Science
Using the Asymmetric Stretch Band of Atmospheric CO2 to Obtain the C=O Bond Length  Paul J. Ogren
Analysis of the IR spectrum of gaseous carbon dioxide in normal air.
Ogren, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 117.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Fourier Transform Techniques
The Isolation of Rubber from Milkweed Leaves. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab  Lisa Volaric and John P. Hagen
Experiment that teaches many basic laboratory techniques (refluxing, vacuum filtering, extracting, centrifuging, and IR fingerprinting) while introducing students to polymers and natural-product isolations.
Volaric, Lisa; Hagen, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 91.
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
Preparation and Use of a Room-Temperature Catalytic Converter  Gareth Wong, Bernard Mark, Xijia Chen, Toran Furch, Karen A. Singmaster, and Paul S. Wagenknecht
Procedure and apparatus to use a Au/Fe2O3 catalyst to convert CO to CO2.
Wong, Gareth; Mark, Bernard; Chen, Xijia; Furch, Toran; Singmaster, Karen A.; Wagenknecht, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1667.
IR Spectroscopy |
Solid State Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Catalysis
Cigarette Smoke Analysis Using an Inexpensive Gas-Phase IR Cell  N. Garizi, A. Macias, T. Furch, R. Fan, P. Wagenknecht, and K. A. Singmaster
A PVC gas cell used to collect and analyze cigarette smoke and car exhaust through IR spectroscopy.
Garizi, N.; Macias, A.; Furch, T.; Fan, R.; Wagenknecht, P.; Singmaster, K. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1665.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis
Chemistry in Cages: Dinucleating Azacryptand Hosts and Their Cation and Anion Cryptates  Michael Arthurs, Vickie McKee, Jane Nelson, and Raewyn M. Town
Synthesis and 1H NMR characterization of free imino and amino cryptands, followed by their use in encapsulation of Cu(I) and Cu(II) cations in dinuclear mode and physiochemical characterization of the products.
Arthurs, Michael; McKee, Vickie; Nelson, Jane; Town, Raewyn M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1269.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Molecular Recognition |
NMR Spectroscopy |
X-ray Crystallography
Personalized Combined Organic Spectroscopy Problems--Online and in the Lab  Marjorie Kandel and Peter J. Tonge
Assigning individualized spectroscopy problems from SDBS, the Japanese National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research Spectroscopic Database, combined with a laboratory unknown.
Kandel, Marjorie; Tonge, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1208.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Distinguishing Calcium Carbonate from Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate by Instrumental Methods. A Set of Laboratory Experiments for Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  Eugenio Garribba, Giovanni Micera, Liliana Strinna-Erre, and Giovanna Stara
Distinguishing calcium carbonate from calcium sulfate dihydrate through chemical analysis, thermal analysis and decomposition, IR spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy, and EDXRF spectroscopy.
Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Strinna-Erre, Liliana; Stara, Giovanna. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1090.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thermal Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
The Use of Disposable IR Cards for Quantitative Analysis Using an Internal Standard  Ramee Indralingam and Angelito I. Nepomuceno
Lab that is useful as a teaching tool to illustrate the use of internal standards and calibration curves and the principle of Beer's law.
Indralingam, Ramee; Nepomuceno, Angelito I. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 958.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy
Spektri-Sim: Interactive Simulation and Analysis of the Infrared Spectra of Diatomic Molecules  Eric D. Glendening and Jarno M. Kansanaho
A Windows-based software application designed for simulation and analysis of the infrared spectra of diatomic molecules, featuring a unique, visual approach for evaluating molecular constants in which the user interactively seeks the optimal fit of a simulated spectrum to the experimental spectrum.
Glendening, Eric D.; Kansanaho, Jarno M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 824.
IR Spectroscopy
Isolation and Spectral Analysis of Naturally Occurring Thiarubrine A  Juan Reyes, Melita Morton, Kelsey Downum, and Kevin E. O'Shea
An experiment in which students isolate (from ragweed) and characterize thiarubrine A; thiarubrines are an important class of compounds which have recently received attention because of their unusual reactivity, unique biological activity, and potential medicinal applications.
Reyes, Juan; Morton, Melita; Downum, Kelsey; O'Shea, Kevin E. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 781.
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry
Synthesis of Substituted Butenolides. An Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experiment Utilizing Two 3-Step Preparatory Sequences  Géraldine Maheut, Liang Liao, Jean-Marie Catel, Paul-Alain Jaffrès, and Didier Villemin
The synthesis of substituted butenolide in two, 3-step sequences that illustrate five basic organic reactions (alkyne hydration, Knoevenagel condensation, lactonization, aldolization-type reaction, and hydration of nitrile); the products have pedagogical interest for IR and NMR spectroscopy (diastereotopic effect).
Maheut, Géraldine; Liao, Liang; Catel, Jean-Marie; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain; Villemin, Didier. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 654.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions
Error Estimates for Fitted Parameters: Application to HCl/DCl Vibrational-Rotational Spectroscopy  Scott E. Feller and Charles F. Blaich
A method for the calculation of spectroscopic constants and their associated uncertainties from the analysis of infrared spectra of diatomic molecules using statistical Monte Carlo sampling and nonlinear least-squares data fitting. The calculations are performed using Microsoft Excel and a Microsoft Visual Basic macro.
Feller, Scott E.; Blaich, Charles F. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 409.
IR Spectroscopy |
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Sampling Technique for Organic Solids in IR Spectroscopy: Thin Solid Films as the Method of Choice in Teaching Laboratories  Patty L. Feist
Techniques for sampling solid organic compounds for FTIR spectroscopy are briefly compared and contrasted. One method, called thin solid films, stands out as the method of choice in undergraduate laboratories because they are easy and inexpensive to prepare; the spectra obtained are of good to excellent quality.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 351.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Qualitative Analysis
Ruthenium Vinylidene and Acetylide Complexes. An Advanced Undergraduate Multi-technique Inorganic/Organometallic Chemistry Experiment  Andrew M. McDonagh, Geoffrey J. Deeble, Steph Hurst, Marie P. Cifuentes, and Mark G. Humphrey
This experiment describes the isolation and characterization of complexes containing examples of two important monohapto ligands; the particular strength of this experiment is in demonstrating the utility of a range of spectroscopic and analytical techniques in inorganic complex identification.
McDonagh, Andrew M.; Deeble, Geoffrey J.; Hurst, Steph; Cifuentes, Marie P.; Humphrey, Mark G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 232.
Electrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
WebSpectra: Online NMR and IR Spectra for Students  Craig A. Merlic, Barry C. Fam, and Michael M. Miller
WebSpectra is a World Wide Web site at UCLA through which organic chemistry students have convenient access to a library of problems in NMR and IR spectroscopy, ranging in difficulty from introductory to advanced. Students are presented with high-resolution spectra of unknown compounds in addition to the molecular formula.
Merlic, Craig A.; Fam, Barry C.; Miller, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 118.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 5. Stereochemistry of E2 Elimination: Elimination of cis- and trans-2-Methylcyclohexyl Tosylate  Marcus E. Cabay, Brad J. Ettlie, Adam J. Tuite, Kurt A. Welday, and Ram S. Mohan
A discovery-oriented lab that illustrates the stereochemistry of the E2 elimination reaction and is a good exercise in 1H NMR spectroscopy. The added element of discovery insures that student interest and enthusiasm are retained.
Cabay, Marcus E.; Ettlie, Brad J.; Tuite, Adam J.; Welday, Kurt A.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 79.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Elimination Reactions |
Reactions |
Alkenes
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 4. Epoxidation of p-Methoxy-trans-b-methylstyrene: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for Sophomore Organic Laboratories  Rebecca S. Centko and Ram S. Mohan
Illustrates epoxidation of alkenes as well as the reactivity of epoxides toward acids. The experiment involves reaction of p-methoxy-trans-beta-methylstyrene (trans-anethole) with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (MCPBA), in both the absence and presence of a buffer, followed by product identification using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and IR spectroscopy
Centko, Rebecca S.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 77.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Epoxides |
Alkenes
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
Infrared Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Lab  Margaret A. Hill
Three laboratory exercises in which students learn to interpret infrared spectra for simple structural identification. A polymer identification lab uses familiar household polymer samples and teaches students how to use infrared spectral data to determine what bond types are present in the polymers. In a second lab, students learn to prepare potassium bromide pellets of fluorene derivatives and identify them by their functional group differences. The final exercise combines IR with several other lab techniques to identify an organic acid from a field of fourteen possibilities.
Hill, Margaret A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 26.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Infrared Spectrum and Group Theoretical Analysis of the Vibrational Modes of Carbonyl Sulfide  Michael J. Tubergen, Richard J. Lavrich, and James W. McCargar

Tubergen, Michael J.; Lavrich, Richard J.; McCargar, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1637.
Gases |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling
A Microscale Oxidation Puzzle  Michael W. Pelter, Rebecca M. Macudzinski, and Mary Ellen Passarelli
We have adapted oxidation of an alcohol with sodium hypochlorite solution to a "puzzle" approach by using a diol as the substrate for oxidation. The diols under investigation have both a primary and a secondary hydroxyl group. The assignment is to perform the reaction and determine the structure of the product through interpretation of the IR spectrum.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M.; Passarelli, Mary Ellen. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1481.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Cyclization of the Monoterpene Citronellal to Isopulegol: A Biomimetic Natural Product Synthesis  Bruce L. Jensen, Ahmed Malkawi, and Vanessa McGowan
The experiment reported here mimics the reaction found in the biosynthetic pathway leading to another well-known natural product, menthol. The starting material and final product display easily interpreted infrared and proton-NMR spectra.
Jensen, Bruce L.; Malkawi, Ahmed; McGowan, Vanessa. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1474.
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Time-Dependent Changes in a Shampoo Bubble  Arun Chattopadhyay
This article demonstrates the fascinating phenomenon of time evolution of a shampoo bubble. The changes in thickness of the bubble films with time are followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The change in chemical composition as a bubble film evolves is monitored by FTIR spectroscopy.
Chattopadhyay, Arun. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1339.
Learning Theories |
Micelles |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Implementation of Traditional and Real-World Cooperative Learning Techniques in Quantitative Analysis Including Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Analysis of Live Fish  Tracy P. Houghton and John H. Kalivas
A one-semester sophomore course at Idaho State University is divided into two parts: students individually perform traditional unknown analyses, and as groups, they study an aquatic ecosystem simulated by a trout aquarium. Ecosystem analyses include the important chemical components of the nitrogen cycle, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity.
Houghton, Tracy P.; Kalivas, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1314.
Undergraduate Research |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Inorganic Electronic Structure and Spectroscopy--Volume 1: Methodology; Volume 2: Applications and Case Studies
edited by E. I. Solomon and A. B. P. Lever

  Craig E. Barnes
Spectroscopic techniques and theoretical models used in inorganic chemistry to elucidate electronic structure.
Barnes, Craig E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1283.
IR Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy

Nonlinear Least-Squares Using Microcomputer Data Analysis Programs: KaleidaGraph(TM) in the Physical Chemistry Teaching Laboratory  Joel Tellinghuisen
A scientific data analysis and presentation program is adopted as the main data analysis tool in the undergraduate physical chemistry teaching laboratory. The capabilities of this program (and others of this type) are illustrated with application to some common data analysis problems in the laboratory curriculum, most of which require nonlinear least-squares treatments.
Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1233.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared and Raman Spectra of Inorganic and Coordination Compounds. Part A: Theory and Applications in Inorganic Chemistry; Part B: Application in Coordination, Organometallic, and Bioinorganic Chemistry, 5th Edition
by Kazuo Nakamoto

  Lyle McAfee
Spectroscopy reference.
McAfee, Lyle. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1122.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Raman Spectroscopy

Photochemistry of Chloropicrin. A Physical Chemistry Project  E. A. Wade, T. P. Clemes, and K. A. Singmaster
In this experiment, students will use FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the kinetics of the photolysis of chloropicrin by an Hg arc lamp, both with and without oxygen. They will then be able to determine the mechanism of the photolytic reaction.
Wade, Elisabeth A.; Clemes, T. P.; Singmaster, Karen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 898.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Application of the Correlation Method to Vibrational Spectra of C60 and Other Fullerenes: Predicting the Number of IR- and Raman-Active Bands  Kazuo Nakamoto and Michael A. McKinney
The C60 molecule (Buckyball/soccer ball) exhibits only 4 IR and 10 Raman bands although it possesses 174 (3 x 60 - 6) normal vibrations. This striking reduction in the number of observed bands is evidently due to the molecule's extremely high symmetry (Ih point group).
Nakamoto, Kazuo; McKinney, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 775.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The Heck Reaction: A Microscale Synthesis Using a Palladium Catalyst  William B. Martin and Laura J. Kateley
The microscale synthesis described uses a reaction between a bromoiodobenzene and acrylic acid to produce a bromocinnamic acid. Structure verification for the product uses IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy.
Martin, William B.; Kateley, Laura J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 757.
Catalysis |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Studying Thermally Induced Chemical and Physical Transformations in Common Synthetic Polymers: A Laboratory Project  Steven C. Hodgson, John D. Orbell, Stephen W. Bigger, and John Scheirs
A simple project is described for introducing students to some experimental procedures commonly used to measure the effects of thermal treatment on synthetic polymers. The thermally induced changes that occur in the commodity polymers low-density polyethylene (LDPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are examined as a function of the time of thermal treatment in an air-circulating oven.
Hodgson, Steven C.; Orbell, John D.; Bigger, Stephen W.; Scheirs, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 745.
IR Spectroscopy |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Analysis of Vibrational Spectrum of a Linear Molecule   Richard W. Schwenz, William F. Polik, and Sidney Young
This document provides a moderately interactive tutorial describing the analysis of vibrational frequencies obtained from the infrared spectrum of hydrogen chloride.
Schwenz, Richard W.; Polik, William F.; Young, Sidney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 670.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Educational Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: A Comparison of Experiment and Theory  Brian L. McClain, Sara M. Clark, Ryan L. Gabriel, and Dor Ben-Amotz
This study compares experimental infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of selected molecules to calculated spectra using semiempirical and ab initio methods. These illustrate the complimentary nature of IR and Raman spectroscopies as well as the limitation and successes of computational methods in predicting molecular vibrational frequencies and intensities.
McClain, Brian L.; Clark, Sara M.; Gabriel, Ryan L.; Ben-Amotz, Dor. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 654.
Computational Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Raman Spectroscopy
Interactive Visualization of Infrared Spectral Data: Synergy of Computation, Visualization, and Experiment for Learning Spectroscopy  Paul M. Lahti, Eric J. Motyka, and Robert J. Lancashire
A straightforward procedure is described to combine computation of molecular vibrational modes using commonly available molecular modeling programs with visualization of the modes using advanced features of the MDL Information Systems Inc. Chime World Wide Web browser plug-in.
Lahti, Paul M.; Motyka, Eric J.; Lancashire, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 649.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling
Reaction of Dibenzoylethylene with Hydriodic Acid  Fred H. Greenberg
Dibenzoylethylene is treated with hydriodic acid in acetone at room temperature to obtain dibenzoylethane rather than the expected dibenzoyliodoethane. Students identify the product by the use of NMR and IR spectra and are given a nonpictorial representation of a mechanism and asked to supply the structures of the relevant intermediates.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 505.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates
Molecular Modeling to Predict Regioselectivity of Hydration Reactions  Kate J. Graham, Kathleen Skoglund, Chris P. Schaller, William P. Muldoon, and John B. Klassen
Students oxidize several isomeric alkenes using acid-catalyzed hydration, oxymercuration/demercuration, and hydroboration to compare the regioselectivity of the different techniques. The product mixtures are subsequently analyzed by GC and IR. To explain the results fully, students use the Spartan 5.0 molecular modeling package to predict the regioselectivity of these hydration reactions.
Graham, Kate J.; Skoglund, Kathleen; Schaller, Chris P.; Muldoon, William P.; Klassen, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 396.
Computational Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Recognition |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
An Inexpensive Convenient Press for KBr and CsI Pellets in Infrared Studies  Chris Kalberg and Paul J. Ogren
Directions are provided for the fabrication of an inexpensive IR salt pellet press that may be used easily and quickly by beginning chemistry students.
Kalberg, Chris; Ogren, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 391.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Multicomponent Reactions: A Convenient Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment  Ricardo Bossio, Stefano Marcaccini, Carlos F. Marcos, and Roberto Pepino
Two experiments for the synthesis of a -lactam and a succinimide, based on a 4-component Ugi condensation. The experimental procedures for both syntheses are identical except for the choice of the starting amine, whose electron richness is controlled by the presence or absence of an electron-withdrawing group.
Bossio, Ricardo; Marcaccini, Stefano; Marcos, Carlos F.; Pepino, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 382.
Synthesis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Isolating trans-Anethole from Anise Seeds and Elucidating Its Structure: A Project Utilizing One- and Two-Dimensional NMR Spectrometry  Joseph W. LeFevre
This three-week project involves isolating and purifying a natural product and determining its structure. trans-Anethole is isolated from anise seeds by steam distillation and liquid-liquid extraction. The crude product is analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and purified by flash chromatography.
LeFevre, Joseph W. . J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 361.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Trigonometric Basis Set Functions: Their Application to the C-H Stretching and Deformation Motions of Benzene and to Orbital Symmetry  G. Bor and Sidney F. A. Kettle
The unifying power of the use of trigonometric basis functions in group character tables is demonstrated. Additionally, these functions provide a simple way of generating pictures of symmetry coordinates. This is illustrated for the in-plane stretch and out-of-plane deformation motions of the C-H bonds in benzene. Their application to orbital symmetry applications is also indicated.
Bor, G.; Kettle, Sidney F. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1723.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Identifying Softwoods and Hardwoods by Infrared Spectroscopy  Brady Barker and Noel L. Owen
Infrared spectra of 45 softwoods and hardwoods have been recorded. The wavenumber values of the carbonyl stretching vibration and one of the ring-breathing modes of lignin are used to distinguish softwoods from hardwoods. The differences between the absorption bands for the softwoods and hardwoods in each instance are shown to be statistically significant.
Barker, Brady; Owen, Noel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1706.
Carbohydrates |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Greenhouse Warming Potentials from the Infrared Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Gases  Matthew J. Elrod
A model is described that allows a straightforward, spreadsheet-based determination of greenhouse warming potentials from the infrared spectra of atmospheric gases. On the basis of the numerical results of the model, students are able to investigate the molecular properties that are characteristic of greenhouse gases and thus are able to understand the rationale behind the recent agreement by the world's industrialized nations to reduce certain greenhouse gas emissions.
Elrod, Matthew J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1702.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
The Preparation of a UV-Light-Absorbing Polymer: A Project-Oriented Laboratory Experiment for the Introductory Organic Chemistry Curriculum  Thomas Poon, Jean P. McIntyre, Andrea Dorigo, Drew J. Davis, Matthew A. Davis, Crystal F. Eller, Leah R. Eller, Heather K. Izumi, Kenya M. Jones, Kurt H. Kelley, William Massello, Megan L. Melamed, Cynthia M. Norris, Jeffrey A. Oelrich, Thomas A. Pluim, Sarah E. Poplawski, Jason M. St. Clair, Matthew P. Stokes, Wells C. Wheeler, and Erin E. Wilkes
A laboratory experiment is described that combines organic synthesis, spectroscopy, and polymer chemistry and is suitable for the sophomore organic chemistry curriculum. In this three-week sequence, students synthesize and characterize the UV-absorber 2-(2',4'-dimethylbenzoyl)benzoic acid and incorporate it into films of polymethylmethacrylate.
Poon, Thomas; McIntyre, Jean P.; Dorigo, Andrea; Davis, Drew J.; Davis, Matthew A.; Eller, Crystal F.; Eller, Leah R.; Izumi, Heather K.; Jones, Kenya M.; Kelley, Kurt H.; Massello, William; Melamed, Megan L.; Norris, Cynthia M.; Oelrich, Jeffrey A.; Pluim, Thomas A.; Poplawski, Sarah E.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Stokes, Matthew P.; Wheeler, Wells C.; Wilkes, Erin E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1523.
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals
Analysis of the Infrared Spectra of Diatomic Molecules  Richard W. Schwenz and William F. Polik*
This paper describes an improved data analysis method using the multiple linear regression feature of a spreadsheet program. This method dramatically simplifies the effort of data reduction, provides a more direct connection between experimental data and molecular constants, and yields results that are more accurate and precise than traditional methods.
Schwenz, Richard W.; Polik, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1302.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Gradualism: A Method for Primary Instruction on Spectroscopic Analysis in Introductory Organic Chemistry  Christopher W. Alexander, Gary L. Asleson, Charles F. Beam, Marion T. Doig, Frederick J. Heldrich*, and Shannon Studer-Martinez
The pedagogical style of gradualism is described for the instruction of spectroscopic analysis in the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. Gradualism is defined as a series of steps or lessons that build one upon the other until the student is able to solve complex problems.
Alexander, Christopher W.; Asleson, Gary L.; Beam, Charles F.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J.; Studer-Martinez, Shannon. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1297.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Learning Theories
Spectroscopic Instruction in Introductory Organic Chemistry: Results of a National Survey  Christopher W. Alexander, Gary L. Asleson, Marion T. Doig, and Frederick J. Heldrich*
The survey results indicated that the spectroscopic techniques of IR, MS, proton NMR, and carbon NMR are core techniques in most courses. A considerable amount of the instruction in spectroscopy is occurring in both the laboratory and the lecture portions of the course.
Alexander, Christopher W.; Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1294.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Geometry of Benzene from the Infrared Spectrum  Elisabetta Cané, Andrea Miani, and Agostino Trombetti
The structure of benzene is fully determined once the interatomic distances rcc and rCH are obtained from experimental data. This infrared spectroscopy experiment allows the determination of rcc and rCH from the rotational analysis of an infrared active band of C6H6 and one of its isotopomers, C6D6.
Can, Elisabetta; Miani, Andrea; Trombetti, Agostino. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1288.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
An Interactive Dry Lab Introduction to Vibrational Raman Spectroscopy Using Carbon Tetrachloride  Monty L. Fetterolf and Jack G. Goldsmith
An introduction to vibrational Raman spectroscopy is presented in a dry lab format that utilizes free software to add interactivity. Relevant IR and Raman spectra of carbon tetrachloride are systematically compared and analyzed on the basis of a broad review of general vibrational spectroscopy.
Fetterolf, Monty L.; Goldsmith, Jack G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1276.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Raman Spectroscopy
Ruthenium Complexes with h1-Organic Ligands: An Advanced Undergraduate Inorganic/Organometallic Chemistry Experiment  Marie P. Cifuentes, Fiona M. Roxburgh, and Mark G. Humphrey*
This experiment involves interconversions of carbene and alkenyl ligands, important monohapto ligands which are often met in an advanced undergraduate organometallic chemistry course. References are provided to extend the experiment to include alkynyl and vinylidene ligands.
Cifuentes, Marie P.; Roxburgh, Fiona M.; Humphrey, Mark G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 401.
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Undergraduate Lectures on Infrared Spectroscopy in the Solid State  E. A. Secco
This experimental exercise exposes students to the reduction in symmetry for a polyatomic species such as NO3- or SO42- in a crystalline lattice. The experiment illustrates how splitting of degenerate modes occurs and how infrared inactive modes become active.
Secco, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 373.
IR Spectroscopy |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum  M. Cecilia Yappert
The power of NIR spectroscopy is best and most often realized in the study of compounds containing O-H, N-H and C-H bonds. For example, the content of protein, moisture, carbohydrates, and lipids in complex samples can be determined with the use of NIR spectroscopy, without the need for time-consuming extraction steps.
Yappert, M. Cecilia. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 315.
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
An Introduction to the Fourier Transform: IntroFourierTransform.mcd and LectureIntroFT.mcd  Scott E. Van Bramer
IntroFourierTransform.mcd includes substantial student interaction by changing variables and written reflection exercises. The companion document, LectureIntroFT.mcd, designed for instructors to use interactively during lecture, is the abbreviated version of IntroFourierTransform.mcd.
Van Bramer, Scott E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 286.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Instrumental Methods
Teaching Polymer Science to Third-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Students  Alan Jefferson* and David N. Phillips
A knowledge of the principles of polymer science is essential for graduates whose future career is certain to bring them into contact with a broad range of polymeric materials. Any undergraduate chemistry course that omits polymer chemistry and does not attempt to address and explain the principles of polymer science is lacking in relevant educational content as we approach the 21st century.
Jefferson, Alan; Phillips, David N. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 232.
Free Radicals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Spectroscopy of Simple Molecules  C. Baer and K. Cornely
A spectroscopy experiment in which students utilize IR and NMR spectroscopy to identify the structures of three unknowns from a list of 15 carefully chosen simple organic molecules. In taking IR and NMR spectra, students learn to use state-of-the-art instrumentation that is used by practicing chemists.
Baer, Carl; Cornely, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 89.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
REDUCE: A Program for Reducing Reducible Representations  James F. O'Brien and Bruno F. Schmidt
Application of symmetry principles to vibrational analysis and to the determination of hybrid orbitals requires the use of the "reduction formula". The tedious arithmetic involved in applying the reduction formula to reducible representations is best done by a computer. While a spreadsheet may be used with effectiveness, the program described in this paper is much more convenient.
O'Brien, James F.; Schmidt, Bruno F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1338.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Bis(dicarbonyl-p-cyclopentadienyliron)-A Solid-State Vibrational Spectroscopic Lesson  S. F. A. Kettle, E. Diana, R. Rossetti, and P. L. Stanghellini
Despite a general increase in the study of crystalline materials, the vibrational spectroscopy of molecular solids is covered in few chemistry courses, perhaps because of perceived theoretical difficulties. The present paper shows how easy it is to cover the subject by detailing a discussion of the spectral characteristics of the terminal n(CO) modes of the crystalline forms of the cis and trans isomers of (h5-C5H5)2Fe2(CO)4.
Kettle, S. F. A.; Diana, E.; Rossetti, R.; Stanghellini, P. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1333.
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Stereochemistry
Using Excel Solver: An Addendum to the HCl Infrared Spectrum Experiment  Mark Iannone
Solver, a flexible and convenient add-in provided with Excel, is useful for fitting of a nonlinear model to experimental data. Solver is introduced to physical chemistry students in the context of the analysis of the fundamental band of the infrared spectrum of gaseous HCl. All peak positions in the P and R branches are used to find least-squares values for the pure vibrational transition, the rotational constants in v = 0 and v = 1 states, and the centrifugal distortion constant.
Iannone, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1188.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Galactic Data Viewer, Version 2.08 (by Galactic Industries Corporation)  Jack G. Goldsmith
The Galactic DataViewer software is a freeware product designed to allow those who are not users of Galactic's GRAMS/386 or GRAMS/32 commercial software packages the capability to open spectral and chromatographic files stored in Galactic's SPC format.
Goldsmith, Jack G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1091.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Infrared Spectroscopy Determination of Lead Binding to Ethylenediaminotetraacetic Acid  Alanah Fitch and Simona Dragan
In an attempt to improve a thematic lab sequence based on lead analysis of community derived samples, we have considered infrared spectroscopy as a method of determining the lead bound to ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid (EDTA).
Fitch, Alanah; Dragan, Simona. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1018.
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds
Spectrophotometry (by Barbara Sawrey and Gabriele Wienhausen)  reviewed by David Pringle
Spectrophotometry is an interactive CD-ROM which introduces the basics of UV-visible spectrophotometry with some mention of infrared and other forms of spectrophotometry. The CD is divided into six sections: Introduction, Background, A Detailed Look, The Spectrophotometer, Practice, and Quantitative Spectrophotometry.
Pringle, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 978.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Synthesis and Structure-Property Relationships in (h6-Arene)Cr(CO)3 Chemistry: From Guided Experiments to Discovery Research  Allen D. Hunter, Larry J. Bianconi, Steven J. DiMuzio, and Dianne L. Braho
Since instructors can have each student prepare a different complex, they are ideal targets for student directed "discovery research" lab projects. Teams of students can compare how their syntheses and the physical, spectroscopic, and electrochemical properties of their products vary as a function of the arenes' structures.
Hunter, Allen D.; Bianconi, Larry J.; DiMuzio, Steven J.; Braho, Dianne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 891.
Microscale Lab |
Organometallics |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
Spectra Interpretation of Organic Compounds (by Erno Pretsch and Jean Thomas Clerc)  Phyllis A. Leber
An interactive spectroscopy course via the iterative solution of 15 spectral problems. An ancillary CD-ROM containing the SpecTeach version of the SpecTool software is provided with the text.
Leber, Phyllis A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 695.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Low-Cost Auto-Stop Hydraulic Press for Making KBr Disc  Ping-Kay Hon
A hydraulic press fitted with an adjustable torque wrench, together with a stand made of iron bars will form an auto-stop hydraulic press for making KBr disc in IR studies. Total material cost is about $100.
Hon, Ping-Kay. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 629.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Protein Dynamics  Robin M. Hochstrasser
After a brief review of ultrafast (pico to femto) timescale infrared spectroscopy, summaries of recent experiments on applications of ultrafast methods, particularly IR, in biology are presented. Reaction Centers, Bacteriorhodopsin and light harvesting complexes are discussed.
Hochstrasser, Robin M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 559.
Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
IR Spectroscopy
Incorporating Organic Name Reactions and Minimizing Qualitative Analysis in an Unknown Identification Experiment  Claire Castro and William Karney
The authors have developed a new type of unknown identification experiment for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. The unknown sample the student is provided with is the product of an organic name reaction. The student is only informed of the starting material and conditions used in the compound's synthesis, and must then: (1) deduce the compound's structure, (2) determine the name reaction and corresponding mechanism that yields the compound, and (3) present his/her results to the class.
Claire Castro and William Karney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 472.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Guided Inquiry Approach to NMR Spectroscopy  Laura E. Parmentier, George C. Lisensky, and Brock Spencer
The authors present a novel way to introduce NMR spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum as part of a week-long aspirin project in their one-semester introductory course. Purity is determined by titration and IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Laura E. Parmentier, George C. Lisensky, and Brock Spencer. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 470.
Learning Theories |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Using Mathcad To Teach Instrumental Techniques  Scott E. Van Bramer
This paper describes a series of Mathcad simulations designed to demonstrate important concepts for instrumentation. These documents allow students to change data acquisition parameters and observe the effect on instrument response. This provides an opportunity for students to experiment with variables without using valuable instrument time.
Van Bramer, Scott E. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 375.
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Caveat on IR Spectroscopy of CO and NO  Olbregts, J.
The author notes some problems with the original article.
Olbregts, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 258.
IR Spectroscopy
Letters to the Editor  
The author notes some problems with the original article.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 258.
IR Spectroscopy
Extending the Diatomic FTIR Experiment: A Computational Exercise To Calculate Potential Energy Curves  Osman Sorkhabi, William M. Jackson, and Iraj Daizadeh
A proposed physical chemistry experiment for calculating potential energy curves for a series of diatomic molecules using the Morse function and the Rydberg-Klein-Rees method from the experimentally determined molecular constants or from fundamental frequencies. The exercise serves as an extension to the standard IR absorption experiments and ties together experimental and computational techniques.
Sorkhabi, Osman; Jackson, William M.; Daizadeh, Iraj. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 238.
Computational Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
Grignard Synthesis of Various Tertiary Alcohols  T. Stephen Everett
A general Grignard procedure is presented for the synthesis of aliphatic, tertiary alcohols containing six to nine carbons. Without revealing the specific starting materials, students are challenged to identify their unknown products from physical (boiling points, refractive indices) and spectral (infrared O-H, C-H and fingerprint regions) data.
Everett, T. Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 86.
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Simple Preparation of Palladium(II) Complexes and Determination of Their Structures by Infrared Spectrosopy  José María Casas and Antonio Martín
The complex [PdCl2(bopy-N,O)] (1) is prepared by addition of the 2-benzoylpyridine, NC5H4 - CO - C6H5 (bopy) ligand to a refluxing suspension of PdCl2 (1:1 molar ratio). The bopy ligand is coordinated in a chelate fashion, but the Pd - O=C bond is weak and easily displaced by ligands resulting complexes cis-[PdCl2(bopy-N)(L)] (L = bopy (2), PPh3 (3)) or [NMe4][PdCl3(bopy-N)].
Casas, Jose Maria; Martin, Antonio. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1327.
Coordination Compounds |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
IR Spectroscopy or Hooke's Law at the Molecular Level - A Joint Freshman Physics-Chemistry Experience  Jeffrey T. Burke
The activity described is intended to unify for the student the topics of IR spectroscopy and Hooke's Law. This is accomplished by first working with springs and masses and then by acquiring and comparing the IR spectra of chloroform and chloroform-d.
Burke, Jeffrey T. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1213.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling
IR Spectroscopy  William C. Hoyt and Jonathan Mitschele
Using a NaCl plate for IR spectroscopy.
Hoyt, William C. and Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1024.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Inexpensive Demountalbe IR Cell Fitted with Glass Windows  Keiichi Ohno, Hiroatsu Matsuura, Haruhiko Tanaka
An inexpensive demountable IR cell fitted with glass windows is proposed for studying hydrogen bonding in solutions.
Ohno, Keiichi; Matsuura, Hiroatsu; Tanaka, Haruhiko. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 961.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Hydrogen Bonding
IR MENTOR PRO 2.0  reviewed by John C. Cochran
IR Mentor Pro:2.0 appears to be the ultimate reference source for infrared spectroscopy of organic molecules. This on-line database contains more than six hundred IR band assignments arising from over two hundred functional groups.
Cochran, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 764.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
News from On-Line  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Helpful chemistry WWW sites.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 620.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Quantification of Polystyrene Acylation by IR Spectroscopy. An Experiment on Polymer IR Analysis  Martha Albores-Velasco, Elena G. Ramirez Lopez
An experiment which can be used by students of polymer chemistry for the quantification of acetyl or benzoyl groups in functionalyzed polystyrene is presented. It is based on the comparison of IR spectra of acetophenone-polystyrene or benzophenone-polystyrene mixtures with the spectra of functionalyzed polymers.
Albores-Velasco, Martha; Lopez, Elena G. Ramirez . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 551.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chromium (III) Acetate, Chromium (III) Acetate Hydroxide, or µ3-Oxo-esakis-(µ2-acetato-O,O') - triaqua-trichromium (III) Acetate? Determining the Structure of a Complex Compound by Analytical and Spectroscopic Methods  Liliana Strinna Erre, Giovanni Micera, Tadeusz Glowiak, and Henry Kozlowski
An experiment illustrating the use of infrared spectroscopy and model compounds to elucidate the structure of chromium (III) acetate is reported. Two commercial samples with the following conventional formulations Cr3(CH3CO2)7(OH)2 and Cr(CH3CO2)3 were examined and compared to the model compound [Cr3(2-CH3COO)6(3-O)(H2O)3]DHB2H2O, DHB = 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate(1-). The experiment may serve to illustrate the advantage of the joint application of analytical and spectroscopic data, in particular the use of symmetry concepts and IR-Raman selection rules, in the assignment of inorganic structures.
Erri, Liliana Strinna; Micera, Giovanni; Glowiak, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 432.
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
CO2 Absorption of IR Radiated by the Earth  Chad A. Meserole, Francis M. Mulcahy, John Lutz, Hashim A. Yousif
A quantitative experiment which illustrates the absorption by carbon dioxide of infrared light radiated from the earth is described. The experiment should be useful for quantitatively describing the "greenhouse effect".
Meserole, Chad A.; Mulcahy, Francis M.; Lutz, John; Yousif, Hashim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 316.
IR Spectroscopy
An Investigation into the Absorption of Infrared Light by Small Molecules: A General Chemistry Experiment  William B. Heuer and Edward Koubek
An introductory, two-part classroom/laboratory activity demonstrating the mechanism of absorption of infrared light by small molecules is described. A model for molecular vibration is introduced during pre-lab discussion, and a mechanism by which such vibrations may be excited by infrared radiation light is postulated.
Heuer, William B.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 313.
IR Spectroscopy
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Ems-Wilson, Janice
The progress of two microscale reactions, the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride and the photochemical formation of benzopinacol, was monitored, qualitatively, using FT-IR.
Ems-Wilson, Janice J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A171.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
IR Spectroscopy
Over 100 Years of Research on Cyclopentadienylironcarbonyl Chemistry: Microscale-Integrated Organometallic Experiments  E. Mocellin, M. Ravera, R. A. Russell, and T. Hynson
This unified microscale laboratory program is intended to build independence, confidence and even adventurousness both in synthesis and instrumental analysis, and to apply these results in a meaningful situation by demanding of the students: interpretation of results, evaluation of data and conclusion reached, reference to the original literature, and suggestion of further experimentation.
Mocellin, E.; Ravera, M.; Russell, R. A.; Hynson, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A99.
Organometallics |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Use of Infrared Spectroscopy in Monitoring a New Method for the Preparation of Sulotroban, an Antithrombotic Drug: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment  Alain Nuhrich, Martine Varache-Lembège, Fabrice Martin, Guy Devaux,
The chemical experimental procedures given integrate an infrared spectroscopy technique for monitoring the chromatographic purification processes used in this synthesis. The purpose of the proposed manipulations is to reflect in a concrete manner the reality of doing research on and preparing drugs of chemical origin.
Nuhrich, Alain; Varache-Lembège, Martine; Lacan, Fabrice; Devaux, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1185.
IR Spectroscopy |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
The Extraction of Caffeine from Tea: A Modification of the Procedure of Murray and Hansen  Andreas Hampp
This slight variation of Murray and Hansen's procedure is currently used in our first-year chemistry laboratory classes and clearly shows a higher student success rate in the isolation crude caffeine. The experiment described here is performed in a three-hour lab period, which is followed by sublimation and characterization through melting point and infrared spectroscopy on a second day.
Hampp, Andreas. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1172.
Separation Science |
Physical Properties |
IR Spectroscopy
A Convenient Synthesis of the Tetrasubstituted Pyrrole: An Undergraduate Heterocyclic Laboratory Experiment  Patrik Kolar, Miha Tisler
A two-step synthesis of tetrasubstituted pyrroles from esters of a-amino acids has been applied as a simple undergraduate laboratory experiment, which illustrates the utility of amino acids in heterocyclic synthesis.
Kolar, Patrik; Tisler, Miha. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 986.
Amino Acids |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Esters
Use of a 10-cm Pathlength Quartz Cell for the Separation of the Isotopes of HCl Vapor  Silvio C. Pattacini
This brief article offers a variation on the use of HCl vapor as an experiment in a Physical Chemistry college course. For this experiment, a 10-cm pathlength quartz cell is shown to be useful, economic, and the cell does not require special handling.
Pattacini, Silvio C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 822.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
Molecular Constants of Carbon Monoxide at v = 0, 1, 2, and 3: A Vibrational Spectroscopy Experiment in Physical Chemistry  Nairmen Mina-Camilde, Carlos Manzanares I., and Julio F. Caballero
The advantage of using CO is that the fundamental and first overtone are around 2143 and 4259 cm^-1, and the two regions can be covered with a standard FT IR. The experiment studies the vibrational-rotational transitions of the fundamental and the first and second overtones of CO.
Mina-Camilde, Nairmen; Manzanares I., Carlos; Caballero, Julio F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 804.
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
IR Spectroscopy
IR Spectroscopy Using Disposable Polyethylene Cards: A Replacement for KBr Pellets and Mulls  Larry S. Wigman, Elizabeth E. Hart, and Constance Gombatz
Disposable IR cards are a simple alternative to KBr pellets and mineral oil mulls for the analysis of soluble compounds. These cards are commercially available from 3M. The film thickness is reproducible enough to allow for compensation in dual beam instruments or spectral subtraction in single beam instruments.
Larry S. Wigman, Elizabeth E. Hart, and Constance Gombatz. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 677.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
GC-MS and GC-FTIR Characterization of Products: From Classical Freshman and Sophomore Syntheses  D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo
The GC separation of ferrocene, acetylferrocene, and diacetylferrocene is accomplished in less than ten minutes. In addition to the operation of the instrument, the students are introduced to the interpretation of mass spectra and library aided spectral identification.
D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Epoxidation of Alpha-Methylstyrene and its Lewis Acid Rearrangement to 2-Phenylpropanal  David L. Garin, Melissa Gamber, and Bradley J. Rowe
This undergraduate organic lab experiment includes procedures for the peracid epoxidation of an olefin and the Lewis acid rearrangement of an epoxide to a carbonyl compound.
Garin, David L.; Gamber, Melissa; Rowe, Bradley J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 555.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of an Enantiomerically Pure Lactone: A Three-Step Synthesis for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Cynthia K. McClure and H. Keith Chenault
A three-step laboratory sequence for the undergraduate organic laboratory is described. This series of experiments requires a student to use the product from one reaction as the starting material for a subsequent reaction, and thus the affords the student a "real world" experience of multistep synthesis.
McClure, Cynthia K.; Chenault, H. Keith. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 467.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
IR Spectroscopy
Use of the Disposable IR Card in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Harriet P. Moeur and Robert P. Pinnell
Infrared spectra of solid and high-boiling liquid compounds can now be observed using Disposable IR Cards. This article reports on their use in the Organic Chemistry classroom.
Moeur, Harriet P.; Pinnell, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 371.
IR Spectroscopy |
Solids
A Simple Method for Producing a Mixture of Gaseous HCl and DCl for Measuring their Vibrational-Rotational Spectra  Barbara A. Lawrence and Andrew W. Zanella
This article describes a simple, inexpensive, and rapid method for generating a mixture of DCl and HCl. We include infrared vibrational-rotational spectroscopy of gaseous hydrogen chloride and its deuterium counterpart in our physical chemistry laboratory.
Lawrence, Barbara A.; Zanella, Andrew W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 367.
IR Spectroscopy |
Gases
From the Lecture Hall to the Laboratory: The Pinacol Rearrangement: Fostering Problem Solving Abilities and Critical Thinking Skills of the Organic Chemistry Student  Brenda J. Wojciechowski and Todd S. Deal
This article describes an interesting experiment for elementary organic laboratories. While the reaction (the Pinacol Rearrangement) described is an old one, its application as a puzzle is a new one.
Wojciechowsi, Brenda J.; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 85.
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
IR Vibration-Rotation Spectra of the Ammonia Molecule  Carl W. David
The IR spectrum of the ammonia inversion vibration-rotation normal mode is obtained using Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy and analyzed using Maple, to easily obtain the relation between the N-H bond length and the H-N-H bond angle.
David, Carl W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 46.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Organic Qualitative Analysis at the Microscale Level  Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K.
Project requiring students to identify pure unknowns and the components of mixtures using a variety of chromatography and spectrometry techniques.
Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A102.
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Infrared Characteristic Group Frequencies: Tables and Charts, Second Edition (Socrates, George)  
Monograph.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A93.
IR Spectroscopy
A Guide to the Complete Interpretation of Infrared Spectra of Organic Structures (Roeges, Noel P. G.)  
Monograph.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A93.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Baylis-Hillman Reaction: Synthesizing a Compound and Explaining Its Formation  Crouch, R. David; Nelson, Todd D.
Experimental procedure for the synthesis of an unpredictable and unknown mechanism to be identified and described by students through analytical techniques (spectroscopy).
Crouch, R. David; Nelson, Todd D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A6.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab
Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Indane-1-ones: Monitoring of the Reaction by VPC and IR Spectroscopy  Elie Stephan
Procedure for the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of indane-1-ones.
Stephan, Elie. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1142.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A Simple, Discovery-Based Laboratory Exercise: The Molecular Mass Determination of Polystyrene  Greg A. Slough
Identification of an unknown polymer using silica gel TLC sheets and IR spectroscopy.
Slough, Greg A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1031.
Stoichiometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Infrared Spectroscopy: A Versatile Tool in Practical Chemistry Courses   Volker Wiskam, Wolfgang Fichtner, Volker Kramb, Alexander Nintschew, and Jens Stefan Schneider
Procedure for preparing samples of basic inorganic compounds and analyzing them through IR spectroscopy in freshman chemistry.
Wiscamp, Volker; Fichtner, Wolfgang; Kramb, Volker; Nintschew, Alexander; Schneider, Jens Stefan. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 952.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
Explorations in Organometallic Synthesis: Characterization and Structure Determinations of Binuclear Phosphine-Bridged Complexes of Platinum Using Multinuclear NMR and IR Spectroscopy.   Kimberly A. Brittingham, Serge Schreiner, and Thomas N. Gallaher
A multistep synthesis that allows students to obtain NMR spectra for 31P and 195Pt; includes sample data and analysis.
Brittingham, Kimberley A.; Schreiner, Serge; Gallagher, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 941.
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds
Teflon Tape as a Sample Support for IR Spectroscopy  Keith A. Oberg and Daniel R. Palleros
Replacing IR spectra windows with Teflon tape; includes sample spectra run with NaCl plates and Teflon tape.
Oberg, Keith A.; Palleros, Daniel R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 857.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simulation of a Forensic Chemistry Problem: A Multidisciplinary Project for Secondary School Chemistry Students   G. A. Long
Simulated forensic chemistry project to develop multidisciplinary, team problem-solving skills among advanced high school chemistry students.
Long, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 803.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Forensic Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
HPLC
A Low-Cost Matrix Isolation Experiment: For the Undergraduate Laboratory   Mark Flair and T. Rick Fletcher
Method for generating and observing the reaction intermediate formed by photolysis of Cr(CO)6 in a low temperature solid matrix illustrating some of the principles of photochemistry and the relationship of spectroscopy to molecular structure.
Flair, Mark; Fletcher, T. Rick. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 753.
Photochemistry |
Organometallics |
Reactive Intermediates |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Overhead Projector Spectrum of Polymethine Dye: A Physical Chemistry Demonstration   Sally Solomon and Chinhyu Hur
Demonstration to predict the position of the predominant peak of a dye using the one-dimensional particle-in-a-box model.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 730.
Dyes / Pigments |
IR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
An Introductory Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment   Kenneth R. Hess, Wendy D. Smith, Marcus W. Thomsen, and Claude H. Yoder
An activity designed to introduce IR spectroscopy as a structure-determining technique to introductory chemistry students.
Hess, Kenneth R.; Smith, Wendy D.; Thomsen, Marcus W.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 655.
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Chemical Bond Studied by IR Spectroscopy in Introductory Chemistry: An Exercise in Cooperative Learning  Janet S. Anderson, David M. Hayes, and T. C. Werner
Activity that enables introductory chemistry students to run their own IR spectra using a FTIR spectrophotometer as part of learning about the dynamical nature of the chemical bond.
Anderson, Janet S.; Hayes, David M.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 653.
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Why Do Spectral Lines Have a Linewidth?  Volker B. E. Thomsen
Explanation of why spectral lines have a linewidth.
Thomsen, Volker B. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 616.
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Rapid IR Sampling Methods for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory Using a Diffuse Reflectance Accessory  Scamehorn, Richard
Obtaining IR data for small solid samples using a diffuse reflectance accessory.
Scamehorn, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 566.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Infrared Cell for Gases  Mabbott, Gary A.
Design of a simple infrared cell for gases (specifically nitrogen oxides).
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 471.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
An Undergraduate Organic Synthesis, Spectroscopy, and Molecular Modeling Project: Asymmetric Lewis Acid Catalyzed Diels-Alder Reaction of Menthyl Acrylate with Cyclopentadiene  Lee, Moses; Garbiras, Bonnie; Preti, Christopher
A project designed to demonstrate chromatography, spectroscopy, and molecular modeling; includes sample data and analysis.
Lee, Moses; Garbiras, Bonnie; Preti, Christopher J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 378.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Molecular Modeling
Characterization of Low-Valent Nickel Complexes Stabilized by Bis(diphenylphosphino)methane Using Multinuclear NMR and IR Spectroscopy.  Trumpy, Valory A.; Oriskovich, Tracy A.; Gallaher, Thomas N.; Schreiner, Serge
Experimental method for the synthesis of zero-valent nickel complexes containing bis(diphenylphosphino)methane and identification through NMR and IR spectroscopy; sample data and analysis included.
Trumpy, Valory A.; Oriskovich, Tracy A.; Gallaher, Thomas N.; Schreiner, Serge J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 357.
Metals |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis
Isotope Ratio, Oscillator Strength, and Band Positions from CO2 IR Spectra: A Physical Chemistry Experiment  Dierenfeldt, Karl E.
Procedure for using IR spectra of carbon dioxide gas to estimate the isotopic abundances of rarer isotopic species, and to find oscillator strengths.
Dierenfeldt, Karl E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 281.
Isotopes |
IR Spectroscopy
Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy  Raymond, Kenneth W.; Corkill, Jeffrey A.
Diffuse reflectance offers a quick and easy-to-use alternative to the preparation of KBr pellets and Nujol mulls for the infrared spectra of solid samples; includes a comparison of spectra from both techniques.
Raymond, Kenneth W.; Corkill, Jeffrey A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A204.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Analysis of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymers: A Combined TGA/FTIR Experiment  Williams, Kathryn R.
Enhancement of an earlier procedure by equipping an FTIR with an Attenuated Total Reflectance accessory and by combining the infrared results with Thermogravimetric Analysis data.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A195.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Thermal Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Microscale Isolation of Limonene from Orange Peels  Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad
A rapid and reliable extractive microscale isolation of limonene.
Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A146.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Natural Products |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
Infrared Study of Tetrachlorobis(N,N-dimethylformamide)tin(IV): A Case of Cis-Trans Isomerism  Tudela, David
This experiment contains some synthetic work and exposes the advanced inorganic student to the idea of isomerism and the usefulness of IR spectroscopy as a structural tool.
Tudela, David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1083.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
A Qualitative Experiment for Organic Chemistry Lab  Hermann, Christine K. F.
This experiment was introduced near the end of second semester. The students were told that the unknowns were either an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, an amine, an aldehyde, or a ketone. The identifications were based on melting points or boiling points, the IR and NMR spectra, and a set of four classification tests.
Hermann, Christine K. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 991.
Qualitative Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Using Infrared Spectroscopy for the Curricular Integration of General and Organic Chemistry  Spector, Tami I.
At the University of San Francisco, the extensive and innovative use of infared spectroscopy as an integral laboratory technique in the first two years of undergraduate chemistry has been used to narrow the gap between general and organic chemistry.
Spector, Tami I. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 946.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy
Disposable KBr Disc for Infrared Studies  Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.
Using wooden blocks to protect and vary the thickness of KBr, IR pellets.
Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 799.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Fundamental Rotational-Vibrational Band of CO and NO: Teaching the Theory of Diatomic Molecules  Schor, H. H. R.; Teixeira, E. L.
An experiment that explores the effects of angular momentum coupling on molecular spectra.
Schor, H. H. R.; Teixeira, E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 771.
IR Spectroscopy
Enhancement of the Rotation-Vibration Bands of HCl  George, W. O.; Griffiths, I. W.; Minty, B.; Lewis, Rh.
A less well-known source of deviation from the Beer-Lambert law whereby nonabsorbing components intensify the observed spectrum of an infrared absorber.
George, W. O.; Griffiths, I. W.; Minty, B.; Lewis, Rh. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 621.
IR Spectroscopy
Group Theory Calculations of Molecular Vibrations Using Spreadsheets  Condren, S. M.
162. Group theory calculations can be made quickly and easily using a spreadsheet; the students can then check their results with the number of observed IR and Raman bands to confirm that their prediction of the number unshifted atoms is correct.
Condren, S. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 486.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Polystyrene Kinetics by Infrared: An Experiment for Physical and Organic Chemistry Laboratories  Andrews-Henry, Heather
Procedure to determine the kinetics of the free radical polymerization of polystyrene.
Andrews-Henry, Heather J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 357.
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Polymerization |
Free Radicals |
Synthesis
An Experiment in trans-cis Isomerization: Synthesis and Kinetics of trans-Dichlorotetraamminecobalt(III) Chloride  Borer, Londa L.; Erdman, Howard W.
Synthesis and kinetics investigation of trans-dichlorotetraamminecobalt(III) chloride.
Borer, Londa L.; Erdman, Howard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 332.
Diastereomers |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Conductivity
Selectivity versus reactivity: The safe, efficient metal hydride reduction of a bifunctional organic   Smith, Katrina; Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W.
Microscale quantities allow students to perform otherwise dangerous observations of NaBH4 and LiAlH4 reductions.
Smith, Katrina; Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A94.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
Using Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements To Study Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding: Calculating the Degree of Association, Equilibrium Constant, and Bond Energy for Hydrogen Bonding in Benzyl Alcohol and Phenol  Frohlich, H.
This paper presents simple IR spectroscopy experiments that the author has used for two years in a third-year course, which covers spectroscopy and binding.
Frohlich, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A3.
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Covalent Bonding
Oxidation of (R)-(+)-pulegone to (R)-(+)-3-methyladipic acid  Scott, William J.; Hammond, Gerald B.; Becicka, Brian T.; Wiemer, David F.
This paper addresses the demand for microscale laboratories and minimizes waste disposal while linking students to current organic chemistry research.
Scott, William J.; Hammond, Gerald B.; Becicka, Brian T.; Wiemer, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 951.
Microscale Lab |
Undergraduate Research |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Models and molecules: A laboratory-based course in spectroscopy for the nonscience major   Werner, T. C.; Hull, L. A.
Recent general education curriculum requirements at the authors' institution led to the development of several laboratory-based courses for nonscience majors. One such course is presented in this paper.
Werner, T. C.; Hull, L. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 936.
Nonmajor Courses |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Preparation and characterization of deuterated crystalohydrates: An undergraduate inorganic or spectroscopic experiment  Ivanovska, Marina; Stojanoski, Kiro; Zdravkovski, Zoran
Experiments with heavy water cannot usually be performed by students because of the high cost associated. This paper proposes a simple, inexpensive procedure for deuterating crystalohydrates that can be implemented either as an inorganic or spectroscopic experiment.
Ivanovska, Marina; Stojanoski, Kiro; Zdravkovski, Zoran J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 603.
Isotopes |
Water / Water Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
Spectroscopic elucidation of the coordinative form of the DPPM ligand in [Mo(CO)4([nu]2-dppm)] and fac-[Mo(CO)3([nu]2-phen)([nu]1-dppm)] complexes: A challenging organometallic experiment for undergraduate students  Cano, Mercedes; Campo, Jose A.; Ovejero, Paloma; Heras, Jose V.
A challenging organometallic experiment for undergraduate students.
Cano, Mercedes; Campo, Jose A.; Ovejero, Paloma; Heras, Jose V. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 600.
Organometallics |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds
Forensic drug chemistry: A cooperative program  Siggins, Bruce A.; Hendricks, Bobby W.
A discussion of a cooperative program in forensic chemistry between the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory-Pacific and the Zama American High School designed to link concepts of logical thought and chemistry reasoning to the excitement of working laboratory problems.
Siggins, Bruce A.; Hendricks, Bobby W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 312.
Forensic Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Nonmajor Courses
Whether organic qual will wither?   Zieger, Herman E.
Author argues the important pedagogic purposes of organic qualitative analysis.
Zieger, Herman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 230.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Computer-Assisted Learning: IRexpert, an Infrared Interpretation Assistant  Cabrol, D.; Rabine, J. P.; Ricard, D.; Rouillard, M.; Forrest, T. P.
146. The IRexpert is a computer program (described in this paper) that provides students with an interactive environment in which resources for learning IR (such as group-frequency charts and tables) are provided and allow the student to gain valuable interpretation and experience in a shorter amount of time.
Cabrol, D.; Rabine, J. P.; Ricard, D.; Rouillard, M.; Forrest, T. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 120.
IR Spectroscopy
The rotational-vibrational spectra of HCN and DCN: A physical chemistry experiment  Keedy, Curtis R.
An interesting extension or alternative to the classic study of the rotational-vibrational spectra of HCl and DCl is the HCN-DCN system.
Keedy, Curtis R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A296.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy
Instrumental analysis courses: Part II. The choice and use of instrumentation  Jones, Bradley T.
Survey of what spechtrochemical analysis techniques are used in 95 chemistry departments.
Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A268.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
Quantitative analysis by FTIR: Thin films of copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate.  Mathias, Lon J.; Hankins, Marie G.; Bertolucci, Craig M.; Grubb, Tina L.; Muthiah, Jeno.
Quantitation of coploymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate using FTIR.
Mathias, Lon J.; Hankins, Marie G.; Bertolucci, Craig M.; Grubb, Tina L.; Muthiah, Jeno. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A217.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Quantitative Analysis |
Alkenes |
Carboxylic Acids
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.  Lee, Moses.
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.
Lee, Moses. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A172.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Atmospheric smog analysis in a balloon using FTIR spectroscopy: A novel experiment for the introductory laboratory   Amey, Ralph L.
The author has developed a simple experiment that examines and identifies some of the components of Los Angeles air by FTIR spectroscopy using an inexpensive toy balloon as a sample gas cell.
Amey, Ralph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A148.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gases
Microscale reactions of vanillin   Fowler, Rosemary G.
In this paper five microscale experiments which allow first-year organic student sot study the properties and reactions of vanillin are presented.
Fowler, Rosemary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A43.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Microscale Lab |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
An idea to save time and money with recording IR spectrophotometers  Silverman, L. Phillip; Akee, Rhone; Fitzhugh, Anthony L.
Recommended procedure for avoiding off-scale IR traces with recording IR spectrophotometers.
Silverman, L. Phillip; Akee, Rhone; Fitzhugh, Anthony L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1030.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Kinetic study of the reaction between ethanol and chloroacetyl chloride in chloroform: A laboratory experiment using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  Garcia, M. V.; Tiemblo, P.
Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to study the reaction between ethanol and chloroacetyl chloride in chloroform.
Garcia, M. V.; Tiemblo, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 841.
Kinetics |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions
Keeping the "un" in unknowns in qualitative identification exercises using FTIR.  Chauvin, Judy V.; Field, Jack E.
Using hexachloro-1,3-butadiene as the diluent for FTIR unknowns.
Chauvin, Judy V.; Field, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 661.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Qualitative Analysis
The synthesis of E-beta-bromostyrene: An experiment illustrating the use of IR bending modes to distinguish E and Z isomers and the concept of kinetic and thermodynamic controlled reactions.  Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R.
An experiment illustrating the concept of thermodynamic and kinetically controlled reactions to produce E and Z isomers (respectively); the use of IR to distinguish E and Z isomers; and the different properties of E and Z isomers (only the E isomer has a pleasant odor).
Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 588.
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A secure system for student use of IR solution cells.  Levine, Samuel G.
Procedure for alleviating problems with student prepared IR solution cells.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 567.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
The infrared overtone intensity of a simple diatomic: Nitric oxide  Bozlee, Brian J.; Luther, Joseph H.; Buraczewski, Mark
This laboratory exercise illustrates measuring the relative intensities of spectral bands.
Bozlee, Brian J.; Luther, Joseph H.; Buraczewski, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 370.
IR Spectroscopy
Experimental study of monochromators in UV-vis and IR spectrophotometers  Guion, Jose L.; Garcia-Anton, J.
This is a laboratory exercise where students strip down a UV-vis spectrophotometer and an IR spectrophotometer.
Guion, Jose L.; Garcia-Anton, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 77.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Synthesis, oxidation and UV/IR spectroscopy illustrated: An integrated freshman lab session   Zoller, Uri; Lubezky, Aviva; Danot, Miriam
This paper describes a specially designed, and successfully implemented lab-session for the first-year college general chemistry course.
Zoller, Uri; Lubezky, Aviva; Danot, Miriam J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A274.
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Metals
Construction of a low-cost solution cell for infrared analysis  Winston, Anthony
Solution techniques for IR analysis may be more practical than KBr pellets.
Winston, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A124.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
The preparation and characterization of an X-type zeolite: An experiment in solid-state chemistry  Balkus, Kenneth J., Jr.; Ly, Kieu T.
Topics in solid-state chemistry are often neglected in undergraduate labs partly because there are relatively few experiments that capture the attention of students. This paper reports on an undergraduate experiment based on the synthesis and characterization of an X-type zeolite.
Balkus, Kenneth J., Jr.; Ly, Kieu T. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 875.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Ion Exchange |
Synthesis |
Physical Properties |
IR Spectroscopy
The synthesis of some deazenido and hydrazido complexes of molybdenum  Dilworth, J. R.; Miller, J. R.
In this series of experiments, the authors report the synthesis of some complexes that containing nitrogenous ligands with readily available sulfur donors. Such reactions are currently of interest as researchers study nitrogen fixation.
Dilworth, J. R.; Miller, J. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 788.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Chelate-assisted carbon-halogen bond cleavage by oxidative addition at a W(O) carbonyl-metal complex: Inorganic-organometallic laboratory experiment for advanced undergraduates  Lucht, Brett; Poss, Mitchell J.; Richmond, Thomas G.
These ligands are readily prepared, air-stable, and easily characterized making them the basis of a laboratory experiment suitable for senior undergraduate synthesis.
Lucht, Brett; Poss, Mitchell J.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 786.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Addition Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Oxidation / Reduction
An undergraduate laboratory experiment involving synthesis and spectroscopy of metal complexes  Ahuja, I. S.; Tripathi, Shailendra
A lab for advanced inorganic students that offers an interesting and challenging exercise.
Ahuja, I. S.; Tripathi, Shailendra J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 681.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Gas cell for infrared spectroscopy  Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.
This note displays a quick construction for a gas cell or infrared spectroscopy.
Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 668.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The early history of spectroscopy  Thomas, Nicholas C.
The history of this important set of tools and techniques.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 631.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Preparation and characterization of iron sandwich complexes: Celebration of the 40th birthday of ferrocene  Vogel, Glenn C.; Perry, W. D.
A long term project in a unified laboratory junior and senior course involving preparation and characterization of "iron sandwich" complexes.
Vogel, Glenn C.; Perry, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 607.
Undergraduate Research |
Coordination Compounds |
Organometallics |
Phenols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Transition metal complexes with 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane: A laboratory experiment in coordination chemistry  Grant, Gregory J.; Mauldin, Penny L.; Setzer, William N.
A laboratory experiment in coordination chemistry that deals with the synthesis of four transition metal complexes containing a crown thioether ligand.
Grant, Gregory J.; Mauldin, Penny L.; Setzer, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 605.
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Thermal decomposition of diacyl peroxides and peresters: An undergraduate laboratory experiment using infrared absorptions to monitor decomposition rates  Mosher, Michael D.; Vinson, Sandra; Connagahan, Jodi; Forsythe, Regina; Mosher, Melvyn W.
This paper describes a technique that addresses the important educational goal of adapting research techniques into the teaching laboratory.
Mosher, Michael D.; Vinson, Sandra; Connagahan, Jodi; Forsythe, Regina; Mosher, Melvyn W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 510.
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Esters |
Reactions
Preparation and characterization of two nickel(II) complexes: An inorganic chemistry experiment  Eagle, Cassandra T.; Walmsley, Frank
An inorganic chemistry experiment developed on coordination compounds that provides an opportunity to piece together several sets of data to determine significant information about the structures of compounds.
Eagle, Cassandra T.; Walmsley, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 336.
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Magnetic Properties |
Coordination Compounds
The synthesis of 2'-bromostyrene  Corvari, Linda; McKee, James R.; Zanger, Murray
Organic chemistry laboratories need not be the repositories of foul smells. This synthesis produces an aroma akin to hyacinth.
Corvari, Linda; McKee, James R.; Zanger, Murray J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 161.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Alkenes
Benzoylacetic acid: Synthesis and examination of the tautomeric equilibrium  Rosenfeld, Stuart; William, Alecia
A lab sequence that includes challenging techniques appropriate for advanced undergraduates involving synthesis and physical organic chemistry. With supplemental work, this lab simulates the full range of operation of a professional chemist.
Rosenfeld, Stuart; William, Alecia J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 66.
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
IR Spectroscopy
N-only bridging thiocyanate, homo- and heterobinuclear complexes: A laboratory project in macrocyclic coordination chemistry utilizing a range of physical techniques  Hunter, Josie; Murphy, Brian; Nelson, Jane
N-only bridging thiocyanate, homo- and heterobinuclear complexes: A laboratory project in macrocyclic coordination chemistry utilizing a range of physical techniques.
Hunter, Josie; Murphy, Brian; Nelson, Jane J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 59.
Organometallics |
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
X-ray Crystallography |
Magnetic Properties
Introduction to Spectroscopy, IR, NMR, & CMR (Clough, Fred W.)  Byrd, James E.
Set of programs designed to help students analyze and interpret infrared, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra.
Byrd, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A194.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Spectral Interpretation (Pavia, Donald L.)  Young, Sidney H.
This software is designed to assist in teaching the use of proton - NMR and Infared Spectra for structural determination of organic molecules.
Young, Sidney H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A82.
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Simulation of the infrared spectrum of HCl  Pu, Qian
121. Bits and pieces, 45. A computer program that helps students master the method and technique of infrared measurements of HCl, even if they have no spectrophotometer.
Pu, Qian J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1034.
IR Spectroscopy
From cyclohexanol to 2-alkylated cyclopentanones: An open-ended set of experiments for an upper level organic laboratory  Wintner, Claude E.
Students are given 50 g of cyclohexanol and asked to convert this to the maximum amount of adipic acid that they can.
Wintner, Claude E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 984.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Polymers in the physical chemistry laboratory: An integrated experimental program  Hardgrove, George L.; Tarr, Donald L.; Miessler, Gary L.
Procedure for polymerizing mixtures of styrene and methylmethacrylate.
Hardgrove, George L.; Tarr, Donald L.; Miessler, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 979.
Polymerization |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Simple substitutes for halide-windowed gas cells  Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.
Using plastic bags and film for expensive gas cells and end windows.
Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 618.
IR Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Infrared spectroscopy and computers in the high school: A successful N.S.F.-sponsored program  Volker, Eugene J.; Demchik, Carol; Demchik, Michael; Helmick, Duane; Lucas, Sam
Introducing IR spectroscopy to the high school chemistry curriculum through an instrument exchange program.
Volker, Eugene J.; Demchik, Carol; Demchik, Michael; Helmick, Duane; Lucas, Sam J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 591.
IR Spectroscopy
Inexpensive low-frequency IR windows using polyethylene bags  Uson, Miguel Angel
The author uses polyethylene sheets in lab for Nujol mulls, and has not found a more compatible material as yet.
Uson, Miguel Angel J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 412.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Grignard reagent additions to alpha, beta-ethylenic nitriles: 1,4- vs. 1,2- additions  Kulp, Stuart S.; DiConcetto, Joseph A.
The easily synthesized alpha-phenylcinnamonitrile serves as an excellent starting material to illustrate conjugate (1,4) vs. simple (1,2) addition of various reactants.
Kulp, Stuart S.; DiConcetto, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 271.
Grignard Reagents |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Kinetics of pentaamminenitritocobalt(III) to pentaaminenitrocobalt(III) linkage isomerization, revisited  Phillips, Wanda M.; Choi, Sunhee; Larrabee, James A.
A rigorous kinetics analysis experiment using infared and visible absorption spectroscopy is feasible for an advanced undergraduate student and leads to the determination of the forward rate constant, reverse rate constant, and equilibrium constant in both the solid and solution phase reactions.
Phillips, Wanda M.; Choi, Sunhee; Larrabee, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 267.
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Constitutional Isomers |
Rate Law
Organic spectroscopy  Hiatt, Richard
Six programs that generate and display infrared, proton NMR, carbon-13 NMR, and mass spectra.
Hiatt, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 927.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Polyethylene film used as windows in infrared analysis of solid, liquid, or gaseous samples  Andrade, Wilson
Using polyethylene film as windows in the infrared analysis of solid, liquid, or gaseous samples.
Andrade, Wilson J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 865.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Aufbau methodology for the modeling of rotational fine structure of infrared spectral bands  Waite, Boyd A.
Provides a methodology for ascertaining the effects of selection and probability rules on spectra.
Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 805.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
IR Spectroscopy
A comparison of FT NMR and FT IR techniques  Ahn, Myong-Ku
A comparison of FT NMR and FT IR based on the examination of electromagnetic waves.
Ahn, Myong-Ku J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 802.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Synthesis and reactivity of ?5-cyclopentadienylruthenium compounds: An organometallic chemistry experiment  Ballester, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Perpinan, M. F.
Procedure permits the application of concepts regarding the reactivity of organometallic compounds and the use of IR and NMR spectral data in the characterization of the synthesized complexes.
Ballester, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Perpinan, M. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 777.
Organometallics |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds
The reduction of a nitrile (CN) group by sodium borohydride: The preparation of phosphineamine and phosphine-imidate complexes of tungsten carbonyl  Faust, Kristen E.; Storhoff, Bruce N.
Experiments designed to reinforce and extend student experiences with recording and interpreting IR and NMR spectra and assigning probable structures for organometallic structures based on that data.
Faust, Kristen E.; Storhoff, Bruce N. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 688.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Organometallics |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
The use of Model and QCPE 506 in the undergraduate instrumental laboratory: Semiempirical calculations  Lillie, Thomas S.; Yeager, Kirk
A laboratory experiment that uses AMPAC calculations in conjunction with infrared spectroscopy.
Lillie, Thomas S.; Yeager, Kirk J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 675.
Computational Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared spectroscopy: A serviceable KBr press using disposable "blotting paper" pellet holders designed for student use  Gerry, Henry E.; Craig, Rhoda E. R.
Design of a heavy duty KBr press that can be effectively operated at high temperatures and humidity.
Gerry, Henry E.; Craig, Rhoda E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 616.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Always run a blank  Schwartzman, George
Contamination of a sample by the plastic vial holding it.
Schwartzman, George J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 615.
IR Spectroscopy
Selective reductions in the teaching laboratory  Jones, Alan G.
Reductions of nitrophenylethanone, aminophenylethanone, and nitrophenylethanol.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 611.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
A tandem Michael-aldol reaction sequence: An undergraduate research organic experiment  Coutlangus, Marilyin L.; Filla, Sandra A.; Rowland, Alex T.
A short reaction sequence that allows students to determine by spectroscopic methods the constitutions of and stereochemistry in the reaction products.
Coutlangus, Marilyin L.; Filla, Sandra A.; Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 520.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
The isolation of sesquiterpenes from Artemisia annua  Roth, Ronald J.; Acton, Nancy.
Artemisia annua is a Eurasian import in North America and has been found growing in diverse parts of the United States. Procedures have been reported for the isolation of arteannuin B and of arteannuic acid.
Roth, Ronald J.; Acton, Nancy. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 349.
Plant Chemistry |
Natural Products |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy: An introduction for talented high school students  Magyar, Elaine E.; Magyar, James G.
Spectroscopy has been used as a unifying theme to teach basic chemical principles and laboratory skills to talented high school students.
Magyar, Elaine E.; Magyar, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 245.
Spectroscopy |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Zero-cost polystyrene film for IR spectroscopy  Fain, D.
The transparency section of many envelopes used for correspondence consists of a polystyrene film suitable for IR spectroscopy.
Fain, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 171.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Trifluoroacetylation of unknown alcohols: An integrated microscale organic experiment using spectroscopic methods  Piers, Kenneth; Hsung, Richard
The authors have found that trifluoroacetylation of unknown alcohols is a fast, clean, easily performed microscale experiment that integrates a number of aspects of laboratory work, viz. synthesis, isolation, characterization, spectroscopic measurement, and interpretation, and unknown identification.
Piers, Kenneth; Hsung, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 90.
Alcohols |
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Using infrared spectroscopy to determine the formation constant for the 2-propanol-acetone complex  Li, Ying Sing; Jeng, Mei Lee H.
An experiment suitable for an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory that uses infrared spectroscopic method to determine the complex formation constant of 2-propanol with acetone in carbon tetrachloride.
Li, Ying Sing; Jeng, Mei Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 920.
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Fourier Transform Techniques
The preparation of 4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one and its base catalyzed conversion into 2,3,4,5-tetraphenycyclopentadienone: An organic laboratory experiment   Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
An organic laboratory experiment that permits direct observation of a pedagogically interesting transformation.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 828.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phenols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Stereospecific reductions of 4-cholesten-3-one: An advanced organic synthesis project.  Markgraf, J. Hodge; Davis, Howard A.; Mahan, Brian R.
A more advanced synthetic project that incorporates reactions and materials with real-world significance.
Markgraf, J. Hodge; Davis, Howard A.; Mahan, Brian R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 635.
Administrative Issues |
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Hormones |
Diastereomers |
Metals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Part III. Applications  Perkins, W. D.
Applications of FT-IR spectroscopy to aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, photoacoustic spectroscopy, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope.
Perkins, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A296.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Part II. Advantages of FT-IR  Perkins, W. D.
Considers energy and other advantages of FT-IR.
Perkins, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A269.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Fourier transforms for chemists. Part 2. Fourier transforms in chemistry and spectroscopy  Glasser, L.
Considers the number of data channels in a spectrometer, the dispersive element as a delay device, the Fourier transform technique and its advantages, the fast Fourier transform technique and its advantages, and applications of these techniques to chemistry.
Glasser, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A260.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Infrared analysis using tissue paper  Owen, Noel L.; Wood, Steven G.
A quick, easy, inexpensive yet effective method of obtaining the infrared spectra of solids and liquids using FTIR spectroscopy.
Owen, Noel L.; Wood, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 976.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
Inexpensive low-frequency IR windows using Tupperware seals and polyethylene coffee can lids  Dew, Vinita C.
Using disks cut from coffee can lids and Tupperware tumbler seals as low-frequency IR windows.
Dew, Vinita C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 975.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
FTIR rotational spectroscopy  Woods, Ron; Henderson, Giles
Representative examples of the spectra and the analyses for a linear molecule (HCl), a symmetric top molecule (NH3), and an assymetric top (H2O).
Woods, Ron; Henderson, Giles J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 921.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy
Plasticizers in PVC: A combined IR and GC approach  Chan, W. H.
IR spectroscopy is used to screen plastic samples for phthalate plasticized PVC products, whereas gas chromatography is used to identify the isolated phthalates.
Chan, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 897.
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography
The kinetics of Mo(CO)6 substitution monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry: A physical chemistry experiment  Suslick, Kenneth S.; Flint, Edward B.; Jensen, James A.
A kinetics experiment that makes full use of the speed, accuracy, and sensitivity of FTIR spectrometers and that introduces students to the spectral storage and manipulation techniques associated with digitized data.
Suslick, Kenneth S.; Flint, Edward B.; Jensen, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 547.
Kinetics |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
Spectroscopic analysis using the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum  Crandall, Elbert W.
Review of the use of near-IR to study simple compounds (amines, hydroxyl, and carbonyl compounds) and polymers.
Crandall, Elbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 466.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Vibrational spectra of MnO4- isolated in KBr crystals: An illustration of pure Td symmetry in the solid state  Hagemann, H.; Sekhar, Y. Ravi; Bill, H.
A solid state example that can clearly illustrate the rigorous application of IR and Raman selection rules in a pure Td symmetry.
Hagemann, H.; Sekhar, Y. Ravi; Bill, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 456.
Spectroscopy |
Solid State Chemistry |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Raman Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
An infrared salt plate cleaning device  Hiegel, Gene A.
A simple device for holding a salt plate while rinsing it with solvent can be made from a small funnel and a bottle.
Hiegel, Gene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 261.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Heat of dimerization of formic acid by FTIR  Henderson, Giles
Determination of the heat of dimerization of formic acid from the temperature dependence of the dimer equilibrium constant.
Henderson, Giles J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 88.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Perkin-Elmer model 337 infrared spectrophotometer interfaced to an IBM PC  Pearson, Myrna S.; Tuzzo, Salvatore J.
78. Bits and pieces, 32. In an attempt to respond to the trend toward computer based laboratory automation, management, and networking, a chemistry department opts to initiate a program of interfacing its current instruments to an IBM PC.
Pearson, Myrna S.; Tuzzo, Salvatore J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1074.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Introducing plastic in the laboratory: Synthesis of a plasticizer, dioctylphthalate and evaluation of its effects on the physical properties of polystyrenes  Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L.
These authors are proposing a two-stage experimental approach that combines preparative organic chemistry and polymer characterization.
Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 811.
Esters |
Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The heat of formation of Na2SiF6: A physical chemistry laboratory experiment  Devore, T. C.; Gallaher, T. N.
A classic concept can seem more relevant to students by using IR spectroscopy to measure the heat of formation of Na2SiF6.
Devore, T. C.; Gallaher, T. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 729.
Thermodynamics |
IR Spectroscopy
The catalyzed substitution of CO by isonitriles on [M(CO)6](M = Cr, Mo, W): A versatile undergraduate inorganic laboratory experiment.  Albers, Michel O.; Singleton, Eric; Coville, Neil J.
The authors share a series of experiments designed to familiarize the undergraduate inorganic student with fundamental laboratory skills and techniques such as: using inert atmosphere techniques; monitoring reactions by thin-layer chromatography or IR spectroscopy; using spectroscopy to estimate product purity; and characterization of the reaction products.
Albers, Michel O.; Singleton, Eric; Coville, Neil J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 444.
IR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
Event-driven data acquisition: Using ADALAB with an Acculab Infrared Spectrometer   Lisensky, George C.; Mehlhaff, Bryan A.
70. Bits and pieces, 28. These authors report an example of data acquisition using event-driven timing.
Lisensky, George C.; Mehlhaff, Bryan A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 323.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Inexpensive Magnetic Sample Holder for Infrared Spectroscopy  Cheam, Toon C.
A recommended piece of equipment for academic labs.
Cheam, Toon C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 167.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
Analysis of near-IR spectrum of HCl molecule using Apple II  Armanious, M.; Shoja, M.
67. Bits and pieces, 27. This computer program facilitates students in instrumental methods course understanding of spectroscopy.
Armanious, M.; Shoja, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 71.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
An aldol condensation-photochemical bromination sequence with emphasis on spectroscopic interpretations: An undergraduate organic experiment  Rowland, Alex T.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Gerelus, Anne Sykes
The focus in these procedures is to extend students' abilities in the interpretation of spectral data in order to reach sound conclusions regarding the constitution and stereochemistry of reaction products.
Rowland, Alex T.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Gerelus, Anne Sykes J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 908.
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Computer-assisted quantitative infrared conformational analysis of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones  Tisnes, P.; Perry, M.
Investigates the s-cis <> s-trans conformational equilibrium of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones.
Tisnes, P.; Perry, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 903.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis
Identification of the stable conformer of cyclohexane by vibrational spectroscopy  Garcia, M. V.; Redondo, M. I.
A laboratory experiment that uses group theory to help interpret infrared and Raman spectra of cyclohexane.
Garcia, M. V.; Redondo, M. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 887.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Conformational Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry
A quantitative infrared spectroscopy experiment  Krahling, Mark D.; Eliason, Robert
Determining the amount of methanol in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE).
Krahling, Mark D.; Eliason, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 886.
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
mer- and fac-[Co(NH3)3(NO2)3] Do they exist? A laboratory project with poster session  Laing, Michael
Students attempt the preparation of [Co(NH3)3(NO2)3] by three published methods, two for the mer and one for the fac isomers and find that none of the published recipes gives either pure compounds or reproducible results.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 707.
Coordination Compounds |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Interfacing a scanning infrared spectrophotometer to a microcomputer  Mattson, B. M.; Shepherd, T. R.; Solsky, J. F.
62. Bits and pieces, 25. Upgrading an older spectrophotometer to interface with a computer.
Mattson, B. M.; Shepherd, T. R.; Solsky, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 690.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Infrared spectroscopy of deuterated compounds: An undergraduate experiment  MacCarthy, Patrick
KBr pressed-pellet method for preparing compounds deuterated at active hydrogen sites.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 633.
IR Spectroscopy |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Iron-sulfur-carbonyl and -nitrosyl complexes: A laboratory experiment  Glidewell, Christopher; Hyde, Andrew R.; McKechnie, James S.; Pogorzelec, Peter J.
Preparation of Fe3(CO)12 and Fe2(CO)6(SMe)2; involves the use of inert atmosphere techniques, thin-layer and flexible column chromatography, and the interpretation of IR, 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectral data.
Glidewell, Christopher; Hyde, Andrew R.; McKechnie, James S.; Pogorzelec, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 534.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
An easy DCl(g) prep for the HCl(g)-DCl(g) IR experiment  Buettner, Garry R.
Preparing a gaseous IR cell that contains HCl and DCl in less than 10 minutes.
Buettner, Garry R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 524.
Isotopes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
Using a computer database - An "experiment" for the organic and forensic laboratories  Umland, Jean B.
From the infrared spectrum of an unknown compound, students use an Infrared Search System to get a list of possible compounds.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 500.
Forensic Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Tris(oxalato) teaching aids  Young, Charles G.
Preparation and characterization of potassium tris(oxalato)ferrate(III).
Young, Charles G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 445.
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
X-ray Crystallography |
Magnetic Properties
Magnetic and spectral properties of an airstable d1 titanium complex  Pickering, Miles
Synthesis and analysis of a Ti(III)-urea complex.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 442.
Magnetic Properties |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Synthesis |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
IR Spectroscopy
A practical experiment for determining a pervasive, persistent pollutant  Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A.
Spectral identification by means of infrareds spectroscopy of the PCBs recovered from a TLC plate is enhanced due to the concentrating effect of a commercial sample-recovery system.
Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 738.
IR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Analysis of functional groups by solubility and infrared analysis  Turek, William N.
An experiment that introduces students to infrared spectroscopy while familiarizing them with the solubility behavior of various organic compounds.
Turek, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 709.
Precipitation / Solubility |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Introductory use of infrared spectra: A formalized approach  McMinn, Dennis
A strategy for introducing the interpretation of IR spectra by looking for the presence (or absence) of peaks in six key regions
McMinn, Dennis J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 708.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Interpreting infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of simple organic compounds for the beginner  Ingham, A. M.; Henson, R. C.
Flowcharts to help the beginner become proficient in interpreting infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of simple organic compounds.
Ingham, A. M.; Henson, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 704.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An alternative method of learning characteristic spectroscopic signals  Butler, J. Keith
Producing a colored chart correlating functional groups with shifts of frequency.
Butler, J. Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 703.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Penny infrared cells for water solutions  Phillips, J. P.
An inexpensive, but superior support for aqueous solutions as well as other liquids.
Phillips, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 740.
IR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Spectroscopically silent fundamental vibrations  Keiter, Richard L.
It is the purpose of this article to to explore the reasons for a pedagogical blind spot when teaching vibrational spectroscopy.
Keiter, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 625.
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The second derivative visible spectrum of iodine  Cartwright, Hugh M.
The assignment of peaks to the correct progression is considerably simplified if a second derivative spectrum is prepared.
Cartwright, Hugh M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 606.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chemometrics
An inexpensive high pressure optical absorption cell for IR-VIS-UV studies  Rodgers, V. E.; Angell, C. A.
This contribution describes an optical cell suitable for high pressure studies between at least -130 degrees and 150 degrees which can be assembled for about $50 and is simple to use.
Rodgers, V. E.; Angell, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 602.
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
IR spectrum of a fictitious hydride   Moeller, Michael B.
42. Bits and pieces, 15. This exercise provides an excellent introduction to spectroscopy and the ability to determine molecular parameters from spectral data.
Moeller, Michael B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 569.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Infrared spectroscopy of spherical top (Td) molecules: a physical chemistry experiment  DeVore, Thomas C.; Gallaher, Thomas N.
Topics covered by this experiment include: (1) Use of group theory to determine infrared active modes of vibration (2) combination and overtone bands of polyatomic molecules (3) analysis of the rotational-vibrational spectrum of a polyatomic molecule and (4) force constants of polyatomic molecules.
DeVore, Thomas C.; Gallaher, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 522.
IR Spectroscopy |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Determination of acrylonitrile/ methylmethacrylate copolymer composition by infrared spectroscopy  Ekpenyong, Kieran I.; Okonkwo, R. O.
In this study, the nitrile group absorption band is used for analysis in IR spectroscopy because of its sharpness and absence of interruption from neighboring bands.
Ekpenyong, Kieran I.; Okonkwo, R. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 429.
IR Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy illustrated  Boschmann, Erwin
It is the purpose of the experiment described in this article is to (a) to prepare three metal derivatives of DMSO, and (B) to determine some structural features of these derivatives based on the infrared spectra.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 413.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
A program for determining the symmetry types of the normal modes of vibration   Schneider, Michel; Weber, Jean-Victor; Faller, Pierre
37. Bits and pieces, 14. The authors report their development of a computer program IRRA for determining the symmetry types of the normal modes of vibration, the IR and/ or Raman active fundamentals and the number of bands in the IR and Raman spectra of the molecule.
Schneider, Michel; Weber, Jean-Victor; Faller, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 99.
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A reinvestigation of the synthesis of 4-methyl-3-heptanol  Hoffman, Robert V.; Alexander, M. D.; Buntain, Gregory; Hardenstein, Richard; Mattox, Cynthia; McLaughlin, Susan; McMinn, Denise; Spray, Scott; White, Steven
A previously reported laboratory may have reported gas chromatographic separation of the 4-methyl-3-heptanol diastereomiers in error. The side reactions in the Grignard reaction account for the observed results.
Hoffman, Robert V.; Alexander, M. D.; Buntain, Gregory; Hardenstein, Richard; Mattox, Cynthia; McLaughlin, Susan; McMinn, Denise; Spray, Scott; White, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 78.
Hormones |
Alcohols |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Natural Products
Infrared spectra analysis on a calculator   Holdsworth, David
36. Bits and pieces, 13. A calculator can be programmed to help students interpret IR data.
Holdsworth, David J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 47.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The monomeric pentacyanocobaltate(II) anion: Preparation and properties of thallium(I) pentacyanocobaltate(II)  Mosha, Donnati M. S.
The synthesis and characterization of thallium(I) pentacyanocobaltate(II).
Mosha, Donnati M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1057.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
An experiment on isomerism in metal-amino acid complexes: Preparation and characterization of cobalt(III) complexes containing N-bonded monodentate, O-bonded monodentate and N,O-chelated glycine ligands  Harrison, R. Graeme; Nolan, Kevin B.
Synthesis of three cobalt(III) complexes that illustrate three possible modes of bonding of glycine to a metal ion, as well as methods for distinguishing among the products.
Harrison, R. Graeme; Nolan, Kevin B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1054.
Stereochemistry |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
The preparation and characterization of the geometric isomers of a coordination complex: cis- and trans-bis-glycinato copper(II) monohydrates  O'Brien, Paul
The preparation of the cis and trans isomers of the kinetically labile bis glycinato copper(II) has a number of advantages including its facility, economy, ready theoretical interpretation, and biological relevance.
O'Brien, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1052.
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Determination of hydration numbers by near infrared: Modification of an earlier approach  Jayne, Jerrol
An alternative set of assumptions is made about an earlier method for determining the spectroscopic hydration number of a solute by Bonner and Woolsey.
Jayne, Jerrol J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 882.
IR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Hydrogen Bonding
Structural parameters of methyl iodide by infrared spectroscopy  McNaught, Ian J.
A study of the rotation-vibration spectrum of methyl chloride permits calculation of band origins of the fundamentals, Coriolis coupling constants of the degenerate modes, rotation constants, and bond lengths and force constants.
McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 879.
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Undergraduate infrared spectroscopy experiments  MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J.
A set of experiments that provide experience in deuteration and derivatization procedures as applied to infrared spectroscopy.
MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 799.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes
Infrared emission spectrum of the hydroxyl radical: A novel experiment in molecular spectroscopy  Henderson, Giles; Ko, Chun-Sheng; Huang, Tsao-Chin
Parameters derived from a recent ab initio potential are used to calculate vibrational-rotational energy levels and then construct a "stick spectrum" for the overtone emission of the hydroxyl radical.
Henderson, Giles; Ko, Chun-Sheng; Huang, Tsao-Chin J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 683.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Separation and IR analysis of a mixture of organic compounds  Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John
Introduces students to fractional distillation and analysis of each fraction by gas-liquid chromatography.
Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 617.
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids
Introduction to infrared spectroscopy: A simple undergraduate experiment  Reeder, Deborah M.; Sridharan, Srinivasa
The objective is to obtain two IR spectra, one on an aliphatic compound and the other on an aromatic compound in a first-semester organic laboratory.
Reeder, Deborah M.; Sridharan, Srinivasa J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 503.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Hydrogen bonding and proton transfer  Joesten, Melvin D.
A review of the types of hydrogen bonds and discussion of the application of spectroscopic and diffraction methods to studies of moderate and strong hydrogen bonds.
Joesten, Melvin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 362.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Sulcatol: Synthesis of an aggregation pheromone  Black, Shirley-Ann; Slessor, Keith N.
Synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of the ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of harvested timber in the Pacific North Coast.
Black, Shirley-Ann; Slessor, Keith N. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 255.
Synthesis |
Natural Products |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Applications of Chemistry
Spectroscopy illustrated - A lecture experiment  Boschmann, Erwin
Uses DMSO to illustrate factors that influence the frequency of absorption in infrared spectroscopy.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 57.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds
Analysis of analgesic mixtures: An organic chemistry experiment  Martin, Ned H.
The lab described here allows for students to work out experimental conditions themselves and introduces semi-micro techniques.
Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 818.
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Infrared spectrum of methanol: A first-year student experiment  Boehm, Garth; Dwyer, Mark
This paper describes an experiment in infrared spectroscopy designed to complement an alternative course, and the audiovisual system which supports this experiment.
Boehm, Garth; Dwyer, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 809.
MO Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The vinyl acetate content of packaging film: A quantitative infrared experiment.  Allpress, K. N.; Cowell, B. J.; Herd, A. C.
This experiment is based on an industrial laboratory procedure for the determination of vinyl acetate levels in ethylene vinyl acetate packaging films.
Allpress, K. N.; Cowell, B. J.; Herd, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 741.
IR Spectroscopy |
Industrial Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Vibrational spectroscopy of CS2: A physical chemistry experiment  Mendelsohn, Richard; Monse, Ernst U.
The authors have developed an experiment out of a perceived need for an experiment in vibrational spectroscopy which goes beyond the usual infrared rotational-vibration spectrum of HCl and which will render a spectra that is sufficiently complex so that many of the features observed in larger molecules may be meaningfully illustrated.
Mendelsohn, Richard; Monse, Ernst U. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 582.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Spectroscopy in organic chemistry at the introductory level  Gurst, Jerome E.
This author has found that the use of a limited series of compounds allow students to focus attention on the spectra rather than the structural formulas of many compounds. This allows students to grasp the significance of the spectral measurements in a minimal time period.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 511.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
A rapid method for preparing solid compounds for infrared analysis  Larson, Olof G.; Miller, Jeff W.; Nienhouse, Everett J.
A description of a rapid method for preparing solid compounds for infrared analysis.
Larson, Olof G.; Miller, Jeff W.; Nienhouse, Everett J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 80.
IR Spectroscopy
Preparation and properties of sufatotris(thiourea)zinc(II)  Udupa, M. R.
Preparation and IR analysis of sufatotris(thiourea)zinc(II).
Udupa, M. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 825.
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy
An inorganic laboratory experiment involving photochemistry, liquid chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy  Post, Elroy W.
An experiment involving photochemical ligand displacement on a metal carbonyl, separation of the product by mixture by chromatography, and identification of the components using IR spectroscopy and group theory.
Post, Elroy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 819.
Photochemistry |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Separation Science
The chemistry of seashells  Kinard, W. Frank
Infrared studies, magnesium analysis, and the shell chemistry of some common marine organisms.
Kinard, W. Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 783.
Natural Products |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Esters of some phosphorus acids: A laboratory experiment  Glidewell, Christopher; Pogorzelec, Peter J.
Introduces students two reactions in organophosphorus chemistry, the Azbuzov and Atherton-Todd reactions, and involves the use of infrared and 1H and 31P NMR spectra for the identification of the products.
Glidewell, Christopher; Pogorzelec, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 740.
Esters |
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Co(acac)3 Synthesis, reactions, and spectra: An experiment for general chemistry  Shalhoub, George M.
Students demonstrate that nitration of Co(acac)3 has occurred through proton NMR and IR spectroscopy.
Shalhoub, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 525.
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared spectra of simple inorganic ion pairs in solid solution: A physical inorganic chemistry experiment  Miller, Philip J.; Tong, William G.
Demonstrates the ion pairing of inorganic ions in solid solution and the use of simple group theoretical considerations for structure elucidation.
Miller, Philip J.; Tong, William G. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 523.
IR Spectroscopy |
Crystals / Crystallography
A simple demonstration of conformational equilibrium  Partridge, D. A.
The infrared spectra of solutions of pinacol in tetrachloromethane with different molarities are compared to identify the presence of intermolecular hydrogen-bonding.
Partridge, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 508.
Equilibrium |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy
A variable reference beam attenuator for infrared spectrophotometers  Garin, David L.; Windsor, Ted
An iris diaphragm used to adjust the reference beam in an IR spectrophotometer.
Garin, David L.; Windsor, Ted J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 463.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
Spectroscopic techniques in the chemistry laboratory: A science enrichment course for high school teachers  Emert, Jack; Zeldin, Martel
Description of an enrichment program entitled "Spectroscopic Techniques in the Chemistry Laboratory."
Emert, Jack; Zeldin, Martel J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 451.
Spectroscopy |
Professional Development |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
On the variation of infrared absorption spectra with gas pressure and cell length  Goldman, A.; Blatherwick, R. D.
Shows how the "strong line" and "weak line" approximations to the Lambert-Beer law can be used to explain a seemingly contradictory comparison between two spectra of the same molecule.
Goldman, A.; Blatherwick, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 392.
IR Spectroscopy
A readily constructed long path-length cell for infrared spectroscopy  Grant, Douglas H.
Minor modifications to the barrels of the Wilks "Mini-Press" provides long path-length IR cells.
Grant, Douglas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 389.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Teaching chemistry to high school students in a government laboratory  Baruch, Gerard P.; Malotky, Lyle O.
Program in which selected high school students use a U.S. Navy chemical instrumentation laboratory.
Baruch, Gerard P.; Malotky, Lyle O. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 369.
Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Potassium bromide disc infrared spectroscopy: A useful technique for liquid samples  Andersen, Jan R.
Use of the KBr-disc method need not be restricted to solids alone.
Andersen, Jan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 761.
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
The second year course in inorganic chemistry at the free university of Amsterdam  Bolster, M. W. G.
Includes an outline of the experiments used in the course.
Bolster, M. W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 734.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
How the Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer works  Strong, Frederick C., III
Explains how the Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer works.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 681.
Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lasers
Friedel-Crafts acylation: An experiment incorporating spectroscopic structure determination  Schatz, Paul F.
Students use IR and NMR methods to determine the product of an aromatic substitution.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 480.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
A simple technique for the preparation of solutions for qualitative infrared spectroscopy  Southwick, Everett W.; Kidd, Douglas H.
A simple technique for the preparation of solutions for qualitative infrared spectroscopy involves drawing the sample into a capillary tube through capillary action.
Southwick, Everett W.; Kidd, Douglas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 394.
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A student synthesis of the housefly sex attractant  Cormier, Russell A.; Duc Phan, M.; Graddis, Thomas; Singer, Richard
This multi-step synthetic sequence illustrates several important laboratory techniques, including ir and nmr spectroscopy, thin-layer and column chromatography, rotary evaporation, recrystallization, and vacuum distillation.
Cormier, Russell A.; Duc Phan, M.; Graddis, Thomas; Singer, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 345.
Synthesis |
Natural Products |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Infrared spectra simulation  Breneman, G. L.
A Basic program that simulates the ir spectra of 35 organic compounds.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 340.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Determination of hydration numbers by near infrared: An advanced undergraduate experiment  Hollenberg, J. Leland
Improvements over a procedure presented earlier in the Journal.
Hollenberg, J. Leland J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 278.
IR Spectroscopy |
Hydrogen Bonding
Laboratory automation in the undergraduate curriculum: Determination of polyethylene chain branching by computerized IR methods  Kalasinsky, V. F.; Harris, W. C.; Powers, D. E.
Determining the number of methyl groups per 100 carbon atoms is used as a measure of the degree of chain branching, and this is measured using a computer-interfaced, infrared spectrophotometer.
Kalasinsky, V. F.; Harris, W. C.; Powers, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 128.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Determination of the vibrational constants of some diatomic molecules: A combined infrared spectroscopic and quantum chemical third year chemistry project  Ford, T. A.
In one of the options for this project, the rotation-vibration infrared spectra of a number of gaseous diatomic molecules were recorded, from which the fundamental vibrational wavenumber, the force constant, the rotation-vibration interaction constant, the equilibrium rotational constant, and the equilibrium internuclear distance were determined.
Ford, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 57.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis, characterization, and photogeneration of the 2-methylpyrazinepentacyanoiron(II) complex  Ernhoffer, Robert; Kovacs, Dan; Subak, Edward, Jr.; Shepherd, Rex E.
The authors have incorporated the study of the 2-methylpyrazinepentacyanoiron(II) complex into an upper-division inorganic laboratory course because it is amenable to many characterization techniques.
Ernhoffer, Robert; Kovacs, Dan; Subak, Edward, Jr.; Shepherd, Rex E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 610.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Qualitative Analysis
Inert atmosphere KBr pellet press and cell  Hendrixson, Richard R.; Palmer, Richard A.; Whitcomb, David R.
The authors share an easier way to use IR spectra.
Hendrixson, Richard R.; Palmer, Richard A.; Whitcomb, David R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 585.
IR Spectroscopy
Z- and E-stereoisomerism: An experiment using photochemistry  Bourelle-Wargnier, F.; Feigenbaum, A.; Muzart, J.
The authors' report on the preparation of 2-benzylidenecyclohexanone E(I).
Bourelle-Wargnier, F.; Feigenbaum, A.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 339.
Stereochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
IR spectrum  Mount, Marti
A poem about IR spectroscopy.
Mount, Marti J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 33.
IR Spectroscopy
Synthesis and characterization of a macrocyclic nickel complex. An experiment to conclude an advanced inorganic or analytical course  Merrell, Philip H.; Urbach, F. L.; Arnold, Michael
The complex 5,7,7,12,14,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-dieneatonickel(II) iodide is prepared and characterized.
Merrell, Philip H.; Urbach, F. L.; Arnold, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 580.
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared spectroscopy of tetrahedral ligands. An advanced experiment in inorganic chemistry  Ribas, J. Casabo; Coronas, J. M.
This study lets the student familiarize himself with the important role played by IR spectroscopy in the determination of the stereochemistry of coordination compounds; this example involves complexes of Cr(III) and NH3.
Ribas, J. Casabo; Coronas, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 321.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Stereochemistry
Illustrating infrared spectroscopy using commercially available plastic films  Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm; Selinger, Ben
Collecting and comparing the IR spectra of commercially available plastic films.
Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm; Selinger, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 303.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Removing the "art" from KBr wafer preparation: An improved procedure  Jordan, David
A device and method for standardizing the torque applied to produce KBr wafers.
Jordan, David J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 287.
Laboratory Management |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Inexpensive window material for infrared spectroscopy of Nujol-mulls  Naik, Datta V.
Polyethylene film can be substituted for a sodium chloride plate. This is more economical.
Naik, Datta V. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 294.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Infrared Spectroscopy Programs (Sadtler Research Laboratories)  Stephens, Lawrence J.
A review of teaching aids that can be used to enhance understanding of IR spectroscopy.
Stephens, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 252.
IR Spectroscopy
A student operated animated infrared spectroscopy teaching model  Hartman, Karel
To help students understand the background of infrared spectroscopy better, a teaching model of spectroscopy can be built.
Hartman, Karel J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 111.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Problem-causing constituents of vitamin C tablets  Wilk, I. J.
This laboratory activity examines ascorbic acid in a commercial vitamin C tablet via IR. spectroscopy.
Wilk, I. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 41.
IR Spectroscopy |
Vitamins |
Quantitative Analysis
Computer assisted analysis of infrared spectra  Bell, Harold M.
An interactive computer program helps students learn how to interpret infrared spectra.
Bell, Harold M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 26.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Vibrational spectra of iron carbonyl complexes  Montemayor, R. G.
The experiment described here distinguishes between cis and trans-isomers of Mo(CO)4L2 complexes on the basis of the observed infrared bands in the CO-stretching region and the expected number of infrared active CO-stretching vibrations as derived from group theoretical considerations.
Montemayor, R. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 16.
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Chemometrics
A novel communications-skills-based approach to the instrumental laboratory  Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E.
Describes the approach used in a course designed to stress the importance of good writing style in laboratory reports.
Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 801.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
A laboratory exercise for organic chemistry  Sands, Richard D.
Students analyze a mixture of two unknown liquids, which as the semester progresses they are to separate, analyze, and identify.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 732.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy
The selective reduction of meta- (and para-) nitroacetophenone  Jones, Alan G.
By appropriate choice of reagent and reaction conditions a nitroketone can be selectively reduced to an aminoketone or a nitroalcohol; aromatic nitro groups can be reduced to primary arylamines using various chemical reducing agents.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 668.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The preparation and spectral analysis of toluene-a[alpha]-d  Ellis, Jerry W.; Buchanan, David H.
Provides dramatic visual evidence of the changes in IR, NMR, and mass spectra upon substitution of deuterium for hydrogen in a simple molecule.
Ellis, Jerry W.; Buchanan, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 265.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy
An integrated synthesis laboratory for the sophomore year  Pearson, Wesley A.; Finholt, Albert E.
Outlines the compounds synthesized and the techniques used in a two-semester integrated laboratory sequence for sophomores.
Pearson, Wesley A.; Finholt, Albert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 236.
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
An IR simulator for the undergraduate physical chemistry course  Summerhays, K. D.; Gruhn, T. A.; McCarthy, J. P.
A Fortran IV program that enhances the presentation of the recording and analysis of rotation-vibration spectra of simple molecules in the gas phase and makes it possible for those institutions lacking reliable, high resolution instruments to dry lab the activity. [The feature title is given as "Interpretative Experiments." It has been regularized as the later title, "Interpretive Experiments."]
Summerhays, K. D.; Gruhn, T. A.; McCarthy, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 181.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Band contours of asymmetric rotors  Wait, Sr., Samuel C.
In the course of investigations of the vibrational assignments of octadeuteronaphthalene, it was noted that a striking example of band contours is present in the infrared spectrum.
Wait, Sr., Samuel C. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 654.
IR Spectroscopy
The effects of aryl substituents on ir, nmr, and mass spectra of N-t-butylbenzamides  Rubottom, George M.
The authors have developed this experiment in order to give students the opportunity to carry out a high yield synthetic reaction coupled with an analysis of the effects of substituents on the IR, NMR, and mass spectral properties of the compounds prepared.
Rubottom, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 616.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
A combined infrared and kinetic study of linkage isomers. An inorganic experiment  Hohman, William H.
In this experiment, the rate of isomerization of the nitrito to the nitro isomer is followed in the solid state using an infrared technique. The order of the reaction and the mechanism for the conversion can be determined.
Hohman, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 553.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy
Integrated infrared band intensities: A physical chemistry experiment  Wilson, H. William
The author demonstrates what he has found to be a successful way to illustrate the role of instrumental functions in distorting band contours and pitfalls of data handling by having junior-senior level physical chemistry students carry out routine intensity evaluations as laboratory experiments.
Wilson, H. William J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 392.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The use of group theory to determine molecular geometry from ir spectra  Thomas, Clarence H.
In order to give the undergraduate chemistry majors some familiarity with group theory, the authors have provided an alternative to the usual experiments in infrared spectroscopy which are performed in the physical chemistry laboratory.
Thomas, Clarence H. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 91.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Simple procedures for ir spectra of solids in the 20-120C range  Bowman, Max I.; Larson, Wilbur S.; Dougherty, Thomas E.
A procedure that has definite advantages over the KBr pellet method for routine student use in the laboratory.
Bowman, Max I.; Larson, Wilbur S.; Dougherty, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 517.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
An application of GC and IR to follow the progress of chemical reactions  Lires, O. A.; Molinari, M. A.
Two examples of preparing chloro derivatives of hydrocarbons for analysis by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy.
Lires, O. A.; Molinari, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 492.
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Alkylation
The synthesis and nitration of benzene-d1  Todd, David
The synthesis of labeled benzene-d1 and its conversion to meta-dinitrobenzene.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 366.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Isotopes |
IR Spectroscopy
Analysis of an important air pollutant: Peroxyacetyl nitrate  Stephens, Edgar R.; Price, Monty A.
Synthesis and IR analysis of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN).
Stephens, Edgar R.; Price, Monty A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 351.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Spectroscopy and structure elucidation. Coordinated experimental exercises in advanced organic chemistry  Jefford, C. W.; McCreadie, R.; Muller, P.; Pfyffer, J.
An experimental sequence consisting of five high-yield reactions in which the structures of the products are determined from IR, UV, and NMR spectra.
Jefford, C. W.; McCreadie, R.; Muller, P.; Pfyffer, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 181.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Aldrich library of infrared spectra (Pouchert, Charles J.)  Lambert, Frank L.

Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A491.
IR Spectroscopy
Spectroscopic Tricks. Volume 2 (May, Leopold)  Kagel, R. O.

Kagel, R. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A398.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Basic infrared spectroscopy  Cairns, Thomas

Cairns, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 653.
IR Spectroscopy
Interpretation of infrared spectra  Duffy, Norman V.

Duffy, Norman V. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 652.
IR Spectroscopy
The synthesis and characterization of tin complexes using inert atmosphere techniques. An advanced laboratory experiment  Thompson, David W.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Schiavelli, Melvyn D.
This study of the tin tetrachloride-acetyl-acetone system is a good introduction for upper division students to techniques used in handling air-sensitive compounds.
Thompson, David W.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Schiavelli, Melvyn D. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 569.
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Practical problems in the cement industry solved by modern research techniques  Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Robertson, Les D.
Discussion of several problems encountered in the authors' investigations of problems in the cement industry.
Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Robertson, Les D. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 522.
Industrial Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Applications of Chemistry
Infrared KBr pellet apparatus  Kletsch, Richard
A design for an infrared KBr pellet press.
Kletsch, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 438.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Preparation and resolution of N,N-dimethyl-o-ferrocenylethylamine. An advanced organic experiment  Gokel, George W.; Ugi, Ivar K.
A reaction series selected to simulate an actual research level synthetic sequence.
Gokel, George W.; Ugi, Ivar K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 294.
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Simplified infrared functional group correlation chart  Moye, Alfred L.; Cochran, T. A., Jr.
Provides a simplified infrared functional group correlation chart that presents only the most common functional groups for the beginning student.
Moye, Alfred L.; Cochran, T. A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 129.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Preparation and nmr analysis of a silythiocarbamate. An advanced laboratory project  Suydam, Fred H.; Yoder, Claude H.
By a series of reactions, not commonly found in undergraduate texts, the student prepares a silythiocarbamate, determines its structure by use of ir and nmr measurements, and measures certain rotational parameters of the carbon-nitrogen bond by means of variable temperature nmr analysis.
Suydam, Fred H.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 849.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
An MJF template for quantitatively assigning infrared spectral intensities  Durkin, T.; DeHayes, L.; Glore, J.
This template aids in reporting infrared spectral intensities.
Durkin, T.; DeHayes, L.; Glore, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 452.
IR Spectroscopy
A simple inexpensive method for obtaining infrared spectra of air-sensitive solutions  Marks, Tobin J.
The authors share a simple, inexpensive method for dealing with spectra samples that react with oxygen.
Marks, Tobin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 167.
Oxidation / Reduction |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
Fourier Transform Spectrometers - Part Three  Low, M. J. D.
Examines far-IR spectrometers.
Low, M. J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A349.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Spectrometers - Part Two  Low, M. J. D.
Surveys available commercial IR and UV spectrometers.
Low, M. J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A255.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The isomerization of xylenes. An experiment for the organic or instrumental laboratory  Harbison, Kenneth G.
This experiment illustrates both qualitative and quantitative applications of infrared spectroscopy for the analysis of mixtures, as well as providing an interesting study of the mechanism of Friedel-Crafts reactions.
Harbison, Kenneth G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 837.
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Constitutional Isomers
Preparation of plastic films as a matrix for solid samples  Hello, O.
Presents a technique for preparing a variety of samples for infrared spectrometric analysis.
Hello, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 782.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Reference beam attenuator for ir spectrophotometer  Helsen, Jef
Design for a simple reference beam attenuator for an ir spectrophotometer.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 576.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Special projects for the physical chemistry laboratory  West, Rose G.; Pinson, James W.
Provides a list of special projects for the physical chemistry laboratory.
West, Rose G.; Pinson, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 460.
Undergraduate Research |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy
Ring-chain tautomerism. An experiment in organic chemistry  Alper, Howard; Alper, Anne E.; Taurins, Alfred
Involves synthesizing and examining the tautomerism of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2,3-dihydrothiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazole using IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Alper, Howard; Alper, Anne E.; Taurins, Alfred J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 222.
Heterocycles |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Infrared spectrometry of inorganic salts: A general chemistry experiment  Ackermann, Martin N.
An experiment in inorganic qualitative analysis for general chemistry.
Ackermann, Martin N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 69.
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An experiment to illustrate nucleophilic aromatic substitution and tautomerism  Farmer, J. L.; Haws, E. J.
Students hydrolyze 2-chloropyridine and then examine the tautomeric mixture produced using infrared spectroscopy.
Farmer, J. L.; Haws, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 41.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared determination of stereochemistry in metal complexes: An application of group theory  Darensbourg, Donald J.; Darensbourg, Marcetta Y.
This paper is designed to introduce the reader to the uses (and limitations) of group theory in conjunction with infrared spectroscopy in assigning stereochemistry to transition metal carbonyl complexes.
Darensbourg, Donald J.; Darensbourg, Marcetta Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 33.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Synthesis
VIII - Energy states of molecules  Hollenberg, J. Leland
Examines the spectral patterns corresponding to rotational, vibrational, and electronic energy levels, and the relationship that can be established between these observed patterns and the parameters of the molecular model.
Hollenberg, J. Leland J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 2.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Infrared equipment for teaching  Wilks, Paul A., Jr.
Examines the value of infrared analysis, the role of infrared in teaching, and the characteristics of infrared spectrometers.
Wilks, Paul A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A9.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Hydrolysis of latex paint in dimethyl sulfoxide: An organic laboratory experiment  Vinson, Joe A.
The purpose of this experiment is to hydrolyze the ester groups of the vinyl acetate and acrylic ester found in latex paint and identify the R group of the acrylic ester.
Vinson, Joe A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 877.
Qualitative Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy
A simple, inexpensive recorder pen  Bragin, J.; Harris, W. C.
A modification to the Perkin-Elmer model 621 infrared pen holder to reduce clogging problems.
Bragin, J.; Harris, W. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 850.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared spectroscopic studies of hindered internal rotation: A physical chemistry experiment  Woodward, A. G.; Jonathan, Neville
This experiment teaches the basic principles of vibrational spectroscopy and gives students ample scope to show initiative in an initial literature survey and later in the interpretation and discussion of their data.
Woodward, A. G.; Jonathan, Neville J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 756.
IR Spectroscopy
The infrared spectra of gases at 300K and of frozen films at 77K: A physical chemistry experiment  Guillory, William A.
The objectives of this experiment include acquainting students with the interpretation of infrared spectra, demonstrating the implications that can be derived from the various symmetry operations and point group designations, using experimental data for the evaluation of force constants for simple molecules, interpreting the differences in vibrational spectra of low temperature gases, instructing students in the use of the infrared spectrometer, and familiarizing students with cryogenic techniques.
Guillory, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 681.
IR Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Group Theory / Symmetry
A one-month course in instrumental organic structural analysis  Landolt, Robert George
Students are asked to identify a series of four unknowns using proton magnetic resonance, infrared, and ultraviolet spectroscopy.
Landolt, Robert George J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 661.
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research
Generation of deuterated materials in a nonpolar solvent  Worley, John D.; Garteiz, David A.
Presents an alternative to purchasing or synthesizing deuterated materials.
Worley, John D.; Garteiz, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 608.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
IR Spectroscopy
Quantitative analysis of APC tablets  Hanrahan, E. S.
A short note on the analysis of APC tablets through ultraviolet, infrared, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Hanrahan, E. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 511.
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Teflon mixing vial for handling solids for infrared spectroscopy  Clarke, Michael J.; Venezky, David L.
Presents a Teflon mixing vial for handling solids for infrared spectroscopy that eliminates the introduction of polystyrene into infrared samples.
Clarke, Michael J.; Venezky, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 458.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
A superior method of mulling samples for infrared spectroscopy  Brady, Leonard E.
It is possible to mull solids quickly and easily with complete protection from air and moisture by grinding with the mulling agent between ground glass plates.
Brady, Leonard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 301.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
A quick-mounting sample holder for infrared work  Brady, Leonard E.; Wozny, John
An improved retaining plate for holding Nujol mulls.
Brady, Leonard E.; Wozny, John J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 272.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A computerized physical chemistry experiment  Bader, Morris
The short note identifies a computer program that calculates molecular parameters for diatomic molecules, in the ground and the first excited states, from the IR spectrum.
Bader, Morris J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 206.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Spectroscopy. Volume 2, ultra-violet, visible, infra-red and raman spectroscopy (Walker, S.; Straw, H.)  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A565.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
Spectrometric identification of insect sex attractants  Silverstein, Robert M.
Uses spectrometric methods to identify the sex attractants of three types of beetle pests.
Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 794.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy
Infrared spectroscopic practices  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
This short note suggests taping thin KBr pellets to hold them in place and obtaining an infrared spectrum for liquid acid chlorides by placing a drop on a produced KBR pellet.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 462.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Spring attenuator for infrared spectrophotometers  Cichorz, R. S.; Van Atta, R. E.
Presents the design of an attenuator capable of decreasing the reference beam intensity of an infrared spectrophotometer without reducing the slit width at the same time.
Cichorz, R. S.; Van Atta, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 271.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Preparation and characterization of mesitylene tricarbonyl molybdenum (O): An experiment in organometallic chemistry  Angelici, Robert J.
This procedure illustrates a preparation conducted under an inert atmosphere, compound purification by sublimation, and identification of a product by infrared and proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy.
Angelici, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 119.
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
An experiment in activated aromatic nucleophilic substitution  Dyall, L. K.
This experiment involves preparing the intermediates formed during activated aromatic nucleophilic substitution and a study of their decomposition on treatment with mineral acid.
Dyall, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 663.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
IR Spectroscopy
The infrared spectra of C2H2 and C2D2: An experiment on molecular structure and symmetry  Richards, L. Willard
In this experiment the student obtains and analyzes a portion of the near infrared absorption spectra of C2H2 and C2D2 as an example of the standard spectroscopic method of determining the structure of polyatomic molecules.
Richards, L. Willard J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 644.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Isotopes |
IR Spectroscopy
Multiple-scan infrared interference spectroscopy  Low, Manfred J. D.
Describes the design, operation, and application of a multiple-scan Michelson interference spectrometer.
Low, Manfred J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 637.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
The infrared spectra of four isotopes in HCl: A molecular structure experiment  Richards, L. Willard
This experiment provides an ideal way of introducing the use of a computer into a laboratory course.
Richards, L. Willard J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 552.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Xylene analysis: Integrated experiment in instrumental analysis  Hanrahan, E. S.
Xylene containing major amounts of ethylbenzene, toluene, and three xylene isomers, is analyzed using infrared and gas chromatographic analysis.
Hanrahan, E. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 321.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds
Quantitative infrared analysis of xylene mixtures: Internal standard method  Veening, Hans
This paper describes an experiment in which meta- and para-xylene are quantitatively determined through infrared spectroscopy using ortho-xylene as an internal standard and cyclohexane as the solvent.
Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 319.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Use of infrared spectrophotometry in the analysis of limestone  Kalbus, Gene E.; Kalbus, Lee H.
This paper reports an exploration and extension of the usefulness of infrared as a teaching aid in the field of inorganic analytical chemistry. Includes sample spectra and their analysis.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 314.
IR Spectroscopy |
Geochemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Interferometric spectroscopy in the far infrared  Hurley, William J.
Examines interferometric spectroscopy instrumentation, interferograms, interferometry versus conventional spectroscopy, and some chemical applications of interferometric spectroscopy.
Hurley, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 236.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Flexible gas cells for infrared spectroscopy  Carter, K. N.
A useful and inexpensive gas cell with salt windows can be easily made from a polyethylene bag.
Carter, K. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 9.
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Pure rotation spectra of HCl and NH3: A physical chemistry experiment  Hollenberg, J. Leland
A high-resolution infrared spectrophotometer is used to observe a number of the higher-J rotational transitions of HCl and NH3.
Hollenberg, J. Leland J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 7.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
IR Spectroscopy
Molecular structure and thermodynamic properties of HCN and DCN  Little, Robert
The purpose of this article is to provide enough data to allow determination of the molecular structure and thermodynamic properties of HCN and DCN to be dry labbed; includes all relevant IR spectra.
Little, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 2.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics |
Isotopes |
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared band handbook. Supplements 1 and 2 (Szymanski, Herman A., ed.)  D., J. V.

D., J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A916.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Elementary infrared spectroscopy (Meloan, Clifton E.)  Cooke, W. D.

Cooke, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A492.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Introduction to infrared and raman spectroscopy (Colthup, Norman B.; Daly, Lawrence H.; Wiberley, Stephen E.)  Wexler, Arthur S.

Wexler, Arthur S. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A322.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
IRTheory and practice of infrared spectroscopy (Szymanski, Herman A.; Alpert, Nelson L.)  Conley, Robert T.

Conley, Robert T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A316.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Applications absorption spectroscopy of organic compounds (Dyer, John R.)  Williams, Theodore R.

Williams, Theodore R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 690.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Chemical applications of infrared spectroscopy Rao, C. N. R.)  Curry, James

Curry, James J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 117.
IR Spectroscopy
Mechanical aids for the interpretation of infrared absorption spectral data  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines computer systems, search procedures, microfilm storage, and future developments.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A921.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Mechanical aids for the interpretation of infrared absorption spectral data  Slavin Donald G.
Examines the topics of spectral-structure correlation charts, book indices, the operation of "Spec-Finder," punched card identification systems, edge punched cards, and optical coincidence systems.
Slavin Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A827.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Infrared spectrometry to study second order reaction kinetics  Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y.
The change studied is a synthesis reaction between menthol and phenyl isocyanate.
Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 613.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
Molecular Vib-rotors: The theory and interpretation of high resolution infrared spectra (Allen, Harry C., Jr.; Cross, Paul C.)  Bauman, Robert P.

Bauman, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 408.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Chemical infrared spectroscopy. Volume 1, Techniques (Potts, W. J., Jr.)  Conley, Robert T.

Conley, Robert T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 408.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
The Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene: A first year organic laboratory experiment  Dunathan, H. C.
This experiment involves the alkylation of benzene with each of the four butyl chlorides and aluminum chloride; the monobutylbenzenes from each reaction are then analyzed by vapor phase chromatography and IR spectroscopy.
Dunathan, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 278.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared absorption spectroscopy (Nakanishi, Koji)  Williams, Theodore R.

Williams, Theodore R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 616.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared spectra of inorganic and coordination compounds (Nakamoto, Kazuo)  Ferraro, John R.

Ferraro, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 501.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds
Spectroscopy. Volume 2, Ultra-violet, visible, infra-red, and Raman spectroscopy (Walker, S.; Straw, H.)  Weir, C. E.

Weir, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 443.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
An introduction to infrared spectroscopy (Brugel, W.)  Lehmann, Walter J.

Lehmann, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 336.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared spectra of silver salts to characterize carboxylic acids  Bonner, William A.; DeGraw, Joseph I., Jr.
Describes the use of infrared spectra of silver salts to characterize carboxylic acids.
Bonner, William A.; DeGraw, Joseph I., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 639.
Qualitative Analysis |
Carboxylic Acids |
IR Spectroscopy
Letters  Cohen, Irwin
Identifies three additional, independent reports on polyethylene cells for infrared spectra.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 595.
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Spectrometric identification of organic compounds  Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton
Presents a sequence of procedures for identifying an unknown organic liquid using mass, NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy, along with specific examples of unknowns and their spectra,
Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 546.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Technique for infrared measurements on solutions of moisture-sensitive compounds  Duckworth, Martin W.; Fowles, Gerald W. A.
Presents a device and method for infrared measurements on solutions of moisture-sensitive compounds.
Duckworth, Martin W.; Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 474.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Disposable polyethylene cells for infrared spectra  Cohen, Irwin
Describes the use of very thin polyethylene to support infrared samples.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 262.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Infrared absorption of inorganic substances (Lawson, Katheryn E.)  Ferraro, John R.

Ferraro, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 54.
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared spectrometers (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design and operation of various commercial models of infrared spectrometers and a flame photometer.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A71.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy
Infrared spectrometers (cont'd)  Lewin, S. Z.
Discusses the effect of spectroscope design on performance and then examines a commercial model.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A5.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Inorganic infrared spectroscopy  Ferraro, John R.
Focuses on the use of infrared spectroscopy in solving various problems in inorganic chemistry.
Ferraro, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 201.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Organometallics |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
Infrared Spectrometers  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the components of infrared spectrometers and some commercial devices.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A781.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Infrared spectroscopy: A chemist's tool  Pimentel, George C.
This paper serves as an introduction to infrared spectroscopy and seeks to explain why it has assumed such an important role in chemistry.
Pimentel, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 651.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Near infrared spectra: A neglected field of spectral study  Wheeler, Owen H.
Examines several issues related to infrared spectroscopy, including challenges in instrumentation, spectral interpretation, and analytical applications.
Wheeler, Owen H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 234.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
On the origin of characteristic group frequencies in infrared spectra  Dows, David A.
Examines the mechanics and energetics of vibrations in small and large molecules.
Dows, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 629.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The integration of infrared spectroscopy into organic qualitative analysis  Conley, Robert T.
This method gives each student an opportunity to gain an excellent understanding of the important principles and methods involved in infrared analysis without diverting his attention from the chemical behavior of the unknowns; includes a list of typical unknowns and a student interpretation of an infrared spectrum.
Conley, Robert T. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 453.
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Infrared spectra of chemisorbed molecules  Eischens, R. P.
The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the chemist, who does not specialize in heterogeneous catalysis, with the advances in this field made possible by techniques for observing infrared spectra of molecules chemisorbed on the surfaces of solids.
Eischens, R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 385.
IR Spectroscopy
Continuous analysis  Lewis, C. D.
Describes the history and instrumentation involved in continuous analysis.
Lewis, C. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 87.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Infrared spectrophotometry: An analysis group in an industrial research organization  Johnson, D. R.; Moynihan, R. E.
Examines special sampling techniques and the study of chemical and physical structure of polymers through infrared spectrophotometry.
Johnson, D. R.; Moynihan, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 76.
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The evidence from infrared spectroscopy for hydrogen bonding: A case history of the correlation and interpretation of data  Gorman, Mel
Examines the effect of hydrogen bonding on infrared absorption, the collection of data and empirical correlation, and theoretical interpretation.
Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 304.
IR Spectroscopy |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Simple evacuable die for the preparation of potassium bromide discs  White, Emil H.
Provides a description of a simple and reliable evacuable die which can give crystal-clear windows of potassium bromide.
White, Emil H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 41.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Hydrogen bonding and physical properties of substances  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
Physical properties influenced by hydrogen bonding considered in this paper include transition temperatures, vapor pressure, water solubility, the ionization of carboxylic acids, stereoisomerism, adsorption, and infrared spectra.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 267.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
Student experiments in infrared spectroscopy  Wilson, Katherine W.
Presents an experiment in infrared spectroscopy as part of a graduate course in instrumental analysis.
Wilson, Katherine W. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 340.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods