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Journal Articles: 807 results
[#95] A Candle in the Wind  Robert J. Eierman
Students follow in the footsteps of Michael Faraday and investigate the factors that enable a candle to burn.
Eierman, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 528A.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Synthesis of Albendazole Metabolite: Characterization and HPLC Determination  Graciela Mahler, Danilo Davyt, Sandra Gordon, Marcelo Incerti, Ivana Núñez, Horacio Pezaroglo, Laura Scarone, Gloria Serra, Mauricio Silvera, and Eduardo Manta
In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to the synthesis of an albendazole metabolite obtained by a sulfide oxidation reaction. Albendazole as well as its metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, are used as anthelmintic drugs. The oxidation reagent is H2O2 in acetic acid. The reaction is environmental friendly, fast, and proceeds with high yield. The crude reaction is analyzed by HPLC chromatography to determine purity. The simplicity of the experiment allows students to study chiral concepts, physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of the compounds, and HPLC determinations.
Mahler, Graciela; Davyt, Danilo; Gordon, Sandra; Incerti, Marcelo; Núñez, Ivana; Pezaroglo, Horacio; Scarone, Laura; Serra, Gloria; Silvera, Mauricio; Manta, Eduardo. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1652.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Organosulfur Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone  Patty L. Feist
This paper describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach and a compound with real-world applications. The experiment also affords students practice in extraction as well as IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1548.
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Organometallic Chemistry: Development and Study of Catalytic Activity  Caroline R. Pharr and Shannon Stahl
This Today's Science for Tomorrow's Scientists (TSTS) tutorial introduces current scientific research on the development and investigation of new catalysts for the selective oxidation of organic substances by molecular oxygen.
Pharr, Caroline R.; Stahl, Shannon. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1453.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements
New Observations on the Copper-to-Silver-to-Gold Demonstration  Dorin Bejan, Jeff Hastie, and Nigel J. Bunce
This analysis of the classic copper-to-silver-to-gold demonstration describes the deposition of zinc in the form of the silver-colored alloy ?-brass, the evolution of hydrogen at the copper cathode, and the behavior of the associated electrochemical cell.
Bejan, Dorin; Hastie, Jeff; Bunce, Nigel J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1381.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Frank Westheimer's Early Demonstration of Enzymatic Specificity  Addison Ault
Reviews one of the most significant accomplishments of one of the most respected chemists of the 20th centurya series of stereospecific enzymatic oxidation and reduction experiments that led chemists to recognize enantiotopic and diastereotopic relationships of atoms, or groups of atoms, within molecules.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1246.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Enzymes |
Isotopes |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry
Appreciating Oxygen  Hilton M. Weiss
Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that powers life on earth.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1218.
Bioenergetics |
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Thermodynamics
Construction of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Gas Sensor  Shabnam Virji, Bruce H. Weiller, Jiaxing Huang, Richard Blair, Heather Shepherd, Tanya Faltens, Philip C. Haussmann, Richard B. Kaner, and Sarah H. Tolbert
The objectives of this lab are to synthesize different diameter polyaniline nanofibers and compare them as sensor materials. Its advantages include simplicity and low cost, making it suitable for both high school and college students, particularly in departments with modest means.
Virji, Shabnam; Weiller, Bruce H.; Huang, Jiaxing; Blair, Richard; Shepherd, Heather; Faltens, Tanya; Haussmann, Philip C.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1102.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
pH |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
Preparation of Conducting Polymers by Electrochemical Methods and Demonstration of a Polymer Battery  Hiromasa Goto, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Fumihiro Togashi, Reina Ohta, Akitsu Tsujimoto, Eiji Kita, and Ken-ichi Ohshima
The electrochemical polymerization of aniline and pyrrole, and demonstrations of electrochromism and the polymer battery effect, are presented as demonstrations suitable for high school and introductory chemistry at the university level.
Goto, Hiromasa; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Togashi, Fumihiro; Ohta, Reina; Tsujimoto, Akitsu; Kita, Eiji; Ohshima, Ken-ichi. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1067.
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Polymerization
The Baeyer–Villiger Oxidation with Trifluoroacetic Acid and Household Sodium Percarbonate  Richard A. Kjonaas and Anthony E. Clemons
Reports a method for carrying out the BaeyerVilliger oxidation of cyclopentanone to d-valerolactone in a large-section introductory organic chemistry laboratory course.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Clemons, Anthony E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Prussian Blue: Artists' Pigment and Chemists' Sponge  Mike Ware
The variable composition of Prussian blue tantalized chemists until investigations by X-ray crystallography in the late 20th century explained its many properties and uses.
Ware, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 612.
Applications of Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Toxicology
Metal Electrodeposition on an Integrated, Screen-Printed Electrode Assembly  Yieu Chyan and Oliver Chyan
Screen-printed, carbon strip electrodes illustrate the essential concepts of electrochemistry and electrodeposition; their light weight facilitates sensitive measurements of electrodeposited metal, allowing for the exploration of Faraday's law and electrodeposition efficiency.
Chyan, Yieu; Chyan, Oliver. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 565.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
[#95] A Candle in the Wind  Robert J. Eierman
Students follow in the footsteps of Michael Faraday and investigate the factors that enable a candle to burn.
Eierman, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 528A.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Yet Another Variation on the Electrolysis of Water at Iron Nails  Mark T. Stauffer and Justin P. Fox
Describes a variation on the electrolysis of water with iron nails in which a sharp contrast in the colors produced effectively demonstrates electrolysis and the diffusion of oxidized and reduced species from the electrodes.
Stauffer, Mark T.; Fox, Justin P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 523.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class  Jeffrey J. Keaffaber, Ramiro Palma, and Kathryn R. Williams
Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. This article uses a hypothetical tank to house ocean sunfish as a model to show students the calculations and other considerations that are needed when designing a marine aquarium.
Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  Bruce M. Branan, Joshua T. Butcher, and Lawrence R. Olsen
This organic laboratory involves the ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil) followed by a reductive workup that generates an aldehyde easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra.
Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1979.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Aluminum—Air Battery  Modesto Tamez and Julie H. Yu
Students construct a homemade aluminum-air battery out of aluminum foil, activated charcoal, and saltwater that generates enough power to operate a simple electrical device.
Tamez, Modesto; Yu, Julie H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1936A.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Use of Conjugate Charts in Transfer Reactions: A Unified Approach  Michael I. Allnutt
Redox reactions are discussed in terms of the relative strengths of the oxidant, the reductant, and their conjugates; a conjugate chart is a convenient and useful way of doing this. A similar chart for acids and bases that can be applied in the same manner is proposed.
Allnutt, Michael I. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1659.
Acids / Bases |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
A Guided-Inquiry Approach to the Sodium Borohydride Reduction and Grignard Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds  Robert E. Rosenberg
Students teams identify unknowns and their reaction products and use their data to deduce that esters are less electrophilic than the other carbonyl compounds present, that Grignard reagents are more nucleophilic than sodium borohydride, and that carboxylic acid derivatives do not undergo the nucleophilic addition reactions that are characteristic of aldehydes and ketones.
Rosenberg, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1474.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
Electrochemistry of (Dihapto-Buckminster-Fullerene) Pentacarbonyl Tungsten(0)  Elvin Igartúa-Nieves, Yessenia Ocasio-Delgado, José Rivera-Pagán, and José E. Cortés-Figueroa
The primary objective of these cyclic voltammetry experiments is to teach the chemical interpretation of a voltammogram, in particular the relation between the frontier LUMOs of [60]fullerene and the number of reductionoxidation waves of [60]fullerene and (dihapto-[60]fullerene)W(CO)5.
Igartúa-Nieves, Elvin; Ocasio-Delgado, Yessenia; Rivera-Pagán, José; Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1464.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Organometallics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transition Elements
Mercury Beating Heart: Modifications to the Classical Demonstration  Metodija Najdoski, Valentin Mirceski, Vladimir M. Petruševski, and Sani Demiri
The classic mercury beating heart demonstration is modified with various electrolytes.
Najdoski, Metodija; Mirceski, Valentin; Petruševski, Vladimir M.; Demiri, Sani. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1292.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Surface Science
Demonstration of the Fenton Reaction  Dean C. Luehrs and Alex E. Roher
Presents a lecture demonstration of the Fenton reaction with applications to medicine and environmental engineering.
Luehrs, Dean C.; Roher, Alex E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1290.
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactive Intermediates
Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry  Steven Murov
The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry has been designed to provide an overview of most of the reactions needed for the organic chemistry course and should help students develop synthetic routes from one functional group to another.
Murov, Steven. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1224.
Addition Reactions |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A Bioanalytical Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students: Biosensors Based on Metal Nanoparticles  John Njagi, John Warner, and Silvana Andreescu
Describes a laboratory experiment on the development of a biosensor in which students apply electrochemical methods to deposit gold nanoparticles onto electrode surfaces, immobilize an enzyme using glutaraldehyde chemistry, and perform quantitative analysis of phenol using a biosensor with amperometric detection.
Njagi, John; Warner, John; Andreescu, Silvana. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1180.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Phenols
J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 596–604  Anne Lewis, John A. Bumpus, Donald G. Truhlar, and Christopher J. Cramer
Correction to an earlier published article.
Lewis, Anne; Bumpus, John A.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Cramer, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 934.
Computational Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry
Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone  Rajani Gandhari, Padma P. Maddukuri, and Thottumkara K. Vinod
Describes an eco-friendly procedure for the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids in water or a water-ethanol mixture using Oxone as the oxidant. The use of eco-friendly solvents, a non-toxic reagent, and the elimination of extraction solvents in the procedure demonstrate important green chemistry themes to students.
Gandhari, Rajani; Maddukuri, Padma P.; Vinod, Thottumkara K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 852.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction  Richard B. Weinberg
Describes a fluorescent clock reaction based on the principles of the Landolt iodine reaction but using the potent fluorescence quenching properties of triiodide to abruptly extinguish the ultraviolet fluorescence of optical brighteners present in liquid laundry detergents.
Weinberg, Richard B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 797.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
pH |
Photochemistry |
Rate Law |
Vitamins
Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Monitoring of the Cyclic Voltammetric Deposition of Polyaniline. A Laboratory Experiment for Undergraduates  Qingji Xie, Zhili Li, Chunyan Deng, Meiling Liu, Youyu Zhang, Ming Ma, Shaoxi Xia, Xiaoming Xiao, Dulin Yin, and Shouzhuo Yao
Describes a laboratory experiment for fourth-year undergraduates in which an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is used to monitor the cyclic voltammetric deposition of a conducting polyaniline thin film on an Au electrode.
Xie, Qingji; Li, Zhili; Deng, Chunyan; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Ma, Ming; Xia, Shaoxi; Xiao, Xiaoming; Yin, Dulin; Yao, Shouzhuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 681.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Polymerization
Homemade Bienzymatic-Amperometric Biosensor for Beverages Analysis  M. C. Blanco-López, M. J. Lobo-Castañón, and A. J. Miranda-Ordieres
In this experiment students construct an amperometric glucose biosensor and use it to determine the glucose concentration in soft drinks.
Blanco-López, M. C.; Lobo-Castañón, M. J.; Miranda-Ordieres, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 677.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc–Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes  Masahiro Kamata and Miei Paku
Describes a new educational experiment using low-cost zincair batteries and current regulative diode arrays to quickly confirm Faraday's law of electrolysis.
Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 674.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Spoonful of C12H22O11 Makes the Chemistry Go Down: Candy Motivations in the High School Chemistry Classroom  Fanny K. Ennever
Describes sixteen motivations that combine food with measurement, nomenclature, stoichiometry, distillation, the periodic table, polarity, boiling point, rate of solution, catalysis, entropy, acids, redox, and organic compounds.
Ennever, Fanny K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 615.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
A Pollutant Transformation Laboratory Exercise for Environmental Chemistry: The Reduction of Nitrobenzenes by Anaerobic Solutions of Humic Acid  Frank M. Dunnivant and Mark-Cody Reynolds
Presents a laboratory for advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level environmental chemistry in which students study the reduction of substituted nitrobenzenes by natural organic matter under anaerobic conditions. The exercise involves solution preparation, pH and EH buffers, organic reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetics, and instrumental analysis.
Dunnivant, Frank M.; Reynolds, Mark-Cody. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 315.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Introducing New Learning Tools into a Standard Classroom: A Multi-Tool Approach to Integrating Fuel-Cell Concepts into Introductory College Chemistry   Matthew J. DAmato, Kenneth W. Lux, Kenneth A. Walz, Holly Walter Kerby, and Barbara Anderegg
Describes an approach to deliver the science and engineering concepts involved in fuel-cell technology to the introductory college chemistry classroom using traditional lectures, multimedia learning objects, and a lab activity to enhance student learning in a hands-on, interactive manner.
DAmato, Matthew J.; Lux, Kenneth W.; Walz, Kenneth A.; Kerby, Holly Walter; Anderegg, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 248.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Membranes
An Easy Way to Personalize Your Iron or Stainless Steel Items  Ejaz ur Rehman
Describes a simple and useful method for permanently labeling metallic items by the application of alternating current through a mask.
Rehman, Ejaz ur. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 40.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Exocharmic Reactions Up Close  R. W. Ramette
Visually exciting reactions seen through a stereo microscope: growing crystals of silver and silver chromate and whiskers of aluminum oxide.
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 16.
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Kinetics Demonstration Involving a Green–Red–Green Color Change Resulting from a Large-Amplitude pH Oscillation  Brian W. Pfennig and Richard T. Roberts
Describes an oxidationreduction, clock reaction involving iodate, sulfite, and thiosulfate that produces large swings in pH, causing a combination of acidbase indicators to effect greenredgreen color changes.
Pfennig, Brian W.; Roberts, Richard T. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1804.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Kool Reaction from the Fine Print  Susan A. S. Hershberger and Arlyne M. Sarquis
Students investigate the reduction of artificial food dyes by citric acid-promoted oxidation of a metal in the form of fine or coarse steel wool. The artificial red and yellow food dyes present in drink mixes contain azo linkages (nitrogennitrogen double bonds) that are readily reduced to colorless products under mild reducing conditions.
Hershberger, Susan A. S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1792A.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Effectiveness of Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy To Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells  Ali Riza Özkaya, Musa Üce, Hakan Sariçayir, and Musa Sahin
This article presents efforts to develop a conceptual change-oriented strategy to teaching galvanic cells in electrochemistry. The objective is to assess the effectiveness of conceptual change-oriented instruction relative to conventional instruction using statistical comparisons.
Özkaya, Ali Riza; Üce, Musa; Sariçayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1719.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Undergraduate Research
Ruthenium(VI)-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols by Hexacyanoferrate(III): An Example of Mixed Order  Antonio E. Mucientes and María A. de la Peña
The absorbance decay of hexacyanoferrate(III) as a function of time shows a progressive deviation from zero to first order. This variation follows an experimental rate law that has been analyzed and explained.
Mucientes, Antonio E,; de la Peña, María A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1643.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Predicting Inorganic Reaction Products: A Critical Thinking Exercise in General Chemistry  David G. DeWit
Describes a course module designed to afford practice in applying the principles encountered throughout the general chemistry sequence to understanding and predicting chemical reactivity and the products of simple inorganic reactions.
DeWit, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1625.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Job's Analysis of the Range of the "Dalton Syringe Rocket"  Natalie Barto, Brandon Henrie, and Ed Vitz
An apparatus for safely igniting fuel gas/oxygen mixtures in a syringe and measuring the distance that the syringe is propelled is presented. The distance (range) is analyzed by the method of continuous variation (Job's Method) to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Barto, Natalie; Henrie, Brandon; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1505.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Stoichiometry
The Chemical Wizardry of J. K. Rowling  Jane Snell Copes
Many of the chemical special effects that take place at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry can be simulated and understood by non-magical chemists. This article connects Rowling's literary special effects to chemical references with safety information and directions.
Copes, Jane Snell. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1479.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Clock Reaction Sympathetic Ink from Consumer Chemicals  Stephen W. Wright, Marsha R. Folger, and Matthew A. Rice
Describes a "clock reaction" between hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid that causes writing to appear after predictable and controllable periods of time.
Wright, Stephen W.; Folger, Marsha R.; Rice, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1473.
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Vitamins |
Rate Law |
Oxidation State
Small-Scale and Low-Cost Galvanic Cells  Per-Odd Eggen, Truls Grønneberg, and Lise Kvittingen
Describes how to construct two small, qualitative galvanic cells from metal wires, nails, pencil lead, floral foam, culture plates, light diodes, and some simple solutions.
Eggen, Per-Odd; Grønneberg, Truls; Kvittingen, Lise. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1201.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Todd P. Silverstein
Offers additional solutions to the cracked watch glass problem associated with an earlier published dehydration of sugar demonstration.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Edward F. Duhr, Allison S. Soult, John G. Maijub, and Fitzgerald B. Bramwell
The procedure for Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom! can lead to watch glass breakage and thereby a fire hazard.
Duhr, Edward F.; Soult, Allison S.; Maijub, John G.; Bramwell, Fitzgerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Edward F. Duhr, Allison S. Soult, John G. Maijub, and Fitzgerald B. Bramwell
The procedure for Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom! can lead to watch glass breakage and thereby a fire hazard.
Duhr, Edward F.; Soult, Allison S.; Maijub, John G.; Bramwell, Fitzgerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
New Highlights on Analyzing First-Order Kinetic Data of the Peroxodisulfate–Iodide System at Different Temperatures  J. Yperman and W. J. Guedens
A pseudo-first order kinetic experiment examining the peroxodisulfateiodide system is executed at different temperatures, making it possible to calculate the activation energy of this reaction.
Yperman, J.; Guedens, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 641.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Thermodynamics
Ozonolysis Problems That Promote Student Reasoning  Ray A. Gross Jr.
The structural features inherent in acyclic monoterpenes that follow the isoprene rule often lead to unique sets of ozonolysis products from which their structures, excluding stereochemistry, can be determined from molecular formulas only. This article shows how students may elucidate the structures of these compounds by analysis of the oxidative and reductive workup products.
Gross, Ray A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 604.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Student-Centered Learning
Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance  William H. Miles and Katelyn B. Connell
Describes the synthesis of a family of fragrances, including the commercially important Methyl Diantilis, and provides an excellent introduction to intellectual property laws.
Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 285.
Alcohols |
Food Science |
Catalysis |
Ethers |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Environmentally Responsible Redox Chemistry: An Example of Convenient Oxidation Methodology without Chromium Waste  Robyn L. Crumbie
This article describes a simple experiment that uses recyclable Magtrieve as the oxidant in a simple reaction sequence emphasizing the reciprocity of oxidation and reduction processes in organic synthesis.
Crumbie, Robyn L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 268.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Steel Wool and Oxygen: How Constant Should a Rate Constant Be?  Michiel Vogelezang
In the article Steel Wool and Oxygen: A Look at Kinetics, James Gordon and Katherine Chancey describe an experiment about the kinetics between iron and oxygen. Like all good experiments this one is easy to carry out and produces good results. However, the experiment can even have a greater impact with only a small addition.
Vogelezang, Michiel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 214.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Solvent-Free Baeyer–Villiger Lactonization for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: Synthesis of γ-t-Butyl-ε-caprolactone  John J. Esteb, J. Nathan Hohman, Diana E. Schlamadinger, and Anne M. Wilson
The BaeyerVilliger reaction provides an efficient method to convert ketones to esters or lactones. In this experiment, m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid and 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone are mixed together for under solvent-free conditions to produce ?-t-butyl-e-caprolactone.
Esteb, John J.; Hohman, J. Nathan; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1837.
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 6. Selective Reduction in Organic Chemistry: Reduction of Aldehydes in the Presence of Esters Using Sodium Borohydride  Ashvin R. Baru and Ram S. Mohan
Describes two discovery oriented lab experiments involving the chemoselective reduction of vanillin acetate and methyl 4-formylbenzoate in the presence of esters using sodium borohydride, followed by product identification using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
Baru, Ashvin R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1674.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Trusty or Rusty? Oxidation Rate of Nails  Stephen W. Wright
Students investigate the process of rusting using supermarket chemicals. Steel nails are placed in gelatin and allowed to react with atmospheric oxygen. Ferric ion produced by the oxidation is made visible as a garnet-colored complex formed by the magnesium salicylate in backache tablets. Factors that accelerate or retard the rate of iron oxidation are studied.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1648A.
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Rate Law
The Oxidation of Iron in a Gel Using Consumer Chemicals  Stephen W. Wright, Marsha R. Folger, and Ryan P. Quinn
The ferric ion produced by the oxidation of a steel nail in an agar gel is detected with salicylate to give a garnet-red color at the anodic areas where the oxidation of iron occurs.
Wright, Stephen W.; Folger, Marsha R.; Quinn, Ryan P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1633.
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 8. Microscale Simultaneous Photocatalysis  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mena-Brito, and Arturo Fregoso-Infante
In this article we describe a microscale experiment in which the simultaneous oxidation of an organic compound (citric acid) and the reduction of a metal ion (Cu2+) are photocatalytically performed in an aqueous slurry containing TiO2 irradiated with UV light. This produces electrons (capable of reducing the metal ions) and holes (capable of oxidizing the organic molecule) that can be used for environmental clean up. The experiment allows students to have a better comprehension of the different phenomena involved in a typical photocatalytic process.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mena-Brito, Rodrigo; Fregoso-Infante, Arturo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1549.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Photochemistry |
Semiconductors |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon, M. T. Moran-Moran, Alejandro Alatorre-Ordaz, Bruce Mattson, and Scot Eskestrand
Ozone, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is produced electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it, to observe its action in simulated environmental applications, and to measure its rate of production.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mayen-Mondragon, Rodrigo; Moran-Moran, M. T.; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Mattson, Bruce; Eskestrand, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1546.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Reduction of Iodine by Phosphorus(I): Integration of the Rate Equation  Kenneth Kustin and Edward W. Ross
The reduction of iodine by phosphorus(I) (hypophosphorous acid) yields iodide and phosphorus(III) (phosphorous acid). The reaction is autocatalytic in hydrogen ion, autoinhibitory in iodide ion, and zero order in iodine over a wide concentration range. We return to the original article by A. D. Mitchell that presents a mechanism to account for these facts and devise a method to integrate numerically the complex rate equation for this reaction.
Kustin, Kenneth; Ross, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1413.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Rate Law
The Entrance and Exit Effects in Small Electrochemical Filter-Press Reactors Used in the Laboratory  Angel Frías-Ferrer, José González-García, Verónica Sáez, Eduardo Expósito, Carlos M. ánchez-Sánchez, Vicente Montiel, Antonio Aldaz, and Frank C. Walsh
An experiment has been designed to aid chemical engineering students in understanding the importance of size in small reactors in order to get suitable data for subsequent extrapolations to larger reactors and, therefore, for the scaleup of small systems. The experimental arrangement and procedures are described, and the theory needed to interpret the experimental results is discussed. Reactor geometry and size and experimental procedure are highlighted as key parameters in the study.
Frías-Ferrer, Angel; González-García, José; Sáez, Verónica; Expósito, Eduardo; ánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M.; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio; Walsh, Frank C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1395.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transport Properties
Mass Relationships in a Chemical Reaction: Incorporating Additional Graphing Exercises into the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
The purpose of this article is to increase student involvement with graph construction specifically in the context of introductory laboratory activities that involve mass relationships between reacting substances and products. In this regard, five massmass plots derived from a synthesis of a binary compound from its elements are presented as well as a set of questions to focus learners on the significance of each plot. The benefit of providing learners with these types of graphing activities include the use of higher-order cognitive processes as well as the elucidation of fundamental chemical knowledge such as the law of the conservation of mass, the law of constant composition, limiting and excess reactants, and empirical formula.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1219.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis
Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy  Kestutis Bendinskas, Christopher DiJiacomo, Allison Krill, and Ed Vitz
A two-week biochemistry experiment was introduced in the second-semester general chemistry laboratory to study the oxidation of ethanol in vitro in the presence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). This reaction should pique student interest because the same reaction also occurs in human bodies when alcoholic drinks are consumed. Procedures were developed to follow the biochemical reaction by visible spectroscopy and to avoid specialized equipment. The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of this enzymatic reaction was investigated during the first week. The effects of temperature, pH, the specificity of the enzyme to several substrates, and the enzyme's inhibition by heavy metals were explored during the second week.
Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1068.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Food Science
Steel Wool and Oxygen: A Look at Kinetics  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
An experimental method is described to study the kinetics of the reaction of the iron in steel wool with molecular oxygen. A calculator-based data collection system is used with an oxygen gas sensor to determine the order of the reaction with respect to oxygen. Using the graphical method, students determine that the reaction follows first-order kinetics with respect to oxygen.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1065.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Microwave-Assisted Reduction of Cyclohexanone Using Solid-State-Supported Sodium Borohydride  Lori L. White and Kevin W. Kittredge
We report a microwave-assisted reduction of cyclohexanone by sodium borohydride that is supported on SiO2. The reaction was completed in less than 3 minutes. Workup and analysis by GCMS, IR, and 1H NMR was possible in a two and half-hour laboratory session. This reduction was used successfully in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory. Students were exposed to a green chemistry reaction using solid-state-supported reactants in the absence of solvent.
White, Lori L.; Kittredge, Kevin W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1055.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess–Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Nicole A. Reed, Robert D. Rapp, Christian S. Hamann, and Pamela G. Artz
Using circular dichroism, organic laboratory students investigated the change in absolute stereochemistry upon oxidation of menthol to menthone. In the first laboratory period, the oxidation was performed with DessMartin periodinane, which is a facile and less toxic oxidizing agent. Half the laboratory group performed the oxidation with ()-menthol and the other half used (+)-menthol to produce ()-menthone and (+)-menthone, respectively. The products were analyzed in the second laboratory period using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine the fraction of starting alcohol converted to ketone. Comparison was made between CD spectra both for the menthol reactant and menthone product and for the (+)- and ()-menthone enantiomers.
Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1053.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Enantiomers
Conceptual Considerations in Molecular Science  Donald T. Sawyer
The undergraduate curriculum and associated textbooks include several significant misconceptions.
Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 985.
Catalysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Modified Demonstration of the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide  Carlos Alexander Trujillo
A safer and cheaper version of the popular catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide demonstration commonly called the Elephants Toothpaste is presented. Hydrogen peroxide is decomposed in the presence of a surfactant by the enzyme catalase producing foam. Catalase has a higher activity compared with the traditional iodide and permits the use of diluted hydrogen peroxide solutions. The demonstration can be made with household products with similar amazing effects.
Trujillo, Carlos Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 855.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Catalytic Oxygen Evolution by a Bioinorganic Model of the Photosystem II Oxygen-Evolving Complex  Derrick L. Howard, Arthur D. Tinoco, Gary W. Brudvig, John S. Vrettos, and Bertha Connie Allen
This article details a series of experiments suitable for advanced undergraduates that will introduce them to the preparation and characterization of a bioinorganic model complex. Techniques and concepts emphasized include inorganic synthesis, UV-visible spectroscopy, titrations, catalytic mechanisms, oxidation-reduction reactions, and kinetics.
Howard, Derrick L.; Tinoco, Arthur D.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Vrettos, John S.; Allen, Bertha Connie. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 791.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Plant Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Single-Molecule Electronic Measurements with Metal Electrodes  Stuart Lindsay
The process of transferring electrons from one metal electrode to another via an intervening molecule differs from electrochemically or optically-induced electron transfer in important ways. The simplest process of ballistic electron transport with no charge localization on the molecule (tunneling) should be easy to understand quantitatively, yet experimental reports and theoretical calculations can differ by orders of magnitude. Here, we show how many of the discrepancies are resolved with measurements carefully constructed to provide data on single molecules connected to electrodes in well-defined ways.
Lindsay, Stuart. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 727.
Electrochemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Oxidation / Reduction
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Spectrophotometric Determination of the Hole Concentration in the Superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x. An Undergraduate Experiment  Jack I. Hoppé and Mounir A. Malati
The preparation and characterization of the superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x, or YBCO, are described. The experiment is based on the reduction of the holes by FeCl2 in 1 M HCl solution under laboratory vacuum. This reaction leads to the formation of Fe(III) chloride, mainly in the form of tetrahedral [FeCl4], together with Cu(II) chloride, mainly in the form [CuCl4]2. The electronic spectra of the two species, as well as Fe(II) chloride, are described.
Hoppé, Jack I.; Malati, Mounir A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 299.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Solid State Chemistry |
Superconductivity
The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
A new detection method is applied to a classic experiment in which gaseous atmospheric oxygen in a test tube is reacted with the iron in steel wool to produce rust. A gas pressure sensor interfaced to a calculator-based data collection system was used to measure the percent of oxygen in the air as the reaction proceeded. The results from the calculator-based experiment were compared to the results from a more traditional water-measurement experiment. The average percent of oxygen obtained using the calculator system was 19.4  0.4%.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 286.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber  Curtis J. Czerwinski and Tanya J. Cordes
While several lecture demonstrations are possible using methane-filled balloons, it is often inconvenient to prepare these balloons since the pressure from standard laboratory and lecture hall gas nozzles is too low. As a solution to this problem, a methane balloon inflation chamber, prepared from a translucent 3.5-gallon pail and an aspirator or house-vacuum, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for inflating balloons in laboratories or lecture halls. Prepared in this way, methane-filled balloons can be used to demonstrate the effects of vacuum, the lifting power of low-density gases, and the explosive combustion of methane.
Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 248.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Chemistry of Durable and Regenerable Biocidal Textiles  Gang Sun and S. Dave Worley
Unlike the widely used slow-releasing biocidal mechanism now employed in biocidal textiles, a novel regenerable process, based on a regeneration principle and halamine chemistry, has been developed in antimicrobial finishing of textiles. Halamine-modified textile materials demonstrate durable and regenerable antimicrobial functions and execute rapid inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms by contact without yielding drug resistance. The unique properties of the products render them useful materials for medical-use and hygienic textiles. The chemistry of the biocidal materials is be discussed.
Sun, Gang; Worley, S. Dave. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 60.
Applications of Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Reactive Intermediates |
Oxidation / Reduction
Photoelectrochromism in Tungsten Trioxide Colloidal Solutions  C. R. Chenthamarakshan, N. R. de Tacconi, Lucy Xu, and Krishnan Rajeshwar
This article describes a simple laboratory experiment in which students observe the color changes undergone by tungsten trioxide (WO3) colloids subjected to UV irradiation. This experiment begins with the preparation of the colloidal solutions. The changes induced in their UVvisible absorption profiles by organic additives such as sodium oxalate are then examined. The experiment can be used to teach concepts in materials chemistry, photoelectrochemistry, electron-transfer processes, quantum mechanics, colloid chemistry, or chemical instrumentation depending on the instructor's emphasis.
Chenthamarakshan, C. R.; de Tacconi, N. R.; Xu, Lucy; Rajeshwar, Krishnan. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1790.
Instrumental Methods |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Analysis of Gold Ores by Fire Assay  Kristy M. Blyth, David N. Phillips, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
This article describes a laboratory exercise for the analysis of gold using the fire-assay technique. This method of analysis not only provides students with an introduction to the technique of fire assay, but also covers some very interesting acidbase and redox chemistry. The gold is collected in a lead button while the remainder of the constituents find their way into a slag. The gold is recovered from the lead by absorption in a boneash cupel.
Blyth, Kristy M.; Phillips, David N.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1780.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Copper Metal from Malachite circa 4000 B.C.E.  Gordon T. Yee, Jeannine E. Eddleton, and Cris E. Johnson
The experiment starts with a naturally occurring ore, malachite, essentially pure Cu2CO3(OH)2, which is readily available at modest cost in bead form from jewelry stores. Using only a Bunsen burner, a porcelain crucible, and a charcoal briquette, the experiment demonstrates two steps in the ancient processing of copper ore: roasting and reduction. The product is a shiny copper metal bead that can then be hammered, polished, and shown to be electrically conductive.
Yee, Gordon T.; Eddleton, Jeannine E.; Johnson, Cris E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1777.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Using Organic Light-Emitting Electrochemical Thin-Film Devices To Teach Materials Science  Hannah Sevian, Sean Müller, Hartmut Rudmann, and Michael F. Rubner
Light-emitting thin films provide an excellent opportunity to learn about principles of electrochemistry, spectroscopy, microscopic structure of the solid state, basic circuits, and engineering design. There is currently strong interest in academic and industrial engineering research centering on developing organic light-emitting devices for applications in flat panel displays. In this educational module, designed for high school or introductory undergraduate courses, students learn how to make a ruthenium-based thin-film device. In the process, they learn about the solid-state electrochemistry at work in the film, as well as the electroluminescence that results when current passes through the device.
Sevian, Hannah; Müller, Sean; Rudmann, Hartmut; Rubner, Michael F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1620.
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol. An Introductory Overview  Thomas G. Chasteen and Ronald Bentley
Volatile organic sulfur compounds and their degradation products play important environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation. Two important members of this group, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and methanethiol, MT, are formed by living organisms as well as by abiotic processes. The chemical reactions responsible for the biosynthesis of DMS and MT are emphasized here, as well as means for their degradation. Since sulfur compounds are often ignored in normal course work, this article provides a basic foundation for an understanding of these interesting and environmentally significant compounds.
Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1524.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Studying Current–Potential Curves Using Bipotentiometric Iodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  Roxana A. Verdini and Claudia M. Lagier
A method for the determination of the ascorbic acid content in fruits and vegetables was used to introduce the principles of voltammetry. The procedure combines an iodometric back-titration with voltammetric (bipotentiometric) end point detection, which minimizes the risk of ascorbic acid oxidation, allowing for a rapid and efficient quantification of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. A better understanding of the titration curve is achieved by analyzing the schematic currentpotential curves of the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions during the titration.
Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1482.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Vitamins |
Consumer Chemistry
Old Nassau Demonstration with Wilkinson Modification  Lawrence E. Wilkinson
A modification of the Old Nassau Reaction demonstration is presented, wherein a 0.025 M silver nitrate solution is used in place of the mercury(II) chloride solution employed in the original demonstration.
Wilkinson, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1474.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Organic Compounds without H2 Supply: An Electrochemical System  Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro and Marcelo Navarro
A system for hydrogenation of organic compounds without a hydrogen gas supply is described. The process involves an electrochemical apparatus for the generation of hydrogen in situ. The simplicity of the experiment allows students to carry out easy experiments in the laboratory and the instructors to introduce the following concepts: electrochemical principles and catalytic and hydrogenation reactions. A sacrificial anode of nickel is used in the electrochemical system with a double function: to permit the use of an undivided cell and activate the cathode surface.
Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Navarro, Marcelo. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1350.
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Small-Scale and Low-Cost Apparatus for the Electrolysis of Water  Per-Odd Eggen and Lise Kvittingen
This article describes how to construct two simple, inexpensive, and illustrative apparatuses using disposable polyethene pipets and floral wire for electrolysis of water. These apparatuses suit various grades and curricula.
Eggen, Per-Odd; Kvittingen, Lise. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1337.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Mass Spectrometry for the Masses  Jared D. Persinger, Geoffrey C. Hoops, and Michael J. Samide
In this article, we describe an experiment for an introductory chemistry course that incorporates the use of mass spectrometry for sample analysis. Several different air samples are collected that represent various chemical processes, and the composition of the air sample is predicted on the basis of known chemical principles. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer is used to analyze these samples, and the relative quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and argon are calculated. On the basis of the data, the hypothesized sample composition is validated.
Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1169.
Mass Spectrometry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Gases
The Concept of Oxidation States in Metal Complexes  Dirk Steinborn
After a brief historical survey, basic considerations are given to assign oxidation numbers of atoms in molecules on the basis of their Lewis structures by splitting shared electrons in covalent bonds heterolytically. Advantages over the frequently used method to assign oxidation numbers by using a set of hierarchical rules are demonstrated for some nonmetal compounds. Assignment of oxidation numbers of metals is systematically worked out for metal complexes with n-, pi-, and s-ligands. Furthermore, it is shown how the concept of oxidation states is embedded in the teaching process of molecular chemistry for early chemistry students.
Steinborn, Dirk. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1148.
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Lewis Structures |
Metals |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Simple Epoxide Formation for the Organic Laboratory Using Oxone  William C. Broshears, John J. Esteb, Jeremy Richter, and Anne M. Wilson
This experiment demonstrates a simple synthesis of an epoxide and formation of a secondary oxidizing agent.
Broshears, William C.; Esteb, John J.; Richter, Jeremy; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1018.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
A Reliable Homemade Electrode Based on Glassy Polymeric Carbon  André L. Santos, Regina M. Takeuchi, Herenilton P. Oliveira, Marcello G. Rodrigues, and Robert L. Zimmerman
The production of glassy polymeric carbon (GPC) through the thermal treatment of a phenolic resin is described.
Santos, André L.; Takeuchi, Regina M.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.; Rodrigues, Marcello G.; Zimmerman, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 842.
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
Spectacular Pseudo-Exfoliation of an Exfoliated–Compressed Graphite  M. Comet, L. Schreyeck, S. Verdan, G. Burato, and H. Fuzellier
This kind of reaction has been called pseudo-exfoliation of carbonaceous material. This demonstration spectacularly illustrates the layered nature of graphite.
Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Verdan, S.; Burato, G.; Fuzellier, H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 819.
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
Major Sources of Difficulty in Students' Understanding of Basic Inorganic Qualitative Analysis  Kim Chwee Daniel Tan, Ngoh Khang Goh, Lian Sai Chia, and David F. Treagust
In Singapore students are first introduced to qualitative analysis in grade 10 chemistry (when they are 16 years old), even though the topic is generally considered to be conceptually difficult to understand and there is inadequate time for comprehensive experimental work. Using extensive interviews, this study was designed to identify the sources of these difficulties.
Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 725.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chlor–Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach  C. M. Sánchez-Sánchez, E. Expósito, A. Frías-Ferrer, J. González-García, V. Montiel, and A. Aldaz
An experiment is described that approximates the industrial chloralkali process using a membrane cell.
Sánchez-Sánchez, C. M.; Expósito, E.; Frías-Ferrer, A.; González-García, J.; Montiel, V.; Aldaz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 698.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Chemistry of Photographic Color Dye Formation  Bruce E. Kahn
A laboratory activity is described where black and white photographs are converted to color images in a variety of ways.
Kahn, Bruce E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 694.
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Molecular Modeling of Environmentally Important Processes: Reduction Potentials  Anne Lewis, John A. Bumpus, Donald G. Truhlar, and Christopher J. Cramer
We describe in detail the data handling, construction of thermodynamic cycles, and resolution of standard-state conventions required to compare theoretically predicted and experimentally measured one- and two-electron reduction potentials.
Lewis, Anne; Bumpus, John A.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Cramer, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 596.
Electrochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Variability of the Cell Potential of a Given Chemical Reaction  Ladislav H. Berka and Ilie Fishtik
It is demonstrated in this article that while the value of the free energy change for any chemical reaction is independent of path (a state function), the value of the standard cell potential of a reaction is dependent on the half-cell reactions used to carry out that reaction.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Fishtik, Ilie. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 584.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Isolation of Copper from a 5–Cent Coin. An Example of Electrorefining  Steven G. Sogo
The United States 5cent coin, commonly known as a "nickel", is made of an alloy containing 75% copper and 25% nickel. The experiment is a visually appealing illustration of the process of electrorefining using selective reduction.
Sogo, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 530.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Caveman Chemistry: 28 Projects, from the Creation of Fire to the Production of Plastics (Kevin M. Dunn)  Michael S. Matthews
In Caveman Chemistry, Kevin Dunn presents a historically oriented hands-on introduction to chemistry and chemical technology that is tremendously entertaining.
Matthews, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 490.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Natural Products |
Nonmajor Courses
Developing Investigation Skills in an Introductory Multistep Synthesis Using Fluorene Oxidation and Reduction  Mark G. Stocksdale, Steven E. S. Fletcher, Ian Henry, Paul J. Ogren, Michael A. G. Berg, Roy D. Pointer, and Barrett W. Benson
A two-step reaction sequence in the beginning organic laboratory provides a useful introduction to the importance of multistep synthesis. In addition to introducing several common synthetic methods and techniques, a two-step preparation can quickly establish the importance of testing alternative reactions in order to optimize intermediate yields.
Stocksdale, Mark G.; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Henry, Ian; Ogren, Paul J.; Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.; Benson, Barrett W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 388.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Classroom Demonstration of a Spot Test for Phenylpyruvic Acid and Its Relationship to Phenylketonuria  Christopher J. Halkides
A classroom demonstration of a spot test for phenylketonuria using ferric chloride is discussed. The chemistry is similar to that used in Phenistix test strips. Some background information on screening infants for phenylketonuria is also given.
Halkides, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 366.
Amino Acids |
Enzymes |
Biotechnology |
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Reaction That Takes Place in Beakers but Not in Conical Flasks: A Catalysis-Related Demonstration  Colin White
A striking demonstration emphasizing that substances which promote reactions are not catalysts if they are consumed in the process. The demonstration is based on the iron(II) induced oxidation of iodide by chromium(VI).
White, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 364.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Microscale Syntheses, Reactions, and 1H NMR Spectroscopic Investigations of Square Planar Macrolyclic Tetraamido-N Co(III) Complexes Relevant to Green Chemistry  Erich S. Uffelman, Jonathan R. Doherty, Carl Schulze, Amy L. Burke, Kristen R. Bonnema, Tanya T. Watson, and Daniel W. Lee, III
These labs and accompanying lab lectures and discussions create a problem-based learning environment that involves Br?nsted acid-base chemistry, steric arguments, redox processes, Le Chatelier's principle, nonaqueous chemistry, solubility product constants, periodic trends, organic reactivity, and spectroscopy.
Uffelman, Erich S.; Doherty, Jonathan R.; Schulze, Carl; Burke, Amy L.; Bonnema, Kristen R.; Watson, Tanya T.; Lee, Daniel W., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 325.
Coordination Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 6: Microscale Production of Ferrate  Jorge G. Ibanez, Monica Tellez-Giron, Diana Alvarez, and Elizabeth Garcia-Pintor
Ferrate, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is synthesized chemically and electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it and to observe its action in simulated environmental applications.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Tellez-Giron, Monica; Alvarez, Diana; Garcia-Pintor, Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 251.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Well Wishes. A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  Mary M. Walczak and Juliette M. Lantz
This paper describes the use of a case study to teach introductory chemistry students the chemical principles of solution concentration (especially ppm) and dilution, aqueous redox reactions, and stoichiometric conversions between different solution species.
Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 218.
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Comment on the Hazards of Peroxide Decomposition  J. C. Jones
The issue under discussionthe presence in ether of peroxides and their explosive decompositionis an important one, and the correspondence referred to is focused on laboratory safety. I believe however that an interesting point of pedagogic value can be gleaned from it.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 193.
Ethers |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Spectrophotometric Study of the Permanganate–Oxalate Reaction: An Analytical Laboratory Experiment  Gene E. Kalbus, Van T. Lieu, and Lee H. Kalbus
The experiment is divided into two parts. Part I involves the determination of an unknown oxalate. Part II of the experiment involves examination of the effect of sulfuric acid concentration and the effect of manganous ion concentration on the rate of and outcome of the permanganateoxalate reaction.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 100.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Out of the Blue  Mark E. Noble
Demonstration in which a color change indicates that a reaction has occurred.
Noble, Mark E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 536A.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Photogalvanic Cells for Classroom Investigations: A Contribution for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  Claudia Bohrmann-Linde and Michael W. Tausch
Laboratory experiments examining the fundamental processes in the conversion of light into electrical energy using photogalvanic cells have been developed. These simple cells are suitable for classroom investigations examining the operating principles of photogalvanic cells and the influence of different parameters on their efficiency.
Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1471.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The Relative Explosive Power of Some Explosives  Marten J. ten Hoor
The efficiency of an explosive is measured by its relative explosive power, REP. This quantity is defined as REP = QVg/m2, where Q is the energy released in the explosion, Vg is the total volume (at STP) of gas produced, and m is the mass of the explosive that has reacted. These three quantities can be determined from the explosion equation of the explosive.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1397.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Correction to "Lithium Batteries: A Practical Application of Chemical Principles" (J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1015-1020)   
Correction to Figure 3.
J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1383.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Editor's Note on "A Method for Generating Oxygen from Consumer Chemicals" (re J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1158-1160)  
Similar procedures have been described elsewhere.
J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1383.
Oxidation / Reduction
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment  Atif Koca and Musa Sahin
The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.
Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1314.
Catalysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Where There's Fire There's....  Stephen W. Wright
Students compare the combustion of substances such as a glowing wooden toothpick and a lit birthday candle in air, oxygen, exhaled breath, and carbon dioxide environments. The oxygen and carbon dioxide gases are generated in glass bottles using household chemicals.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1160A.
Oxidation / Reduction
A Method for Generating Oxygen from Consumer Chemicals  Stephen W. Wright
The rapidly accelerated combustion of wood, paper, carbon, a candle, and steel wool in oxygen gas is presented. The oxygen gas is generated as needed in the bottles used for the demonstration using chemicals readily available on the retail market: liquid chlorine bleach and 3% hydrogen peroxide.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1158.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Consumer Chemistry
Demonstrating Corrosion Using Galvanic Cells (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747-748)   Algirdas Sulcius
Comments on and suggestions for improving the original experimental procedure.
Sulcius, Algirdas. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A Graphical Presentation of the Born–Haber Cycle for Estimating the Electrode Potentials of Metals  Michael Laing
The traditional BornHaber cycle for estimating E for Mn+/M is represented visually by plotting step-by-step the values of ?Hat, IEi, and ?Hhyd for the metal.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1057.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reproportionation of Copper(I)  Jan Malyszko and Maria Kaczor
Cu(I) is an example of an intermediate oxidation state that can undergo disproportionation or reproportionation reactions depending on the solvent and background electrolyte. A simple experiment to demonstrate the reproportionation of copper(I) from the reaction between copper metal and copper(II) in acidic aqueous solution containing an excess of chlorides is presented.
Malyszko, Jan; Kaczor, Maria. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1048.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Lithium Batteries: A Practical Application of Chemical Principles  Richard S. Treptow
In recent years batteries have emerged in the marketplace that take advantage of the unique properties of lithium. Lithium metal is an attractive choice to serve as a battery anode because it is easily oxidized and it produces an exceptionally high amount of electrical charge per unit-weight.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1015.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Lithium Batteries: A Practical Application of Chemical Principles  Richard S. Treptow
In recent years batteries have emerged in the marketplace that take advantage of the unique properties of lithium. Lithium metal is an attractive choice to serve as a battery anode because it is easily oxidized and it produces an exceptionally high amount of electrical charge per unit-weight.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1015.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Sailing on the "C": A Vitamin Titration with a Twist  S. Sowa and A. E. Kondo
Guided inquiry experiment where students determine what measurements they need, design and carry out their own procedures, develop their own data and analyses, and make conclusions based on their results.
Sowa, S.; Kondo, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 550.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Greening the Blue Bottle  Whitney E. Wellman and Mark E. Noble
Recommendations for less caustic and consumptive recipes for the Blue Bottle demonstration (including the use of consumer products).
Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 537.
Green Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Calculation of the Characteristic Performance Indicators in an Electrochemical Process  C. M. Sánchez-Sánchez, E. Expósito, J. Solla-Gullón, V. García-García, V. Montiel, and A. Aldaz
Analysis of figures of merit in a procedure designed to illustrate important aspects of electrochemical engineering.
Sánchez-Sánchez, C. M.; Expósito, E.; Solla-Gullón, J.; García-García, Vicente; Montiel, V.; Aldaz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 529.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Blackwater Escape  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
A chemical mystery involving electrochemistry and featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 401.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry
Incomplete Combustion with Candle Flames: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment in the First-Year Chemistry Lab  Joseph MacNeil and Lisa Volaric
Investigating a burning candle as an introduction to incomplete combustion, thermodynamics, kinetics, and gas chromatography.
MacNeil, Joseph; Volaric, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 302.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Gas Chromatography
Environmental Redox Potential and Redox Capacity Concepts Using a Simple Polarographic Experiment  Alejandro Pidello
Laboratory designed to enable students to distinguish clearly between redox potential and redox capacity concepts through results obtained in a complex natural system (soil).
Pidello, Alejandro. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 68.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Potentiometry
Microscale Quantitative Analysis of Hard Water Samples Using an Indirect Potassium Permanganate Redox Titration  John N. Richardson, Mark T. Stauffer, and Jennifer L. Henry
A procedure for a microscale quantitative analysis of hard water samples using an indirect potassium permanganate redox titration.
Richardson, John N.; Stauffer, Mark T.; Henry, Jennifer L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 65.
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Jay A. Young
Boric acid is a mild oxidizing agent.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Charlie A. Crutchfield
Boric acid is not an oxidizing agent.
Crutchfield, Charlie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Charlie A. Crutchfield
Boric acid is not an oxidizing agent.
Crutchfield, Charlie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
A General Approach for Calculating Speciation and Poising Capacity of Redox Systems with Multiple Oxidation States: Application to Redox Titrations and the Generation of pε-pH Diagrams  D. Whitney King
A general approach for calculating redox titrations, speciation, and poising capacity of systems with multiple oxidation states.
King, D. Whitney. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1135.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Determination of the Empirical Formula of a Copper Oxide Salt Using Two Different Methods  Michael J. Sanger and Kimberly Geer
Converting copper oxide into copper metal using two different methods: reduction of copper oxide to copper metal using methane gas, and reduction of copper oxide to copper metal using aluminum in aqueous solution; the results are used to determine the empirical formula of copper oxide.
Sanger, Michael J.; Geer, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 994.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Determining Oxidation–Reduction on a Simple Number Line  Amy L. Cox and James R. Cox
Using a simple number line to analyze oxidation-reduction reactions encountered in introductory/general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry.
Cox, Amy L.; Cox, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 965.
Oxidation / Reduction
Chiral Compounds and Green Chemistry in Undergraduate Organic Laboratories: Reduction of a Ketone by Sodium Borohydride and Baker's Yeast  Nicola Pohl, Allen Clague, and Kimberly Schwarz
Students compare biological and chemical means of introducing chirality into a molecule by investigating the reduction of a ketoester with two different reducing agents.
Pohl, Nicola; Clague, Allen; Schwarz, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 727.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry
A New Approach to Understanding Oxidation-Reduction of Compounds in Organic Chemistry  Abdullah Menzek
Teaching oxidation-reduction in introductory organic chemistry.
Menzek, Abdullah. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 700.
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts  Emilio Rodríguez and Miguel Angel Vicente
A 10-hour integrated experiment that covers all the inorganic chemistry topics in first-year chemistry and chemical engineering courses.
Rodríguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 486.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents
A Consistent Set of Oxidation Number Rules for Intelligent Computer Tutoring  Dale A. Holder, Benny G. Johnson, and Paul J. Karol
Consistent oxidation number rules derived from the chemical formula alone that are simple enough for introductory chemistry students.
Holder, Dale A.; Johnson, Benny G.; Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Tick Tock, a Vitamin C Clock  Stephen W. Wright
Uses supermarket chemicals to perform a clock reaction; students vary the concentration of reactants and observe the effect on the time required for the reaction to reach its endpoint.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 40A.
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Vitamins |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Redox Redux: Recommendations for Improving Textbook and IUPAC Definitions  Ed Vitz
Defining oxidation / reduction reactions as those in which oxidation states of the reactant(s) change.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 397.
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A Simple Student Experiment for Teaching Surface Electrochemistry: Adsorption of Polyoxometalate on Graphite Electrodes  David Martel, Neso Sojic, and Alexander Kuhn
Experiment that illustrates the electrochemical behavior of a surface-adsorbed redox species through cyclic voltametry.
Martel, David; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 349.
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Surface Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Lead-Acid Battery: Its Voltage in Theory and in Practice  Richard S. Treptow
Lead-acid battery fundamentals, cell voltage and the Nernst equation, and an analysis of actual battery performance.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 334.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
Microscale Determination of Vitamin C by Weight Titrimetry  Gaston A. East and Erica C. Nascimento
Electroanalytical method for the microscale determination of vitamin C using a nontraditional oxidimetric titrant.
East, Gaston A.; Nascimento, Erica C. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 100.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Efficient Composition for Bengal Lights  M. Comet, L. Schreyeck, and H. Fuzellier
Producing bengal lights (colored flames) using different mixtures of colorants to introduce the solid-phase redox theory in inorganic chemistry.
Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Fuzellier, H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 70.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
The Vitamin C Clock Reaction  Stephen W. Wright
Clock reaction using supermarket materials (vitamin C, hydrogen peroxide, tincture of iodine, and starch).
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 41.
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Vitamins |
Carboxylic Acids
Just Breathe: The Oxygen Content of Air   JCE Editorial Staff
Students estimate the percent oxygen (volume) in air using steel wool in a test tube that is inverted in a beaker of water. Oxygen in the trapped air reacts with iron to form rust, and the water level rises inside the test tube; within 30-45 minutes, the majority of oxygen is consumed.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 512A.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Burning to Learn: An Introduction to Flame Retardants   JCE Editorial Staff
This activity demonstrates the effectiveness of flame retardants, substances added to combustible materials to slow down or hinder burning.
JCE Editorial Staff, . J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 328A.
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of Free Lime in Clinker and Cement by Iodometry. An Undergraduate Experiment in Redox Titrimetry  Oi-Wah Lau, Shiu-Fai Luk, Nina L. N. Cheng, and Hoi-Yin Woo
Experiment to determine the free lime in cement and clinker through iodometry.
Lau, Oi-Wah; Luk, Shiu-Fai; Cheng, Nina L. N.; Woo, Hoi-Yin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
A Discovery-Based Experiment Illustrating How Iron Metal Is Used to Remediate Contaminated Groundwater  Barbara A. Balko and Paul G. Tratnyek
Procedure in which students investigate the chemistry of iron-permeable reactive barriers and their application to the remediation of contaminated groundwater.
Balko, Barbara A.; Tratnyek, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1661.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  Edward G. Senkbeil
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  J. C. Jones
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Moisture Analysis in Lotion by Karl Fischer Coulometry. An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  Patricia Ann Mabrouk and Kristine Castriotta
Measuring moisture content in hand and body lotions using Karl Fischer coulometry.
Mabrouk, Patricia Ann; Castriotta, Kristine. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1385.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Joy of Color in Ceramic Glazes with the Help of Redox Chemistry  Allen A. Denio
The chemistry of pottery, ceramic glazes, and the firing process.
Denio, Allen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1298.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Metals
A Laboratory Simulation for Coupled Cycles of Photosynthesis and Respiration  Silke Korn and Michael W. Tausch
Experiment that demonstrates the light-driven reduction of a substrate, energy storage in the reduced product, and the exergonic reoxidation of the product.
Korn, Silke; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1238.
Catalysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Metabolism
Ethanol Metabolism and the Transition from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry  Richard D. Feinman
Introducing alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions in organic chemistry to ease transition to biochemistry.
Feinman, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1215.
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Carbohydrates
Is Every Transparent Liquid Water?  Muhamad Hugerat and Sobhi Basheer
Comparisons of the properties (polarity, electric conductivity, color change due to the presence of an acid-base indicator, and electrolysis) of three transparent and colorless liquids: water, glycerol, hexane, and ethanol.
Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1041.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Conductivity |
Electrophoresis
An Application of the Sugar-Potassium Chlorate Reaction  Addison Ault
John Muir's use of the sugar-potassium chlorate reaction to remotely start a fire each morning.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1020.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Oxidation of Benzoin to Benzil Using Alumina-Supported Active MnO2  R. David Crouch, Michael S. Holden, and Jennifer S. Burger
Oxidation of benzoin to benzil using alumina-supported active MnO2; purification of the products using column chromatography.
Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S.; Burger, Jennifer S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 951.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Microscale Birch Reduction for the Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Mary Ann M. Fuhry, Christie Colosimo, and Kathleen Gianneschi
Conducting a Birch reduction in a Winston sublimator.
Fuhry, Mary Ann M.; Colosimo, Christie; Gianneschi, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 949.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Icarus and Sun, Not Only in Mythology but Also in the Laboratory!  Mrinalini G. Walawalkar and Herbert W. Roesky
Igniting a paper airplane treated with potassium nitrate using light focussed by a magnifying glass.
Walawalkar, Mrinalini G.; Roesky, Herbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 912.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Combustion of White Phosphorus  Richard L. Keiter and Chaminda P. Gamage
The combustion of white phosphorus.
Keiter, Richard L.; Gamage, Chaminda P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 908.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 5: Indirect H2S Remediation  J. G. Ibanez
Experiment to introduce students in general chemistry, environmental chemistry, or electrochemistry to the concept of indirect electrolysis, its application in environmental remediation schemes, the role of a mediator, and the application of redox chemistry concepts.
Ibanez, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 778.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Analysis of an Oxygen Bleach: A Redox Titration Lab  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
Students balance the reaction of H2O2 and MnO4 in two different ways (one assuming that H2O2 is the oxygen source and a second assuming that MnO4 is the oxygen source), determine which of these balanced equations has the correct stoichiometry by titrating a standard H2O2 solution with KMnO4, and use the correct balanced equation to determine the mass percent of H2O2 in a commercially available bleach solution.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 652.
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry
The Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes: Using Data Pooling in the Organic Laboratory to Illustrate Research in Organic Chemistry  James C. Adrian Jr. and Leslie A. Hull
Student groups are assigned the task of oxidizing various substituted alkylbenzenes with potassium permanganate in basic solution; by pooling the results from all groups it is possible to illustrate how a research project in chemistry can be used to answer simple questions - What happens when your individual alkylbenzene is oxidized?
Adrian, James C., Jr.; Hull, Leslie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 529.
Synthesis |
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
The Household Chemistry of Cleaning Pennies  Laurence D. Rosenhein
Although it is well known that solutions of vinegar and table salt are effective in removing tarnish from pennies, chemical explanations of this behavior are not included in sources of this "household chemistry" and erroneous explanations have crept into popular literature on this subject; this article provides some relevant empirical information on the system.
Rosenhein, Laurence D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 513.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Synthesis and Analysis of Copper(I) Iodide. A First-Year Laboratory Project  Lara A. Margolis, Richard W. Schaeffer, and Claude H. Yoder
This project provides a convenient preparation of a compound whose identity will not be obvious to students. The analytical procedures illustrate the fundamentals of gravimetric analysis and some basic chemical and physical characteristics of the elements. The analytical data allow students to find the identity of the product by determining its empirical formula.
Margolis, Lara A.; Schaeffer, Richard W.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 235.
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Indirect Potentiometric Titration of Fe(III) with Ce(IV) by Gran's Method  Maria da Conceição Silva Barreto, Luciana de Lucena Medeiros, and Paulo César de Holanda Furtado
The indirect titration of Fe(III) ion with oxidizing agent is a good example of the application of Gran's method to a redox reaction because the Gran curve doesn't present linearity deviations as other redox systems do.
Barreto, Maria da Conceição Silva; Medeiros, Luciana de Lucena; Furtado, Paulo César de Holanda. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 91.
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
Teaching about Flame Retardants. A Joint Israeli-Dutch Project  Miri Kesner and Wobbe de Vos
Flame retardants make interesting chemistry and moreover, the chemistry is highly relevant from an everyday life point of view. This article reports on a joint Israeli-Dutch project aimed at teaching the production, properties, and applications of some bromine-containing flame retardants, including their environmental aspects, in secondary education.
Kesner, Miri; de Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 41.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Thermite Welding Gets High School Chemistry Class on Track  Anthony L. Feliu
This article documents the application of thermite chemistry to weld train tracks as demonstrated for a high school chemistry class in India. The accompanying text and photographs show the entire process--which employed 13 kg (60 mol) of thermite mixture.
Feliu, Anthony L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 15.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Silver to Black - and Back   JCE Editorial Staff
This activity allows students to remove tarnish from silver using the reaction of tarnish with aluminum.
JCE Editorial Staff, . J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 328A.
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Water: A Powerful Theme for an Interdisciplinary Course  Frederick Dean Tabbutt

Tabbutt, Frederick Dean. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1594.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Improvement of Sugar--Chlorate Rocket Demonstration  Robert Eliason, Eric J. Lee, Darren Wakefield, and Adam Bergren

Eliason, Robert; Lee, Eric J.; Wakefield, Darren; Bergren, Adam. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1581.
Oxidation / Reduction
A Vivid Demonstration of Dependence of Overvoltage on the Physical State of a Metal Deposited on the Electrode  Ali Mardan and Rumana Ajaz

Mardan, Ali; Ajaz, Rumana. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1580.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Standardizing Iodine (about J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1421-1422)  Stephen J. Hawkes

Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1557.
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Microscale Oxidation Puzzle  Michael W. Pelter, Rebecca M. Macudzinski, and Mary Ellen Passarelli
We have adapted oxidation of an alcohol with sodium hypochlorite solution to a "puzzle" approach by using a diol as the substrate for oxidation. The diols under investigation have both a primary and a secondary hydroxyl group. The assignment is to perform the reaction and determine the structure of the product through interpretation of the IR spectrum.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M.; Passarelli, Mary Ellen. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1481.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Combustion Demonstration Using Updated Flame Tornado  Edward G. Senkbeil
This demonstration uses the combustion of different forms of cellulose and an updated version of the "flame tornado" as an ignition source to illustrate the factors affecting the combustion process. The objectives of the experiment are to illustrate the factors affecting the rate of a combustion reaction and to demonstrate the factors affecting the production of a flame by using the flame tornado.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Assigning and Using Oxidation Numbers in Biochemistry Lecture Courses  Christopher J. Halkides
A simple means of calculating the oxidation number of carbon atoms in metabolites is presented. Oxidation numbers are used to show why some reactions but not others require the presence of redox cosubstrates or coenzymes. Oxidation numbers are also used to show why some compounds but not others may be the products of microbial fermentations.
Halkides, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1428.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment Illustrating Redox Potentials, Equilibrium Constants, and Substitution Reactions in Coordination Chemistry  Henrique E. Toma, Koiti Araki, and Sergio Dovidauskas
A cyclic voltammetry experiment focusing on the [RuIII(EDTA)(H2O)]- complex and its equilibrium reaction with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in aqueous solution, yielding the [RuIII(EDTA)(kS-DMSO)]- complex. The results illustrate the kinetic lability of the ruthenium(III)-EDTA complexes and the role of backbonding stabilization in ruthenium(II)-DMSO complexes.
Toma, Henrique E.; Araki, Koiti; Dovidauskas, Sergio. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1351.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Surface Oxidation Kinetics: A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Experiment  Jordan C. Poler
A physical chemistry laboratory experiment in which students use the scanning tunneling microscope to study the oxidation of graphite by nitric oxide. The lab is designed to simulate a research experience. Each student is responsible for one part of the experiment and the whole class uses everyone's data for their analysis.
Poler, Jordan C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1198.
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Undergraduate Research
Theoretical Concepts and Applications of a Rotating Disk Electrode  J. Nikolic, E. Expósito, J. Iniesta, J. González-Garcia, and V. Montiel
This paper verifies the theoretical concepts and shows one application of a rotating disk electrode (RDE). This is a powerful instrument employed in electrochemistry, capable of controlling the transport regime of electroactive species toward the electrode.
Nikolic, J.; Expósito, Eduardo; Iniesta, Jesús; González-Garcia, José; Montiel, Vicente. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1191.
Electrochemistry |
Transport Properties |
Oxidation / Reduction
Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Chromic Acid Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols  Charles E. Harding, Christopher W. Mitchell, and Jozsef Devenyi
The kinetic isotope effect is an invaluable tool in studying certain organic reaction mechanisms. Two activities involving the technique that are suitable for introductory organic laboratory students are described. A simple competition experiment utilizing the benzhydrol?benzhydrol-d1 system and chromic acid oxidation is used to demonstrate qualitatively that there is a kinetic isotope effect involved in this process.
Harding, Charles E.; Mitchell, Christopher W.; Devenyi, Jozsef. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1042.
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  
Points out that solid NaHSO3 does not exist.
Tudela, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 830.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates
The Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Esters: Three Related Investigative Experiments  Chriss E. McDonald

McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 750.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Thermodynamics and Kinetics of "HeaterMeals": An Exercise in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry  William B. Jensen
The author traces his steps in unraveling the chemistry behind an innovative new commercial product called HeaterMeals, which makes use of an "inorganic oven" composed of magnesium metal, iron metal, and salt water as a way of heating prepackaged meals. The thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural roles played by each component are analyzed and correlated with various topics taught in a typical introductory inorganic course.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and R. M. Pike
This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 625.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility
Abnormal Decomposition Potentials Reconsidered--A Corrected Treatment  Cynthia G. Zoski and Allen J. Bard
Why the concept of "abnormal decomposition potential" is imprecise and of little relevance in modern electrochemistry; complete current- potential curves can be calculated and they show why such decomposition potentials are smaller than standard potentials.
Zoski, Cynthia G.; Bard, Allen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 526.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Kinetics of Reduction of Toluidine Blue with Sulfite--Kinetic Salt Effect in Elucidation of Mechanism  S. B. Jonnalagadda and N. R. Gollapalli
The reaction between toluidine blue (TB+) and the sulfite ion is an ideal kinetic experiment in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory, to show the dependence of the reaction rate on the concentrations of reactants and ionic strength. The experiments with varying ionic strength demonstrate how kinetic salt effect can be used to predict the nature of charged species involved in the rate-limiting step.
Jonnalagadda, S. B.; Gollapalli, N. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 506.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Entertaining Chemistry--Two Colorful Reactions  John F. Elsworth
Solutions of acid and iodine, with and without starch, are mixed with alkaline solutions containing thiosulfate and appropriate salts to produce desirable color effects.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 484.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Catalytic Oxidation of Ammonia: A Sparkling Experiment  Vladimir A. Volkovich and Trevor R. Griffiths
A lecture demonstration experiment on the catalytic oxidation of ammonia using chromium(III) oxide as a catalyst is described.
Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 177.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Examination of Electron Transfer Self-Exchange Rates Using NMR Line-Broadening Techniques: An Advanced Physical Inorganic Laboratory Experiment  Donald L. Jameson and Rajan Anand
This article describes the determination of the decamethylferrocene(Fc*)/decamethylferrocenium (Fc*+) electron transfer self-exchange rate by NMR line-broadening techniques. NMR spectra of Fc*, Fc*+, and several mixtures yield frequency and peak-width data that are used to solve for the self-exchange rate constant.
Jameson, Donald L.; Anand, Rajan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 88.
Kinetics |
Organometallics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy
A Simple and Efficient Ozone Generator  Debra J. Sponholtz, Michael A. Walters, Jimmy Tung, and Joseph J. BelBruno
We report on the construction of an inexpensive, efficient, and compact ozonolysis apparatus, suitable for use in oxidation chemistry, which is a convenient alternative to the more expensive generators currently on the market. The details, operating parameters, and application of the ozone generator to the oxidation of methylallyl oxazolidione are also presented.
Sponholtz, Debra J.; Walters, Michael A.; Tung, Jimmy; BelBruno, Joseph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1712.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactive Intermediates |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electrochemical Regeneration of a Spent Oxidizing Solution: Example of a Clean Chemical Process  M. Ingles, P. Bonete , E. ExpÓsito, V. GarcÍa-GarcÍa, J. González-Garcia, J. Iniesta, and V. Montiel
Obtaining benzaldehyde by oxidation of benzyl alcohol using a solution of potassium dichromate in sulfuric acid. Analysis by gas chromatography is used to monitor the reaction. After work-up, the second stage, the electrochemical regeneration of the chromium(VI) solution, using a filter press type reactor, is accomplished.
Ingles, Marina; Bonete, Pedro; ExpÓsito, Eduardo; García-García, Vicente; González-Garcia, José; Iniesta, Jesús; Montiel, Vicente. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1423.
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations: An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry  Cesar R. Silva, Jose A. Simoni, Carol H. Collins, and Pedro L. O. Volpe
Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid.
Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Lemon Cells Revisited  Radhakrishnamurty, P.
Analysis of the reactions and nature of the electrodes in the lemon cell.
Radhakrishnamurty, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1190.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry 2. Selectivity in Alcohol Oxidation: An Exercise in 1H NMR Spectroscopy for Sophomore Organic Laboratories  Steven R. Shadwick and Ram S. Mohan
A simple oxidation experiment that presents the student with a puzzle and is a good exercise in 1H NMR spectroscopy. The experiment, which illustrates the important concept of selectivity in organic synthesis, involves selective oxidation of a mixture of 1-heptanol and 2-heptanol using commercial swimming pool chlorine.
Shadwick, Steven R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1121.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
In Search of a Deep Understanding of Cu2+/0 and Zn2+/0 E° Values  Steven H. Strauss
This paper presents an example of an interesting way to introduce periodic trends in undergraduate inorganic chemistry courses. The student, guided by the instructor, "investigates" the significantly different M2+/0 E values for two adjacent period 4 elements, copper and zinc, as though the investigation were a research project.
Strauss, Steven H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1095.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Spectrophotometric Method for Quantitative Determination of Bromine Using Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine  Joan Han, Troy Story, and Grace Han
A simple spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of bromine is described.
Han, Joan; Story, Troy; Han, Grace. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 976.
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Facile Oxidation of Alcohols Using Pyridinium Chlorochromate/Silica Gel  Frederick A. Luzzio, Richard W. Fitch, William J. Moore, and Kelli J. Mudd
An efficient and convenient adaptation of the pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) oxidation for an organic chemistry student exercise is based on the employment of reagent-grade silica gel, which simplifies workup and purification of the product.
Luzzio, Frederick A.; Fitch, Richard W.; Moore, William J.; Mudd, Kelli J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 974.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Natural Products |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Kinetics of Methylene Blue Reduction by Ascorbic Acid  Sarah Mowry and Paul J. Ogren
This paper compares spectrophotometric studies of MB+ reduction by ascorbic acid at low pH with previous conclusions based upon visual determinations of color loss.
Mowry, Sarah; Ogren, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 970.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Electropolymerized Conducting Polymers as Glucose Sensors  Omowunmi A. Sadik, Sharin Brenda, Patrick Joasil, and John Lord
This paper presents a laboratory-based experiment for possible inclusion in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory curriculum. The objectives are to perform cyclic voltammetry on electropolymerized conducting polymers, to observe the effects of various parameters on the voltammogram obtained, and to perform quantitative analysis of glucose.
Sadik, Omowunmi A.; Brenda, Sharin; Joasil, Patrick; Lord, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 967.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Enzymes |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates
Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide by Activated Carbon: A Physical Chemistry Experiment  E. Raymundo-Piñero, Diego Cazorla-Amorós, and E. Morallón
The experiment described in this paper is concerned with the use of activated carbon as a catalyst for oxidation of SO2 to sulfuric acid. The experiment is a good example of heterogeneous catalysis and environmental clean-up.
Raymundo-Piero, E.; Cazorla-Amors, Diego; Moralln, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 958.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Further Demonstration of Sulfite-Induced Redox Cycling of Metal Ions Initiated by Shaking  Horacio D. Moya, Eduardo Almeida Neves, and Nina Coichev
Details of a fascinating laboratory demonstration of the sulfite-induced redox cycling of Ni(II)/Ni(III), which is initiated by shaking the solution in the presence of air, are reported. The balance between the sulfite and oxygen concentration controls the direction of the overall reaction.
Moya, Horacio D.; Neves, Eduardo Almeida; Coichev, Nina. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 930.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Catalysis
An Analysis of College Chemistry Textbooks As Sources of Misconceptions and Errors in Electrochemistry  Michael J. Sanger and Thomas J. Greenbowe
The oxidation-reduction and electrochemistry chapters of 10 introductory college chemistry textbooks were reviewed for misleading or erroneous statements, using a list of student misconceptions. As a result of this analysis, we provide suggestions for chemistry instructors and textbook authors.
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 853.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Learning Theories
The Methane Balloon  Walter H. Corkern and Elvin Hughes Jr.
The objectives are (i) to describe a novel method of inflating a balloon with methane, (ii) to show that methane is lighter than air, and (iii) to demonstrate the flammability of methane.
Corkern, Walter H.; Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 794.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Redox Buffer Strength  Robert de Levie
The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication the redox buffer strength is defined by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 574.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Enzymes
A Simple, Safe Way To Prepare Halogens and Study Their Visual Properties at a Technical Secondary School  Domingo A. Liprandi, Orlando R. Reinheimer, José F. Paredes, and Pablo C. L'Argentière
In this paper we propose an easy-to-build apparatus to obtain chlorine, bromine, and iodine. The experiment was developed considering not only theoretical and safety conditions but simplicity and clarity as well.
Liprandi, Domingo A.; Reinheimer, Orlando R.; Paredes, José F.; L'Argentière, Pablo C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 532.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation Numbers  Gion Calzaferri
Assigning oxidation numbers to organic compounds and Jrgensen's axioms.
Calzaferri, Gion. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 362.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State
Is It Real Gold?  Harold H. Harris
The oxidation-reduction couples involved in the corrosion of gold alloys and the dissolution of "noble" metals are related to an inquiry to the newspaper columnist, Ann Landers. the origin of several contemporary phrases (touch stone, acid test, Hallmark) are found in the chemistry of gold.
Harris, Harold H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 198.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Student Construction of a Gel-Filled Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode for Use in a Potentiometric Titration  James M. Thomas
Instructions for the preparation of a Ag/AgCl "reference"-type electrode that uses a gel-type matrix are given. In addition, construction steps are provided for a very sturdy Pt-nichrome "inert" electrode, which can be used many times. Together, these two electrodes, along with a multivoltmeter, have been used successfully to determine the percent of iron in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 and in Fe2O2 unknowns purchased commercially.
Thomas, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 97.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Nernst Equation: Determination of Equilibrium Constants for Complex Ions of Silver  Martin L. Thompson and Laura J. Kateley
The experiment requires a voltmeter capable of recording millivolts (or a good pH meter) and inexpensive chemicals. It allows students to check the validity of the Nernst equation and compare their experimental Kform values to reported ones.
Thompson, Martin L.; Kateley, Laura J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 95.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Microscale Thermite Reactions  Francisco J. Arnáiz, Rafael Aguado, and Susana Arnáiz
The reaction of aluminum with the oxides of a variety of elements illustrates exothermic reactions that require a high activation energy. It is also an appropriate experiment with regard to the discussion of Ellingham diagrams. When drama is not the main objective, conducting these reactions at microscale level offers numerous advantages over the usual scale.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnáiz, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1630.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Inhibition of Sulfite Oxidation by Phenols: Screening Antioxidant Behavior with a Clark Oxygen Sensor  László Sipos
A simple laboratory exercise to introduce the measurement of dissolved oxygen with a Clark oxygen sensor for a sophomore-level course. The experiment demonstrates the effect of antioxidants and differentiates between different kinds of phenols according to their effectiveness.
Sipos, László. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1603.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Phenols |
Instrumental Methods
Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration  Sally Solomon, Maria Oliver-Hoyo, and Chinhyu Hur
A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described.
Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1581.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates |
Toxicology
Potential Functions in Chemical Thermodynamics  Roger Araujo
The first and second laws of thermodynamics are stated in equation form. The equation containing the combined laws is used to identify potential functions appropriate to various sets of constraints. An ion-exchange reaction and a redox reaction in a melt are considered as illustrations of the importance of using the potential function appropriate to the constraints.
Araujo, Roger. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1490.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Ion Exchange
Lead Globules  Francisco J. Arnáiz and Maria R. Pedrosa
Reaction of plumbate solutions with aluminum. A variety of lead films can be formed depending on the conditions. The method we describe permits obtaining a large lead globule in less than 1 minute.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Pedrosa, Maria R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1431.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood  John Fredericks
An inexpensive transparent fume hood can be constructed from a clear-plastic two-liter soft drink bottle that is cut just above the base. A length of vacuum tubing is secured to the opening of the bottle using black electrical tape. The tubing is then connected to a water aspirator.
Fredericks, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1299.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Let's Dot Our I's and Cross Our T's  Leenson, Ilya A.

Leenson, Ilya A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1088.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 4: Color Removal of Simulated Wastewater by Electrocoagulation-Electroflotation  Jorge G. Ibanez, M. M. Singh, and Z. Szafran
Due to the large production of aqueous waste streams from textile mills and dye production plants, several processes have been under intense study. Electrochemical processes offer some distinctive advantages, including effects due to: 1) the production of electrolysis gases, and 2) the production of polyvalent cations from the oxidation of corrodible anodes (like Fe and Al).
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1040.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab
Balancing Organic Reactions  Woolf, A.A.
Assigning oxidation numbers to atoms that change in the redox process.
Woolf, A.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Clemmensen Reduction  Palacios, Juan C.; Cintas, Pedro
Clemmensen reduction does not involve the formation of alcohols.
Palacios, Juan C.; Cintas, Pedro J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  
Clemmensen reduction does not involve the formation of alcohols.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Oxidation / Reduction
Wilder Bancroft's Study of Oxidant-Reductant Cells  John T. Stock
Wilder Dwight Bancroft (1867 -1953), a Harvard graduate, entered Ostwald's Leipzig laboratory in 1890. Bancroft made a systematic study of potentiometric cells in which one half contained an oxidant solution, the other half a reductant solution.
Stock, John T. . J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 844.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom!  Todd P. Silverstein and Yi Zhang
Our demonstration uses no sulfuric acid, yields relatively little smoke, and produces an exciting and unpredictable growing column of black carbon.
Silverstein, Todd P.; Zhang, Yi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 748.
Carbohydrates |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Slide Projector Corrosion Cell  Silvia Tejada, Estela Guevara, and Esperanza Olivares
The process of corrosion can be demonstrated in a slide projector, since the cell is in the shape of a slide, or on the stage of an overhead projector by setting up a simple galvanic cell. Corrosion occurs as the result of a galvanic cell reaction, in which the corroding metal acts as the anode. Several simple demonstrations relating to corrosion are described here.
Tejada, Silvia; Guevara, Estela; Olivares, Esperanza. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Chemical Domino Demonstration  M. Dale Alexander
The Chemical Domino Demonstration is both educational and entertaining. It provides an excellent means for a review of chemical concepts at the conclusion of a general chemistry course. This demonstration consists of a number of different chemical reactions occurring in sequence in a Rube Goldberg-type apparatus.
M. Dale Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 490.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 484.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Dyes / Pigments
Analysis of Iron in Ferritin, the Iron-Storage Protein: A General Chemistry Experiment  Maureen J. Donlin, Regina F. Frey, Christopher Putnam, Jody Proctor, and James K. Bashkin
The chemical properties of the iron-storage protein ferritin will be examined in this experiment by quantitating the average amount of iron in a ferritin sample, and observing the kinetics of iron release from the protein core under reducing conditions. Students learn and apply the principles of absorption spectroscopy, redox reactions, and metal chelation to study ferritin.
Maureen J. Donlin, Regina F. Frey, Christopher Putnam, Jody Proctor, and James K. Bashkin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides
Using Cyclic Voltammetry and Molecular Modeling To Determine Substituent Effects in the One-Electron Reduction of Benzoquinones  Janell E. Heffner, Jeffrey C. Raber, Owen A. Moe Jr., and Carl T. Wigal
An electrochemical experiment that correlates the electronic effects of substituents on the reduction potential of benzoquinones. The experiment combines cyclic voltammetry (CV), molecular modeling, and the Hammett equation and can be used in either organic, physical, or instrumental laboratory courses.
Heffner, Janell E.; Raber, Jeffrey C.; Moe, Owen A., Jr.; Wigal, Carl T. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 365.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Uncommon Oxidation Numbers of Nonmetals  Wayne P. Anderson
Common oxidation numbers of representative elements can be predicted from valence electron box diagrams. Exception to these values generally result from the presence of an odd number of electrons, homonuclear bonds, or attached atoms having electronegativity values that bracket that of the atom in question.
Anderson, Wayne P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 187.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
"Mud" +" Blood" - A Very Colorful Demonstration  Gordon F. Hambly
The preparation of "blood" and "mud" solutions is given to show that when combined the mixture solutions goes from a mud-color to colorless.
Hambly, Gordon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 56.
Oxidation / Reduction
Kinetics of p-Nitrophenol Degradation by Pseudomonas sp.: An Experiment Illustrating Bioremediation  Michelle H. Duong, Samuel L. Penrod, and Stanley B. Grant
This paper describes a simple experiment illustrating bioremediation which is well suited for undergraduate classes in environmental chemistry, microbiology, or engineering.
Duong, Michelle H.; Penrod, Samuel L.; Grant, Stanley B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1451.
Biotechnology |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 2: Microscale Indirect Electrolytic Destruction of Organic Wastes  Jorge G. Ibanez, M. M. Singh, R. M. Pike, and Z. Szafran
The objective of this experiment is to destroy, at the microscale level, a sample of surrogate organic waste by generating a powerful oxidizer at the anode of an electrochemical cell. This generated species oxidizes the waste to harmless products. The oxidizer can then be regenerated and recycled.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh M. M.; Pike, R. M.; Szafran, Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1449.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Acid Rain Demonstration: The Formation of Nitrogen Oxides as a By-Product of High-Temperature Flames in Connection with Internal Combustion Engines  Jerry A. Driscoll
This demonstration illustrates the formation of nitrogen oxides resulting from a high temperature flame.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1424.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Using Mathematica and Maple To Obtain Chemical Equations  William R. Smith and Ronald W. Missen
A straightforward stepwise procedure is described for each of Mathematica and Maple, applicable to systems of any complexity. The procedures are illustrated by two examples, one for a "difficult" redox system, and the other for a multi-equation inorganic system.
Smith, William R.; Missen, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1369.
Stoichiometry |
Learning Theories |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Redox Balancing without Puzzling  Marten J. ten Hoor
Once it has been established by experiment that the given reactants can indeed be converted into the given products, chemistry has done its job. Balancing the equation of the reaction is a matter of mathematics only.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1367.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letter to the Editor about Letter to the Editor "Redox Challenges" from David M. Hart and Response from Roland Stout (J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226-7)  Andrzej Sobkowiak
Examples of a variety of redox equations.
Sobkowiak, Andrzej. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1256.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
UV-Visible Spectrooelectrochemistry of the Reduction Products of Anthraquinone in Dimethylformamide Solutions: An Advanced Undergraduate Experiment  Ali Babaei, Paul A. Connor, A. James McQuillan, and Siva Umapathy
This advanced undergraduate experiment shows how cyclic voltammetry, digital simulations of cyclic voltammograms, and UV-visible spectroelectrochemistry may be used to examine the reduction behaviour of AQ in dimethylformamide (DMF), both in the absence and presence of benzoic acid.
Babaei, Ali; Connor, Paul A.; McQuillan, A. James; Umapathy, Siva. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1200.
Electrochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
pH Dependent Redox Couple: An Illustration of the Nernst Equation  Mary M. Walczak, Deborah A. Dryer, Dana D. Jacobson, Michele G. Foss, and Nolan T. Flynn
An experiment utilizing the hydroquinone/quinone redox was developed which follows the potentials of the anodic and cathodic cyclic voltammetric waves as a function of solution pH.
Walczak, Mary M. ; Dryer, Deborah A.; Jacobson, Dana D.; Foss, Michele G.; Flynn, Nolan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1195.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
pH
Constructing Chemical Concepts through a Study of Metals and Metal Ions: Guided Inquiry Experiments for General Chemistry  Ram S. Lamba, Shiva Sharma, and Baird W. Lloyd
A set of inquiry-based experiments designed to help students develop an understanding of basic chemical concepts within the framework of studying the properties and reactivity of metals and metal ions.
Lamba, Ram S.; Sharma, Shiva; Lloyd, Baird W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1095.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
The Sodium Rainbow  Miroslav Proksa
A new approach to the reaction of sodium with water to produce a "rainbow" of colors.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 942.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Free Radical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Examples from Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater from the Chemistry in Airborne Water Droplets  N. Colin Baird
A common free radical reaction in aqueous solution is electron transfer, especially to the hydroxyl radical and to ozone. Hydrogen peroxide and free radicals related to it act as weak acids, so both their neutral and deprotonated forms must be considered in reactions. Free radical reactions also play an important role in the chemistry of water droplets suspended in air in clouds and fogs.
Baird, N. Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 817.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactive Intermediates |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Double Redox Reactions
The authors reply:
  Claudio Giomini, Giancarlo Marrosu, and Mario E. Cardinali
Balancing redox equations.
Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo; Cardinali, Mario E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 744.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Double Redox Reactions  Zoltán Tóth
Balancing redox equations.
Tóth, Zoltán. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 744.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Complexes and the Electron-Transfer Reactions of Metalloproteins  Bill Durham and Frank Millett
The basic reactions involved in the photochemical schemes and the covalent binding of ruthenium complexes to metalloproteins are described. Several examples involving cytochrome c and cytochrome b5 are used to illustrate the methodology.
Durham, Bill; Millett, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 636.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Organometallics
Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate(III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Flow Injection Kinetic Experiment  Joanquim A. Nobrega and Fabio R. P. Rocha
This work describes the use of a flow diagram to perform a kinetic experiment: the effect of ionic strength on the rate of reduction of hexacyanoferrate(III) by ascorbic acid.
Nobrega, Joaquim A.; Rocha, Fabio R.P. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 560.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
An Analysis of the Algebraic Method for Balancing Chemical Reactions  John A. Olson
A new aspect of this treatment is the mathematical formulation of a third condition involving a balance between oxidation and reduction. The treatment begins with the three general conditions that a balanced chemical reaction must satisfy. These conditions are then expressed in mathematical form that enables the stoichiometric coefficients to be determined.
Olson, John A. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 538.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Valency  Peter G. Nelson
The concept of valency is refined and developed. Three types of valency are distinguished : primary or classical, coordinate, and nonclassical. The first relates to simple compounds and to the components of multiple ones, the second to coordination compounds, and the third to transition-metal carbonyls and similar species. Each type is defined, evaluated, and applied to the prediction of the atomic composition of compounds.
Nelson, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 465.
Valence Bond Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Microburger Biochemistry: Extraction and Spectral Characterization of Myoglyobin from Hamburger  Sheri A. Bylkas and Laura A. Andersson
The protocol combines protein extraction, oxidation and reduction, and simple spectroscopic analysis, as well as gel filtration chromatography and generation/analysis of spectral scans. Mammalian myoglobin (Mb) is easily extracted from steak, to illustrate and address why fresh meat is red and aged meat is brown; the protein has unique spectral properties that are diagnostic for characterization of sample identity.
Bylkas, Sheri A.; Andersson, Laura A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Proteins / Peptides |
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Methylene Blue - Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics  T. Snehalatha, K. C. Rajanna, P. K. Saiprakash
Clock reaction experiments with methylene blue (MB) and L-ascorbic acid (H2 A) were designed in aqueous sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media with a view to demonstrate and explain the concepts in chemical kinetics such as order of the reaction, effect of ionic strength, dielectric constant and temperature. On the basis of the obtained results, a plausible mechanism for the reduction of MB by H2 A has been proposed.
Snehalatha, T.; Rajanna, K. C.; Saiprakash, P. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 228.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reduction of Carboxylic Acids with Sodium Borohydride and an Electrophile  Jan William Simek, Thad Tuck, and Kelly Courter Bush
Integration of new reduction conditions into a procedure applicable to the first-year organic chemistry laboratory, where reduction of the carboxylic acid group has remained an obstacle, notwithstanding the use of borane or LiAlH4 (2) on the microscale. The NaBH4 method with either electrophile can be modified to any scale; in our hands, the use of I2 as the electrophile performed better at the semimicro scale than the H2SO4 method.
Simek, Jan William; Tuck, Thad; Bush, Kelly Courter . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 107.
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Understanding Oxidation - Reduction in Organic Chemistry  Jean-Pierre Anselme
Explanation of oxidation and reduction as applied to organic chemistry.
Anselme, Jean-Pierre. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 69.
Oxidation / Reduction
Redox Rap  Laura Kolonie
Lyrics to a redox rap song.
Kolonie, Laura. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 22.
Oxidation / Reduction
Redox Challenges (the author replies)  Stout, Roland
Algebraic solution to balancing a redox equation.
Stout, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A227.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Redox Challenges (2)  Zaugg, Noel S.
Algebraic solution to balancing a redox equation.
Zaugg, Noel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Redox Challenges (1)  Hart, David M.
Algebraic solution to balancing a redox equation.
Hart, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Ems-Wilson, Janice
The progress of two microscale reactions, the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride and the photochemical formation of benzopinacol, was monitored, qualitatively, using FT-IR.
Ems-Wilson, Janice J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A171.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
IR Spectroscopy
Concept Maps in Chemistry Education  Alberto Regis, Pier Giorgio Albertazzi, Ezio Roletto
This article presents and illustrates a proposed application of concept maps in chemistry teaching in high schools. Three examples of the use of concept maps in chemistry teaching are reported and discussed with reference to: atomic structure, oxidation-reduction and thermodynamics.
Regis, Alberto; Albertazzi, Pier Giorgio; Roletto, Ezio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1084.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation: Part 2. The Yellowing of Paper and Conservation Bleaching  Henry A. Carter
This study identifies the nature of the chromophores found in cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The photooxidation of lignin-containing papers and the mechanism for photoyellowing are discussed. This is followed by a description of the basic principles of conservation bleaching which involves chemically treating papers in order to remove unwanted discoloration or stains.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1068.
Applications of Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
A Student-Designed Potentiometric Titration: Quantitative Determination of Iron(II) by Caro's Acid Titration  Joyce R. Powell, Sheryl A. Tucker, William E. Acree Jr., Jennifer A. Sees, Lindsey H. Hall
A laboratory experiment involving the feasibility of using Caro's acid, H2SO5, as a titrant in the potentiometric determination of iron(II) is presented.
Powell, Joyce R.; Tucker, Sheryl A.; Acree Jr., William E.; Sees, Jennifer A.; Hall, Lindsey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 984.
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
Understanding the Difference between Inner- and Outer-Sphere Mechanisms: An Electrochemical Experiment  Luz María Torres, Adrián F. Gil, Laura Galicia, and Ignacio González
The concepts of inner- and outer-sphere mechanisms for complex charge transfer reactions in homogeneous phase have been applied to heterogeneous charge transfer reactions.
Torres, Luz María; Gil, Adrián F.; Galicia, Laura; González, Ignacio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 808.
Solutions / Solvents |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Transport Properties |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
A Multistep Equilibria-Redox-Complexation Demonstration to Illustrate Le Châtelier's Principle  Tomás G. Berger and Edward K. Mellon
This brief article describes a demonstration that has been used to discuss Le Chtelier's principle, redox chemistry, equilibria versus steady state situations, and solubility of species.
Berger, Tomás G.; Mellon, Edward K. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 783.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
The Iodide-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide: A Simple Computer-Interfaced Kinetics Experiment for General Chemistry  John C. Hansen
188. The reaction studied is the iodide-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The rate of oxygen production is measured as a function of time using a computer-interfaced pressure transducer.
Hansen, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 728.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Constant-Current Coulometric Titration of Hydrochloric Acid  James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul
In this experiment we have combined the titration of a strong acid with a strong base and the electrolysis of water into one complete laboratory experience.
James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 679.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Improved End Point Detection in the Redox Titration of Vitamin C in Green Peppers  S. Todd Deal and Sandi R. Pope
We have used E. R. Johnson's "infamous pepper lab" (titrimetric determination of vitamin C content in raw and cooked green peppers) in our introductory biochemistry course for years with varying success. Our solution to the problem discussed in this article has proven to be remarkably simple.
Deal, S. Todd; Pope, Sandi R. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 547.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Food Science
Sodium Chloride Revisited  Robert V. Stick and Mauro Mocerino
This "Tested Demonstration" describes the preparation of sodium chloride from its elements, sodium and chlorine. Along the way, tests for chlorine, iodine, and the chloride ion are included.
Stick, Robert V.; Mocerino, Mauro. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 539.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
On Balancing "Redox Challenges"  Oliver G. Ludwig
This paper offers a systematic procedure for handling such equations using nonconventional oxidation numbers and avoiding a lot of mathematics.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 507.
Oxidation / Reduction
Curing of Unsaturated Polyester: Network Formation  R. F. Toorkey, K. C. Rajanna, and P. K. Sai Prakash
Unsaturated polyester resins in styrene as comonomer solvent gels to a thermoset stageby network formation due to free radicals produced by the redox reaction between cobalt octoate (promoter) and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) as initiator. The technique of hand lay-up for producing glass reinforced fiber (GRF) is described.
Toorkey, R. F.; Rajanna, K. C.; Prakash, P. K. Sai. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 372.
Polymerization |
Oxidation / Reduction
Bacterial Toxicity Assessment Using Resazurin Reduction Kinetics: An Undergraduate Toxicity Experiment for the Chemistry-Biology Major  S. Helliwell and T. J. Harden
An undergraduate toxicity experiment is described using the redox indicator resazurin as an indicator of dehydrogenase activity. Two types of bacteria are utilized, the Gram positive Streptococcus cremoris and a Gram negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, to demonstrate the potentially different toxicological responses to the same chemical.
Helliwell, S.; Harden, T. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 368.
Toxicology |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
Work Done by a Chemical Reaction  Henry Brouwer
The use of the "hot dog clock" has been the focus of discussions in a number of areas of electrochemistry. Included in these have been oxidation-reduction potentials, battery construction, salt bridges, electrolytes, and the concentration of ions in certain foods.
Brouwer, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 354.
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
MOLSYM: A Program on Molecular Symmetry and Group Theory  Luis Vázquez-Vidal
184. The experiment makes use of simple analytical probes interfaced to a PC through a Labworks (TM) interface unit, and associated software. The purpose of the exercise is to focus on factors involved in generating a signal and converting it to a meaningful analytical result.
Vazquez-Vidal, Luis. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 318.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Mechanism of NaBH4 Addition to Aldehydes: A Labeling Experiment  Rolland K. Robinson and Karl De Jesus
In order to determine the sources of hydrogens in NaBH4 reductions of aldehydes, a series of reductions were carried out using differentially deuterated reagents and solvents.
Robinson, Rolland K.; De Jesus, Karl. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 264.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Fundamental Issues of Thermodynamics Illuminated by Conspicuous Inorganic Chemistry: Oxidation of [Co(H2O)6]2+ to [Co(H2O)6]3+ by Hydrogen Peroxide: A Nonspontaneous Redox Reaction Made Feasible by Thermodynamic Coupling  Susan Cline Schäffer and Claus E. Schäffer
The thermodynamic properties of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent do not allow it to oxidize [Co(OH2)6]2+ to [Co(OH2)6]3+. However, if [Co(OH2)6]3+ is formed in two steps, hydrogen peroxide is able to do it.
Schäffer, Susan Cline; Schäffer, Claus E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 180.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Commercial Device Involving the Breathalyzer Test Reaction  Kathleen J. Dombrink
The breathalyzer test, formerly used by law-enforcement agencies to determine the percentage blood alcohol in suspected DUI cases, is still used in the device FINAL CALL, which is available commercially. The reaction involves the reduction of chromuim(VI) in the orange dichromate ion, Cr2O72- to the green chromium(III) ion, Cr3+ by ethyl alcohol.
Dombrink, Kathleen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 135.
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Phase Transfer Catalysis Applied to Oxidation  Claude Amsterdamsky
Benzhydrol and cycloheptanol have been oxidized to ketones using commercial bleach as oxidizer and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate as a phase transfer catalyst.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 92.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Catalysis
Monitoring Oxidation of Bromocresol Green with a Diode Laser: A General Chemistry IBM Personal Science Laboratory (PSL) Experiment  Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick
Procedure for monitoring the oxidation of bromocresol green using a diode laser and a radiometric probe; includes data and analysis.
Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A118.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Lasers
Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Indane-1-ones: Monitoring of the Reaction by VPC and IR Spectroscopy  Elie Stephan
Procedure for the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of indane-1-ones.
Stephan, Elie. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1142.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Redox Challenges: Good Times for Puzzle Fanatics  Roland Stout
Three difficult to balance redox equations.
Stout, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1125.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Fe(s) + Cu(II)(aq) ----> Fe(II)(aq) + Cu(s): Fifteen Centuries of Search  Vladimir Karpenko
Historical development of understanding of the title reaction, particularly erroneous alchemical beliefs.
Karpenko, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1095.
Metals |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Double Disproportionations   M.E. Cardinali, C. Giomini, Ciancarlo Marrosu
Method for balancing a difficult redox reaction.
Cardinali, Mario E.; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 716.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Making Sparklers: An Introductory Laboratory Experiment   Allen Keeney, Christina Walters, and Richard D. Cornelius
Method for producing sparklers to illustrate redox reactions.
Keeney, Allen; Walters, Christina; Cornelius, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 652.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Metals
Resistance Measurement as a Tool for Corrosion Studies  Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R.
Procedure for determining the rate of corrosion by measuring changes in the resistance of a thin wire or strip of metal; sample data and analysis included.
Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum: Student Experiments  Muller, Bodo
Investigation of the effect different chelating agents have on inhibiting the corrosion of aluminum flakes in paint (metallic basecoats).
Muller, Bodo J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 350.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Industrial Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Baker's Yeast Reduction of alpha-Diketones: A Four-Hour Experiment for Undergraduate Students  Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri
Procedure for quickly and efficiently reducing alpha-diketones using bakers' yeast.
Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 277.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A Convenient Luminol Demonstration  Schechinger, Linda; Waldman, Amy Sue
Simple, inexpensive apparatus for demonstrating the oxidation of luminol.
Schechinger, Linda; Waldman, Amy Sue J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 243.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
Solid-State Redox Chemistry: Preparation of 1,4-Naphthoquinone, Hydroquinone, and the Corresponding Mixed Quinhydrone in the Solid State  Morey, Jeroni; Frontera, Antoni
Procedure for synthesizing a mixed quinhydrone using solid-state methods.
Morey, Jeroni; Frontera, Antoni J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 63.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Solid State Chemistry
A More Affordable Undergraduate Experiment on the Reduction of Acetophenone by Yeast  Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha
Preparation of Mosher's esters through the reduction of acetophenone with baker's yeast.
Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A62.
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Esters |
Synthesis
A Simple and Safe Catalytic Hydrogenation of 4-Vinylbenzoic Acid  De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G.
An alternative procedure to catalytic hydrogenation is catalytic transfer hydrogenation. In this technique, the reduction of an organic compound is achieved with the aid of a donor substance in the presence of a catalyst.
De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 992.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
Enhanced Latimer Potential Diagrams Via Spreadsheets  Freiser, Henry
165. Bits and pieces, 52. Using computer spreadsheets to simplify the analysis of Latimer potential diagrams.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 786.
Oxidation State |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Fascinating Demonstration of Sulfite Induced Redox Cycling of Metal Ions Initiated by Shaking  Coichev, Nina; van Eldik, Rudi
A complete redox cycle with the net oxidation of sulfite and reduction of oxygen.
Coichev, Nina; van Eldik, Rudi J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 767.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Vanadium Ions as Visible Electron Carriers in a Redox System  Bare, William D.; Resto, Wilfredo
Demonstration using a column to display the four, differently colored, oxidation states of vanadium simultaneously.
Bare, William D.; Resto, Wilfredo J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 692.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation State
Acid-Base Titration Curves in Disproportionating Redox Systems  Michalowski, Tadeusz; Lesiak, Andrzej
Titrations for disproportioning systems with two bromine compounds (Br2 and HBrO) and iodine (I2) as examples.
Michalowski, Tadeusz; Lesiak, Andrzej J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 632.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Photometric Determination of the Rate Expression for MnO4- Mediated Organic Oxidations  Crouch, R. David
Photometric procedure for studying the kinetics of the MnO4- mediated oxidation of mandelic acid in KOH.
Crouch, R. David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 597.
Rate Law |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics
Calculation of pH and Potential E for Bromine Aqueous Solution  Michalowski, Tadeusz
The electron prebalance concept applied to the pH calculation of an aqueous solution of Br2 (bromine water) as an example.
Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 560.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Warning for Frost Diagrams Users  Martinez de llarduya, Jesus M.; Villafane, Fernando
How the use of the correct diagram prevents wrong conclusions, and how some predictions depend on the use of each type of basic-solution diagram.
Martinez de llarduya, Jesus M.; Villafane, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 480.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Equilibrium Constant of the Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C): An Experiment in Biochemistry Laboratory  Rao, T. S.; Dabke, R. B.; Biradar, B. S.
An experiment to determine the equilibrium constant of the oxidation of ascorbic acid.
Rao, T. S.; Dabke, R. B.; Biradar, B. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 438.
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Vitamins
Kinetic Classroom: Acid-Base and Redox Demonstrations with Student Movement  Lomax, Joseph F.
Illustrating Bronsted-Lowry acids / bases and redox reactions by involving student movement and interaction.
Lomax, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 428.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
A Handy Reagent for Testing the Reducing Power of Sugars  Sandell, Arvid
Using the reduction of copper(II) as a semi-quantitative test for reducing sugars.
Sandell, Arvid J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 346.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
Pyrotechnic Reactions Without Oxygen  Wright, Stephen W.
Reaction of K3FeF6 with Al and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) with Mg.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 251.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Oxidation of Tris(2-diphenylphosphinoethyl)phosphine: An Undergraduate 31P and 77Se NMR Experiment  Dakternieks, Dainis; Dyson, Gail A.; O'Connell, Jenny L.; Schiesser, Carl H.
Exposing students to heteronuclear coupling and nuclear relaxation by introducing them to 31P and 77Se NMR spectroscopy.
Dakternieks, Dainis; Dyson, Gail A.; O'Connell, Jenny L.; Schiesser, Carl H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 168.
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
The Blue Bottle Experiment Revisited: How Blue? How Sweet?  Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E.
Determining whether other colors and carbohydrates are possible with the "Blue Bottle" reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 160.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction
Classroom Demonstration of Chromium(VI)/Chromium(III) in the Breathalyzer Test Reaction  Jones, Rebecca B.; Dreisbach, Joseph H.
Demonstrating the breathalyzer reaction.
Jones, Rebecca B.; Dreisbach, Joseph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 158.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Conversion Reactions in Inorganic Chemistry  Habashi, Fathi.
Liberation of metals from their sulfides through reaction with oxygen.
Habashi, Fathi. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 130.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Patriotic Electrolysis of Water  DuPre, Donald B.
Producing reversible red, white and blue in a single Petri dish.
DuPre, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 70.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A new use for the candle and tumbler myth  Peckham, Gavin D.
In the time it takes to complete the popular but lengthy steel-wool experiment, this author proposes an activity that can be done to add an extra dimension to analyzing oxygen content. This combination of "good" and "bad" experiments proves to be a powerful pedagogical tool.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1008.
Quantitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Determining the metal activity series using a potato porcupine   Fortman, John J.; Battino, Rubin
Determining the metal activity series using a potato porcupine.
Fortman, John J.; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 939.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Investigating protective coatings for steel   Runyan, Tom; Herrmann, Mary
Learning about corrosion chemistry provides students with authentic inquiry experience as well as an opportunity to learn relevant and applicable content.
Runyan, Tom; Herrmann, Mary J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 843.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science
General treatment of aqueous ionic equilibria using predominance diagrams  Vale, J.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Alcalde, M.
This paper illustrates the advantage of a unified instructional treatment based on the similarities o equilibria between acid-base and oxidation-reduction reactions that could be used in a general chemistry course.
Vale, J.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Alcalde, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 790.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Climbing a potential ladder to understanding concepts in electrochemistry  Runo, James R.; Peters, Dennis G.
An introduction of a unified approach that makes use of a potential latter in order to assist students in overcoming and clarifying the problems encountered when learning electrochemistry.
Runo, James R.; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 708.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Assigning oxidation numbers   Packer, J. E.; Woodgate, Sheila D.
Pedagogy of oxidation numbers.
Packer, J. E.; Woodgate, Sheila D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 691.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Assigning oxidation numbers   Woolf, A. A.
Pedagogy of oxidation numbers.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 691.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
A visual illustration of oxidation numbers and moles: Using balloons to demonstrate moles of electrons  Bergquist, Wilbur
Illustrating the connection between moles of electrons and oxidation number.
Bergquist, Wilbur J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 586.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Is This Reaction a Substitution, Oxidation-Reduction, or Transfer?  Imyanitov, Naum S.
Author argues that separation of chemical reaction types based on convention do not always follow objective and consistent rules. This leads to confusion among students and artificial borders within the various sub-disciplines in chemistry.
Imyanitov, Naum S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 14.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Gas reactions in plastic bags: Relating laboratory observations to the atomic-molecular model  Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M.
Carrying out chemical reactions in Ziplock bags to investigate a variety of chemical concepts.
Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1026.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Synthesis of a heteropolytungstate and its use in outer-sphere redox kinetics  Walmsley, Frank
An inorganic chemistry experiment has been developed combining two topics usually included in inorganic chemistry: heteropoly ions and mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions of transition metal ions.
Walmsley, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 936.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
A more environmentally acceptable determination of iron in an ore  Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W.
The method for titrimetric determination of iron in which zinc is used as the reactant in situ rather that as a Jones reductor, has several advantages over conventional determination of iron.
Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 935.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Frost diagrams: A tool for predicting redox reactions.  Birk, James P.; Hocker, Heidi.
A HyperCard stack that provides an easily used format for making redox reaction predictions for one or two elements by comparing slopes of the lines connecting two oxidation states.
Birk, James P.; Hocker, Heidi. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 509.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
The chemical logic of life and the earth's biosphere: A simple, one-diagram outline  Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro
This diagram is intended to give a compact overall picture of the chemical logic of life and of the earth's biosphere.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 356.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
How bright are you? Energy and power hands-on activities  Steitberger, H. Eric
A Saturday session is described in which students and their parents learn about oxidation and calorimetry.
Steitberger, H. Eric J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 307.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Food Science
The computer as student: An application of artificial intelligence  Birk, James P.
The author describes how the development of computer software to teach about chemical reactivity also provides information about how we should teach several topics in general chemistry.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 294.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Balancing a chemical equation: What does it mean?  Filgueiras, Carlos A
Students were puzzled by the idea that one chemical equation could be balanced in several different ways. This led to a fruitful discussion on how exact a science chemistry really is.
Filgueiras, Carlos A J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 276.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation-reduction in blood analysis: Demonstrating the reaction in a breathalyzer.   Hill, William D., Jr.
A correction to the redox equations written in the original paper.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 258.
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Algorithm for plotting titration curves (author response).  Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel.
Our model, contrary to Jackman's statement, can be applied to redox systems that are pH-dependant.
Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Algorithm for plotting titration curves.  Jackman, Donald C.
de Moura's algorithm for plotting redox titration curves seems to be good for systems that are not dependent on pH or product concentration, but is not applicable to those situations that is student is more likely to encounter.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Electrochemistry of proton-coupled redox reactions: Role of the electrode surface.  Thorp, H. Holden.
In this article examples of the effects of the surface properties on a working electrode are explored.
Thorp, H. Holden. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 250.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
pH
When the barking dog bites the hand that feeds it: A safety caution.  Worley, John D.
Plastic gloves should not be used at any point during the barking dog demonstration.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 241.
Oxidation / Reduction
A new method for the oxidation of 4-phenylurazole to 4-phenyltriazolinedione.  Mallakpour, Shadpour E.
The procedures describe the synthesis of 4-phenyl-urazole from ethyl carbazate and then the oxidation of the urazole with NO2-N2O4 to yield 4-phenyl-1,2,4-trizoline-3,5-dione.
Mallakpour, Shadpour E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Redox equations with an infinite number of balanced solutions  Riley, Jeremy; Richmond, Thomas G. R.
Some mathematically minded students prefer to use various algebraic methods to solve oxidation/reduction problems instead of the half-reaction method. This can lead to redox reactions in which the reactants actually yield a family of balanced equations rather than a unique solution.
Riley, Jeremy; Richmond, Thomas G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 114.
Oxidation / Reduction
The bird-scarer (combustion) demo   Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B.
This is a demonstration version of a device used to scare birds with loud noises occurring at regular intervals.
Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 64.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The synthesis of cobalt(III) sepulcrate from tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) and its purification by ion-exchange chromatography: An experiment for the advanced undergraduate inorganic laboratory   Hamilton, Dorothy E.
An experiment for the advanced undergraduate inorganic laboratory in the synthesis of cobalt(III) sepulcrate from tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) and its purification by ion-exchange chromatography.
Hamilton, Dorothy E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A144.
Synthesis |
Ion Exchange |
Chromatography |
Oxidation State |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy
Chem 1 concept builder (Lower, Steve with Instructional Software)  Hair, Sally R.
A review of a software package designed for tutorial and drill.
Hair, Sally R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A19.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A mild and convenient oxidation of alcohols: Benzoin to benzil and borneol to camphor  Straub, Thomas S.
A traditional organic chemistry laboratory poses threat to both student safety and the environment: this author provides an alternative procedure.
Straub, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1048.
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols
Direct electrochemical synthesis of fluoroiron compounds: The use of sacrificial metal anodes in aqueous medium  Chakravorti,M.C.; Subrahamanyam, Gampa V.B.
The direct electrochemical synthesis of fluoro iron compounds can be used to show students how metal compounds can be prepared from the pure metal itself and how fluoro compounds can be prepared with relative ease from diluted aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions.
Chakravorti,M.C.; Subrahamanyam, Gampa V.B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 961.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis
The nitric acid/nitrous acid and ferroin/ferriin system: A reaction that demonstrates autocatalysis, reversibility, pseudo orders, chemical waves, and concentration jump  Bazsa, Gyorgy; Nagy, Istvan P.; Lengyel, Istvan
A reaction that demonstrates autocatalysis, reversibility, pseudo orders, chemical waves, and concentration jump.
Bazsa, Gyorgy; Nagy, Istvan P.; Lengyel, Istvan J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 863.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy |
Catalysis |
Rate Law |
Stoichiometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chelate-assisted carbon-halogen bond cleavage by oxidative addition at a W(O) carbonyl-metal complex: Inorganic-organometallic laboratory experiment for advanced undergraduates  Lucht, Brett; Poss, Mitchell J.; Richmond, Thomas G.
These ligands are readily prepared, air-stable, and easily characterized making them the basis of a laboratory experiment suitable for senior undergraduate synthesis.
Lucht, Brett; Poss, Mitchell J.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 786.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Addition Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Oxidation / Reduction
Hydroboration-oxidation of (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene to isopinocampheol: A microscale experiment that displays regio- and stereochemistry using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations  Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes is an important route to alcohols and therefore receives considerable treatment in standard organic textbooks. These authors present their findings of an example (an alkene that undergoes the hydroboration oxidation process) that displays both regiochemistry and stereochemistry.
Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 693.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols
Preparation and characterization of iron sandwich complexes: Celebration of the 40th birthday of ferrocene  Vogel, Glenn C.; Perry, W. D.
A long term project in a unified laboratory junior and senior course involving preparation and characterization of "iron sandwich" complexes.
Vogel, Glenn C.; Perry, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 607.
Undergraduate Research |
Coordination Compounds |
Organometallics |
Phenols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Recovery of silver from and some uses for waste silver chloride  Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K.
Procedures for conversion to silver nitrate, using waste AgCl as an oxidizing agent, and electrodepositon experiments.
Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 602.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Reduction of a carbonyl compound using baker's yeast: An underground laboratory synthesis of ferrocenylmethanol  Bozak, Richard E.; Prater, Michael E.; Hicks, Ronald J.
The transformation of ferrocenecarboxaldehyde to the corresponding alcohol using the intact cells of actively fermenting baker's yeast is a simple, inexpensive experiment demonstrating the general features of microbial reduction.
Bozak, Richard E.; Prater, Michael E.; Hicks, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 427.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Organometallics
I have found you an argument: The conceptual knowledge of beginning chemistry graduate students  Bodner, George M.
This article is structured around nine chemistry questions that allow readers to think about some of the misconceptions graduate students carry even into their graduate training regarding the nature of matter.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 385.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Rotating disk voltammetry experiment  Town, Julie L.; MacLaren, Fiona; Dewald, Howard D.
The experiment described is designed to acquaint the graduate or advanced undergraduate student with the theory and application of rotating disc electrode method.
Town, Julie L.; MacLaren, Fiona; Dewald, Howard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 352.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experimental demonstration of corrosion phenomena: Part II. corrosion phenomena of steel in aqueous media  Arce, Elsa M.; Ramirez, Roman; Cortes, Felipe; Ibanez, Jorge G.
A description of an experiment that uses a sample of carbon steel to show the effect of aggressive ions and inhibiting ions upon it corrosion behavior.
Arce, Elsa M.; Ramirez, Roman; Cortes, Felipe; Ibanez, Jorge G. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 351.
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Teaching photometry with overhead projector experiments   Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Angnes, Lucio; Pedrotti, Jairo J.
Description of a photometry demonstration with an overhead projector.
Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Angnes, Lucio; Pedrotti, Jairo J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 325.
Potentiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 3. Copper (I)-copper(II) equilibria   Ophardt, Charles E.
The unusual redox properties of copper (I) and copper (II) ions explained and illustrated.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 248.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
In praise of copper  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of copper make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory activities.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 106.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Superoxide dismutase and the Briggs-Rauscher reaction  Franz, David A.
Oxygen-derived species provide chemistry teachers with excellent examples for discussion of molecular-orbital theory, bond order and reactivity, redox potentials, radical reactivity, disproportionation, and enzyme activity.
Franz, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 57.
Enzymes |
Biophysical Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Covalent Bonding
Design of corrosion inhibitors: Use of the hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) theory  Walters, Frederick H.
Using hard and soft acid-base theory to understand corrosion.
Walters, Frederick H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Versed and reversed: A meter for mobile equilibrium  Vemulapalli, G. K.
The principle of mobile equilibrium in verse.
Vemulapalli, G. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1003.
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Redox ion exchanger fuel cell  Rawat, Jagdish Prasad; Ansari, Abdul Aziz
Study of the usefulness of a redox reaction between Fe 3+ and Zn on an ion-exchanger bed for the preparation of a fuel cell.
Rawat, Jagdish Prasad; Ansari, Abdul Aziz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 808.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Ion Exchange |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A revised approach to solving redox equations  Davis, Edith
Oxidation-reduction chemistry should be an important part of the introductory, high school chemistry curriculum; here is an alternative approach to balancing redox equations.
Davis, Edith J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 671.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
Reduction of permanganate: A kinetics demonstration for general chemistry  Steffel, Margaret J.
Using the reduction of MnO4- to Mn2+ in aqueous solution to demonstrate the four factors that control reaction rates in solution: the natures of the reactants, concentrations of the reactants, temperature, and the presence of a catalyst.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 598.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A syllabus for a two-semester chemistry course for health professions (author response)  Daly, John M.; Sarquis, Jerry L.
While oxidation-reduction is not given a major heading, it is included in several different places in the syllabus.
Daly, John M.; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 540.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction
A syllabus for a two-semester chemistry course for health professions   Bosch, E.; Prat, M. D.
The author believes that the main criticism of the proposed program is the lack of a redox section.
Bosch, E.; Prat, M. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 539.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Nonmajor Courses
REDOX: A Tutorial on REDuction/Oxidation Equations  Davenport, Derek A.; Groves, Paul; Jensen, Dale L.
This suite of programs provides a computer-based tutorial on the subjects of oxidation numbers and balancing redox equations.
Davenport, Derek A.; Groves, Paul; Jensen, Dale L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 498.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Redox reactions and the electropotential axis   Vella, Alfred J.
An introductory discussion should not get bogged down with the problems of representing cells by standard cell diagrams and notations and instead should concentrate on the chemistry of galvanic cells and the use of these cells in describing the concepts of redox chemistry.
Vella, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 479.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Electrochemistry
Hydroboration for the large organic laboratory  Pickering, Miles
This paper reports an experiment in hydroboration without large hood space requirements, without special glassware requirements, and without inert atmospheric precautions.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 436.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
The palladium-catalyzed oxidation of 2-vinylnaphthalene: A microscale organic synthesis experiment   Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R.
The Wacker oxidation experiment as described is cost-efficient due to the small scale employed, and is a valuable addition to the undergraduate organic curriculum.
Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 340.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Alkynes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
The subjection of glutaraldehyde to the Tollens test  Hill, William D., Jr.
Redox equations have been established for the Tollens test with respect to compounds containing two aldehyde groups such as glutaraldehyde.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 329.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
The effects of crown ethers on the rate of oxidation of oxalic acid by the permanganate ion: An integrated senior chemistry experiment  Miles, Bruce; Nyarku, Samuel K.
The oxidation of oxalic acid by the permanganate ion in the presence of an acid is a very simple and interesting experiment that lends itself to both visual and spectrophotometric studies.
Miles, Bruce; Nyarku, Samuel K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 269.
Ethers |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Spectroscopy
Oxidation-reduction in blood analysis: Demonstrating the reaction in a Breathalyzer   Anderson, John M.
The principle of a Breathalyzer involves the oxidation of alcohol in expired breath by a solution of potassium dichromate.
Anderson, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 263.
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation of cysteine to cystine using hydrogen peroxide  Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E.
This synthesis has several advantages as an undergraduate laboratory exercise.
Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 172.
Amino Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction
In praise of thiosulfate  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of thiosulfate make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory experiments.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
"Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry, Part 1. Metals"   Hill, William D., Jr.
An incorrectly balance equation in the original article is listed here.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 88.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Descriptive Chemistry
Chemistry in the comics: Part 4. The preservation and deacidification of comic books  Carter, Henry A.
The deterioration of book paper as a result of acid attack is a serious problem that cannot be ignored. This problem is even more acute for comic books, newsprint, and other ground wood pulp papers that contain large amounts of lignin.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 3.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review II (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Coleman, William F.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review I (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Balahura, Robert J.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Balahura, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Early origins of "isothermal" chainbranching explosions: Luther's article on chemical waves  Gray, Peter
Luther anticipated by more than 20 years the essentials of chain branching explosion theory.
Gray, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1065.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation of cyclohexanol - An amoebalike reaction  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris
Cyclohexanol is oxidized to cyclohexanone.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 955.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Reactions
What chemistry do our students need to learn?  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Suggested topics of importance to chemistry nonmajors.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 831.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The reduction of a nitrile (CN) group by sodium borohydride: The preparation of phosphineamine and phosphine-imidate complexes of tungsten carbonyl  Faust, Kristen E.; Storhoff, Bruce N.
Experiments designed to reinforce and extend student experiences with recording and interpreting IR and NMR spectra and assigning probable structures for organometallic structures based on that data.
Faust, Kristen E.; Storhoff, Bruce N. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 688.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Organometallics |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
The corrosion inhibition of a metal: Student corrosion experiment III  Onuchukwu, A. I.
Presents the principles and an investigation of the corrosion inhibition of a metal.
Onuchukwu, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 681.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Free energy-oxidation state diagrams  Rives-Arnau, V.
Correction of a significant mistake in the Frost diagram of a popular inorganic chemistry text.
Rives-Arnau, V. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 652.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Selective reductions in the teaching laboratory  Jones, Alan G.
Reductions of nitrophenylethanone, aminophenylethanone, and nitrophenylethanol.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 611.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
Free energy minimization calculation of complex chemical equilibria: Reduction of silicon dioxide with carbon at high temperature  Wai, C. M.; Hutchison, S. G.
For large systems, minimization of the Gibbs free energy becomes a more attractive method of solving for equilibrium compositions since knowledge of the reactions occurring in the system, and thus equilibrium constants, is not required.
Wai, C. M.; Hutchison, S. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 546.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium
A laboratory procedure for the reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III)  Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.
The authors describe work aimed at reducing the hazards associated with the disposal of Cr(VI) compounds.
Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 443.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Interaction between scientific research and chemical education: Development of a corrosion experiment  Higa, Claudio O.; da Costa, Sylvia L. F. A.; Agostinho, Silvia M. L.
This work presents the results of an investigation of the effect of the corrosion inhibitor benzotriazole on copper corrosion through weight-loss experiments.
Higa, Claudio O.; da Costa, Sylvia L. F. A.; Agostinho, Silvia M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 441.
Oxidation / Reduction
Reduction of Indigo: Sodium Hydrosulfite as a Reducing Agent  Williamson, Kenneth L.
The confusion between sodium hydrogen sulfite, sodium bisulfite, and sodium hydrosulfite is a common one.
Williamson, Kenneth L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Chemically induced pulsations of interfaces: The mercury beating heart  Avnir, David
When an iron needle just touches a mercury drop submerged in a pool of an acidic solution of an oxidizer, it pulsates rapidly in a mode that resembles a beating heart.
Avnir, David J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 211.
Oxidation / Reduction
Ion association, solubilities, and reduction potentials in aqueous solution  Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.
It is the author's belief that a combined approach to ionic activity and ion association presents to the student a realistic and more quantitative view of electrolyte solutions than is otherwise possible.
Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 148.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Ionic Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction
Complex equilibria changing in photochemical reaction: Computerized evaluation and simulation  Horvath, Otto; Papp, Sandor
Computerized evaluation and simulation using chlorocuprate (II) complexes in acetonitriale solutions as model systems.
Horvath, Otto; Papp, Sandor J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1102.
Photochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
Photochemical reduction of Fe3+ by citrate ion  Llorens-Molina, Juan A.
Iron (III) is reduced by citrate ion when it is exposed to light. Iron (II) is detected by the formation of blue iron (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) complex.
Llorens-Molina, Juan A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1090.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
The use of cyclic voltammetry in the study of the chemistry of metal-carbonyls: An introductory experiment  Carriedo, Gabino A.
This article presents a practical exercise that is helpful as an introduction to the study of simple EC systems and that shows how cyclic voltammetry can be used to predict reactions and syntheses. At the same time it illustrates some aspects of the electrochemistry of metal-carbonyl complexes.
Carriedo, Gabino A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1020.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds |
Potentiometry |
Diastereomers
Oxidation states of manganese   Kolb, Doris
This demonstration illustrates oxidation states of manganese.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1004.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Transition Elements
The evaluation of corrosion susceptibility of a metal: Student corrosion experiment II  Onuchukwu, A. I.
This paper seeks to present the principles of the weight-loss method of corrosion evaluation of a metal in aqueous media.
Onuchukwu, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 934.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Materials Science
Polarographic determination of composition and thermodynamic stability constant of a complex metal ion  Marin, Dolores; Mendicuti, Francisco
This laboratory experiment is designed to encourage laboratory cooperation among individual undergraduate students or groups. Each student (or group) contributes results individually and exchange of data is essential to obtain final results.
Marin, Dolores; Mendicuti, Francisco J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 916.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Potentiometry
Experimental work with tin(II) chloride in a high school   Sanchez, Manuela Martin
The author describes a final-project performed by students that integrates concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Students seek answers to questions such as: "What reactions were involved; why is an aqueous solution of SnCl2 acidic; how can elemental tin be recovered from the system?"
Sanchez, Manuela Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 898.
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electronegativity and the acid-base character of binary oxides  Bratsch, Steven G.
An investigation of Smith's acid-base parameters within the framework of the Pauling electronegativity system and modern electronegativity theory.
Bratsch, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 877.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
How dangerous can localized corrosion be?: An experiment that studies its effects  Celdran, R.; Gonzalo, P.
This article contains significant applications to understanding potential real-world disasters.
Celdran, R.; Gonzalo, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 730.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Oxidation of secondary alcohols by duckweed: A biotransformation experiment for undergraduate students  Kafarski, Pawel; Ottenbreit, Barbara; Wieczorek, Piotr; Pawlowicz, Pawel
Description of a biotransformation experiment for undergraduate students.
Kafarski, Pawel; Ottenbreit, Barbara; Wieczorek, Piotr; Pawlowicz, Pawel J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 549.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Hormones |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Acid pickling with amines: an experiment in applied chemistry for high school or freshman chemistry   Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C.
A brief description of the removal of corrosion products and millscale from the surface of ferrous metals by acid pickling.
Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 457.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Electrochemistry
Manganese color reactions   Pearson, Robert S.
Taming 'disproportionation' with a colorful demonstration.
Pearson, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 451.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State
Test tube geology: A slowly developing redox system for class study   Cortez, James A.; Powell, Dick; Mellon, Ed.
To capture the imagination of advanced high school chemistry students, this simply constructed experiment can reinforce their proper observation and recording techniques while getting them to think about the chemical techniques and concepts presented in their previous courses.
Cortez, James A.; Powell, Dick; Mellon, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 350.
Geochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Iron analysis by redox titration: A general chemistry experiment  Kaufman, Samuel; Devoe, Howard
The authors have devised a simplified redox method for total iron analysis suitable for execution in a three-hour laboratory period by general chemistry students.
Kaufman, Samuel; Devoe, Howard J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 183.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The effect of complex formation upon the redox potentials of metallic ions: Cyclic voltammetry experiments  Ibanez, Jorge G.; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Cardenas, Marco A.
In the experiment described in this paper, students taking analytical, inorganic, or electrochemical courses will be able to prepare in situ soluble complexes of Fe(III) with different ligands and to observe and estimate the change in the formal potential that Fe3+ undergoes upon complexation.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Cardenas, Marco A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 173.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A demonstration of corrosion by differential aeration   Gonzalo, P.; Celdran, R.
Materials and procedure for a demonstration of corrosion.
Gonzalo, P.; Celdran, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 156.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Oxidation numbers and their limitations  Woolf, A. A.
An in-depth look at oxidation numbers of various elements in a number of different compounds.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 45.
Organometallics |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Stable organic oxidants: Paradox or possibility  Bretherick, Leslie
Thermal instability of organic oxidant salts and the possibility of producing safer analogs.
Bretherick, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A43.
Oxidation / Reduction
A modified Fehling test and a modified corrected Benedict test  Hill, William D, Jr.
Reactions to demonstrate that iron(III) sulfate supplements copper(I) sulfate in the oxidation of aldehydes of any type (aliphatic, aromatic, a combination of the two, glutaraldehyde, and alpha-hydroxy) and alpha-hydroxy ketones.
Hill, William D, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 984.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The kinetic rate law for autocatalytic reactions  Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F.
A method for obtaining accurate rate constants for autocatalytic reactions.
Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 925.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A convenient demonstration of combustion and explosion  Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A.
Demonstrating the correct molar ratio between propane and oxygen.
Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 894.
Stoichiometry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Oxidation / Reduction
Preparation of lead compounds: An exercise in applied chemistry  Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj
Uses and synthesis of Pb(NO3)2, PbO2, PbCrO4, PbS, PbO, lead carbonate, lead acetate, and lead metal itself.
Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 811.
Synthesis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 2. Halogens  Ophardt, Charles E.
Oxidation states of bromine and iodine.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 807.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 1. Metals  Ophardt, Charles E.
The oxidation states of iron, tin, and mercury.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 716.
Metals |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
The stepwise reduction of permanganate in alkaline conditions: A lecture demonstration  Ruoff, Peter
Demonstrates the +VII, +VI, +V, and +IV oxidation states of manganese and their characteristic colors.
Ruoff, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 624.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Recent advances in the concept of hard and soft acids and bases  Pearson, Ralph G.
The hard / soft acids / bases principle has been justifiably criticized because of the lack of a precise definition of hardness and the inability to quantify this property; recent developments have overcome these objections, however.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 561.
Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
An orientation to explosive safety  Harris, Betty W.
Classification of explosives, detonating devices, domestic explosives systems, sensitivity of explosives, and explosive reactions.
Harris, Betty W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 541.
Applications of Chemistry |
Reactions |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Passivation of copper in acid medium  Alonso, C.; Ocon, P.
Determining and explaining the polarization curve of copper in a 70% solution of phosphoric acid.
Alonso, C.; Ocon, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 459.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
The induction by iron(II) of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate  Jolly, William L.
A surprising mechanism for an inorganic reaction in aqueous solution.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 444.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
Polymer-supported oxidation reactions: Two contrasting experiments for the undergraduate laboratory  Buglass, Alan J.; Waterhouse, John S.
These experiments illustrate the common advantages of polymer-supported reagents and contrast the behavior of macroreticular resins and gel resins.
Buglass, Alan J.; Waterhouse, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 371.
Oxidation / Reduction
Thioxanthone sulfone radical anion: A relatively stable ketyl  Castrillon, Jose
Thioxanthone sulfone is induced to produce a deep blue color upon standing that disappears on shaking.
Castrillon, Jose J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 352.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Annotating reaction equations  Tykodi, R. J.
Annotating aqueous solution reactions fosters recognition of the fundamental reaction categories; ready recognition of a reaction type is the first step toward understanding the "whys and wherefores" inherent in the reaction.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 243.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
A cyclic voltammetry experiment using a mercury electrode  Brillas, Enrique; Garrido, Jose A.; Rodriquez, Rosa M.; Domenech, Javier
An easy and inexpensive experiment designed to illustrate cyclic voltammetry in the study of a simple reversible reaction.
Brillas, Enrique; Garrido, Jose A.; Rodriquez, Rosa M.; Domenech, Javier J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 189.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Kinetics of oxidation of bromcresol green  Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David
Study of the bleaching of bromcresol green by hypochlorite.
Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 81.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The science and magic of chemistry: A learning cycle laboratory on oxidation-reduction  Silberman, Robert G.; Zipp, Arden P.
This article reports the details of an experiment that can be helpful in developing the topic of oxidation-reduction using the learning cycle.
Silberman, Robert G.; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1098.
Learning Theories |
Oxidation / Reduction
Studies concerning affinity  Waage, P.; Gulberg, C. M.
This article is a translation of "Studies Concerning Affinity", Guldberg and Waage's first presentation in 1864 of the law of mass action.
Waage, P.; Gulberg, C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1044.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium |
Alcohols
Color perception and factor analysis  Cartwright, Hugh
The experiment described here gives students the chance to study a dichromatic systems and introduces them to chemometrics.
Cartwright, Hugh J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 984.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Comparison of chemical oxidation of alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols on the overhead projector  Kolb, Kenneth E.
This overhead projector demonstration utilizes two classical oxidants, permanganates and dichromate, to distinguish between alkanes, alkenes, and primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols.
Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 977.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis
Another look at reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline solution  Zaezek, Norbert M.
The method presented here for the reduction of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol in aqueous alkaline solution is less time consuming and uses considerably less alkaline solution and ether.
Zaezek, Norbert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 909.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Complete characterization of trans-[Co(en)2Cl2]3[Fe(ox)3]4 l/2 H2O: An extended undergraduate project involving an unknown metal complex  Bull, Graham S.; Searle, Graeme. H.
The authors describe an extension of a previously published article.
Bull, Graham S.; Searle, Graeme. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 902.
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Magnetic Properties
Laboratory scale electrodepositon: Practice and applications  Bruno, Thomas J.
In this paper, some of the practical aspects of electrodepositon or electroplating are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the techniques required to make electrodepositon work reliably in the laboratory. The authors go on to discuss some of the problem-solving applications that have been of value in the author's laboratory.
Bruno, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 883.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A simple and inexpensive apparatus for anodic oxidation  Azadi-Ardakani, Manouchehr; Wallace, Timothy W.
The authors provide instructions and a diagram for a simple and inexpensive apparatus for anodic oxidation.
Azadi-Ardakani, Manouchehr; Wallace, Timothy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 822.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electrodeposition of nickel on copper  Manjkow, Joseph; Levine, Dana
In the classroom, one can demonstrate electroplating by the simple, fast, inexpensive, and visually interesting reaction between nickel ions and copper metal.
Manjkow, Joseph; Levine, Dana J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 809.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electrochemical cell conventions in general chemistry   West, Allen C.
This author argues that conventions make electrochemistry harder for students to learn and much harder to remember. For this reason, instructors must connect our presentation of galvanic cells more closely with the physical world of galvanic cells than "conventional" electrochemistry does.
West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
Charles Martin Hall: The young man, his mentor, and his metal  Craig, Norman C.
How did a semiprecious metal become so ubiquitous? A brief note on Charles Martin Hall's success, recognition, education, experiment and the commercialization of his process.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 557.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Determination of reaction stoichiometries by flow injection analysis: A laboratory exercise  Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel
These authors took advantage of the features of Flow Injection Analysis and developed an easy and simple photometric method intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries.
Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 552.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods |
Photochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
Apparatus for demonstrating electrolysis on the overhead projector  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris K.
The authors share a simpler but effective way to demonstrate electrolysis.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris K. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 517.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple method for determination of oxidation numbers of atoms in compounds  Kauffman, Joel M.
Some oxidation numbers are hard to get because the student does not have an easy method of obtaining them. To alleviate this problem, the author presents a "Simple method for determination of oxidation numbers of atoms in compounds".
Kauffman, Joel M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 474.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
An experiment to illustrate the effects of salt and zinc on the rate of corrosion  Meloan, Clifton E.
The experiment described in this article has been used for the past 15 years and and clearly illustrates several basic rates of corrosion, the use of a sacrificial anode, and why it is important to avoid the use of a small anode and large cathode in the fabrication of buildings and equipment.
Meloan, Clifton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 456.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Selective oxidation in the presence of a heterocycle  Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R.
The process of weighing the advantages and disadvantages of various oxidation methods are presented in this paper.
Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 358.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carboxylic Acids
Number of oxidations relative to methylene: A convenient method of recognizing and quantifying organic oxidation-reduction  Kjonaas, Richard A.
This paper describes the use of a type of molecular oxidation number called "Number of oxidations relative to methylene".
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 311.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes
Corrosion evaluation of a metal in aqueous media: student corrosion experiment  Onuchukwu,A.I.; Obande, O.D.
The authors contribute to the experiments that are needed that would acquaint students with unique properties of metal behavior in environments.
Onuchukwu,A.I.; Obande, O.D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 269.
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Materials Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Selective oxidation and ammoxidation of olefins by heterogeneous catalysis  Grasselli, Robert K.
In this symposium paper, the author shows how the complex process of the ammoxidation of olefins can be understood in terms of free radicals and surface bound organometallic intermediates.
Grasselli, Robert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 216.
Organometallics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Thermodynamics and reactions in the dry way  Tykodi, Ralph J.
In dealing with reactions in the dry way, we can actually "see" in detail the workings of the thermodynamic machinery responsible for moving the reaction in the spontaneous direction. This note presents ideas at the general chemistry level.
Tykodi, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 107.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Molten salt techniques for students: Attacking hematite with pyrosulfate  Atkinson, George F.
This experiment teaches students molten salt techniques.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 88.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Key elements of the chemistry of cytochrome P-450: The oxygen rebound mechanism  Groves, John T.
Diagnostic substrates for cytochrome P-450, synthetic models of the active site, and oxidations with synthetic metalloporphyrins. From the "State of the Art Symposium: Bioinorganic Chemistry", held at the ACS meeting, Miami, 1985.
Groves, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 928.
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction
Verification of the Nernst equation and determination of a standard electrode potential  Arevalo, Agustin; Pastor, Gloria
Procedure to verify the Nernst equation, the standard potential of a redox system, and ion-ion interaction theory.
Arevalo, Agustin; Pastor, Gloria J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 882.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
New stoichiometry for copper dissolution in nitric acid  El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A.
NO2 does not appear to be a primary product in the oxidation of copper metal by nitric acid.
El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 761.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The nitric acid oxidation of selected alcohols and ketones: An organic laboratory experiment  Field, Kurt, W.; Shields, James P.; Standard, Jean M.; Ash, Craig K.; Hoch, Daniel J.; Kolb, Kenneth E.
Preparation of C6-C12 a, ?-dioic acids, glutaric acid, and substituted benzaldehydes and benzophenones.
Field, Kurt, W.; Shields, James P.; Standard, Jean M.; Ash, Craig K.; Hoch, Daniel J.; Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 637.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The design of laboratory experiments in the 1980's: A case study on the oxidation of alcohols with household bleach  Mohrig, Jerry R.; Nienhuis, David M.; Linck, Catherine F.; Van Zoeren, Carol; Fox, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Peter G.
Improved safety by replacing chromium(VI) with bleach in the oxidation of an alcohol.
Mohrig, Jerry R.; Nienhuis, David M.; Linck, Catherine F.; Van Zoeren, Carol; Fox, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 519.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Estimating the one electron reduction potential for vanadium (V) by chemical techniques: An experiment for general chemistry  Wentworth, R. A. D.
Procedure requires no electrochemical equipment because the method depends solely upon observations of the spontaneity of the reactions of V(V) with a series of potential reducing agents and V(IV) with a series of potential oxidizing agents.
Wentworth, R. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 440.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Electrochemical errors  DeLorenzo, Ron
Ten examples of the unexpected consequences that have resulted from ignorance regarding electrochemistry.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 424.
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The oxidation of secondary alcohols with Cr(VI): A spectrophotometric method  Mason, Timothy J.; Turrell, J. A.; Went, C. W.
Follows the progress of the oxidation of sterically hindered secondary alcohols using UV spectrophotometry.
Mason, Timothy J.; Turrell, J. A.; Went, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 344.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Oxidation kinetics of copper: An experiment in solid state chemistry  Ebisuzaki, Y.; Sanborn, W. B.
Describes oxidations kinetics in metals and illustrates the role defects play in diffusion-controlled reactions.
Ebisuzaki, Y.; Sanborn, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 341.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Solid State Chemistry |
Rate Law |
Metals
Drug stabilization against oxidative degradation  Akers, Michael J.
Describes the process of oxidation and ways in which pharmaceutical preparations can be protected from oxidative degredation.
Akers, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 325.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Methemoglobinemia: An illness caused by the ferric state  Senozan, N. M.
Hemoglobin's ability to carry oxygen depends on the iron being in the +2 state; methemoglobinemia involves the oxidation of hemoglobin iron to the +3 state.
Senozan, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 181.
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Oxidation of alcohols using calcium hypochlorite and solid/liquid phase-transfer catalysis  Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L.
Includes synthesis of an aldehyde from a primary alcohol as well as several ketones from secondary alcohols.
Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1118.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Preparation and analysis of potassium tris(oxalato)ferrate(III)trihydrate: A general chemistry experiment  Olmsted, John, III
The analysis of this compound combines gravimetric and titrimeric methods and includes a unique and colorful photoredox reaction.
Olmsted, John, III J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1098.
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Iodine clock reaction mechanisms  Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T.
Outlines the mechanism for the simple iodine clock reaction and the "Old Nassau" modification.
Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1037.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Fe(II)-Cr(VI) reaction without using mercury  Klett, Lee D.; Black, Arthur H.; Parker, Gordon A.
Procedure that employs titanium rather than mercury in the oxidation-reduction titration of iron(II) with chromium(VI).
Klett, Lee D.; Black, Arthur H.; Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1020.
Reactions |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
A simplified oxygen-flask combustion procedure for polymer analysis  Burfield, David R.; Ng, Swee-Cheng
A modification of the Schoniger combustion technique that omits that costly and fragile platinum gauze holder.
Burfield, David R.; Ng, Swee-Cheng J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 917.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction
How to get the most from the dichromate volcano demonstration: Aluminothermy  Trogler, William C.
Reducing the green ash produced by the dichromate volcano (Cr2O3) with aluminum in a thermite-like display.
Trogler, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
A cyclic voltammetry experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory  Baldwin, Richard P.; Ravichandran, K.; Johnson, Ronda K.
Some redox systems that have been employed with success in the laboratory to illustrate both the nature of the cyclic voltammetry technique and its application in the characterization of organic electrode processes.
Baldwin, Richard P.; Ravichandran, K.; Johnson, Ronda K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 820.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The extraction of gold and its simulation with copper  Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M.
The simulation of the extraction of gold by the use of its analog, copper, makes it possible to capitalize on the glamor of gold without sacrificing any chemical principles.
Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 634.
Separation Science |
Metallurgy |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Phototherapy and the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia: A demonstration of intra- versus intermolecular hydrogen bonding  Wilbraham, Antony C.
Chemistry of the degradation of the hemoglobin heme after the death of the red blood cell that holds it, and a demonstration to illustrate the effect of sunlight on this process.
Wilbraham, Antony C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 540.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
Note to: method for balancing redox reactions containing hydroxyl ions  Stark, Franz M.
A much simpler way of balancing the equations presented.
Stark, Franz M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 476.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemical effects during storage of frozen foods  Powrie, W. D.
Considers unfrozen food systems, the freezing process, and chemical changes in food during frozen storage, including protein alterations and lipid oxidation. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Powrie, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 340.
Food Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Lipids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Proteins / Peptides
Chemical effects in food stored at room temperature  Karel, Marcus
Some major deteriorative reactions, their effects on foods, and environmental factors that influence those reactions. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Karel, Marcus J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 335.
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Consumer Chemistry |
Lipids |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemical changes in lipids produced by thermal processing  Nawar, Wassef W.
Thermolytic (nonoxidative) reactions, oxidative reactions, and the chemistry of frying. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Nawar, Wassef W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 299.
Lipids |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Fatty Acids
Electrode potential diagrams and their use in the Hill-Bendall or Z-scheme for photosynthesis  Borrell, Peter; Dixon, Denis T.
An electrode potential diagram for the Zn/Cu 2+ system and its use in teaching electrochemistry.
Borrell, Peter; Dixon, Denis T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 83.
Electrochemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Mixed potentials: experimental illustrations of an important concept in practical electrochemistry  Power, G. P.; Ritchie, I. M.
In this paper, the authors present a largely experimental approach to the concept of mixed potentials, pointing out the close parallel that exists between equilibrium potentials and mixed potentials. The authors then discuss a number of important examples of mixed potentials.
Power, G. P.; Ritchie, I. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1022.
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry
A general chemistry demonstration: student observations and explanations  Silberman, Robert G.
As a result of teaching as research, this author discovers that few students achieve the intended objectives of in-class demonstrations.
Silberman, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 996.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction
Metal-ligand complexes-a calculation challenge  Ramette, R. W.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate one of the most important experimental methods for studying complex equilibria and to present synthetic data as a challenge to the many sophisticated calculation procedure that enjoy various degrees of loyalty around the world.
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 946.
Equilibrium |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
Photoelectrochemistry: Inorganic photochemistry at semiconductor electrodes  Wrighton, Mark S.
This article is a consideration of the principles associated with photoelectrochemistry and will reveal where major progress has been made and where the major difficulties lie. From the State-of-the-Art Symposium: Inorganic Photochemistry, held at the ACS meeting, Seattle, 1983.
Wrighton, Mark S. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 877.
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Semiconductors |
Oxidation / Reduction
Bioinorganic aspects of inorganic photochemistry  Whitten, David G.
This article will deal with key concepts involved in the study of photochemistry and photophysics of metal complexes and organometallics. From the State-of-the-Art Symposium: Inorganic Photochemistry, held at the ACS meeting, Seattle, 1983.
Whitten, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 867.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Plant Chemistry |
Organometallics
Ruthenium polypyridyls: A case study  Watts, Richard J.
How did the interest in (Ru(bpy)) begin and what has lead to its rapid growth in inorganic chemistry? From the State-of-the-Art Symposium: Inorganic Photochemistry, held at the ACS meeting, Seattle, 1983.
Watts, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 834.
Coordination Compounds |
Photochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Semiconductors |
Oxidation / Reduction
Cyclic voltammetry experiment  Van Benschoten, James J.; Lewis, Jane Y.; Heineman, William R.; Roston, Daryl A.; Kissinger, Peter T.
This three-part experiment has been designed specifically for introducing cyclic voltammetry to students who are at the advanced undergraduate or early graduate level.
Van Benschoten, James J.; Lewis, Jane Y.; Heineman, William R.; Roston, Daryl A.; Kissinger, Peter T. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 772.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
pH |
Heterocycles |
Aromatic Compounds |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
Dyeing of anodized aluminum  Grotz, Leonard C.
Anodization of Al is widely practiced in industry to improve the corrosion resistance of articles made of aluminum.
Grotz, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 763.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Dyes / Pigments |
Applications of Chemistry
Solubility product constants in a 4-inch by 4-inch by l-inch nutshell  Baca, Glenn; Lewis, Dennis A.
The experiment presented here allows students to conclude that although it is generally true that decreasing solubility product values are accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the respective molar solubilities of the salts being examined, one cannot assume that this direct relationship will always exist.
Baca, Glenn; Lewis, Dennis A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 762.
Electrochemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Cyclic voltammetry  Kissinger, Peter T.; Heineman, William R.
It is the purpose of this article is to provide a description of cyclic voltammetry and its capabilities. This article is accompanied by an experiment which has been developed to demonstrate important features of CV.
Kissinger, Peter T.; Heineman, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 702.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
An introduction to cyclic voltammetry  Mabbott, Gary A.
This article details the procedural steps and their theoretical implications for a laboratory in cyclic voltammetry.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 697.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Hydrogen peroxide in cleansing antiseptics  Worley, John D.
The author shares a procedure for determining peroxide content by measuring the volume of oxygen released when the peroxide was oxidized by permanganate.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 678.
Oxidation / Reduction
Indigo  Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E.
A brief history of the uses and origins of indigo as well as a look at the molecular structure of this molecule.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 633.
Dyes / Pigments |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A phase transfer catalyzed permanganate oxidation: preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate  Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.
There are several attractive features in this reaction sequence for the undergraduate laboratory. These include (1) use of a protecting acetate group, (2) use of a familiar "textbook" oxidant, potassium permanganate, (3) use of phase transfer catalyst, (4) preparing of an aldehyde, (5) short reaction period, and (6) the laboratory has a pleasant aroma.
Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 503.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
Electron transfer reactions involving light  Balzani, Vincenzo; Bolletta, Fabrizio; Ciano, Mauro; Maestri, Mauro
These authors discuss the involvement of light in electron transfer reactions, both as a reactant and as a product; they also emphasize "the important role that can be played in these processes by suitable chemical species called sensitizers."
Balzani, Vincenzo; Bolletta, Fabrizio; Ciano, Mauro; Maestri, Mauro J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 447.
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Palladium catalyzed reduction of nitrobenzene  Mangravite, John A.
The authors present an application of palladium catalyzed reductions to the undergraduate laboratory.
Mangravite, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 439.
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Organometallics
Chemically derivatized semiconductor photoelectrodes  Wrighton, Mark S.
The aim of this article is to highlight the significant results from a modification of a photoelectrode surfaces. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Wrighton, Mark S. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 335.
Photochemistry |
Semiconductors |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Organometallics
Elucidation of the biological redox chemistry of purines using electrochemical techniques  Dryhurst, Glenn; Nguyen, N. T.; Wrona, Monika Z.; Goyal, R. N.; Brajter-Toth, Anna; Owens, James L.; Marsh, Henry A., Jr.
Recent work concerned with the electrochemical oxidation of uric acid illustrates the way electrochemical studies provide not only mechanistic information of interest but can also give valuable insights into the chemical aspects of enzymatic and in vivo redox reaction compounds. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Dryhurst, Glenn; Nguyen, N. T.; Wrona, Monika Z.; Goyal, R. N.; Brajter-Toth, Anna; Owens, James L.; Marsh, Henry A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 315.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Heterocycles |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Enzymes |
pH
Spectroelectrochemistry: The combination of optical and electrochemical techniques  Heineman, William R.
This article describes several commonly used spectroelectrochemical methods with examples of typical applications. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Heineman, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 305.
Electrochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
Themodynamic and kinetic properties of the electrochemical cell  Smith, Donald E.
Answering the question, "Why do conductivity and voltammetric a.c. measurements depend on different parameters?" From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Smith, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 299.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Pulse voltammetry  Osteryoung, Janet
This article provides an in-depth look at pulse voltammetry. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Osteryoung, Janet J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 296.
Electrochemistry |
Potentiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods
Cyclic voltammetry  Evans, Dennis H.; O'Connell, Kathleen M.; Petersen, Ralph A.; Kelly, Michael J.
A simple experiment is descried here that has become extremely popular in chemical research because it can provide useful information about redox reactions in a form that is easily obtained and interpreted. In this paper the authors present the principles of the method and illustrate its use in the study of four electrode reactions. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Evans, Dennis H.; O'Connell, Kathleen M.; Petersen, Ralph A.; Kelly, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 290.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Undergraduate Research |
Electrochemistry
Biopower  Rees, Douglas
The remarkable capacity of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain for generating metabolic power is compared to an electrical circuit.
Rees, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 289.
Molecular Biology |
Electrochemistry |
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electrochemistry of the Hall-Heroult process for aluminum smelting  Haupin, W. E.
A discussion of aluminum holds great pedagogical value on many fronts: discussion of the Bayer process, electrolysis of alumina, electrolyte chemistry, dissolution of alumina, electrode reactions, current efficiency, cell voltage, and other topics for advanced graduate study. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Haupin, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 279.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electrochemical engineering  Alkire, Richard C.
This article focuses on electrochemistry that is intended for the engineering curriculum. Electrochemical engineering draws heavily from thermodynamics, kinetics, transport phenomena, and current and potential field distribution. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Alkire, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 274.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Transport Properties |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electrosynthesis technology  Weinberg, Norman L.
An examination of introductory general chemistry textbooks lead this author to believe that the majority of chemistry and chemical engineering students gain an inadequate awareness of electrosynthesis principles and technology. This article describes an activity that will give students a greater exposure to electrosynthesis reactions. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Weinberg, Norman L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 268.
Electrochemistry |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Anodizing aluminum with frills  Doeltz, Anne E.; Tharaud, Stanley; Sheehan, William F.
This paper adds to an article that appeared previously by connecting purely electrolytic results to a wide range of topics such as chemical reactivity of Al and its oxide, amphoterism of aluminum oxide, and idealized crystal structure calculations involving close-packing.
Doeltz, Anne E.; Tharaud, Stanley; Sheehan, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 156.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
On the Nernst equations of mercury-mercuric oxide half-cell electrodes  Kam, T. T.
The purpose of this paper is to present the derivation of the Nernst equation and the standard potential of the mercury-mercuric oxide electrodes, together with the comparison between the experimentally measured electrode potentials and the theoretical values obtained by the Nernst equations.
Kam, T. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 133.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation and reduction   ten Hoor, Marten J.
An analogy to explain that in a redox reaction the oxidator is reduced and the reducer is simultaneously oxidized. [Co-author in hard copy listed as Aletta Jacobsscholengemeenschap, but this is actually the school Dr. ten Hoor teaches at: Dr. Aletta Jacobs High School (College) in the Netherlands.]
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 132.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters to the editor.  Morel, J.-P.
The author of an article submits this letter in order to clarify points he had made in a previous work.
Morel, J.-P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 87.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Chemometrics
A comment on "Debye's activity coefficient: in which concentration scale?"   Sharma, B. D.
The article referred to in this title prompted the writer of this letter to recommend a further resource to readers.
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 87.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Chemometrics
The oxidation of secondary alcohols with Cr(VI): A kinetic investigation of steric strain  Mason, Timothy J.
A titrimetric method for the determination of the rate of acid dichromate oxidation of a series of secondary alcohols; using and excess of the alcohol substrate, pseudo first-order rate constants can be calculated from which estimates of the relative steric strain within these molecules may be obtained.
Mason, Timothy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 980.
Kinetics |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Oxidation by Mn207: An impressive demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide  Koch, Klaus R.
Demonstrates the formation of Mn2O7 and its powerful oxidation of simple alcohols.
Koch, Klaus R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
The corrosion and preservation of iron antiques  Walker, Robert
The chemistry and prevention of the corrosion of iron.
Walker, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 943.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Reduction potentials and hydrogen overvoltage: An overhead projector demonstration  Ramette, Richard W.
Relates the scale of standard reduction potentials to the observed behavior of metals in their reactions with hydrogen ion to produce hydrogen gas.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Student preparation of acetone from 2-propanol  Kauffman, J. M.; McKee, J. R.
Using swimming pool chlorine for the oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone.
Kauffman, J. M.; McKee, J. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 862.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemistry, solid propellants and history  Kincaid, J. F.
The important role of solid propellants in four famous battles (Waterloo, Manila Bay, the Battle of the Bulge, and Pusan).
Kincaid, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 834.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Potential-pH diagrams  Barnum, Dennis W.
Potential-pH diagrams for water and iron and their applications.
Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 809.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Cathodic protection against corrosion: An experiment  Pare, J. R. Jocelyn; Jankowski, Krzsyztof
Magnesium is used as a sacrificial anode for a cylinder of soft steel in this electrochemistry experiment.
Pare, J. R. Jocelyn; Jankowski, Krzsyztof J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 798.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry
How students reconcile discordant data: A study of lab report discussions  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
A study conducted to determine how students deal with experimental results that seem to violate chemical laws.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 794.
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine  Briggs, Thomas S.
Reacting chlorine generated from liquid bleach with red phosphorus (from a match book) and iron from steel wool.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 788.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The oxidation of terminal alkenes by permanganate: A practical demonstration of the use of phase transfer agents  Brown, Keith C.; Chang, Victor S.; Dar, Fazal H.; Lamb, Shannon E.; Lee, Donald G.
An oxidative cleavage of a terminal alkene to give the corresponding carboxylic acid with one less carbon atom.
Brown, Keith C.; Chang, Victor S.; Dar, Fazal H.; Lamb, Shannon E.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 696.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carboxylic Acids
Some tungsten oxidation-reduction chemistry: A paint pot titration  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
Mild reducing agents reduce WO3 to a nonstoichiometric blue oxide, "mineral blue," whose approximate formula is WO2.2-3.0.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 693.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
The Aladdin lamp caper  Cohen, Sheldon H.
Suggestions for removing rust and cleaning filtering crucibles.
Cohen, Sheldon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 670.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Demonstration of electrochemical cell properties by a simple, colorful oxidation-reduction experiment  Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T.
The color of a solution close to an electrode is changed from that of the bulk solution to either of two contrasting colors, depending on whether the electrode reaction is a reduction or oxidation.
Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 586.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The direct electrochemical synthesis of [(C6H5)3Ph]2[CoCl4]: An example of the use of anodic oxidation in the preparation of metal ion complexes  Oldham, Colin; Tuck, Dennis G.
Uses a 6 V lantern battery and a simple voltmeter / ammeter.
Oldham, Colin; Tuck, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 420.
Electrochemistry |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
The biochemistry of some iron porphyrin complexes  Rix, Colin J.
Why metalloprotein complexes are essential in the delivery and utilization of O2 in cellular biochemistry.
Rix, Colin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 389.
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioenergetics |
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Organometallics
A unified approach to the study of chemical reactions in freshman chemistry  Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D.
An approach that aims to provide students with the background that will enable them to make reasonable predictions as to the likely products of a chemical reaction.
Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 377.
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The preparation of lucigenin: An experiment with charm  Amiet, R. G.
The preparation of lucigenin involves both nucleophilic and electrophilic aromatic substitution, nucleophilic aliphatic substitution, reductive coupling, and oxidation reactions.
Amiet, R. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 163.
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
Buffer pH in electrophoresis  Akers, Hugh A.
The question in this note is appropriate for an instrumental or biological chemistry course that deals with the theory of electrophoresis. It requires intellectual behavior at the applications level.
Akers, Hugh A. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1014.
pH |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
Method for balancing redox reactions containing hydroxyl ions  Pernicone, Eileen
This algorithm is useful for balancing redox reactions containing hydroxyl ions.
Pernicone, Eileen J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 966.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
Oxidation of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone by sodium hypochlorite  Zuczek, Norbert M; Furth, Paul S.
A laboratory that was previously published is modified for a smaller scale in this note.
Zuczek, Norbert M; Furth, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 824.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
A simple demonstration of cathodic protection   Skinner, James F.
An inexpensive, easily prepared, and extremely illustrative demonstration is presented in this note.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 802.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
A modified thermit lecture demonstration   Kauffman, George B.
The author shares some modifications to the termite demonstration that will make the demonstration more dramatic and excited.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 802.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
The role of chemistry in firefighting  Terezakis, Emanuel G.
This article shares a curriculum used in a community college to teach fire-fighters about the fundamentals of chemistry in fire-fighting.
Terezakis, Emanuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 698.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases
The ferrioxalate actinometer: A lecture demonstration   Vitz, Edward W.
A striking demonstration of a photochemical reaction.
Vitz, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 655.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation and reduction  White, Alvan D.
A simple visual analogy of oxidation and reduction.
White, Alvan D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 645.
Oxidation / Reduction
Detection of carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke using molybdosilicate  Feinstein, H. I.
This carbon monoxide detector was first developed during WWII: it is simple, rapid, and extremely sensitive.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 633.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds
Conjugate and nonconjugate reduction with LiAlH4 and NaBH4  Meyer, G. Richard
Most organic textbooks present a limited consideration of the action of lithium aluminum hydride and sodium borohydride. This paper explores the topic in greater depth.
Meyer, G. Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 628.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Theory and practical use of an hydrogen electrode in aqueous-organic media  Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R.
These authors make a case for a greater use of hydrogen electrodes for acidity measurements in student laboratory courses.
Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Cathodic protection: An overhead projector demonstration   Ward, Charles R.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.
The procedure in this article can be used to demonstrate all of the important features of cathodic protection.
Ward, Charles R.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 505.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Oxidation reduction electrochemistry  Schmuckler, Joseph S.
An overview of text resources dealing with oxidation-reduction electrochemistry.
Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 404.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Artistic metalwork and chemical technology   Mickey, Charles D.
Humankind's fascination with metals; the inception of artistic metalwork; the geologic occurrence of the artisan's metals; the genealogy of metallurgy; the chemistry of extractive metallurgy; refining impure metals; the electrolytic refining of gold; methods of refining silver; the electrolytic refining of copper; the artistic use of the precious metals; and precious metal alloys.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 315.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Radiation sensitization in cancer therapy  Greenstock, Clive L.
A look at the chemical mechanisms behind treating cancer through radiochemistry.
Greenstock, Clive L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 156.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metabolism
Radiation chemistry in organized assemblies  Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S.
This paper is concerned with the effects of complexity of organization on the radical processes, which can lead to significant and useful modifications of observed chemistry.
Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 140.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Micelles |
Polymerization |
Solutions / Solvents
Free radical reactions with simple biochemical systems  Redpath, Leslie J.
This article briefly surveys the topic of free radicals and biological systems.
Redpath, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 131.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Free Radicals |
Enzymes |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Free radical mechanisms in autoxidation processes  Simic, Michael G.
The material in this article should lead to the understanding and exploitation of antioxidants in the battle against carcinogenicity and a number of medical problems.
Simic, Michael G. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 125.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Medicinal Chemistry
Intramolecular electron transfer from coordinated ligand-radicals  Hoffman, Morton Z.; Whitburn, Kevin D.
These authors review the generation and behavior of metal ions in unusual valency states and ligand-radicals coordinated to metal centers.
Hoffman, Morton Z.; Whitburn, Kevin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 119.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
Metal ions in unusual valency states  Sellers, Robin M.
This paper is concerned with the formation of novel valency states, their characterization and chemical behavior.
Sellers, Robin M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 114.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Redox properties of free radicals  Neta, P.
This article will concentrate on reactions with organic compounds which involve an electron transfer, i.e.., redox reactions.
Neta, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 110.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Using the equilibrium concept   Mickey, Charles D.
Equilibrium in systems is an important concept in organic, biochemical, and industrial chemistry among others.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 56.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Molecular Biology |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Soil analysis for high school chemistry students  Eisenmann, Mary A.
Students examine the solubility of nitrate ions, the insolubility of iron hydroxide and iron carbonate, and the reaction between acid and carbonates.
Eisenmann, Mary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 897.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Benzotriazole a corrosion inhibitor for antiques: Some practical surface chemistry  Walker, Robert
The structure and inhibitive properties of benzotriazole on copper, copper-based alloys, silver, and other metals.
Walker, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 789.
Surface Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Stoichiometry of redox reactions  Parker, Gordon A.
A question involving an amplification reaction sequence and the balancing of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 721.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Propylene - A basis for creative chemistry  Wittcoff, Harold
Polymerization, ammoxidation, oxidation, epoxidation, the Friedel-Crafts reaction, hydroformylation, and metathesis.
Wittcoff, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 707.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Polymerization |
Catalysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Principles of lanthanide chemistry  Johnson, D. A.
A proposal for distinguishing between the two general types of reactions exhibited by the lanthanide elements.
Johnson, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 475.
Transition Elements |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
A laboratory introduction to polymeric reagents  Wade, L. G., Jr.; Stell, Linda M.
The oxidation of 9-fluorenol to 9-fluorenone by use of a polymer-bound chromium trioxide reagent.
Wade, L. G., Jr.; Stell, Linda M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 438.
Polymerization |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ion exchange separation of the oxidation states of vanadium  Cornelius, Richard
An experiment designed to emphasize the discrete nature of the different oxidation states of vanadium by giving students an opportunity to separate the four species by ion exchange chromatography.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 316.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemistry for potters  Denio, Allen A.
The origin and composition of clay, the properties of clay, the firing of clay, and the compositions and properties of glazes.
Denio, Allen A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 272.
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Toxicology
Ionic strength effect on the rate of reduction of hexacyanoferrate(III) by ascorbic acid: A physical chemistry laboratory experiment  Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A.
Ascorbic acid is oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid by hexacyanoferrate(III) ; the reaction displays second order behavior and is followed by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer.
Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 158.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Chemistry of steel making  Sellers, Neal
Details the process of steel production, including relevant chemical reactions and how various furnaces work.
Sellers, Neal J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 139.
Metallurgy |
Metals |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Steam distillation of essential oils - Anethole from anise followed by permanganate oxidation to anisic acid  Garin, David L.
Provides the procedure for the oxidation step to this experiment.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 138.
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation-reduction: An example of chemical sophistry  Sisler, Harry H.; VanderWerf, Calvin A.
Examines the common definition for oxidation - reduction found in most introductory textbooks and specific examples of oxidation - reduction reactions.
Sisler, Harry H.; VanderWerf, Calvin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 42.
Oxidation / Reduction
The second year course in inorganic chemistry at the free university of Amsterdam  Bolster, M. W. G.
Includes an outline of the experiments used in the course.
Bolster, M. W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 734.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
Coupled phenomena in chemistry: Understanding of chemistry through Gibbs energy utilization  Nomura, Kazuo; Matsubara, Akira
Provides examples of coupled reactions and the utilization of Gibbs energy in a variety of chemical processes.
Nomura, Kazuo; Matsubara, Akira J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 718.
Thermodynamics |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium
The thermite lecture demonstration  Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B.
Glycerine plus KMnO4 are used to ignite the thermite in a clay flower pot.
Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 675.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Corrosion: A Waste of energy  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Thermodynamics and electrochemical aspects of corrosion, and inhibition of the corrosion process.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 673.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry
An improved method in the redox titration of oxalic acid by permanganate  Datta, M.; Ameta, Suresh C.; Pande, P. N.; Gupta, H. L.; Bokadia, M. M.
To avoid heating, the authors have introduced this reaction with ascorbic acid.
Datta, M.; Ameta, Suresh C.; Pande, P. N.; Gupta, H. L.; Bokadia, M. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 659.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry
The precipitation of ferrous hydroxide: A lecture demonstration  Lau, O. W.
This demonstration can illustrate such topics as the solubility of ionic compounds, electrode potentials of transition elements and their modification by formation of either an insoluble compound of a complex ion, and mixed valence compounds.
Lau, O. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 474.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Compact Compacts  Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F.
A collection of three suggestions regarding demonstrating the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins and the first law of thermodynamics as applied to air conditioning.
Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thermodynamics
Rudolf Criegee (1902-1975)  Huisgen, Rolf; Gilde, Hans-Georg, translator
Criegee's background and work with selective oxidizing agents, the mechanism of ozonolysis, and carbocyclics.
Huisgen, Rolf; Gilde, Hans-Georg, translator J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 369.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Polymer photoxidation: An experiment to demonstrate the effect of additives  Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.
Production of a polymer that is photochemically active and degrades when exposed to UV light.
Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 273.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Physical Properties
Anodizing aluminum: An electrolytic oxidation experiment for general chemistry  Blatt, Rita G.
Using Faraday's Law, one can calculate the weight of aluminum oxidized and a theoretical film thickness.
Blatt, Rita G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 268.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Acid-base half-reactions - A useful formalism for review lessons  Atkinson, G. F.
An effective way to draw analogies between acid-base and redox effects while reviewing both.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Aqueous chromic acid oxidation of secondary alcohols in diethyl ether: A convenient undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M.
A two-phase procedure for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones that is applicable to a wide variety of substrates.
Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 203.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Ethers |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
More on balancing redox equations  Kolb, Doris
Balancing atypical redox equations.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 181.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Effective teaching for a rural environment  Stevens, George H.
Public school secondary teachers are largely responsible for the behavior, social and academic attitudes and performance of students in their classes; includes a sequence for teaching oxidation-reduction.
Stevens, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 117.
Oxidation / Reduction
A chemiluminescence demonstration - Oxalyl chloride oxidation  Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Goodman, Sidney; Chandross, Edwin A.; Kaplan, Martin
An effective chemiluminescence demonstration requiring minimal preparation based on the oxidation of oxalyl chloride by hydrogen peroxide.
Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Goodman, Sidney; Chandross, Edwin A.; Kaplan, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 111.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Double scales for equilibria  Chaston, S. H. H.
The acid / base, oxidant / reductant, and solid / solute scales described here can be used as visual representations of equilibria expressions.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 24.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Electrochemistry in a nutshell A general chemistry experiment  Baca, Glenn; Dennis, A. Lewis
In this experiment, students can construct and obtain the cell voltages of two precipitation cells, three concentration cells, and six redox cells.
Baca, Glenn; Dennis, A. Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 804.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
V. Limiting Reagents  Bent, Henry A.
Can weight be lost by hyperventilating? A chemical solution to the question.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 726.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metabolism
Principles in bioinorganic chemistry. Basic inorganic exercises  Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro
The biochemical roles played by essential inorganic elements and compounds are 1) structural, 2) carrying and transporting electrons and oxygen, 3) catalytic roles in oxidation-reduction reactions, and 4) catalytic roles in acid-base and other reactions.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 631.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Biophysical Chemistry
Thermochemical production of hydrogen from water  Bamberger, C. E.; Braunstein, J.; Richardson, D. M.
If mechanical and electrical energy consumption can be kept at a minimum, thermochemical cycles hold promise for producing hydrogen at higher efficiencies than electrolysis.
Bamberger, C. E.; Braunstein, J.; Richardson, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 561.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Comments on ionization  Driscoll, D.R.
This brief note clarifies what one author meant by the term, "ionization".
Driscoll, D.R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Why green? More chemistry in the student synthesis of tris(ethylenediamine) cobalt(III) chloride  Krause, Ronald A.
What began as a "failure" in this laboratory exercise turned into a great opportunity for inquiry.
Krause, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 453.
Coordination Compounds |
Alcohols |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Phase transfer catalysis. Part II: Synthetic applications  Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P.
In this month's continuation of an article, the authors have catalogued a number of illustrative examples so that the range of applicability of phase transfer catalysis will be.
Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 429.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Organometallics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkylation
Dissolving iron nails: A kinetics experiment  Monaghan, Charles P.; Fanning, James C.
These authors share a kinetics experiment that appeals to students due to its familiarity.
Monaghan, Charles P.; Fanning, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 400.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
Batteries and fuel cells  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Electrochemical power sources; electricity from chemical reactions; how batteries operate; features of commercial batteries; fuel cells, and batteries of the future.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 399.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Balancing an atypical redox equation  Carrano, S. A.
The author presents a particularly tricky redox problem and walks readers through a solution.
Carrano, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 382.
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Everday examples of oxidation-reduction processes  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Processes of the biosphere; photosynthesis and respiration; oxidation of fossil fuels; chlorination of water; extraction of metals from ores; electrochemical processes; photography; explosives.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 332.
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The chemical equation. Part II: Oxidation-reduction reactions  Kolb, Doris
Oxidation has come to have a much broader meaning than its original iteration.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 326.
Oxidation / Reduction
Cathodic protection using a photovoltaic source  Lauren, P. M.
The demonstration in this article presents a unique modification of previously published demonstrations on the corrosion and protection of ferrous metals.
Lauren, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 319.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Metals
A general potentiometric titration curve computer program  Breneman, G. L.
A program has been written in Basic to plot potentiometric titration curves for a variety of situations.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 246.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction
End-point aid for starch-iodine and Bronsted plots  Woolley, G. R.; Walshaw, A. H.
An approach toward titration that is more instructive for students is outlined in this note.
Woolley, G. R.; Walshaw, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidative coupling of phenols. A biomimetic undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Hart, Harold; Reilly, James L.
It is the purpose of this paper to describe a laboratory experiment suitable for undergraduates which illustrates the oxidative coupling of phenols. To place the experiment in proper context, the authors briefly review general features of the reaction.
Hart, Harold; Reilly, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 120.
Phenols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Stoichiometric calculations   Parker, Gordon A.
The question presented here is designed for a sophomore or junior level quantitative analysis course, illustrates, calculations based upon oxidation-reduction reactions as applied to a common environmental problem and requires cognitive skill at the application level.
Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 102.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Electroplating of polyethylene  Gorodetsky, Malka
In the process of reorganizing a first-year chemistry laboratory for engineering students the authors have developed experiments that reproduce the approach in solving industrial chemical problems.
Gorodetsky, Malka J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 66.
Industrial Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Oxidation state determinations for some reduction products of vanadium(V). A multicolored titration  Hentz, F. C., Jr.; Long, G. G.
The authors describe an experiment in which the student prepares and observes all four of the vanadium oxidation state obtainable in aqueous solution, but uses the satiable V(III) and V(IV) states for determination of their oxidation numbers.
Hentz, F. C., Jr.; Long, G. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 55.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation State
The oxidation of ethyl lactate  Morgan, E. D.; Goddard, Hilary; Thomas, G. A.
Using pyridinium chlorochromate, ethyl lactate can be oxidized to ethyl pyruvate in a convenient time by carrying out the reaction in refluxing acetone.
Morgan, E. D.; Goddard, Hilary; Thomas, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 782.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Esters
Selective reduction of functionalized carboxylic acids with borane-methyl sulfide: A convenient undergraduate organic experiment  Krishnamurthy, S.; Thompson, Kerry L.
Introduces a new selective reducing agent, borane-methyl sulfide.
Krishnamurthy, S.; Thompson, Kerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 778.
Carboxylic Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Preparation of vanillin from eugenol and sawdust  Lampman, Gary M.; Andrews, Jennifer; Bratz, Wayne; Hanssen, Otto; Kelley, Kenneth; Perry, Dana; Ridgeway, Anthony
Two procedures are described for the conversion of eugenol to vanillin.
Lampman, Gary M.; Andrews, Jennifer; Bratz, Wayne; Hanssen, Otto; Kelley, Kenneth; Perry, Dana; Ridgeway, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 776.
Synthesis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Weekend courses for high school chemistry teachers  Bundschuh, J. E; El-Awady, A. A.
Describes a program for the continuing education of high school chemistry teachers.
Bundschuh, J. E; El-Awady, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 693.
Professional Development |
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Toxicology
Industrial analytical procedure for undergraduate analytical chemistry  Hurtubise, Robert J.
A procedure for determining the amount of BHA in cooking oil.
Hurtubise, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 651.
Industrial Chemistry |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Oxidation and chemical environment  Grotz, Leonard C.
Demonstrates that the ability to oxidize or reduce a species is dependent not only on the nature of the species but also on its chemical environment.
Grotz, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 618.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The burning sugar cube  Smith, Douglas D.
A wide range of powdered solids can be used to produce a burning sugar cube.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 552.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Vanadium for high school students  Grant, A. Ward, Jr.
After the instructor performs the reduction of vanadium(V) as a demonstration, students can perform the oxidation of the vanadium(II) back to its original state.
Grant, A. Ward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 500.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Transition Elements
Use of a constant current ohmmeter as a biamperometric endpoint indicator  Weingartner, C. E.; Robertson, D. A.
A quick, accurate alternative to traditional biamperometric procedures.
Weingartner, C. E.; Robertson, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 484.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Periodate oxidation of vicinal hydroxyls. Applications to student experiments  Pilch, Paul F.; Somerville, Ronald L.
A quick, sensitive method that is readily adaptable for quantitating periodate consumption in a variety of laboratory contexts.
Pilch, Paul F.; Somerville, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 449.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates |
Laboratory Management
A demonstration in solid state chemistry: The nonstoichiometry of nickel oxide, NiO  Perrino, Charles T.; Johnson, Robert
A simple experiment to demonstrate the nonstoichiometric synthesis of nickel oxide.
Perrino, Charles T.; Johnson, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 367.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals
White to rose and return: A multipurpose demonstration  Olson, Edwin S.
This demonstration is useful for illustrations of reversible redox reactions and for relative reduction potentials.
Olson, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 366.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments
Sodium perborate oxidation of an aromatic amine  Huestis, Laurence
Upon learning that the mechanism and even the nature of the oxidizing species is unknown, this reaction assumes new significance and provides an excellent opportunity for speculation on the nature of the reaction and a review of factors that affect the yield.
Huestis, Laurence J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 327.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Oxidation of benzoin by hexaxyanoferrate (III). An advanced kinetic experiment  Jarrar, Adil A.; El-Zaru, Ribhi
An experiment in which the student can measure a second-order rate constant and then proceed easily to determine an overall third-order rate constant.
Jarrar, Adil A.; El-Zaru, Ribhi J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 326.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law
Lecture demonstration of the various oxidation states of manganese  Arora, C. L.
Showing the colors associated with seven different oxidation states of magnesium and methods for preparing each.
Arora, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 302.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Reduction and oxidation tables  Hudlicky, M.
Tables that correlate the participants in reductive and oxidative reactions in terms of starting materials, common products, and conventional reducing and oxidizing agents; includes bibliographies for additional references.
Hudlicky, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 100.
Oxidation / Reduction
Instant silver tarnish-detarnish   Feinstein, H. I.
Demonstrating redox reactions.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, A34.
Oxidation / Reduction
The carbon electrode in potentiometric titrations  Natarajan, M.; Ramasubramanian, A.
The use of the carbon electrode in place of the conventional platinum electrode and quinhydrone electrode offers an attractive alternative in certain types of potentiometric work and the present article is a report of their authors study of the effectiveness of carbon electrode in redox and acid-base titrimetry.
Natarajan, M.; Ramasubramanian, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 663.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry
An electrochemical experiment using an optically transparent thin layer electrode  DeAngelis, Thomas P.; Heineman, William R.
In this experiment, the use of the OTTLE for determining formal redox potentials, n values, and spectra of redox couples is illustrated by measurements on solutions of ferricyanide and o-tolidine using a variety of electrochemical techniques.
DeAngelis, Thomas P.; Heineman, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 594.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
An introductory chemistry synthesis and kinetics experiment. Utilizing a low cost linear-log output spectrophotometer modification  Crumbliss, A. L.; McCabe, M. E. III; Dilts, J. A.; Herman, Harvey B.
The authors present an inorganic oxidation-reduction kinetics experiment suitable for use in an introduction laboratory program. In addition, they describe a low cost modification of the Bausch and Lomb spectrophotometer.
Crumbliss, A. L.; McCabe, M. E. III; Dilts, J. A.; Herman, Harvey B. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 528.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Kinetics
The simultaneous potentiometric titration of Cu and Fe in nonaqueous media  Braun, Robert D.
The purpose of this paper is to report a potentiometric, redox titration in n,N-dimethylformatioide which has been used in the author's chemical analysis course.
Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 463.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Potentiometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation-reduction potentials and Hess' Law  Stevenson, Kenneth L.
The author provides some suggestions for helping students overcome some common difficulties in working with Hess' Law.
Stevenson, Kenneth L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 453.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
An answer to Dr. Joseph Priestley's considerations on the doctrine of phlogiston.  Woodhouse, James; Beer, John J.
This is an edited version of the public pronouncement of James Woodhouse against Priestley's views on combustion.
Woodhouse, James; Beer, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 414.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
A simple oxidation-reduction experiment  Ludeman, Susan Marie; Brandt, Joan A.; Zon, Gerald
The lab featured here is a redox lab, which is simply and economically performed with zinc, lead acetate, and copper sulfate, has been used to demonstrate the principles of electronegativity, ionization, metal plating, stoichiometry and electron transfer.
Ludeman, Susan Marie; Brandt, Joan A.; Zon, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 377.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Stoichiometry
Singlet oxygen in aqueous solution: A lecture demonstration   Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G.
Lecture demonstrations involving chemiluminescence are useful for the purpose both of displaying chemical phenomena and of illustrating specific principles.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 358.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
The use of electron balance in ionic equilibrium calculations  Machado, A. A. S. C.
It is the purpose of this note to show the primary importance of the electron balance condition in ionic oxidation-reduction equilibrium and how to use the formal similarity of oxidation-reduction reactions to Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reactions to express that condition.
Machado, A. A. S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 305.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
A simple general chemistry kinetics experiment  Gellender, Martin
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate provides a gradual and clearly distinguishable appearance of color as the reaction proceeds.
Gellender, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 806.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes. A convenient anti-Markownikoff hydration experiment  Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr.
A hydroboration-oxidation sequence that relies on the borane dimethylsulfide complex as the hydroborating agent and trimethylamine-N-oxide dihydrate as the oxidizing agent.
Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 745.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Addition Reactions
The kinetics and inhibition of the enzyme methemoglobin reductase: A biochemistry experiment  Splittgerber, A. G.; Mitchell, K.; Dahle, G.; Puffer, M.; Blomquist, K.
Describes the preparation and kinetics of a convenient oxidation-reduction system, methemoglobin reductase.
Splittgerber, A. G.; Mitchell, K.; Dahle, G.; Puffer, M.; Blomquist, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 680.
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Natural Products
The selective reduction of meta- (and para-) nitroacetophenone  Jones, Alan G.
By appropriate choice of reagent and reaction conditions a nitroketone can be selectively reduced to an aminoketone or a nitroalcohol; aromatic nitro groups can be reduced to primary arylamines using various chemical reducing agents.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 668.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Raku: A redox experiment in glass  Cichowski, Robert S.
In this experiment, students are given the opportunity to handle a glass making process, choosing a colorant and exploring possible reduction-oxidation reactions involving the colorant.
Cichowski, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 616.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Conversion of black and white prints to color in daylight. A demonstration lecture for general and organic courses  Wheeler, Thomas N.
A black and white print is converted to a full color print with the lights on; includes a detailed discussion of the chemical processes involved in the demonstration.
Wheeler, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 607.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction
The lion roars: Rebuttals to "what is oxidation?"  Schug, Kenneth; Koellner, John; Loveridge, Glen; Janke, James A.
Replies to the suggestion that oxidation and reduction be defined in terms of oxidation numbers.
Schug, Kenneth; Koellner, John; Loveridge, Glen; Janke, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 602.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Microbial oxidation of alkenes. An integrated organic-biology experiment  Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J.
The conversion of an appropriate terminal alkene to a 1,2-epoxyalkane by Pseudomonas oleovorans introduces students to the techniques used in carrying out chemical conversions employing microorganisms.
Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 475.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Natural Products
A new chemistry program for nursing and allied health students  Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr.
Outlines and discusses the topics considered in a chemistry program for nursing and allied health students.
Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 226.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Metabolism |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Synthesis of sulfuric acid by the contact process. A student laboratory experiment  Martin, J. A.; Baudot, P.; Monal, J. L.; Lejaille, M. F.
Experimental apparatus and details for the synthesis of sulfuric acid by the contact process.
Martin, J. A.; Baudot, P.; Monal, J. L.; Lejaille, M. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 188.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Industrial Chemistry
What is oxidation?  Herron, J. Dudley
Why do most teachers continue to define oxidation and reduction in terms of a gain and loss of electrons rather than in terms of a change in oxidation number? [Debut]
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 51.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Properties of air-A freshman chemistry lecture demonstration  Schultz, C. W.
A simple yet dramatic lecture demonstration can help tie together concepts of oxygen chemistry, combustion, gas properties and rates of reactions.
Schultz, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 751.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
Computer programs for gas laws and stoichiometry drills  Dever, David F.
The programs profiled here are written in Basic and are instructive in Avogadro's Principle, stoichiometric relations, and the concept of oxidation and reduction.
Dever, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 650.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Gases
Simple free energy- oxidation state diagrams  Myers, R. Thomas
The author describes an experiment that can be used for an advanced inorganic chemistry class.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 444.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
A new oxidation-reduction experiment  Williams, T. R.; Van Doren, J. D.
The authors describe an experiment in oxidation and reduction that also introduces students to spectroscopy.
Williams, T. R.; Van Doren, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
Reduction of copper(II) oxide by alkanes of low molecular weight  Hoffman, A. B.; Hoffman, A. J.
This paper describes a laboratory where general chemistry students investigate the reduction of CuO by alkanes of low molecular weight.
Hoffman, A. B.; Hoffman, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 418.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A novel approach for qualitative analysis  Ophadt, Charles E.
This qualitative analysis series allows students to spend a semester exploring the behavior of one ion during the course of a semester that might not be readily learned from a textbook.
Ophadt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 415.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Corrosion  Slabaugh, W. H.
The topic of corrosion extends several basic concepts of electrochemistry with which students can relate. This article outlines: standard electrochemical potentials; corrosion of iron' corrosion of aluminum; application of electrochemical concepts; and ideas for some experiments.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 218.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Demonstration of lanthanide reactivity  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
A very efficient demonstration of the reactivity of the lanthanide involves striking a cigarette lighter or a burner lighter. This action shows the spontaneous ignition in air of lanthanide metal pieces with large surface area, which are no longer covered by the protective coating of the sparking lighter flint.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 196.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Hazardous materials: A community college fire science course  Fashing, Edward M.; Flynn, Leo
A 3-credit course is offered to the Chicago area fire fighters and students earning an Associate Degree in Fire Science.
Fashing, Edward M.; Flynn, Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 171.
Oxidation / Reduction
The preparation, oxidation and characterization of an unknown secondary alcohol  Chittum, John W.; Haynes, LeRoy W.
The authors share an experiment that blends a sequential set of reactions and elements of qualitative organic analysis.
Chittum, John W.; Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 57.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis
Analysis of reducing sugars in breakfast cereal and other foods. A general chemistry experiment  Bittman, Robert
The experiment described here has been introduced in the freshman chemistry laboratory and has been found to be of interest to the student and instructive as well.
Bittman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 46.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science
The octane cannon experiment updated for television  Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.
Video recording the detonation of octane in a clear tube for frame-by-frame analysis of a rapid reaction.
Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 856.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Some reactions of tungsten: A lecture demonstration  Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H.
Several demonstrations involving reactions of tungsten.
Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 810.
Metals |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The reduction of CuO with burner gas and without a fume hood. A high school chemistry experiment  Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas
This experiment is a modification of the classic reduction of CuO with hydrogen gas, except natural gas is used as the reducing agent, eliminating the danger of working with hydrogen.
Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 717.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Analysis of commercial vitamin C tablets by iodometric and coulometric titrimetry  Marsh, Daniel G.; Jacobs, Deborah L.; Veening, Hans
The ascorbic acid content of vitamin C tablets is determined iodometrically using a back titration with standard thiosulfate; ascorbic acid is then titrated coullometrically by direct oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid using electrolytically generated bromine.
Marsh, Daniel G.; Jacobs, Deborah L.; Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 626.
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Molecular weight determination of aldehydes and ketones. A quantitative organic experiment  Steinhaus, Ralph K.
The reaction between semicarbazide and an unknown ketone is used to determine molecular weight.
Steinhaus, Ralph K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 293.
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Conjugate acid-base and redox theory  Pacer, Richard A.
Consideration of relative oxidizing / reducing strength would be greatly facilitated if this topic were presented in terms of transfer of one or more electrons between members of a conjugate redox pair.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 178.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Charge-transfer complexes and photochemistry  Dack, Michael R. J.
Examines the properties of charge-transfer complexes and their photochemical reactions.
Dack, Michael R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 169.
Photochemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Polymerization
Commercial gas replaces hydrogen in general chemistry laboratory  Ehlert, Thomas C.
Methane can be used in place of hydrogen to reduce metal oxides.
Ehlert, Thomas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 162.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Metals
Use of a new chemical reducing agent in the undergraduate organic laboratory  Kushner, Arthur S.; Vaccariello, Terry
Using sodium bis(2-methoxy-ethoxy)aluminum hydride as a reducing agent in the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Kushner, Arthur S.; Vaccariello, Terry J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 154.
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
The difference in oxidizing strength of dilute and concentrated nitric acid  Glasoe, Paul K.
H2S gas is bubbled through dilute and concentrated HNO3.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A644.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
The reducing property of ammonia  Long, Robert H.
Heating black copper (II) oxide with ammonium carbonate yields metallic copper, red copper (I) oxide, and water.
Long, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A85.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
On-line digital computer applications to kinetic analysis. An undergraduate experiment  Jones, D. O.; Scamuffa, M. D.; Portnoff, L. S.; Perone, S. P.
This experiment concerns itself with determining the concentration of glucose in the 10-100 ppm range by measuring its oxidation rate in the presence of the enzyme glucose oxidase.
Jones, D. O.; Scamuffa, M. D.; Portnoff, L. S.; Perone, S. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 717.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates
The bombardier beetle  Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L.
The chemistry behind the bombardier beetle's chemical defenses illustrates the principles of reaction rates, catalysis, and laboratory safety.
Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 705.
Applications of Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Additional reactions of the ferroxyl indicator  Myers, R. T.; Falcone, R. E.
When the Ferroxyl system (indicator and iron sample) is allowed to react past its initial colored products to its logical end (ferric hydroxide), a wealth of chemical teaching material can be uncovered.
Myers, R. T.; Falcone, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 599.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Oxidation of fats. A study using glc  Hamilton, R. J.; Raie, M. Y.
Olive oil is oxidized under von Rudloff conditions; the short-chain fatty acids that are liberated are then analyzed using gas-liquid chromatography.
Hamilton, R. J.; Raie, M. Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 507.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Lipids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Fatty Acids
The presentation of electrode potentials using an energy level diagram  Pinfold, T. A.
The tabular form in which standard electrode potentials are usually presented often leads to confusion that can be diminished by representing the electrochemical series on an energy diagram like that provided.
Pinfold, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 506.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Dissolved oxygen. A relevant experiment for the introductory laboratory  Stagg, William R.
Students measure the dissolved oxygen content of water from several natural sources as well as the change in solubility with temperature.
Stagg, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 427.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Theories on the slow, gas-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons  Baker, R. R.; Yorke, D. A.
Presents the current theories on hydrocarbon oxidation in the slow reaction region.
Baker, R. R.; Yorke, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 351.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Computer evaluation of titrations by Gran's method. An analytical chemistry experiment  MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A.
A computer program has been developed for the evaluation of potentiometric redox titration data by Gran's method.
MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Selective reduction of dinitrobenzenes. An organic laboratory experiment  Idoux, John P.; Plain, Wendell
Different students are assigned different reducing agents and asked to explain why their particular selective reduction occurs as their results indicate.
Idoux, John P.; Plain, Wendell J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 133.
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
When your car rusts out  Knockemus, Ward
Explains the rusting of a car by considering electrochemical corrosion and the Nernst equation.
Knockemus, Ward J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Reactions
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Six questions requiring an application of basic principles of chemistry. [Debut]
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 5.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Vitamins |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Redox titration calculations   Quane, Denis
The writer points out that a common redox calculation is not sufficient for calculating potentials of several common analytical reagents.
Quane, Denis J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, A104.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Photo-oxidation of leuco methyl crystal violet. A physical chemistry experiment  Thyrion, F. C.
The experiment of carbon tetrachloride-sensitized oxidation of leuco methyl crystal violet described in this paper can easily be easily achieved in 3 hr and does not required special procedures that are often necessary in this field.
Thyrion, F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 766.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Concentration cells with liquid junction  Forland, T.; Thulin, L. U.; Ostvold, T.
Instead of making the emphasis on undefined or irrelevant local electric potential differences in the cell by the calculation of an emf, as is frequently done, the authors feel that the emphasis should be on the gradients of chemical potential of neutral components of the cell and on how the content of these components is changed by charge transfer.
Forland, T.; Thulin, L. U.; Ostvold, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 741.
Transport Properties |
Electrochemistry |
Surface Science |
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Principles of electrochemical energy conversion  Burrows, Brian
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the major principles involved in electrochemical energy conversion and to relate these to the kinetics of electrode processes.
Burrows, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 732.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Kinetics of the oxidation of benzyl alcohol  Liu, Michael T. H.
The present paper describes an experiment in kinetics that is suitable for an undergraduate laboratory course in physical chemistry. It has the advantage of being simple to carry out and of brining some points that are not often covered in conventional kinetics experiments. The experiment has been performed with very satisfactory results by a number of students.
Liu, Michael T. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 703.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Oxymercuration-demercuration. An organic experiment involving the Markovnikov hydration of olefins  Gibbs, R.; Weber, William P.
While acid catalyzed hydration of olefins to yield alcohol's is important in organic chemistry, it is seldom performed by students for practical reasons. The authors contribute a laboratory that can be particularly performed by organic chemistry students.
Gibbs, R.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 477.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Lipids
Oxidation of ethanol by chromium(VI). A kinetics experiment for freshmen  Finlayson, Muriel E.; Lee, Donald G.
The experiment presented here generates a good deal of interest and gives clear cut results without the necessity of using elaborate equipment.
Finlayson, Muriel E.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 473.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols
Space resource. Chemical rocket propellants  Bowman, William H.; Lawrence, Richard M.
The chemical understanding that explains chemical rocks propellants.
Bowman, William H.; Lawrence, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 335.
Astrochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
A simple inexpensive method for obtaining infrared spectra of air-sensitive solutions  Marks, Tobin J.
The authors share a simple, inexpensive method for dealing with spectra samples that react with oxygen.
Marks, Tobin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 167.
Oxidation / Reduction |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
Reduction of trichloroacetic acid to dichloroacetic acid. An organic electrosynthesis experiment  Iversen, Palle E.
This experiment has been designed to demonstrate the method of controlled, potential electrolysis (CPE) by selectively reducing trichloroacetic acid to dichlorioacetic acid on a mercury cathode in a divided cell at room temperature in an aqueous ammonia buffer.
Iversen, Palle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 136.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
A color indicating time reaction  Chen, Philip S.
Combining solutions of sodium thoisulfate and ferric chloride produces a dramatic color change.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A784.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion  Johnson, Joseph E.
Modifications or additions to previously published demonstration.
Johnson, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A439.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases |
Transport Properties |
Coordination Compounds
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
These twelve overhead projection demonstrations include rates of reactions, clock reactions, the effect of temperature and the presence of a catalyst on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the relationship between viscosity and temperature, equilibria, solubility product, and the common ion effect.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
13 demonstrations, including electrophoresis, electrolysis, corrosion inhibition, endothermic and exothermic reactions, crystals and crystallization, reactions with sodium, and the kinetics of H2O2 decomposition.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A387.
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Kinetics
Catalysis demonstrations with Cr2O3  Briggs, Thomas S.
Cr2O3 is used as a catalyst in the oxidation of nonflammable substances such as glycerine and glacial acetic acid.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Benzoic acid tree  Chen, Philip S.
Benzaldehyde undergoes autoxidation to benzoic acid by air, particularly upon exposure to light; the white benzoic acid is caused to form a crystalline tree on twisted pipe cleaners.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Autoxidation of benzoin  Chen, Philip S.
Benzoin in its enediol form undergoes autoxidation in alkaline solution in the presence of air.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A67.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Computer evaluation of rates experiment  Krieger, Albert G.
Notes the availability of a Fortran IV computer program for the numerical evaluation of the "Oxidation of Iodide Ion by Persulfate Ion."
Krieger, Albert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 839.
Reactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
Preparation of 6-aminosaccharin  Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford
This synthesis involves the substitution of a chlorosulfonyl group onto an aromatic ring at a position predictable on the basis of the directing ability of the groups already present, the oxidation of a methyl group, a cyclization that is an example of the ease with which five-membered rings are formed, and the reduction of a nitro group.
Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 649.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
General chemistry experiments: Six short, inexpensive procedures  Heit, M. L.; Dauphinee, G. A.
These simple experiments involve conductivity comparisons of derivatives of the acetate ion, paper chromatography, sublimation, the effect of temperature on equilibrium, the detection of I-, and an example of an equilibrium shift.
Heit, M. L.; Dauphinee, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 532.
Electrochemistry |
Chromatography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
A chemiluminescence reaction  Slabaugh, W. H.
A dramatic demonstration of chemiluminescence can be made with the oxidation of the vat dye violanthrone.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 522.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments
Controlled potential electrolysis: An experiment for elementary quantitative analysis  Kennedy, John H; Adams, Frank
Iron(II), iodide, and arsenic(III) are oxidized and data recorded using the E-cell Data-Stor Unit, a small silver coulometer.
Kennedy, John H; Adams, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 461.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Interpretation of oxidation-reduction  Goodstein, Madeline P.
Presents an interpretation of the oxidation number system based upon the electronegativity principle, thus removing the adjective "arbitrary" frequently found in the descriptions of oxidation number.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 452.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
The equivalent weight of the iodate ion in oxidimetric titrations  Pantani, Francesco
Titrations with potassium iodate can not only solve many analytical problems but are also of educational importance, since iodate ions are involved in numerous redox systems; this paper explains the analysis of these types of titrations and the determination of equivalent weight.
Pantani, Francesco J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 309.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Equivalence point potential in redox titrations  Heyn, Arno H. A.
Many analytical chemistry textbooks ignore or mistake the effect of [H+] on the equivalence point potential.
Heyn, Arno H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents
The preparation and kinetics of aquation of bromopentaaquochromium(III): A new multipurpose experiment  Herman, I. J.; Lifshitz, Assa
This experiment involves four chromium compounds in their most stable oxidation states and complex formation and dissociation; the student conducts three different oxidation-reduction reactions while collecting kinetic measurements.
Herman, I. J.; Lifshitz, Assa J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 231.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Oxidation State |
Coordination Compounds
A simple cell for preparation of electrolytes  Penzes, S.
Design of a simple electrolytic cell that can produce a high concentration of the anodically dissolved metal.
Penzes, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 138.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Thermal decomposition of water by the use of the Nernst glower  Glaser, John O.
Relies on a Nernst glower to decompose water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen gas.
Glaser, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A497.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidizing action of sulfur dioxide  Lauren, Paul M.
A burning ribbon of magnesium is dropped into a flask of sulfur dioxide produces elemental sulfur.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A55.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Baby bottles and elementary chemistry  Davenport, D. A.
Presents several experiments that rely on baby bottles, including Charles' Law expansion, vapor pressure of volatile liquids, molecular weights of volatile liquids, and closed-atmosphere experiments.
Davenport, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 878.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Liquids |
Oxidation / Reduction
The oxidation of hydrazine by basic iodine solutions: A stoichiometric study  Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W.
This experiment relies on an oxidation-reduction reaction for which a variety of products is energetically possible.
Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 872.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Oxidative coupling: A new approach to azo chemistry  Hunig, S.
By looking for the important structural features of p-phenylenediamines that constitute their ability to couple oxidatively, it was possible to construct three new systems that are also capable of undergoing this reaction. The enormous variety possible in these systems permits the syntheses of a great number of unusual azo compounds.
Hunig, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 734.
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis: A factorial design experiment for the introductory organic laboratory  Norcross, B. E.; Clement, G.; Weinstein, M.
Students carry out the two-step Hantzsch pyridine synthesis; students are required to select the oxidizing agent and conditions for the second reaction step.
Norcross, B. E.; Clement, G.; Weinstein, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 694.
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Heterocycles |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A simple amperostat for coulometric titration  Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G.
Describes the circuit, assembly, and performance of a simple amperostat for coulometric titration.
Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 613.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
A simple method for the analysis of cobalt in Co(III) complexes  Hughes, R. Graham; Endicott, John F.; Hoffman, Morton Z.; House, D. A.
Presents two direct chemical methods for effecting the Co(III) to Co2+ reduction.
Hughes, R. Graham; Endicott, John F.; Hoffman, Morton Z.; House, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 440.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Group VI. The Sulfur Family D. Sulfur Dioxide  Alyea, Hubert N.
Seven demonstrations involving sulfur dioxide.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A977.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
A transparent dust explosion apparatus  Haight, G. P., Jr.; Duvall, Robert.; Phillips, Stanley
Design for a transparent dust explosion apparatus
Haight, G. P., Jr.; Duvall, Robert.; Phillips, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A833.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Nitrogen chemistry. E. Nitrites and nitrates  Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A.
Demonstrations include nitric acid + H2S, sodium nitrate + carbon, fire-writing with KNO3, nitrate ring test, nitrate versus nitrite, and micro-analysis for nitrogen compounds.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A607.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxygen and oxidation. Theories and techniques in the 19th century and the first part of the 20th (Farber, Eduard)  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A565.
Oxidation / Reduction
Organic substances of natural origin. Volume 1, oxidative coupling of phenols (Taylor, W. I.; Battersby, A. R.; eds.)  Coolidge, T.

Coolidge, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A562.
Natural Products |
Phenols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Catalytic oxidation of natural gas by platinum  Cooper, William C.
A hot platinum wire continues to glow in a stream of natural gas and air.
Cooper, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A519.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis
Oxidation of copper by hydrochloric acid  Walker, Noojin; George, Donald L.
Demonstrates the oxidation of copper by hydrochloric acid.
Walker, Noojin; George, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry
Spontaneous combustion  Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H.
Linseed oil is observed to char cotton over a period of time.
Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Studying the chemical properties of metallic aluminum  Feifer, Nathan
Studying the chemical properties of aluminum is made much easier by first producing an amalgam by treating aluminum with mercurous nitrate.
Feifer, Nathan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 648.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Error and trial: The story of the oxidative reaction of glycolysis  Oesper, Peter
Examines the history of the determination of the oxidative reaction of glycolysis.
Oesper, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 607.
Oxidation / Reduction
The kinetics of oxidation-reduction reactions: An alternate derivation of Marcus' cross relation  Newton, T. W.
The purpose of this article is to show how Marcus' cross relation can be derived from a simple, essentially mechanical model.
Newton, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 571.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Acids as derivatives of aldehydes prepared with silver oxides  Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G.
Examines the use of silver(i) and silver(II) oxide to convert aldehydes into acid derivatives.
Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Effect of complexing agents on oxidation potentials  Helsen, Jef
A short note on a simple experiment to demonstrate the effect of complexing agents on the oxidation-reduction properties of redox couples such as Fe3+/Fe2+.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 518.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions  Taube, Henry
Examines the mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Taube, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 452.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Oxidation State |
Coordination Compounds
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Using TLC to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone  Davis, Michael
A short note regarding a simple procedure involving the use of thin layer chromatography to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone.
Davis, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 192.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Biological oxidations and energy conservation  Kirschbaum, Joel
Examines the oxidative steps leading to the synthesis of ATP in living organisms and their metabolic control.
Kirschbaum, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 28.
Bioenergetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Metallurgy C. Reducton of Ore  Rogers, Crosby U.
Demonstrations include the reduction of Cu2O with charcoal, heating zinc carbonate, and zinc sulfide heated in air.
Rogers, Crosby U. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A717.
Metallurgy |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reaction rates and equilibria. D. Redox  Klug, Evangeline B.
Sugar + chlorate + acid produces an exothermic reaction using a violent oxidizing agent.
Klug, Evangeline B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A545.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium
Burning without access to air  Alfthan, Voldemar
Permanganate in the presence of sulfuric acid furnishes the oxygen needed for rapid combustion.
Alfthan, Voldemar J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Properties of flames  Eberhardt, William H.
Demonstrates the chemistry of flame production.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A345.
Oxidation / Reduction
Energy C. Electrical Energy  Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin
Demonstrations include aluminum flashed in oxygen; photo-bromination of cinnamic acid, hexane, tartaric acid, toluene; photochemical H2+Cl2 explosion and the slow photochemical H2+Cl2 into 2HCl.
Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A83.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Determination of the combining weight of tin: A new look at an old experiment  Carmody, Walter R.
Describes efforts to improve the determination of the combining weight of tin
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 416.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Synthesis
The photochemical oxidation of aqueous iodide solutions: An experiment demonstrating the competitive reactions of the hydrated electron  Ayscough, P. B.; Burchill, C. E.; Ivin, K. J; Logan, S. R.
Hydrated electrons are formed by the photochemical method referred to in the cited article.
Ayscough, P. B.; Burchill, C. E.; Ivin, K. J; Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 349.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
VII - Combustion and flame  Anderson, Robbin C.
Presents and describes an extensive bibliography on the study of combustion and flames.
Anderson, Robbin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 248.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction: An elementary chemistry experiment  Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W.
Students are asked to decide which of a number of nitrogen containing species is a reasonable product of the reaction between the hydroxylammonium ion and iron (III) on the basis of the experimentally determined stoichiometry of the reaction.
Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 109.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Stereochemical correlations in the camphor series  Markgraf, J. Hodge
This paper presents a series of experiments that require the student to interpret the effect of structure on the steric course of an oxidation and a reduction in a bicyclic system.
Markgraf, J. Hodge J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 36.
Stereochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Oxidation Mechanisms (Turney, T. A.)  Duke, F. R.

Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A760.
Oxidation / Reduction
Safety techniques for research and development of new high energy oxidizers  Nelson, Dennis G.
Considers safety issues related to research and development of new high energy oxidizers
Nelson, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A441.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
A simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis  Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A.
Present a circuit diagram and describes typical applications of a simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis.
Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 428.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods
Use of KMnO4, to oxidize interfering organic anions in qualitative analysis  Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V.
A simple procedure is presented here that is based upon the oxidation of organic material by permanganate ion in acidified medium.
Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 424.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Aliphatic deaminations in organic synthesis  Baumgarten, Ronald J.
The purpose of this article is to review aliphatic deaminations in organic synthesis.
Baumgarten, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 398.
Synthesis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction
Selective reduction of dinitro compounds  Weiss, Hilton M.
The selective reduction of aromatic dinitro compounds by ammonium sulfide is an opportunity to consider an open-ended question.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 384.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The use of oxidation potentials in inorganic chemistry  Jolly, William L.
This paper attempts to show, using a minimum of thermodynamics, how oxidation potentials can be used to predict the products and driving forces of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 198.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Combustion versus biological oxidation  Asenjo, Conrado F.
Describes a simple toy that can be used to illustrate the difference between combustion and biological oxidation.
Asenjo, Conrado F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 558.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Heat of reaction in aqueous solution by potentiometry and calorimetry: II. A redox reaction  Moss, Stephen J.; Hill, Derek L.
The purpose of this experiment is to measure the enthalpy change in a chemical reaction by determination of the temperature coefficient of emf of a suitable electrochemical cell, and to make an independent direct calorimetric check on the result.
Moss, Stephen J.; Hill, Derek L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 544.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Kinetics of corrosion of metals  Habashi, Fathi
It is the purpose of this paper to report that all corrosion processes that produce no insoluble end products and evolve hydrogen follow a single kinetic law.
Habashi, Fathi J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 318.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
Decolorization of glass  Dingledy, David
A common error in general chemistry textbooks is a statement that manganese dioxide decolorizes commercial glass by virtue of its ability to oxidize blue-green iron(II) to yellow-brown iron(III).
Dingledy, David J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 160.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Continuous process for catalytic oxidation of ammonia  Olmsted, Michael P.
A heated platinum coil catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia.
Olmsted, Michael P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A973.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Metallic reduction of aqueous hydrogen chloride  Walker, Noojin, Jr.
Calcium reacts with HCl to liberate hydrogen gas.
Walker, Noojin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A477.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion  Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H.
Presents the oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion as an ideal reaction to study as part of an experiment on kinetics.
Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 549.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Signs of tensions in electrochemistry  Van Rysselberghe, Pierre
Discusses conventions and definitions for electrochemical terms and relationships.
Van Rysselberghe, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 486.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction
The burning sugar cube: Still unexplained?  Doty, Gene
This brief note discusses possible explanations for the melting of a sugar cube where another rubbed with cigarette ashes burns.
Doty, Gene J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 244.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Rocket propulsion: The chemical challenge  Dafler, James R.
Examines the chemistry of rocket fuels and engines.
Dafler, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 58.
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The use of inorganic redox mechanisms in analytical chemistry  Schenk, George H.
Presents the equilibrium-controlled iodine-arsenic(III) reaction as a simple system for laboratory study with respect to inorganic redox mechanisms.
Schenk, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 32.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Catalysis |
Kinetics
Demonstration notes: Chemiluminescence in electrolysis  Villarreal, Fidel; Garcia, Octavio
Suggests a modification to the usual chemiluminescence demonstration with luminol.
Villarreal, Fidel; Garcia, Octavio J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
A simple kinetics experiment for general chemistry laboratory  Cone, W. H.; Hermens, R. A.
This simple kinetics experiment examines the oxidation of benzoic acid by potassium peroxodisulfate in the presence of catalytic amounts of silver ion.
Cone, W. H.; Hermens, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 421.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis
The stereochemistry of (-) menthol: An organic laboratory experiment  Dunathan, H. C.
This experiment determines the relative configuration of (-) menthol in which students measure optical rotations, follows the rate of a mutarotation, evaluates rate constants, and carries out a reaction involving asymmetric induction.
Dunathan, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 205.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction
Inorganic reaction mechanisms by volumetric analysis: Oxidation of iodide ion  Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Uses the Andrews' method of titration as a simple means of exposing the two-step oxidation of the iodide ion to iodine in concentrated hydrochloric acid with a variety of oxidizing agents.
Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 151.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A convenient synthetic technique to oxidize mercaptans to disulfides  Wallace, T. J.; Bartok, W.; Schrieshiem, A.
The purpose of this paper is to report on a technique that enables oxygen consumption to be measured as a function of time at atmospheric pressure.
Wallace, T. J.; Bartok, W.; Schrieshiem, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 39.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Gases
The chemistry of silver  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests some research activities based on an article published previously in the Journal.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A960.
Undergraduate Research |
Oxidation / Reduction
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion of H2S  Thomas, P. M.
Hydrogen sulfide passed over lead(IV) oxide bursts into flame.
Thomas, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Combustion, flames, and explosions of gases (Lewis, Bernard; von Elbe, Guenther)  Burgess, David

Burgess, David J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A312.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Gases |
Kinetics
Redox revisited  Lockwood, Karl L.
Examines issues regarding instruction in oxidation-reduction chemistry.
Lockwood, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 326.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Stoichiometry
New selective reducing agents  Brown, Herbert C.
Examines efforts to decrease the reducing power of lithium aluminum hydride and increase the reducing power of sodium borohydride.
Brown, Herbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 173.
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation-reduction mechanisms  Duke, F. R.
Summarizes various types of oxidation-reduction mechanisms.
Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 161.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Oxidation-reduction potentials of organic systems (Clark, W. Mansfield)  Remick, A. Edward

Remick, A. Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 158.
Oxidation / Reduction
A rapid efficient method for reducing certain metallic isotopic oxides  Baker, Philip S.
This short note describes a technique for reducing certain metallic isotopic oxides using hollowed-out spectrographic carbon as a combination container and reductant.
Baker, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 117.
Isotopes |
Oxidation / Reduction
Induced Oxidation (Jorissen, W. P.)  Wiberg, Kenneth B.

Wiberg, Kenneth B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A440.
Oxidation / Reduction
The Corrosion and Oxidation of Metals: Scientific Principles and Practical Applications (Evans, Ulick R.)  Goldstein, Ernst M.

Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 662.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Determining an empirical formula: A simple, rapid high school experiment  Harris, Sidney P.
This experiment involves the oxidation of copper by sulfur vapor.
Harris, Sidney P. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 516.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Halliwell, H. F.
Comments on limitations to an earlier published procedure for estimating cell potentials.
Halliwell, H. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The general equation for the equivalence point potential in oxidation-reduction titrations  Bard, Allen J.; Simonsen, S. H.
describes the derivation of a general equation for the equivalence point potential that is valid for all oxidation-reduction titrations in which no additional equilibria are extant.
Bard, Allen J.; Simonsen, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 364.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
Estimating standard oxidation potentials  Csanyi, Laszlo J.
Presents a relationship between the electrode potential and the oxidation potentials of an element in various oxidation states.
Csanyi, Laszlo J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 147.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation State |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Letters to the editor  Perkins, Alfred J.
A discussion of balancing redox equations in response to an earlier article in the Journal.
Perkins, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 474.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in inorganic qualitative analysis  Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko
Presents the results of an investigation into the sulfate-forming tendencies of various oxidizing agents.
Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 385.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Radiation chemistry of high polymers  Dole, Malcolm
Examines the effect of radiation on high polymers, including the formation of cross-links, degradation, unsaturation, energy transfer, and radiolytic oxidation.
Dole, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 353.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Writing oxidation-reduction equations: A review of textbook materials  Yalman, Richard G.
The purpose of this paper is to review those parts of a number of textbooks containing aids or suggestions to help students balance oxidation-reduction reactions.
Yalman, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 215.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Fundamental processes of autoxidation  Russell, Glen A.
It is the purpose of this review to summarize the mechanism of the autoxidation of molecular oxygen with organic materials.
Russell, Glen A. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 111.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Organometallics |
Photochemistry
Balancing organic redox equations  Burrell, Harold P. C.
This paper presents a method for balancing organic redox equations based on the study of structural formulas and an artificial device - the use of hypothetical free radicals.
Burrell, Harold P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 77.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Free Radicals
Instability of sulfur-potassium chlorate mixture: A chemical view  Tanner, Herbert G.
Provides two experiments intended to display the chemistry of and safety guidelines associated with the ignition of sulfur-potassium chlorate mixtures, regularly used as a fuel by model rocket enthusiasts.
Tanner, Herbert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 58.
Oxidation / Reduction
Explosive hazard of aluminum-liquid oxygen mixtures  Austin, Calvin M.; Rohrer, Charles S.; Seifert, Ralph L.
Details the serious explosive hazards and ignition properties of aluminum-liquid oxygen mixtures; this demonstration should NEVER be used for classroom or public viewing purposes.
Austin, Calvin M.; Rohrer, Charles S.; Seifert, Ralph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 54.
Oxidation / Reduction
The chemistry of silver. A demonstration sequence  Schwenck, J. Rae
Presents a series of reactions in which silver is transformed from its elemental form into several different compounds and then returned to its elemental form.
Schwenck, J. Rae J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 45.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
EDTA and complex formation  Johnston, M. B.; Bernard, A. J., Jr.; Flaschka, H. A.
It is the purpose of this paper to fill the void in chemistry texts regarding EDTA and its application to titrations in analytical chemistry, and to present some integrated experiments designed to serve as a general introduction to water-soluble chelates.
Johnston, M. B.; Bernard, A. J., Jr.; Flaschka, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 601.
Coordination Compounds |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Precipitation / Solubility
The stability of solutions for the iodine clock reaction  Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R.
The results of attempts to stabilize solutions needed for the iodine clock reaction to allow long-term storage.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 577.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Systematic detection of anions through their parent elements  Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente
Presents an analysis scheme that aims at the detection of the parent elements of the anions, no matter what their state of combination.
Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 545.
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The reduction of carbon dioxide  Hollander, Jerome; Spialter, Leonard
Examines the reduction of carbon through a variety of processes, including catalytic hydrogenation, reduction by metals and complex metal hydrides, electrochemical reduction, and reduction under the influence of radiation.
Hollander, Jerome; Spialter, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 446.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
The use of N-chlorosuccinimide for identification of bromide and iodide ions  Filler, Robert
Describes the use of N-chlorosuccinimide as an oxidizing agent in preference to "chlorine water" for the identification of bromide and iodide ions.
Filler, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 407.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Reduction of oxides by hydrogen: A quantitative experiment for general chemistry laboratory  Masterton, William L.; Demo, Joseph J., Jr.
Six oxides (CuO, NiO, CoO, SnO2, Co3O4, and Cu2O) have been found to give satisfactory results for reduction by hydrogen and determination of equivalent weights.
Masterton, William L.; Demo, Joseph J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 242.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
The oxidation of propionic acid with chromic acid at 120C  Tocher, Mab Hirschman
Describes the results of a kinetic study investigating the oxidation of propionic acid by chromic acid at an elevated temperature.
Tocher, Mab Hirschman J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 207.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Reduction with complex metal hydrides  Gaylord, Norman G.
Focusses on the use of lithium aluminum hydride, aluminum hydride, magnesium aluminum hydride, sodium aluminum hydride, sodium borohydride, potassium borohydride, lithium borohydride, and lithium gallium hydride as analytical reducing reagents.
Gaylord, Norman G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 367.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Reactions
Letters to the editor  Campbell, J. A.
The author includes an interpretation of the "Beating Heart Experiment" which was omitted in an earlier Journal article.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Chemistry of organic free radicals in the vapor phase. II. Reactions of alkoxy and alkylperoxy radicals; energetics of some alkyl radical reactions  De La Mare, Harold E.; Vaughan, William E.
Considers hydrocarbon oxidation, peroxide decomposition, decomposition of nitrite and nitrate esters, and the energetics of some simple alkyl radical reactions.
De La Mare, Harold E.; Vaughan, William E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 64.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Textbook errors: V. The reaction of the Leclanche dry cell  Mysels, Karol J.
Most textbooks do not completely and accurately describe the chemistry of the Leclanche dry cell.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 638.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Lecture demonstrations of incendiaries. II  Antelman, Marvin
Demonstrations described involve gunpowder, the combustion of sulfur dioxide, zirconium, nitric acid, sodium peroxide, hot iron, ammonium nitrate, organic chlorates and nitrates, and zinc stearate.
Antelman, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 273.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters to the editor  Hendricks, B. Clifford
Questions what happens to the cryolite needed in the reduction of aluminum from its ore.
Hendricks, B. Clifford J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 52.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A sequence of synthesis in the general organic laboratory class  Lange, Erwin F.; Teranishi, Roy; Christensen, Bert E.
This synthesis involves the oxidation of p-xylene, nitration and esterfication of terephthalic acid, reduction of nitroterephthalic acid, and the preparation of 4-quinazolone-7-carboxylic acid.
Lange, Erwin F.; Teranishi, Roy; Christensen, Bert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 40.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Spontaneous explosion of a normally stable complex salt  Ellern, Herbert; Olander, Donald E.
Complex salts that contain oxygenated anions of a pyrotechnically active type such as nitrite, nitrate, chlorate, perchlorate, and others in conjunction with a "fuel" such as ammonia, hydrazine, hydroxlammine, or organic amines as a complexing agent are all potential explosives because of the presence of a strong oxidizer and a fuel within the same molecule.
Ellern, Herbert; Olander, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 24.
Oxidation / Reduction
A cell for the preparation of small quantities of alkali metals  Baker, Philip S.; Wells, G. F.; Rathkamp, W. R.
The work described here deals with the development of a miniature cell designed for the preparation of alkali metals (particularly lithium) from small amounts of their salts.
Baker, Philip S.; Wells, G. F.; Rathkamp, W. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 515.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
An oxidation-reduction diagram  Tarsey, Alexandre R.
Describes the construction and properties of a chart capable of providing a visual approach to correlating the various concepts pertaining to oxidation and reduction potentials.
Tarsey, Alexandre R. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 375.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Material balances and redox equations  Bennett, George W.
It is the purpose of this paper to remind teachers of a third method of balancing redox equations that does not depend on rule-of-thumb empiricism but relies on the conservation of matter.
Bennett, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 324.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Otis Coe Johnson and redox equations  Bennett, George W.
It is the purpose of this paper to point out what is basic verity and what is empiricism in Johnson's method for balancing oxidation-reduction equations.
Bennett, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 157.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Stoichiometry
Purification of nickel with carbonyl: A demonstration  Young, Roland S.
The isolation and purification of nickel by means of carbonyl can be used in a lecture demonstration to illustrate gas-solid reactions of oxide reduction, low temperature volatilization of a metal, dissociation of a gas at a slightly higher temperature into a metal and another gas, catalysis, and other chemical operations.
Young, Roland S. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 26.
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Gases |
Solids |
Catalysis
A modified silver tree  Shaw, William H. R.; Nowlin, B. T.
This silver tree begins with an evergreen-shaped construction made from sheet copper.
Shaw, William H. R.; Nowlin, B. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 581.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Investigation of complex metal ions by the polarographic method  Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J.
The purpose of this paper is to present in a simplified and readily understandable manner the outline of one of the instrumental methods that, in recent years, has become an increasingly prominent tool in the investigation of complex metal ions.
Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 557.
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters  Davidson, David
Responds to comments made in a related letter.
Davidson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 534.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Ricci, John E.
Discusses the question of teaching students how to "solve" problems requiring more than one equilibrium constant.
Ricci, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 532.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Demonstration of the intermediate position of cobalt between iron and nickel  Goldstein, Ernst M.
The different oxidizability of ferrous, cobaltous, and nickelous hydroxides, together with increasing color deepness of the oxidation products, can be used to demonstrate that cobalt is intermediate in its properties between iron and nickel.
Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 387.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Chemical reactions in the corrosion of metals  Burns, R. M.
Examines the chemistry of the corrosion of metals, particularly iron.
Burns, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 318.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry
Letters  Swinehart, D. F.
The author responds to questions raised regarding his earlier article on oxidation states.
Swinehart, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 265.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Letters  Miranda, Bienvenido T.
Commmentary on two earlier Journal articles.
Miranda, Bienvenido T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 264.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The algebra of simultaneous equilibria  Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth
Presents a series of rules for dealing with simultaneous equilibria using simple algebra.
Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 238.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Suggestions for demonstrations  Lapp, Walter S.
The author briefly describes demonstrations involving the cathodic protection of iron from corrosion, the use of lithium in preparing hydrogen, an easily constructed conductivity kit, and a support for rubber stoppers.
Lapp, Walter S. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 611.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Conductivity |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Redox diagrams  Sillen, Lars Gunnar
Develops redox diagrams that portray redox equilibria for a variety of species.
Sillen, Lars Gunnar J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 600.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Metals
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
The author elaborates on the source of a fallacy in the calculation of an overall redox potential by combination of two half-cell potentials.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Miller, Julius Sumner
The author asks for suggestions regarding the mechanism of tarnishing silverware covered by flannel cloth and wrapped with rubber bands.
Miller, Julius Sumner J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
An experiment on the law of multiple proportions  Secrist, John H.
It is suggested that the reduction of cuprous and cupric oxides serves as a satisfactory laboratory demonstration of the law of multiple proportions.
Secrist, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 283.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Engelhart, Max D.
The author responds to critical comments made in regard to his earlier paper.
Engelhart, Max D. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 48.
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemical propellants  Penner, S. S.
Describes the operation of a rocket motor, chemical that may be used as propellants, and the desirable properties of propellants used in liquid-fuel rocket engines.
Penner, S. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 37.
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A lecture demonstration of oxidation-reduction  Sanderson, R. T.
A very helpful demonstration of oxidation-reduction by electron transfer can be presented with the aid of a few permanent magnets of progressively increasing strengths to represent atoms of oxidizing agents, and an iron object to represent an electron.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 657.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Angus, L. H.
Briefly describes the use of ferroxyl gels to demonstrate the oxidation of iron.
Angus, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 556.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
Discusses pitfalls in the construction of "objective" examinations.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 556.
Oxidation / Reduction
An experiment on the determinations of formal oxidation potentials  Harvey, Aubrey E., Jr.; Manning, Delmer L.
Describes a simplified procedure for the determinations of formal oxidation potential of the ferrous-orthophenanthroline complex (Ferroin).
Harvey, Aubrey E., Jr.; Manning, Delmer L. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 527.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The effect of nitrous acid on the oxidizing power of nitric acid  Brasted, Robert C.
this demonstration illustrates that the oxidizing action of nitric acid may be considerably enhanced by small quantities of nitrous acid which are usually present.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 442.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation number in auto-redox reactions  Eblin, Lawrence P.
Examines the use of oxidation numbers in exploring the chemistry of auto-redox reactions.
Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 221.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reduction of benzophenone by aluminum isopropoxide  Cole, Quintin P.
Presents an apparatus and a microscale procedure for the reduction of benzophenone by aluminum isopropoxide.
Cole, Quintin P. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 142.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The use of starch-iodate paper in qualitative analysis  Lundin, John A.
Describes the preparation of starch-iodate paper and its use in detecting sulfur dioxide and reducing anions.
Lundin, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 122.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction