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Journal Articles: 141 results
"As Simple as Possible, but Not Simpler"—The Case of Dehydroascorbic Acid  Robert C. Kerber
Textbooks routinely assign dehydroascorbic acid a tricarbonyl structure that is highly improbable in aqueous solution and inconsistent with its colorless appearance. Studies of oxidized forms of ascorbic acid are summarized here, and a plea is entered for accurate descriptions of chemical structures in this and other cases, even at the cost of some simplicity.
Kerber, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1237.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Vitamins
More on ClO and Related Radicals  William B. Jensen
The novel Lewis structure for the ClO radical and other related 13e isoelectronic species presented by Hirsch and Kobrak is identical to that proposed by Linnett over 40 years ago for the same species on the basis of his well-known double-quartet approach to Lewis structures.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 783.
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Free Radicals
Research Advances: Toward a Faster Prenatal Test for Down Syndrome; Test for Headache-Causing Food Toxins; Hydrogen Storage Materials in Automotive Systems; Newly Solved Structure Reveals How Cells Resist Oxygen Damage  Angela G. King
Digital PCR. "Lab on a chip" hangover prevention? Exploring hydrogen storage. Bacterial response to stress signals.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 606.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Enzymes |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals |
Materials Science |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Radical Quenching of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl: A Spectrometric Determination of Antioxidant Behavior  John M. Berger, Roshniben J. Rana, Hira Javeed, Iqra Javeed, and Sandi L. Schulien
Describes a colorimetric assay using the persistent radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl to measure the activity of common antioxidants. This exercise is particularly appropriate for a course geared for nutrition or food science majors.
Berger, John M.; Rana, Roshniben J.; Javeed, Hira; Javeed, Iqra; Schulien, Sandi L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 408.
Food Science |
Free Radicals |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Vitamins
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation  Henry A. Carter
This article examines the applications of chemistry to paper preservation. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose accounts for the deterioration of paper in library books and other written records. To combat this threat to our written heritage, new permanent papers have been developed that are relatively chemically stable and undergo a very slow rate of deterioration.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1937.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
pH |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Incomplete Combustion of Hydrogen: Trapping a Reaction Intermediate  Bruce Mattson and Trisha Hoette
In this demonstration, a hydrogen flame is played across the face of an ice cube and the combustion is quenched in an incomplete state. The resulting solution contains a stable side-product, hydrogen peroxide, whose presence can be verified with two simple chemical tests.
Mattson, Bruce; Hoette, Trisha. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1668.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates
Lewis Structure Representation of Free Radicals Similar to ClO  Warren Hirsch and Mark Kobrak
An unconventional Lewis structure is proposed to explain the properties of the free radical ClO and a series of its isoelectronic analogues, particularly trends in the spin density of these species.
Hirsch, Warren; Kobrak, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1360.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Free Radicals |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
MO Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
Chemical Composition of a Fountain Pen Ink   J. Martín-Gil, M. C. Ramos-Sánchez, F. J. Martín-Gil, and M. José-Yacamán
Black ink (Parker Quink) widely used in 19501980 is characterized and compared with other traditional inks. There is agreement that the main cause of ink decay is the iron(II) sulfate content, whose effect is stronger than the destructive action of acids.
Martín-Gil, J.; Ramos-Sánchez, M. C.; Martín-Gil, F. J.; José-Yacamán, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1476.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Free Radicals |
Reactions
Synthesis of Chromophore-Labeled Polymers and Their Molecular Weight Determination Using UV–Vis Spectroscopy  Eric S. Tillman, Amanda C. Roof, Steven M. Palmer, Beth Ann Zarko, Caton C. Goodman, and Alissa M. Roland
Polystyrene quantitatively end-labeled with fluorene is produced via atom transfer radical polymerization. Molecular weight characterization of the polymers is performed using UVvis spectroscopy, and BeerLambert's law is used to determine the molarity of the fluorene-labeled polymers.
Tillman, Eric S.; Roof, Amanda C.; Palmer, Steven M.; Zarko, Beth Ann; Goodman, Caton C.; Roland, Alissa M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1215.
Polymerization |
Alkenes |
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Factors That Influence Relative Acid Strength in Water: A Simple Model  Michael J. Moran
The pKa's of diverse aqueous acids HA correlate well with the sum of two gas-phase properties: the HA bond-dissociation enthalpy and the electron affinity of the A radical. It is suggested that rather than bond strength alone or bond polarity, the sum of the enthalpies of these two steps is a fairly good indicator of relative acidity.
Moran, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 800.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals
Microwave-Induced Chain Transfer Polymerization of a Stimuli-Responsive Polymer and Determination of Its Critical Solution Temperature  F. Fischer and R. Freitag
This experiment provides an introduction for undergraduate students to the concepts of living radical polymerization (oligomerization) and to stimuli-responsive materials, namely, those showing a critical solution temperature in aqueous solution.
Fischer, F.; Freitag, R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 447.
Addition Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Mass Spectrometry |
Materials Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Polymerization |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Polymerization and Characterization of PMMA. Polymer Chemistry Laboratory Experiments for Undergraduate Students  Caroline Duval-Terrié and Laurent Lebrun
This experiment gives students the opportunity to prepare polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), one of the most important industrial polymers. Two syntheses are described, involving either free radical or anionic polymerization.
Duval-Terrié, Caroline; Lebrun, Laurent. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 443.
Addition Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Industrial Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Polymerization |
Thermal Analysis
The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC–MS  A. E. Witter
An undergraduate experiment for the quantitative determination of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in chewing gum is described. A simple extraction procedure was used that did not require sample derivatization for analysis.
Witter, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1538.
Food Science |
Free Radicals |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Introduction to Photolithography: Preparation of Microscale Polymer Silhouettes  Kimberly L. Berkowski, Kyle N. Plunkett, Qing Yu, and Jeffrey S. Moore
In this experiment, a glass microscope slide acts as the microchip. Students can pattern this "microchip" by layering negative photoresist on the slide using a solution containing monomer, crosslinker, photoinitiator, and dye. The students then cover the photoresist with a photomask, which is the negative of a computer-generated image or text printed on transparency film, and illuminate it with UV light. The photoresist in the exposed area polymerizes into a polymer network with a shape dictated by the photomask. The versatility of this technique is exemplified by allowing each student to fabricate virtually any shape imaginable, including his or her silhouette.
Berkowski, Kimberly L.; Plunkett, Kyle N.; Yu, Qing; Moore, Jeffrey S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1365.
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Polymerization
A Substitute for “Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride”  Joshua M. Daley and Robert G. Landolt
Benzotrifluoride (BTF) is a suitable solvent substitute for carbon tetrachloride in experiments requiring application of bromine (Br2) in free radical or addition reactions with organic substrates. A 1 M solution of Br2 in BTF may be used to distinguish hydrocarbons based on the ease of abstraction of hydrogen atoms in thermally or light-induced free radical substitutions. Efficacy of minimization of solvent use, by aliquot addition to neat samples, has been established.
Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 120.
Alkenes |
Free Radicals |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions
Free Radical Halogenation, Selectivity, and Thermodynamics: The Polanyi Principle and Hammond's Postulate  Alfred A. Scala
Free radical halogenation reactions are examined in the contexts of the Polanyi principle and Hammond's postulate and used as a vehicle for examination of the concept of selectivity in chemical reactions. The origin of selectivity is related to the thermodynamics of the competing reactions and their chemical dynamics.
Scala, Alfred A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1661.
Free Radicals |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Computational Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Relevance of Chemical Kinetics for Medicine: The Case of Nitric Oxide  Alexandru T. Balaban and William Seitz
Examination of nitric acid as an industrial pollutant and a useful biomolecule.
Balaban, Alexandru T.; Seitz, William. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 662.
Free Radicals |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications  Joseph E. Saavedra and Larry K. Keefer
Nitric oxide and drug design, physical and chemical properties of nitric oxide, and biochemical reactions involving nitric oxide and diazeniumdiolates.
Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1427.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Free Radicals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Physical Properties |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Small Scale Reactor for Ultraviolet Photochemistry  James E. Gano, Andrew J. Gano, Patricia Garry, and Padmanabhan Sekher
Apparatus for performing photochemical reactions at a variety of wavelengths.
Gano, James E.; Gano, Andrew J.; Garry, Patricia; Sekher, Padmanabhan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1361.
Free Radicals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Undergraduate Research |
Laboratory Management
Radioactivity, Radiation, and the Chemistry of Nuclear Waste  Nick Zevos
A course that emphasizes an understanding of the nuclear waste generated from the production of plutonium at sites such as Hanford, WA, and Savannah River, GA.
Zevos, Nick. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 692.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Solar Photocatalytic Destruction of p-Nitrophenol: A Pedagogical Use of Lab Wastes  J. A. Herrera-Melián, J. M. Doña-Rodríguez, E. Tello Rendón, A. Soler Vila, M. Brunet Quetglas, A. Alvera Azcárate, and L. Pascual Pariente
Using lab wastes to develop new chemistry experiments.
Herrera-Melián, J. A.; Doña-Rodríguez, J. M.; Rendón, E. Tello; Soler Vila, A.; Brunet Quetglas, M.; Azcárate, A. Alvera; Pascual Pariente, L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 775.
Catalysis |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Logic vs Misconceptions in Undergraduate Organic Textbooks: Radical Stabilities and Bond Dissociation Energies  Andreas A. Zavitsas
Undergraduate textbooks for organic chemistry relate alkyl radical stability to homolytic bond dissociation energy of the corresponding alkane. This practice is misleading, grossly overestimates the stability of the radicals relative to methyl, and leads to values that are not transferable to other molecules. Defining alkyl radical relative stabilization energies in terms of BDE[R-Me] and use of Pauling's electronegativity equation solves the problem.
Zavitsas, Andreas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 417.
Covalent Bonding |
Free Radicals |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics
Application of Hammond's Postulate. An Activity for Guided Discovery Learning in Organic Chemistry  J. E. Meany, Vicky Minderhout, and Y. Pocker
In this activity, students are given product distributions and other relevant experimental data concerning the free radical chlorination and bromination of propane. Students are guided in the use of Hammond's postulate to predict transition-state structures and to provide a rationale for the relationship between selectivity and reactivity in these and other reactions.
Meany, J. E.; Minderhout, Vicky; Pocker, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 204.
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Bromination, Elimination, and Polymerization: A 3-Step Sequence for the Preparation of Polystyrene from Ethylbenzene  Elizabeth M. Sanford and Heather L. Hermann
An organic chemistry lab that introduces students to polymer chemistry is presented. Students complete a radical bromination of ethylbenzene, which is followed by elimination to give styrene. A radical polymerization is then completed to produce polystyrene.
Sanford, Elizabeth M.; Hermann, Heather L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1343.
Free Radicals |
Synthesis |
Polymerization
Understanding Trends in C-H, N-H, and O-H Bond Dissociation Enthalpies  K. U. Ingold and J. S. Wright
Trends in bond dissociation enthalpies are discussed in terms of a number of concepts useful in advanced organic chemistry courses, including electronegativity, bond length, orbital overlap, unpaired electron delocalization by conjugation and hyperconjugation, and radical stabilization energy.
Ingold, K. U.; Wright, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1062.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Correction  
Word error in original article.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 830.
Nutrition |
Free Radicals |
Learning Theories
General Aspects of Free Radical Chemistry (edited by Z. B. Alfassi)  reviewed by Jeffrey Byers
A broad survey of important information relevant to the theoretical and physical aspects of radical chemistry.
Byers, Jeffrey. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 565.
Free Radicals
The Preparation of a UV-Light-Absorbing Polymer: A Project-Oriented Laboratory Experiment for the Introductory Organic Chemistry Curriculum  Thomas Poon, Jean P. McIntyre, Andrea Dorigo, Drew J. Davis, Matthew A. Davis, Crystal F. Eller, Leah R. Eller, Heather K. Izumi, Kenya M. Jones, Kurt H. Kelley, William Massello, Megan L. Melamed, Cynthia M. Norris, Jeffrey A. Oelrich, Thomas A. Pluim, Sarah E. Poplawski, Jason M. St. Clair, Matthew P. Stokes, Wells C. Wheeler, and Erin E. Wilkes
A laboratory experiment is described that combines organic synthesis, spectroscopy, and polymer chemistry and is suitable for the sophomore organic chemistry curriculum. In this three-week sequence, students synthesize and characterize the UV-absorber 2-(2',4'-dimethylbenzoyl)benzoic acid and incorporate it into films of polymethylmethacrylate.
Poon, Thomas; McIntyre, Jean P.; Dorigo, Andrea; Davis, Drew J.; Davis, Matthew A.; Eller, Crystal F.; Eller, Leah R.; Izumi, Heather K.; Jones, Kenya M.; Kelley, Kurt H.; Massello, William; Melamed, Megan L.; Norris, Cynthia M.; Oelrich, Jeffrey A.; Pluim, Thomas A.; Poplawski, Sarah E.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Stokes, Matthew P.; Wheeler, Wells C.; Wilkes, Erin E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1523.
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals
Minimizing the Black Box Effect: Using Normal Mode Analysis to Integrate Computational Methods into the Physical Chemistry Course  Delphia F. Harris* and Julio F. Caballero
The use of normal mode analysis in molecular vibrational studies as an introduction to computational methods in a physical chemistry course is presented. Students are involved in a literature search for molecules of current interest and in the use of a program that requires substantial student interaction to minimize the "black box" effect in this computational project.
Harris, Delphia F.; Caballero, Julio F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1298.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Computational Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Motivating Students in Sophomore Organic Chemistry by Examining Nature's Way- Why Are Vitamins E and C Such Good Antioxidants?  Bruce D. Beaver
Motivating students in sophomore organic chemistry by integrating material from an area of contemporary research activity into the course. This article contains an overview of the antioxidant function of vitamins E and C.
Beaver, Bruce D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1108.
Nutrition |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Learning Theories |
Applications of Chemistry
Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise  Edwin F. Ullman
The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications.
Ullman, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 781.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
A Safe Simple Halogenation Experiment  Hilton M. Weiss and Lara Ganz
This experiment is designed to be a safe and experimentally simple procedure appropriate to the early weeks of a course when halogenation is the only reaction which has been discussed in the lecture. It can also provide some early experience with simple interpretation of NMR spectra.
Weiss, Hilton M.; Ganz, Lara. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 534.
Synthesis |
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy
Teaching Polymer Science to Third-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Students  Alan Jefferson* and David N. Phillips
A knowledge of the principles of polymer science is essential for graduates whose future career is certain to bring them into contact with a broad range of polymeric materials. Any undergraduate chemistry course that omits polymer chemistry and does not attempt to address and explain the principles of polymer science is lacking in relevant educational content as we approach the 21st century.
Jefferson, Alan; Phillips, David N. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 232.
Free Radicals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Using Cyclic Voltammetry and Molecular Modeling To Determine Substituent Effects in the One-Electron Reduction of Benzoquinones  Janell E. Heffner, Jeffrey C. Raber, Owen A. Moe Jr., and Carl T. Wigal
An electrochemical experiment that correlates the electronic effects of substituents on the reduction potential of benzoquinones. The experiment combines cyclic voltammetry (CV), molecular modeling, and the Hammett equation and can be used in either organic, physical, or instrumental laboratory courses.
Heffner, Janell E.; Raber, Jeffrey C.; Moe, Owen A., Jr.; Wigal, Carl T. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 365.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Free Radical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Examples from Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater from the Chemistry in Airborne Water Droplets  N. Colin Baird
A common free radical reaction in aqueous solution is electron transfer, especially to the hydroxyl radical and to ozone. Hydrogen peroxide and free radicals related to it act as weak acids, so both their neutral and deprotonated forms must be considered in reactions. Free radical reactions also play an important role in the chemistry of water droplets suspended in air in clouds and fogs.
Baird, N. Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 817.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactive Intermediates |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Discovery of Free Radicals  R. M. Acheson
Even though Michael Faraday obtained the first unambiguous experimental evidence for the existence of "Free Radicals", he has never been given any credit for his discovery. This article offers that long overlooked credit.
Acheson, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 32.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals
New Volumes in Continuing Series: Ellis Horwood Series in Polymer Science and Technology. Radical Polymerization in Disperse Systems (Barton, J.; Capek, I.; Kemp, T. J.; Kennedy, J. F.)  
New volume in a continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A42.
Polymerization |
Free Radicals
Environmental Laboratory Exercise: Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide by Fluorescence Spectroscopy  Judith Weinstein--Lloyd and Jai H. Lee
Procedure in which students analyze precipitation samples for trace concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (a deleterious air pollutant) using fluorescence spectroscopy.
Weinstein-Lloyd, Judith; Lee, Jai H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1053.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Computer Simulation of Vinyl Polymerization: Exercises in Critical Thinking Using SOLVE  Michael W. Pelter and Gregory P. Neff
177. Simulation to investigate free-radical polymerization kinetics and the composition of free-radical copolymers.
Pelter, Michael W.; Neff, Gregory P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 808.
Polymerization |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Industrial Chemistry
Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited  David A. Dolson, Michael E. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, Rubin Battino, Lisa S. Jutte
Demonstrations involving methanol cannons and chain reactions.
Dolson, David A.; Dolson, Michael E.; Hall, Michael R.; Battino, Rubin; Jutte, Lisa S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 732.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Alcohols
One-Pot Iodosulfonylation Dehydroiodination of Alkenes: (E)-beta-Tosylstyrene: An Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory   Carme Nájera, José M. Sansano, and Miguel Yus
Method for a one-pot preparation of a vinylic sulfone starting from an acrylamide by a tandem iodosulfonylation-dehydroiodination process.
Njera, Carmen; Sansano, Jos M.; Yus, Miguel. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 664.
Free Radicals |
Alkenes
Introducing Atmospheric Reactions: A Systematic Approach for Students  Baird, N. Colin
Outline of the dominant reactions that occur in air, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollutants.
Baird, N. Colin J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 153.
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Polystyrene Kinetics by Infrared: An Experiment for Physical and Organic Chemistry Laboratories  Andrews-Henry, Heather
Procedure to determine the kinetics of the free radical polymerization of polystyrene.
Andrews-Henry, Heather J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 357.
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Polymerization |
Free Radicals |
Synthesis
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chlorine reaction: A student experiment at the microscale level   Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T.
This lab offers a way to integrate the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other valuable instrumental methods.
Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Free Radicals and Metals in Biology: Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry-VI  Ochiai, El-Ichiro
The fifth article in a series. This one explores the question, "Why do cells form free radicals?" while looking at the interplay of free radicals and metals in biological systems.
Ochiai, El-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 128.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Organometallics |
Metals |
Free Radicals |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Enzymes
Free-radical polymerization of acrylamide  Silversmith, Ernest F.
A rapid and foolproof thermal polymerization.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Free Radicals |
Polymerization |
Reactions
Free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons: Experiments for organic chemistry using the small-scale approach   Gilow, Helmuth M.
Better understanding of free radical halogenation can be gained by doing a laboratory experiment. The challenge, however, is that these experiments pose safety threats.
Gilow, Helmuth M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A122.
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab
Three-electrode, two-compartment quartz cell for recording EPR spectra during in situ electrolysis  Poli, Nicola
The standard aqueous EPR (flat) sample Wildman cell has been modified for recording EPR spectra of short-lived radicals during in situ electrolysis.
Poli, Nicola J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 970.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Free Radicals |
Spectroscopy |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy
Polymer principles (the author replies)  Rodriquez, F.
The decomposition of benzoyl peroxide.
Rodriquez, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 790.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
Polymer principles  Abraham, Tonson
The decomposition of benzoyl peroxide.
Abraham, Tonson J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 790.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
Isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate: An undergraduate experiment utilizing high performance liquid chromatography  Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M.
Introduces students to liquid chromatography, the stereoisomerization of alkenes, certain aspects of free radical chemistry, and thermodynamics.
Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 781.
HPLC |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Esters |
Stereochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Thermodynamics
Photolysis of 4-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one: An undergraduate experiment in free radical chemistry   White, Rick C.; Ma, Sha
The photochemical experiment introduced here gives upper-level organic students an introduction to photochemical techniques and experience in free radical chemistry and in the analysis of a reaction mixture by NMR spectroscopy.
White, Rick C.; Ma, Sha J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 827.
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy
Polymerization distribution experiment simulation  Smith, L. Oliver
95. Bits and pieces, 38. A computer program that can be used to simulate experiments in free-radical polymerization.
Smith, L. Oliver J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 795.
Free Radicals |
Polymerization
Undergraduate experiments with a long-lived radical (Fremy's salt): Synthesis of 1,4-benzoquinones by degradative oxidation of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohols  Morey, J.
The long-lived, stable radical described in this article can be prepared and stored for several months and therefore is an excellent basis for a series of experiments that the author designed for his class.
Morey, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 627.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
Consumer chemistry in an organic course   Miller, John A.
This paper looks at the main functional groups in organic chemistry and points out their appearance in consumer chemistry. These suggestions are especially useful for courses geared toward health science majors.
Miller, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 210.
Aromatic Compounds |
Free Radicals |
Hormones |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
A spectacular demonstration: 2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O  Skinner, James F.
Detonating hydrogen in a copper combustion chamber.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 545.
Reactions |
Free Radicals
Stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisomeric substance  Fulkroad, John E.
Examples of questions and solutions regarding stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisomeric substance.
Fulkroad, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 533.
Stereochemistry |
Free Radicals
The reactivity selectivity principle: Should it ever be used?  Buncel, Erwin; Wilson, Harold
Applications and failures of the reactivity selectivity principle; quantitative aspects of the reactivity selectivity principle; and rationalization of reactivity selectivity principle failures.
Buncel, Erwin; Wilson, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 475.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Carbocations |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Thioxanthone sulfone radical anion: A relatively stable ketyl  Castrillon, Jose
Thioxanthone sulfone is induced to produce a deep blue color upon standing that disappears on shaking.
Castrillon, Jose J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 352.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Catalysis of photochemical reactions: Opportunities and pitfalls  Alhini, A.
It is the purpose of this paper is to present a classification of catalytic effects both because this is a promising area of development for further research and because some characteristic properties of photochemical versus thermal reactions are elucidated in this way.
Alhini, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 383.
Photochemistry |
Catalysis |
Chemometrics |
Free Radicals |
Biophysical Chemistry
The development of free radical chemistry   Walling, Cheves
A historical look at the development of this branch of chemistry understanding.
Walling, Cheves J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 99.
Free Radicals |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The evolution of free radical chemistry at Chicago   Mayo, Frank R.
This paper is an account of the origins and development of work on free radical chemistry at the University of Chicago starting with the author's graduate work in 1929.
Mayo, Frank R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 97.
Free Radicals |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The NBS reaction: A simple explanation for the predominance of allylic substitution over olefin addition by bromine at low concentrations  Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.
What factors govern the reaction of Br2 with an alkene to give either allylic substitution or double bond addition?
Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 650.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Alkenes
Chain reaction wheel: An approach to free radical reactions  Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl
Using a "chain reaction wheel" to help students understand the mechanism of free radical reactions.
Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 467.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The dead-end polymerization experiment: A modified treatment  Hill, D. J. T.; O'Donnell, J. H.
A simplified procedure for the polymerization of n-laurylmethacrylate.
Hill, D. J. T.; O'Donnell, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 881.
Polymerization |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics
Catalysis of radical chain reactions  Bardsley, W. D.; Failes, R. L.; Hunter, R.; Stimson, V. R.
Examples where "catalysts" enter into reaction in a consistent manner, to increase the rate in one case and decrease it in the other.
Bardsley, W. D.; Failes, R. L.; Hunter, R.; Stimson, V. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 657.
Catalysis |
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Free radical reactions in food  Taub, Irwin A.
Describes some of the basic concepts relating to free radical structure, formation, and reactivity, as well as reactions involving ascorbic acid, myoglobin, and palmitate radicals. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Taub, Irwin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 313.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Food Science |
Vitamins |
Proteins / Peptides |
Lipids
Who is anti-Markovnikov?  Tedder, J. M.
What are the factors that control the rate and orientation of free radical addition to alkenes?
Tedder, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 237.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes
Aromatic substitution reactions: when you've said ortho, meta, and para you haven't said it all  Traynham, James G.
The author presents a range of examples for nucleophilic, electrophilic, and free-radical reactions where the ipso is an important, predominant, or even exclusive site of reaction.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 937.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Free Radicals |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry |
Reactions
Molecular formulas of organic compounds: the nitrogen rule and degree of unsaturation  Pellegrin, Valdo
This article wishes to demonstrate the nitrogen rule and the formula for calculating the number of rings plus double bonds of any common organic compound.
Pellegrin, Valdo J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 626.
Heterocycles |
Aromatic Compounds |
Free Radicals
Free radical chlorination of methane: A demonstration  Conklin, Alfred R.; Kramme, Alan
Free radical reactions are very important and often discussed in chemistry. One of the first such reactions encountered by students of organic chemistry is the free radical chlorination of methane. This reaction serves to introduce the student to free radical reactions and chain reaction. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of this reaction are uncommon.
Conklin, Alfred R.; Kramme, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 597.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals
The intriguing biological role of vitamin E  Krishnamurthy, S.
In this article, an attempt is made to evaluate the findings and look into profitable future lines of inquiry regarding vitamin E.
Krishnamurthy, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 465.
Vitamins |
Heterocycles |
Free Radicals |
Medicinal Chemistry
Preservation of mercury in polyethylene containers  Piccolino, Samuel Paul
A report on the effectiveness of 0.5% HNO3 with an oxidant to preserve samples for mercury analyses.
Piccolino, Samuel Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 235.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Free Radicals
Systematics in the assignment of electronic and vibronic states for linear molecules  Maitland, A.; Brown, R. D. H.
These authors present a brief, but somewhat comprehensive account of state predictions versus observations for short lived species produced as a result of various reactions.
Maitland, A.; Brown, R. D. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 202.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Free Radicals
Free-radical polymerization using the rotating-sector method: A computer-based study  Moss, Stephen J.
35.
Moss, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1021.
Free Radicals |
Polymerization |
Kinetics
An easily conducted free radical substitution for organic chemistry courses  Pavlis, Robert R.
The photobromination of 1,2-diphenylethane into its dibromo derivative, (2R) (3S) 1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane.
Pavlis, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 658.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Photochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds
Reactions of free radicals produced by laser photolysis  Pasternack, Louise; Nelson, H. H.; McDonald, J. R.
Generating and monitoring free radicals and techniques for studying kinetics over a wide range of time scales using lasers.
Pasternack, Louise; Nelson, H. H.; McDonald, J. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 456.
Lasers |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Reactions
The effects of ionizing radiation on mammalian cells  Biaglow, John E.
In this review, the author is concerned with the effects of radiation on dividing cells and the factors that influence it.
Biaglow, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 144.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Molecular Biology |
Applications of Chemistry
Radiation chemistry in organized assemblies  Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S.
This paper is concerned with the effects of complexity of organization on the radical processes, which can lead to significant and useful modifications of observed chemistry.
Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 140.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Micelles |
Polymerization |
Solutions / Solvents
Radiolytic damage to genetic material  Ward, John F.
This article discusses some of the basic findings in the radiation chemistry of genetic material derived from studies of model systems will be described. An attempt will be made to use the findings to extrapolate to the consequences of radiation damage to DNA within cells.
Ward, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 135.
Free Radicals |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Free radical reactions with simple biochemical systems  Redpath, Leslie J.
This article briefly surveys the topic of free radicals and biological systems.
Redpath, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 131.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Free Radicals |
Enzymes |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Free radical mechanisms in autoxidation processes  Simic, Michael G.
The material in this article should lead to the understanding and exploitation of antioxidants in the battle against carcinogenicity and a number of medical problems.
Simic, Michael G. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 125.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Medicinal Chemistry
Redox properties of free radicals  Neta, P.
This article will concentrate on reactions with organic compounds which involve an electron transfer, i.e.., redox reactions.
Neta, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 110.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electron spin resonance of radiation produced free radicals  Sevilla, Michael D.
This article sketches the theory of electron spin resonance in a simplified form.
Sevilla, Michael D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 106.
Free Radicals |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Free radicals generated by radiolysis of aqueous solutions  Schwarz, Harold A.
This article will discuss the identity and nature of free radicals produced in radiolysis.
Schwarz, Harold A. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 101.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Acids / Bases
A versatile chemical system for instruction in ESR spectroscopy  Darcy, Raphael
A radical precursor is sued to generate a number of interconvertible, long-lived free radicals whose spectra are observed at room temperature and show variations in detail that illustrate spectroscopic principles.
Darcy, Raphael J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 907.
Spectroscopy |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Reactive Intermediates |
Magnetic Properties |
Free Radicals
Radical recombination kinetics: An experiment in physical organic chemistry  Pickering, Miles
Produces a bright purple, free radical that changes color in sunlight.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 833.
Kinetics |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy
The effect of free radical stability on the rate of bromination of hydrocarbons  Doheny, Anthony J.; Loudon, G. Marc
The effect of alkyl free radical stability on the rate of free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons can be convincingly demonstrated by the comparative photobromination of the arenes toluene, ethylbenzene, and cumene.
Doheny, Anthony J.; Loudon, G. Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 507.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A modification of the free radical bromination of p-toluic acid  Olson, Edwin S.
The bromination of p-toluic acid proceeds well using less toxic chlorobenzene rather than carbon tetrachloride.
Olson, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 157.
Free Radicals
The perturbational MO method for saturated systems  Herndon, William C.
Outlines a molecular orbital approach to the problem of predicting and correlating bond dissociation energies in saturated hydrocarbons.
Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 448.
MO Theory |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Two organic laboratory experiments with benzylic hydrocarbons  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Helmer, Bradley J.
Closely related experiments to illustrate the selective susceptibility toward free radical attack of benzyl hydrogens.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Helmer, Bradley J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 201.
Free Radicals
Student experiment for measuring rate constants of radical recombination  Bartle, K. D.; Butcher, P. G.; Harding, C. J.; Roberts, D. R.
The experiment described here illustrates how a recent research development can be adapted to be affordable and instructive with upper division students.
Bartle, K. D.; Butcher, P. G.; Harding, C. J.; Roberts, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 742.
Free Radicals |
Kinetics
Electronic structure of organic conductors and semiconductors  Soos, Zoltan G.
High electrical conductivity, comparable to that of poorer metals, is occasionally found in organic molecular solids. Once we accept the possibility of organic solids whose molecular components are free radicals, the electronic structure of organic conductors and semiconductors can be understood.
Soos, Zoltan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 546.
Semiconductors |
Free Radicals |
Solid State Chemistry |
MO Theory
Simple energetic approach to the geometries of organic intermediates  Koch, T. H.; Andrist, A. H.
An energetic approach to developing an understanding of configurational differences among the more common reactive intermediates of organic chemistry.
Koch, T. H.; Andrist, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 491.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactive Intermediates |
Free Radicals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Ethylene by naphtha cracking. Free radicals in action  Wiseman, Peter
Ethylene manufacture, the mechanism of ethylene formation, maximizing ethylene yield, the effect of feedstock composition, and secondary reactions.
Wiseman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 154.
Free Radicals |
Industrial Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
The steady-state approximation in free-radical calculations. A numerical example  Porter, Marc D.; Skinner, Gordon B.
A numerical example for steady-state approximation in free-radical calculations.
Porter, Marc D.; Skinner, Gordon B. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 366.
Free Radicals |
Chemometrics
Biochemical effects of excited state molecular oxygen  Bland, Jeffrey
This report is designed to introduce current research which illustrates the intimacy of singlet O2 in these six areas, and demonstrate the general role of singlet oxidation in biochemical processes.
Bland, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 274.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Metabolism
Free-radical addition of tetrahalomethanes to [beta]-pinene. Experiments in organic chemistry  Kaye, Irving Allan; Odum, Robert A.
This laboratory provides a much needed learning opportunity about free-radicals.
Kaye, Irving Allan; Odum, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 60.
Free Radicals |
Addition Reactions
Free radical polymerization of styrene. A radiotracer experiment  Mazza, R. J.
1,1'-azobisisobutyronitrile-14C is used to initiate the polymerization of styrene; rates of reaction are measured gravimetrically and number average molar masses are calculated from the specific activities of the polymers and the initiator, which are determined by liquid scintillation counting.
Mazza, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 476.
Free Radicals |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Rate Law |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Kinetics |
Polymerization |
Isotopes
Preparation of t-nitrosobutane dimer: A combined experiment in organic synthesis and electrochemistry  Iversen, Palle E.
This experiment has been designed to demonstrate different oxidation stages of aliphatic nitrogen compounds and includes two different chemical oxidation's, one electroreduction and one electrooxidation. The final product can be used directly in a later esr-experiment on trapping of primarily formed radicals as nitroxides.
Iversen, Palle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 489.
Electrochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Oxidation State
Polymerization as a model chain reaction  Morton, Maurice
The building of long chain macromolecules offers the best opportunity for the study of chain reactions and the free radical mechanism.
Morton, Maurice J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 740.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Relative reactivities in free radical systems  Hansen, Peter J.
Two equations in the cited article are inconsistent with one another.
Hansen, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 162.
Free Radicals |
Reactions
The spectra and structures of simple free radicals: An introduction to molecular spectroscopy (Herzberg, Gerhard)  Duncan, A. B. F.

Duncan, A. B. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A252.
Free Radicals |
Spectroscopy
The gas phase free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons. An undergraduate experiment  Scala, Alfred A.
Investigates the photochemically initiated gas phase chlorination and bromination of lower hydrocarbons.
Scala, Alfred A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 573.
Free Radicals |
Alkylation |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry
Relative reactivates in free radical systems. An organic chemistry experiment  Hutchinson, Mary Jane; Mosha, Melvyn W.
An organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates the importance of reaction rates.
Hutchinson, Mary Jane; Mosha, Melvyn W. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 629.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Free-radical bromination of p-toluic acid. An experiment in organic chemistry  Tuleen, D. L.; Hess, B. A., Jr.
This paper describes the synthesis of a-bromo-p-toluic acid (II) and the subsequent displacement of bromide ion by three nucleophiles.
Tuleen, D. L.; Hess, B. A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 476.
Free Radicals |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Nitrenes  Belloli, Robert
The purpose of this article is to present some important general concepts in nitrene chemistry and to concentrate on the chemistry of more thoroughly studied nitrenes, ethoxycarbonylnitrene and cyanontirene.
Belloli, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 422.
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Free Radicals
Free radical chlorination  Adduci, Jerry M.; Dayton, Joseph H.; Eaton, David C.
The authors describe an experiment on free radical chlorination which is simple, nonhazardous, and well suited for a beginning student.
Adduci, Jerry M.; Dayton, Joseph H.; Eaton, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 313.
Free Radicals
Organic ion radical chemistry  Maler, Larry L.
This paper will briefly introduce ion radicals as a relatively new class of reactive intermediates.
Maler, Larry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 168.
Free Radicals |
Reactions
Flash lamp design and construction  Cowan, D. O.; DeToma, R. P.
The application of flash lamps has proven to be extremely useful in the areas of photochemistry, free radical chemistry, spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, and laser pumping.
Cowan, D. O.; DeToma, R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 146.
Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Parris, Michael
(1) Explains how free radicals differ from species such as NO3- and NH4+. (2) Explains why HI is a stronger acid than HF in aqueous solution. - answer by Parris. (3) Explains that it is possible to alter the half-life of a some radioactive processes through chemical means.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Parris, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 697.
Free Radicals |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Demonstration of photochemistry and the dimerization and trapping of free radicals  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This demonstration uses simple equipment and involves a rapid, readily noticeable color change and also illustrates dimerization and the trapping of free radicals.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 315.
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactions
Dependence of molecular weight of polystyrene on initiator concentration: An introductory physical chemistry experiment  Ander, Paul
This experiment introduces students to macromolecules by examining the effect of the concentration of a free radical initiator, such as benzoyl peroxide, on the molecular weight of polystyrene.
Ander, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 233.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals |
Polymerization
Chlorination of 2,3-dimethylbutane: A quantitative organic chemistry experiment  Markgraf, J. Hodge
This paper describes the quantitative study of a free radical chlorination in which the student determines the relative reactivity of selected hydrogens.
Markgraf, J. Hodge J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 610.
Quantitative Analysis |
Alkylation |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals
A modern look at Markovnikov's rule and the peroxide effect  Isenberg, Norbert; Grdinic, Marcel
Presents a "carbonium ion" definition of Markovnikov's Rule and examines the peroxide effect.
Isenberg, Norbert; Grdinic, Marcel J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 601.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions
Product distribution in free radical telomerizations  Lloyd, W. G.
Telomerizations deserve more attention in advanced undergraduate instruction than they commonly receive, for these reactions are right at the confluence of polymer and organic chemistry.
Lloyd, W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 299.
Free Radicals
Free radicals (Pryor, William A.)  Russell, Glen A.

Russell, Glen A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 702.
Free Radicals
Introduction to free radical chemistry (Pryor, William A.)  Hiatt, Richard

Hiatt, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 309.
Free Radicals
Polymerization kinetics: Dead-end radical polymerization  Senogles, E.; Woolf, L. A.
The kinetics of the polymerization of n-lauryl methacrylate in an experiment based on Tobolsky's Dead-End Theory.
Senogles, E.; Woolf, L. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 157.
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
Bromination of alkanes: Experiment illustrating relative reactivities and synthetic utility  Warkentin, J.
The radical halogenation of alkanes lend themselves well to the teaching of basic material such as bond dissociation energies, potential energy profiles, enthalpy of reaction, activation energy, and reaction rate.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 331.
Electrochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
Chemistry of methylenes  Schreck, James O.
Examines the formation of dihalomethylenes, other reactions involving the formation of methylenes, and the reactions of methylenes.
Schreck, James O. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 260.
Reactive Intermediates |
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Free Radical Reactions in Preparative Organic Chemistry (Sosnovsky, George)  Stacey, F. W.

Stacey, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 691.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Homolytic, cationotropic, and anionotropic reactions: A mechanistic approach to organic chemistry  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.
Examines examples of radical, cationotropic, and anionotropic reactions.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 639.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Activation of small molecules by coordination  Jones, Mark M.
Examines the general principles behind and numerous examples of the coordination process as a means of activating molecules for further reaction.
Jones, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 493.
Catalysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Reactions
Cyclobutane chemistry. 2. Reactions and mechanisms  Wilson, Armin; Goldhamer, David
This discussion on synthetic approaches to cyclobutanes is intended to acquaint the reader with more recent works in this field.
Wilson, Armin; Goldhamer, David J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 599.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
Radical Polymerization (Bevington, John C.)  Ferington, Thomas E.

Ferington, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A494.
Free Radicals
Electrochemistry and the alkyl free radicals  Pinkerton, Richard C.
Describes some of the history and current understanding of the electrochemistry of metal alkyl complexes.
Pinkerton, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 554.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Free Radicals
Electron paramagnetic resonance of free radicals  McMillan, Juan A.
Examines the importance of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as a means of understanding some of the chemistry of free radicals.
McMillan, Juan A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 438.
Magnetic Properties |
Free Radicals |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy
The reactive intermediates of organic chemistry  Stewart, Ross
The purpose of this paper is to outline a logical presentation of the more important reactive intermediates the student is likely to encounter in organic chemistry.
Stewart, Ross J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 308.
Reactive Intermediates |
Free Radicals |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A convenient method for demonstration of stable carbanions  Landsbury, Peter T.
Highly colored pyridine solutions of carbanions are used as a convenient demonstration illustrating reactive intermediates.
Landsbury, Peter T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 307.
Reactive Intermediates |
Reactions |
Free Radicals
Radiation chemistry of high polymers  Dole, Malcolm
Examines the effect of radiation on high polymers, including the formation of cross-links, degradation, unsaturation, energy transfer, and radiolytic oxidation.
Dole, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 353.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Kinetics of polymer formation by free radical mechanism  Ferington, Thomas E.
Examines the mechanism and kinetics of the vinyl chain reaction.
Ferington, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 174.
Free Radicals |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Contributions of vinyl polymerization to organic chemistry  Mayo, Frank R.
The author illustrates three types of free radical reactions through polymerization data.
Mayo, Frank R. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 157.
Polymerization |
Free Radicals |
Addition Reactions
Fundamental processes of autoxidation  Russell, Glen A.
It is the purpose of this review to summarize the mechanism of the autoxidation of molecular oxygen with organic materials.
Russell, Glen A. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 111.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Organometallics |
Photochemistry
Balancing organic redox equations  Burrell, Harold P. C.
This paper presents a method for balancing organic redox equations based on the study of structural formulas and an artificial device - the use of hypothetical free radicals.
Burrell, Harold P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 77.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Free Radicals
Free radical chemistry in solution  Gritter, Roy J.
Considers the general characteristics of free radical reactions in solution, types of free radical reactions, and the effect of structure on bond dissociation energies.
Gritter, Roy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 475.
Free Radicals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The study of free radical reactions through photochemistry  Gunning, Harry E.
This review discusses recent photochemical studies that have yielded quantitative data on the rates of reaction of free radicals.
Gunning, Harry E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 121.
Photosynthesis |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Chemistry of organic free radicals in the vapor phase. II. Reactions of alkoxy and alkylperoxy radicals; energetics of some alkyl radical reactions  De La Mare, Harold E.; Vaughan, William E.
Considers hydrocarbon oxidation, peroxide decomposition, decomposition of nitrite and nitrate esters, and the energetics of some simple alkyl radical reactions.
De La Mare, Harold E.; Vaughan, William E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 64.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemistry of organic free radicals in the vapor phase. I. Detection and reactions of free alkyl radicals  De La Mare, Harold E.; Vaughan, William E.
Examines the detection of free radicals, the thermal production and reactions of free alkyl radicals, alkyl radical/olefin interactions, the nitration of alkanes, halogenation, and miscellaneous pyrolyses.
De La Mare, Harold E.; Vaughan, William E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 10.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Alkylation
Aromatic substitution by free radicals  Nelson, Peter F.
This article summarizes recent investigations upon orientation and reaction rates with respect to homolytic substitution.
Nelson, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 606.
Free Radicals |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The mechanisms of the reactions of aliphatic hydrocarbons  Schmerling, Louis
Examines the formation of carbonium ions and free radicals, the polymerization of olefins, hydrogen-halogen exchange, the condensation of haloalkanes with alkenes, the alkylation of paraffins, the condensation of paraffins with chloroolefins, the cracking of paraffins and olefins, and the isomerization of paraffins.
Schmerling, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 562.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals |
Polymerization