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Journal Articles: 272 results
[#95] A Candle in the Wind  Robert J. Eierman
Students follow in the footsteps of Michael Faraday and investigate the factors that enable a candle to burn.
Eierman, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 528A.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Synthesis of Albendazole Metabolite: Characterization and HPLC Determination  Graciela Mahler, Danilo Davyt, Sandra Gordon, Marcelo Incerti, Ivana Núñez, Horacio Pezaroglo, Laura Scarone, Gloria Serra, Mauricio Silvera, and Eduardo Manta
In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to the synthesis of an albendazole metabolite obtained by a sulfide oxidation reaction. Albendazole as well as its metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, are used as anthelmintic drugs. The oxidation reagent is H2O2 in acetic acid. The reaction is environmental friendly, fast, and proceeds with high yield. The crude reaction is analyzed by HPLC chromatography to determine purity. The simplicity of the experiment allows students to study chiral concepts, physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of the compounds, and HPLC determinations.
Mahler, Graciela; Davyt, Danilo; Gordon, Sandra; Incerti, Marcelo; Núñez, Ivana; Pezaroglo, Horacio; Scarone, Laura; Serra, Gloria; Silvera, Mauricio; Manta, Eduardo. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1652.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Organosulfur Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone  Patty L. Feist
This paper describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach and a compound with real-world applications. The experiment also affords students practice in extraction as well as IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1548.
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Construction of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Gas Sensor  Shabnam Virji, Bruce H. Weiller, Jiaxing Huang, Richard Blair, Heather Shepherd, Tanya Faltens, Philip C. Haussmann, Richard B. Kaner, and Sarah H. Tolbert
The objectives of this lab are to synthesize different diameter polyaniline nanofibers and compare them as sensor materials. Its advantages include simplicity and low cost, making it suitable for both high school and college students, particularly in departments with modest means.
Virji, Shabnam; Weiller, Bruce H.; Huang, Jiaxing; Blair, Richard; Shepherd, Heather; Faltens, Tanya; Haussmann, Philip C.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1102.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
pH |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
Preparation of Conducting Polymers by Electrochemical Methods and Demonstration of a Polymer Battery  Hiromasa Goto, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Fumihiro Togashi, Reina Ohta, Akitsu Tsujimoto, Eiji Kita, and Ken-ichi Ohshima
The electrochemical polymerization of aniline and pyrrole, and demonstrations of electrochromism and the polymer battery effect, are presented as demonstrations suitable for high school and introductory chemistry at the university level.
Goto, Hiromasa; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Togashi, Fumihiro; Ohta, Reina; Tsujimoto, Akitsu; Kita, Eiji; Ohshima, Ken-ichi. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1067.
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Polymerization
The Baeyer–Villiger Oxidation with Trifluoroacetic Acid and Household Sodium Percarbonate  Richard A. Kjonaas and Anthony E. Clemons
Reports a method for carrying out the BaeyerVilliger oxidation of cyclopentanone to d-valerolactone in a large-section introductory organic chemistry laboratory course.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Clemons, Anthony E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Metal Electrodeposition on an Integrated, Screen-Printed Electrode Assembly  Yieu Chyan and Oliver Chyan
Screen-printed, carbon strip electrodes illustrate the essential concepts of electrochemistry and electrodeposition; their light weight facilitates sensitive measurements of electrodeposited metal, allowing for the exploration of Faraday's law and electrodeposition efficiency.
Chyan, Yieu; Chyan, Oliver. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 565.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
[#95] A Candle in the Wind  Robert J. Eierman
Students follow in the footsteps of Michael Faraday and investigate the factors that enable a candle to burn.
Eierman, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 528A.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Yet Another Variation on the Electrolysis of Water at Iron Nails  Mark T. Stauffer and Justin P. Fox
Describes a variation on the electrolysis of water with iron nails in which a sharp contrast in the colors produced effectively demonstrates electrolysis and the diffusion of oxidized and reduced species from the electrodes.
Stauffer, Mark T.; Fox, Justin P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 523.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  Bruce M. Branan, Joshua T. Butcher, and Lawrence R. Olsen
This organic laboratory involves the ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil) followed by a reductive workup that generates an aldehyde easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra.
Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1979.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Aluminum—Air Battery  Modesto Tamez and Julie H. Yu
Students construct a homemade aluminum-air battery out of aluminum foil, activated charcoal, and saltwater that generates enough power to operate a simple electrical device.
Tamez, Modesto; Yu, Julie H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1936A.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Guided-Inquiry Approach to the Sodium Borohydride Reduction and Grignard Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds  Robert E. Rosenberg
Students teams identify unknowns and their reaction products and use their data to deduce that esters are less electrophilic than the other carbonyl compounds present, that Grignard reagents are more nucleophilic than sodium borohydride, and that carboxylic acid derivatives do not undergo the nucleophilic addition reactions that are characteristic of aldehydes and ketones.
Rosenberg, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1474.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
Electrochemistry of (Dihapto-Buckminster-Fullerene) Pentacarbonyl Tungsten(0)  Elvin Igartúa-Nieves, Yessenia Ocasio-Delgado, José Rivera-Pagán, and José E. Cortés-Figueroa
The primary objective of these cyclic voltammetry experiments is to teach the chemical interpretation of a voltammogram, in particular the relation between the frontier LUMOs of [60]fullerene and the number of reductionoxidation waves of [60]fullerene and (dihapto-[60]fullerene)W(CO)5.
Igartúa-Nieves, Elvin; Ocasio-Delgado, Yessenia; Rivera-Pagán, José; Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1464.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Organometallics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transition Elements
A Bioanalytical Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students: Biosensors Based on Metal Nanoparticles  John Njagi, John Warner, and Silvana Andreescu
Describes a laboratory experiment on the development of a biosensor in which students apply electrochemical methods to deposit gold nanoparticles onto electrode surfaces, immobilize an enzyme using glutaraldehyde chemistry, and perform quantitative analysis of phenol using a biosensor with amperometric detection.
Njagi, John; Warner, John; Andreescu, Silvana. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1180.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Phenols
Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone  Rajani Gandhari, Padma P. Maddukuri, and Thottumkara K. Vinod
Describes an eco-friendly procedure for the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids in water or a water-ethanol mixture using Oxone as the oxidant. The use of eco-friendly solvents, a non-toxic reagent, and the elimination of extraction solvents in the procedure demonstrate important green chemistry themes to students.
Gandhari, Rajani; Maddukuri, Padma P.; Vinod, Thottumkara K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 852.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction  Richard B. Weinberg
Describes a fluorescent clock reaction based on the principles of the Landolt iodine reaction but using the potent fluorescence quenching properties of triiodide to abruptly extinguish the ultraviolet fluorescence of optical brighteners present in liquid laundry detergents.
Weinberg, Richard B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 797.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
pH |
Photochemistry |
Rate Law |
Vitamins
Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Monitoring of the Cyclic Voltammetric Deposition of Polyaniline. A Laboratory Experiment for Undergraduates  Qingji Xie, Zhili Li, Chunyan Deng, Meiling Liu, Youyu Zhang, Ming Ma, Shaoxi Xia, Xiaoming Xiao, Dulin Yin, and Shouzhuo Yao
Describes a laboratory experiment for fourth-year undergraduates in which an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is used to monitor the cyclic voltammetric deposition of a conducting polyaniline thin film on an Au electrode.
Xie, Qingji; Li, Zhili; Deng, Chunyan; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Ma, Ming; Xia, Shaoxi; Xiao, Xiaoming; Yin, Dulin; Yao, Shouzhuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 681.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Polymerization
Homemade Bienzymatic-Amperometric Biosensor for Beverages Analysis  M. C. Blanco-López, M. J. Lobo-Castañón, and A. J. Miranda-Ordieres
In this experiment students construct an amperometric glucose biosensor and use it to determine the glucose concentration in soft drinks.
Blanco-López, M. C.; Lobo-Castañón, M. J.; Miranda-Ordieres, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 677.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc–Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes  Masahiro Kamata and Miei Paku
Describes a new educational experiment using low-cost zincair batteries and current regulative diode arrays to quickly confirm Faraday's law of electrolysis.
Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 674.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Spoonful of C12H22O11 Makes the Chemistry Go Down: Candy Motivations in the High School Chemistry Classroom  Fanny K. Ennever
Describes sixteen motivations that combine food with measurement, nomenclature, stoichiometry, distillation, the periodic table, polarity, boiling point, rate of solution, catalysis, entropy, acids, redox, and organic compounds.
Ennever, Fanny K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 615.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Introducing New Learning Tools into a Standard Classroom: A Multi-Tool Approach to Integrating Fuel-Cell Concepts into Introductory College Chemistry   Matthew J. DAmato, Kenneth W. Lux, Kenneth A. Walz, Holly Walter Kerby, and Barbara Anderegg
Describes an approach to deliver the science and engineering concepts involved in fuel-cell technology to the introductory college chemistry classroom using traditional lectures, multimedia learning objects, and a lab activity to enhance student learning in a hands-on, interactive manner.
DAmato, Matthew J.; Lux, Kenneth W.; Walz, Kenneth A.; Kerby, Holly Walter; Anderegg, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 248.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Membranes
An Easy Way to Personalize Your Iron or Stainless Steel Items  Ejaz ur Rehman
Describes a simple and useful method for permanently labeling metallic items by the application of alternating current through a mask.
Rehman, Ejaz ur. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 40.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Kinetics Demonstration Involving a Green–Red–Green Color Change Resulting from a Large-Amplitude pH Oscillation  Brian W. Pfennig and Richard T. Roberts
Describes an oxidationreduction, clock reaction involving iodate, sulfite, and thiosulfate that produces large swings in pH, causing a combination of acidbase indicators to effect greenredgreen color changes.
Pfennig, Brian W.; Roberts, Richard T. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1804.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ruthenium(VI)-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols by Hexacyanoferrate(III): An Example of Mixed Order  Antonio E. Mucientes and María A. de la Peña
The absorbance decay of hexacyanoferrate(III) as a function of time shows a progressive deviation from zero to first order. This variation follows an experimental rate law that has been analyzed and explained.
Mucientes, Antonio E,; de la Peña, María A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1643.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Job's Analysis of the Range of the "Dalton Syringe Rocket"  Natalie Barto, Brandon Henrie, and Ed Vitz
An apparatus for safely igniting fuel gas/oxygen mixtures in a syringe and measuring the distance that the syringe is propelled is presented. The distance (range) is analyzed by the method of continuous variation (Job's Method) to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Barto, Natalie; Henrie, Brandon; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1505.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Stoichiometry
The Chemical Wizardry of J. K. Rowling  Jane Snell Copes
Many of the chemical special effects that take place at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry can be simulated and understood by non-magical chemists. This article connects Rowling's literary special effects to chemical references with safety information and directions.
Copes, Jane Snell. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1479.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Clock Reaction Sympathetic Ink from Consumer Chemicals  Stephen W. Wright, Marsha R. Folger, and Matthew A. Rice
Describes a "clock reaction" between hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid that causes writing to appear after predictable and controllable periods of time.
Wright, Stephen W.; Folger, Marsha R.; Rice, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1473.
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Vitamins |
Rate Law |
Oxidation State
Small-Scale and Low-Cost Galvanic Cells  Per-Odd Eggen, Truls Grønneberg, and Lise Kvittingen
Describes how to construct two small, qualitative galvanic cells from metal wires, nails, pencil lead, floral foam, culture plates, light diodes, and some simple solutions.
Eggen, Per-Odd; Grønneberg, Truls; Kvittingen, Lise. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1201.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
New Highlights on Analyzing First-Order Kinetic Data of the Peroxodisulfate–Iodide System at Different Temperatures  J. Yperman and W. J. Guedens
A pseudo-first order kinetic experiment examining the peroxodisulfateiodide system is executed at different temperatures, making it possible to calculate the activation energy of this reaction.
Yperman, J.; Guedens, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 641.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Thermodynamics
Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance  William H. Miles and Katelyn B. Connell
Describes the synthesis of a family of fragrances, including the commercially important Methyl Diantilis, and provides an excellent introduction to intellectual property laws.
Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 285.
Alcohols |
Food Science |
Catalysis |
Ethers |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Environmentally Responsible Redox Chemistry: An Example of Convenient Oxidation Methodology without Chromium Waste  Robyn L. Crumbie
This article describes a simple experiment that uses recyclable Magtrieve as the oxidant in a simple reaction sequence emphasizing the reciprocity of oxidation and reduction processes in organic synthesis.
Crumbie, Robyn L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 268.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
A Solvent-Free Baeyer–Villiger Lactonization for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: Synthesis of γ-t-Butyl-ε-caprolactone  John J. Esteb, J. Nathan Hohman, Diana E. Schlamadinger, and Anne M. Wilson
The BaeyerVilliger reaction provides an efficient method to convert ketones to esters or lactones. In this experiment, m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid and 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone are mixed together for under solvent-free conditions to produce ?-t-butyl-e-caprolactone.
Esteb, John J.; Hohman, J. Nathan; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1837.
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 6. Selective Reduction in Organic Chemistry: Reduction of Aldehydes in the Presence of Esters Using Sodium Borohydride  Ashvin R. Baru and Ram S. Mohan
Describes two discovery oriented lab experiments involving the chemoselective reduction of vanillin acetate and methyl 4-formylbenzoate in the presence of esters using sodium borohydride, followed by product identification using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
Baru, Ashvin R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1674.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Trusty or Rusty? Oxidation Rate of Nails  Stephen W. Wright
Students investigate the process of rusting using supermarket chemicals. Steel nails are placed in gelatin and allowed to react with atmospheric oxygen. Ferric ion produced by the oxidation is made visible as a garnet-colored complex formed by the magnesium salicylate in backache tablets. Factors that accelerate or retard the rate of iron oxidation are studied.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1648A.
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Rate Law
The Oxidation of Iron in a Gel Using Consumer Chemicals  Stephen W. Wright, Marsha R. Folger, and Ryan P. Quinn
The ferric ion produced by the oxidation of a steel nail in an agar gel is detected with salicylate to give a garnet-red color at the anodic areas where the oxidation of iron occurs.
Wright, Stephen W.; Folger, Marsha R.; Quinn, Ryan P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1633.
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 8. Microscale Simultaneous Photocatalysis  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mena-Brito, and Arturo Fregoso-Infante
In this article we describe a microscale experiment in which the simultaneous oxidation of an organic compound (citric acid) and the reduction of a metal ion (Cu2+) are photocatalytically performed in an aqueous slurry containing TiO2 irradiated with UV light. This produces electrons (capable of reducing the metal ions) and holes (capable of oxidizing the organic molecule) that can be used for environmental clean up. The experiment allows students to have a better comprehension of the different phenomena involved in a typical photocatalytic process.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mena-Brito, Rodrigo; Fregoso-Infante, Arturo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1549.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Photochemistry |
Semiconductors |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon, M. T. Moran-Moran, Alejandro Alatorre-Ordaz, Bruce Mattson, and Scot Eskestrand
Ozone, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is produced electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it, to observe its action in simulated environmental applications, and to measure its rate of production.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mayen-Mondragon, Rodrigo; Moran-Moran, M. T.; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Mattson, Bruce; Eskestrand, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1546.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The Entrance and Exit Effects in Small Electrochemical Filter-Press Reactors Used in the Laboratory  Angel Frías-Ferrer, José González-García, Verónica Sáez, Eduardo Expósito, Carlos M. ánchez-Sánchez, Vicente Montiel, Antonio Aldaz, and Frank C. Walsh
An experiment has been designed to aid chemical engineering students in understanding the importance of size in small reactors in order to get suitable data for subsequent extrapolations to larger reactors and, therefore, for the scaleup of small systems. The experimental arrangement and procedures are described, and the theory needed to interpret the experimental results is discussed. Reactor geometry and size and experimental procedure are highlighted as key parameters in the study.
Frías-Ferrer, Angel; González-García, José; Sáez, Verónica; Expósito, Eduardo; ánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M.; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio; Walsh, Frank C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1395.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transport Properties
Mass Relationships in a Chemical Reaction: Incorporating Additional Graphing Exercises into the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
The purpose of this article is to increase student involvement with graph construction specifically in the context of introductory laboratory activities that involve mass relationships between reacting substances and products. In this regard, five massmass plots derived from a synthesis of a binary compound from its elements are presented as well as a set of questions to focus learners on the significance of each plot. The benefit of providing learners with these types of graphing activities include the use of higher-order cognitive processes as well as the elucidation of fundamental chemical knowledge such as the law of the conservation of mass, the law of constant composition, limiting and excess reactants, and empirical formula.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1219.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis
Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy  Kestutis Bendinskas, Christopher DiJiacomo, Allison Krill, and Ed Vitz
A two-week biochemistry experiment was introduced in the second-semester general chemistry laboratory to study the oxidation of ethanol in vitro in the presence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). This reaction should pique student interest because the same reaction also occurs in human bodies when alcoholic drinks are consumed. Procedures were developed to follow the biochemical reaction by visible spectroscopy and to avoid specialized equipment. The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of this enzymatic reaction was investigated during the first week. The effects of temperature, pH, the specificity of the enzyme to several substrates, and the enzyme's inhibition by heavy metals were explored during the second week.
Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1068.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Food Science
Steel Wool and Oxygen: A Look at Kinetics  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
An experimental method is described to study the kinetics of the reaction of the iron in steel wool with molecular oxygen. A calculator-based data collection system is used with an oxygen gas sensor to determine the order of the reaction with respect to oxygen. Using the graphical method, students determine that the reaction follows first-order kinetics with respect to oxygen.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1065.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Microwave-Assisted Reduction of Cyclohexanone Using Solid-State-Supported Sodium Borohydride  Lori L. White and Kevin W. Kittredge
We report a microwave-assisted reduction of cyclohexanone by sodium borohydride that is supported on SiO2. The reaction was completed in less than 3 minutes. Workup and analysis by GCMS, IR, and 1H NMR was possible in a two and half-hour laboratory session. This reduction was used successfully in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory. Students were exposed to a green chemistry reaction using solid-state-supported reactants in the absence of solvent.
White, Lori L.; Kittredge, Kevin W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1055.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess–Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Nicole A. Reed, Robert D. Rapp, Christian S. Hamann, and Pamela G. Artz
Using circular dichroism, organic laboratory students investigated the change in absolute stereochemistry upon oxidation of menthol to menthone. In the first laboratory period, the oxidation was performed with DessMartin periodinane, which is a facile and less toxic oxidizing agent. Half the laboratory group performed the oxidation with ()-menthol and the other half used (+)-menthol to produce ()-menthone and (+)-menthone, respectively. The products were analyzed in the second laboratory period using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine the fraction of starting alcohol converted to ketone. Comparison was made between CD spectra both for the menthol reactant and menthone product and for the (+)- and ()-menthone enantiomers.
Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1053.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Enantiomers
Catalytic Oxygen Evolution by a Bioinorganic Model of the Photosystem II Oxygen-Evolving Complex  Derrick L. Howard, Arthur D. Tinoco, Gary W. Brudvig, John S. Vrettos, and Bertha Connie Allen
This article details a series of experiments suitable for advanced undergraduates that will introduce them to the preparation and characterization of a bioinorganic model complex. Techniques and concepts emphasized include inorganic synthesis, UV-visible spectroscopy, titrations, catalytic mechanisms, oxidation-reduction reactions, and kinetics.
Howard, Derrick L.; Tinoco, Arthur D.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Vrettos, John S.; Allen, Bertha Connie. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 791.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Plant Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Spectrophotometric Determination of the Hole Concentration in the Superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x. An Undergraduate Experiment  Jack I. Hoppé and Mounir A. Malati
The preparation and characterization of the superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x, or YBCO, are described. The experiment is based on the reduction of the holes by FeCl2 in 1 M HCl solution under laboratory vacuum. This reaction leads to the formation of Fe(III) chloride, mainly in the form of tetrahedral [FeCl4], together with Cu(II) chloride, mainly in the form [CuCl4]2. The electronic spectra of the two species, as well as Fe(II) chloride, are described.
Hoppé, Jack I.; Malati, Mounir A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 299.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Solid State Chemistry |
Superconductivity
The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
A new detection method is applied to a classic experiment in which gaseous atmospheric oxygen in a test tube is reacted with the iron in steel wool to produce rust. A gas pressure sensor interfaced to a calculator-based data collection system was used to measure the percent of oxygen in the air as the reaction proceeded. The results from the calculator-based experiment were compared to the results from a more traditional water-measurement experiment. The average percent of oxygen obtained using the calculator system was 19.4  0.4%.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 286.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Photoelectrochromism in Tungsten Trioxide Colloidal Solutions  C. R. Chenthamarakshan, N. R. de Tacconi, Lucy Xu, and Krishnan Rajeshwar
This article describes a simple laboratory experiment in which students observe the color changes undergone by tungsten trioxide (WO3) colloids subjected to UV irradiation. This experiment begins with the preparation of the colloidal solutions. The changes induced in their UVvisible absorption profiles by organic additives such as sodium oxalate are then examined. The experiment can be used to teach concepts in materials chemistry, photoelectrochemistry, electron-transfer processes, quantum mechanics, colloid chemistry, or chemical instrumentation depending on the instructor's emphasis.
Chenthamarakshan, C. R.; de Tacconi, N. R.; Xu, Lucy; Rajeshwar, Krishnan. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1790.
Instrumental Methods |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Analysis of Gold Ores by Fire Assay  Kristy M. Blyth, David N. Phillips, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
This article describes a laboratory exercise for the analysis of gold using the fire-assay technique. This method of analysis not only provides students with an introduction to the technique of fire assay, but also covers some very interesting acidbase and redox chemistry. The gold is collected in a lead button while the remainder of the constituents find their way into a slag. The gold is recovered from the lead by absorption in a boneash cupel.
Blyth, Kristy M.; Phillips, David N.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1780.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Copper Metal from Malachite circa 4000 B.C.E.  Gordon T. Yee, Jeannine E. Eddleton, and Cris E. Johnson
The experiment starts with a naturally occurring ore, malachite, essentially pure Cu2CO3(OH)2, which is readily available at modest cost in bead form from jewelry stores. Using only a Bunsen burner, a porcelain crucible, and a charcoal briquette, the experiment demonstrates two steps in the ancient processing of copper ore: roasting and reduction. The product is a shiny copper metal bead that can then be hammered, polished, and shown to be electrically conductive.
Yee, Gordon T.; Eddleton, Jeannine E.; Johnson, Cris E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1777.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Studying Current–Potential Curves Using Bipotentiometric Iodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  Roxana A. Verdini and Claudia M. Lagier
A method for the determination of the ascorbic acid content in fruits and vegetables was used to introduce the principles of voltammetry. The procedure combines an iodometric back-titration with voltammetric (bipotentiometric) end point detection, which minimizes the risk of ascorbic acid oxidation, allowing for a rapid and efficient quantification of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. A better understanding of the titration curve is achieved by analyzing the schematic currentpotential curves of the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions during the titration.
Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1482.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Vitamins |
Consumer Chemistry
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Organic Compounds without H2 Supply: An Electrochemical System  Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro and Marcelo Navarro
A system for hydrogenation of organic compounds without a hydrogen gas supply is described. The process involves an electrochemical apparatus for the generation of hydrogen in situ. The simplicity of the experiment allows students to carry out easy experiments in the laboratory and the instructors to introduce the following concepts: electrochemical principles and catalytic and hydrogenation reactions. A sacrificial anode of nickel is used in the electrochemical system with a double function: to permit the use of an undivided cell and activate the cathode surface.
Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Navarro, Marcelo. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1350.
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Small-Scale and Low-Cost Apparatus for the Electrolysis of Water  Per-Odd Eggen and Lise Kvittingen
This article describes how to construct two simple, inexpensive, and illustrative apparatuses using disposable polyethene pipets and floral wire for electrolysis of water. These apparatuses suit various grades and curricula.
Eggen, Per-Odd; Kvittingen, Lise. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1337.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Mass Spectrometry for the Masses  Jared D. Persinger, Geoffrey C. Hoops, and Michael J. Samide
In this article, we describe an experiment for an introductory chemistry course that incorporates the use of mass spectrometry for sample analysis. Several different air samples are collected that represent various chemical processes, and the composition of the air sample is predicted on the basis of known chemical principles. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer is used to analyze these samples, and the relative quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and argon are calculated. On the basis of the data, the hypothesized sample composition is validated.
Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1169.
Mass Spectrometry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Gases
Chlor–Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach  C. M. Sánchez-Sánchez, E. Expósito, A. Frías-Ferrer, J. González-García, V. Montiel, and A. Aldaz
An experiment is described that approximates the industrial chloralkali process using a membrane cell.
Sánchez-Sánchez, C. M.; Expósito, E.; Frías-Ferrer, A.; González-García, J.; Montiel, V.; Aldaz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 698.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Chemistry of Photographic Color Dye Formation  Bruce E. Kahn
A laboratory activity is described where black and white photographs are converted to color images in a variety of ways.
Kahn, Bruce E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 694.
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Isolation of Copper from a 5–Cent Coin. An Example of Electrorefining  Steven G. Sogo
The United States 5cent coin, commonly known as a "nickel", is made of an alloy containing 75% copper and 25% nickel. The experiment is a visually appealing illustration of the process of electrorefining using selective reduction.
Sogo, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 530.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Caveman Chemistry: 28 Projects, from the Creation of Fire to the Production of Plastics (Kevin M. Dunn)  Michael S. Matthews
In Caveman Chemistry, Kevin Dunn presents a historically oriented hands-on introduction to chemistry and chemical technology that is tremendously entertaining.
Matthews, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 490.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Natural Products |
Nonmajor Courses
Developing Investigation Skills in an Introductory Multistep Synthesis Using Fluorene Oxidation and Reduction  Mark G. Stocksdale, Steven E. S. Fletcher, Ian Henry, Paul J. Ogren, Michael A. G. Berg, Roy D. Pointer, and Barrett W. Benson
A two-step reaction sequence in the beginning organic laboratory provides a useful introduction to the importance of multistep synthesis. In addition to introducing several common synthetic methods and techniques, a two-step preparation can quickly establish the importance of testing alternative reactions in order to optimize intermediate yields.
Stocksdale, Mark G.; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Henry, Ian; Ogren, Paul J.; Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.; Benson, Barrett W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 388.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 6: Microscale Production of Ferrate  Jorge G. Ibanez, Monica Tellez-Giron, Diana Alvarez, and Elizabeth Garcia-Pintor
Ferrate, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is synthesized chemically and electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it and to observe its action in simulated environmental applications.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Tellez-Giron, Monica; Alvarez, Diana; Garcia-Pintor, Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 251.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Spectrophotometric Study of the Permanganate–Oxalate Reaction: An Analytical Laboratory Experiment  Gene E. Kalbus, Van T. Lieu, and Lee H. Kalbus
The experiment is divided into two parts. Part I involves the determination of an unknown oxalate. Part II of the experiment involves examination of the effect of sulfuric acid concentration and the effect of manganous ion concentration on the rate of and outcome of the permanganateoxalate reaction.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 100.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Photogalvanic Cells for Classroom Investigations: A Contribution for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  Claudia Bohrmann-Linde and Michael W. Tausch
Laboratory experiments examining the fundamental processes in the conversion of light into electrical energy using photogalvanic cells have been developed. These simple cells are suitable for classroom investigations examining the operating principles of photogalvanic cells and the influence of different parameters on their efficiency.
Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1471.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment  Atif Koca and Musa Sahin
The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.
Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1314.
Catalysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Where There's Fire There's....  Stephen W. Wright
Students compare the combustion of substances such as a glowing wooden toothpick and a lit birthday candle in air, oxygen, exhaled breath, and carbon dioxide environments. The oxygen and carbon dioxide gases are generated in glass bottles using household chemicals.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1160A.
Oxidation / Reduction
Reproportionation of Copper(I)  Jan Malyszko and Maria Kaczor
Cu(I) is an example of an intermediate oxidation state that can undergo disproportionation or reproportionation reactions depending on the solvent and background electrolyte. A simple experiment to demonstrate the reproportionation of copper(I) from the reaction between copper metal and copper(II) in acidic aqueous solution containing an excess of chlorides is presented.
Malyszko, Jan; Kaczor, Maria. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1048.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Calculation of the Characteristic Performance Indicators in an Electrochemical Process  C. M. Sánchez-Sánchez, E. Expósito, J. Solla-Gullón, V. García-García, V. Montiel, and A. Aldaz
Analysis of figures of merit in a procedure designed to illustrate important aspects of electrochemical engineering.
Sánchez-Sánchez, C. M.; Expósito, E.; Solla-Gullón, J.; García-García, Vicente; Montiel, V.; Aldaz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 529.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Incomplete Combustion with Candle Flames: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment in the First-Year Chemistry Lab  Joseph MacNeil and Lisa Volaric
Investigating a burning candle as an introduction to incomplete combustion, thermodynamics, kinetics, and gas chromatography.
MacNeil, Joseph; Volaric, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 302.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Gas Chromatography
Environmental Redox Potential and Redox Capacity Concepts Using a Simple Polarographic Experiment  Alejandro Pidello
Laboratory designed to enable students to distinguish clearly between redox potential and redox capacity concepts through results obtained in a complex natural system (soil).
Pidello, Alejandro. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 68.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Potentiometry
Microscale Quantitative Analysis of Hard Water Samples Using an Indirect Potassium Permanganate Redox Titration  John N. Richardson, Mark T. Stauffer, and Jennifer L. Henry
A procedure for a microscale quantitative analysis of hard water samples using an indirect potassium permanganate redox titration.
Richardson, John N.; Stauffer, Mark T.; Henry, Jennifer L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 65.
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Determination of the Empirical Formula of a Copper Oxide Salt Using Two Different Methods  Michael J. Sanger and Kimberly Geer
Converting copper oxide into copper metal using two different methods: reduction of copper oxide to copper metal using methane gas, and reduction of copper oxide to copper metal using aluminum in aqueous solution; the results are used to determine the empirical formula of copper oxide.
Sanger, Michael J.; Geer, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 994.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Chiral Compounds and Green Chemistry in Undergraduate Organic Laboratories: Reduction of a Ketone by Sodium Borohydride and Baker's Yeast  Nicola Pohl, Allen Clague, and Kimberly Schwarz
Students compare biological and chemical means of introducing chirality into a molecule by investigating the reduction of a ketoester with two different reducing agents.
Pohl, Nicola; Clague, Allen; Schwarz, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 727.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry
A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts  Emilio Rodríguez and Miguel Angel Vicente
A 10-hour integrated experiment that covers all the inorganic chemistry topics in first-year chemistry and chemical engineering courses.
Rodríguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 486.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents
A Simple Student Experiment for Teaching Surface Electrochemistry: Adsorption of Polyoxometalate on Graphite Electrodes  David Martel, Neso Sojic, and Alexander Kuhn
Experiment that illustrates the electrochemical behavior of a surface-adsorbed redox species through cyclic voltametry.
Martel, David; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 349.
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Surface Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Microscale Determination of Vitamin C by Weight Titrimetry  Gaston A. East and Erica C. Nascimento
Electroanalytical method for the microscale determination of vitamin C using a nontraditional oxidimetric titrant.
East, Gaston A.; Nascimento, Erica C. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 100.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Efficient Composition for Bengal Lights  M. Comet, L. Schreyeck, and H. Fuzellier
Producing bengal lights (colored flames) using different mixtures of colorants to introduce the solid-phase redox theory in inorganic chemistry.
Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Fuzellier, H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 70.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
Just Breathe: The Oxygen Content of Air   JCE Editorial Staff
Students estimate the percent oxygen (volume) in air using steel wool in a test tube that is inverted in a beaker of water. Oxygen in the trapped air reacts with iron to form rust, and the water level rises inside the test tube; within 30-45 minutes, the majority of oxygen is consumed.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 512A.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Burning to Learn: An Introduction to Flame Retardants   JCE Editorial Staff
This activity demonstrates the effectiveness of flame retardants, substances added to combustible materials to slow down or hinder burning.
JCE Editorial Staff, . J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 328A.
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of Free Lime in Clinker and Cement by Iodometry. An Undergraduate Experiment in Redox Titrimetry  Oi-Wah Lau, Shiu-Fai Luk, Nina L. N. Cheng, and Hoi-Yin Woo
Experiment to determine the free lime in cement and clinker through iodometry.
Lau, Oi-Wah; Luk, Shiu-Fai; Cheng, Nina L. N.; Woo, Hoi-Yin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
A Discovery-Based Experiment Illustrating How Iron Metal Is Used to Remediate Contaminated Groundwater  Barbara A. Balko and Paul G. Tratnyek
Procedure in which students investigate the chemistry of iron-permeable reactive barriers and their application to the remediation of contaminated groundwater.
Balko, Barbara A.; Tratnyek, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1661.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Moisture Analysis in Lotion by Karl Fischer Coulometry. An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  Patricia Ann Mabrouk and Kristine Castriotta
Measuring moisture content in hand and body lotions using Karl Fischer coulometry.
Mabrouk, Patricia Ann; Castriotta, Kristine. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1385.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Laboratory Simulation for Coupled Cycles of Photosynthesis and Respiration  Silke Korn and Michael W. Tausch
Experiment that demonstrates the light-driven reduction of a substrate, energy storage in the reduced product, and the exergonic reoxidation of the product.
Korn, Silke; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1238.
Catalysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Metabolism
Oxidation of Benzoin to Benzil Using Alumina-Supported Active MnO2  R. David Crouch, Michael S. Holden, and Jennifer S. Burger
Oxidation of benzoin to benzil using alumina-supported active MnO2; purification of the products using column chromatography.
Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S.; Burger, Jennifer S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 951.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Microscale Birch Reduction for the Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Mary Ann M. Fuhry, Christie Colosimo, and Kathleen Gianneschi
Conducting a Birch reduction in a Winston sublimator.
Fuhry, Mary Ann M.; Colosimo, Christie; Gianneschi, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 949.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 5: Indirect H2S Remediation  J. G. Ibanez
Experiment to introduce students in general chemistry, environmental chemistry, or electrochemistry to the concept of indirect electrolysis, its application in environmental remediation schemes, the role of a mediator, and the application of redox chemistry concepts.
Ibanez, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 778.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Analysis of an Oxygen Bleach: A Redox Titration Lab  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
Students balance the reaction of H2O2 and MnO4 in two different ways (one assuming that H2O2 is the oxygen source and a second assuming that MnO4 is the oxygen source), determine which of these balanced equations has the correct stoichiometry by titrating a standard H2O2 solution with KMnO4, and use the correct balanced equation to determine the mass percent of H2O2 in a commercially available bleach solution.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 652.
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry
The Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes: Using Data Pooling in the Organic Laboratory to Illustrate Research in Organic Chemistry  James C. Adrian Jr. and Leslie A. Hull
Student groups are assigned the task of oxidizing various substituted alkylbenzenes with potassium permanganate in basic solution; by pooling the results from all groups it is possible to illustrate how a research project in chemistry can be used to answer simple questions - What happens when your individual alkylbenzene is oxidized?
Adrian, James C., Jr.; Hull, Leslie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 529.
Synthesis |
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
The Synthesis and Analysis of Copper(I) Iodide. A First-Year Laboratory Project  Lara A. Margolis, Richard W. Schaeffer, and Claude H. Yoder
This project provides a convenient preparation of a compound whose identity will not be obvious to students. The analytical procedures illustrate the fundamentals of gravimetric analysis and some basic chemical and physical characteristics of the elements. The analytical data allow students to find the identity of the product by determining its empirical formula.
Margolis, Lara A.; Schaeffer, Richard W.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 235.
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Indirect Potentiometric Titration of Fe(III) with Ce(IV) by Gran's Method  Maria da Conceição Silva Barreto, Luciana de Lucena Medeiros, and Paulo César de Holanda Furtado
The indirect titration of Fe(III) ion with oxidizing agent is a good example of the application of Gran's method to a redox reaction because the Gran curve doesn't present linearity deviations as other redox systems do.
Barreto, Maria da Conceição Silva; Medeiros, Luciana de Lucena; Furtado, Paulo César de Holanda. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 91.
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
Silver to Black - and Back   JCE Editorial Staff
This activity allows students to remove tarnish from silver using the reaction of tarnish with aluminum.
JCE Editorial Staff, . J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 328A.
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Microscale Oxidation Puzzle  Michael W. Pelter, Rebecca M. Macudzinski, and Mary Ellen Passarelli
We have adapted oxidation of an alcohol with sodium hypochlorite solution to a "puzzle" approach by using a diol as the substrate for oxidation. The diols under investigation have both a primary and a secondary hydroxyl group. The assignment is to perform the reaction and determine the structure of the product through interpretation of the IR spectrum.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M.; Passarelli, Mary Ellen. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1481.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment Illustrating Redox Potentials, Equilibrium Constants, and Substitution Reactions in Coordination Chemistry  Henrique E. Toma, Koiti Araki, and Sergio Dovidauskas
A cyclic voltammetry experiment focusing on the [RuIII(EDTA)(H2O)]- complex and its equilibrium reaction with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in aqueous solution, yielding the [RuIII(EDTA)(kS-DMSO)]- complex. The results illustrate the kinetic lability of the ruthenium(III)-EDTA complexes and the role of backbonding stabilization in ruthenium(II)-DMSO complexes.
Toma, Henrique E.; Araki, Koiti; Dovidauskas, Sergio. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1351.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Surface Oxidation Kinetics: A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Experiment  Jordan C. Poler
A physical chemistry laboratory experiment in which students use the scanning tunneling microscope to study the oxidation of graphite by nitric oxide. The lab is designed to simulate a research experience. Each student is responsible for one part of the experiment and the whole class uses everyone's data for their analysis.
Poler, Jordan C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1198.
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Undergraduate Research
Theoretical Concepts and Applications of a Rotating Disk Electrode  J. Nikolic, E. Expósito, J. Iniesta, J. González-Garcia, and V. Montiel
This paper verifies the theoretical concepts and shows one application of a rotating disk electrode (RDE). This is a powerful instrument employed in electrochemistry, capable of controlling the transport regime of electroactive species toward the electrode.
Nikolic, J.; Expósito, Eduardo; Iniesta, Jesús; González-Garcia, José; Montiel, Vicente. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1191.
Electrochemistry |
Transport Properties |
Oxidation / Reduction
Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Chromic Acid Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols  Charles E. Harding, Christopher W. Mitchell, and Jozsef Devenyi
The kinetic isotope effect is an invaluable tool in studying certain organic reaction mechanisms. Two activities involving the technique that are suitable for introductory organic laboratory students are described. A simple competition experiment utilizing the benzhydrol?benzhydrol-d1 system and chromic acid oxidation is used to demonstrate qualitatively that there is a kinetic isotope effect involved in this process.
Harding, Charles E.; Mitchell, Christopher W.; Devenyi, Jozsef. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1042.
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Esters: Three Related Investigative Experiments  Chriss E. McDonald

McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 750.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and R. M. Pike
This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 625.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility
Kinetics of Reduction of Toluidine Blue with Sulfite--Kinetic Salt Effect in Elucidation of Mechanism  S. B. Jonnalagadda and N. R. Gollapalli
The reaction between toluidine blue (TB+) and the sulfite ion is an ideal kinetic experiment in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory, to show the dependence of the reaction rate on the concentrations of reactants and ionic strength. The experiments with varying ionic strength demonstrate how kinetic salt effect can be used to predict the nature of charged species involved in the rate-limiting step.
Jonnalagadda, S. B.; Gollapalli, N. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 506.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Electrochemical Regeneration of a Spent Oxidizing Solution: Example of a Clean Chemical Process  M. Ingles, P. Bonete , E. ExpÓsito, V. GarcÍa-GarcÍa, J. González-Garcia, J. Iniesta, and V. Montiel
Obtaining benzaldehyde by oxidation of benzyl alcohol using a solution of potassium dichromate in sulfuric acid. Analysis by gas chromatography is used to monitor the reaction. After work-up, the second stage, the electrochemical regeneration of the chromium(VI) solution, using a filter press type reactor, is accomplished.
Ingles, Marina; Bonete, Pedro; ExpÓsito, Eduardo; García-García, Vicente; González-Garcia, José; Iniesta, Jesús; Montiel, Vicente. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1423.
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations: An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry  Cesar R. Silva, Jose A. Simoni, Carol H. Collins, and Pedro L. O. Volpe
Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid.
Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry 2. Selectivity in Alcohol Oxidation: An Exercise in 1H NMR Spectroscopy for Sophomore Organic Laboratories  Steven R. Shadwick and Ram S. Mohan
A simple oxidation experiment that presents the student with a puzzle and is a good exercise in 1H NMR spectroscopy. The experiment, which illustrates the important concept of selectivity in organic synthesis, involves selective oxidation of a mixture of 1-heptanol and 2-heptanol using commercial swimming pool chlorine.
Shadwick, Steven R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1121.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
A Spectrophotometric Method for Quantitative Determination of Bromine Using Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine  Joan Han, Troy Story, and Grace Han
A simple spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of bromine is described.
Han, Joan; Story, Troy; Han, Grace. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 976.
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Facile Oxidation of Alcohols Using Pyridinium Chlorochromate/Silica Gel  Frederick A. Luzzio, Richard W. Fitch, William J. Moore, and Kelli J. Mudd
An efficient and convenient adaptation of the pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) oxidation for an organic chemistry student exercise is based on the employment of reagent-grade silica gel, which simplifies workup and purification of the product.
Luzzio, Frederick A.; Fitch, Richard W.; Moore, William J.; Mudd, Kelli J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 974.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Natural Products |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Kinetics of Methylene Blue Reduction by Ascorbic Acid  Sarah Mowry and Paul J. Ogren
This paper compares spectrophotometric studies of MB+ reduction by ascorbic acid at low pH with previous conclusions based upon visual determinations of color loss.
Mowry, Sarah; Ogren, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 970.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Electropolymerized Conducting Polymers as Glucose Sensors  Omowunmi A. Sadik, Sharin Brenda, Patrick Joasil, and John Lord
This paper presents a laboratory-based experiment for possible inclusion in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory curriculum. The objectives are to perform cyclic voltammetry on electropolymerized conducting polymers, to observe the effects of various parameters on the voltammogram obtained, and to perform quantitative analysis of glucose.
Sadik, Omowunmi A.; Brenda, Sharin; Joasil, Patrick; Lord, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 967.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Enzymes |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates
Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide by Activated Carbon: A Physical Chemistry Experiment  E. Raymundo-Piñero, Diego Cazorla-Amorós, and E. Morallón
The experiment described in this paper is concerned with the use of activated carbon as a catalyst for oxidation of SO2 to sulfuric acid. The experiment is a good example of heterogeneous catalysis and environmental clean-up.
Raymundo-Piero, E.; Cazorla-Amors, Diego; Moralln, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 958.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Nernst Equation: Determination of Equilibrium Constants for Complex Ions of Silver  Martin L. Thompson and Laura J. Kateley
The experiment requires a voltmeter capable of recording millivolts (or a good pH meter) and inexpensive chemicals. It allows students to check the validity of the Nernst equation and compare their experimental Kform values to reported ones.
Thompson, Martin L.; Kateley, Laura J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 95.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Inhibition of Sulfite Oxidation by Phenols: Screening Antioxidant Behavior with a Clark Oxygen Sensor  László Sipos
A simple laboratory exercise to introduce the measurement of dissolved oxygen with a Clark oxygen sensor for a sophomore-level course. The experiment demonstrates the effect of antioxidants and differentiates between different kinds of phenols according to their effectiveness.
Sipos, László. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1603.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Phenols |
Instrumental Methods
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 4: Color Removal of Simulated Wastewater by Electrocoagulation-Electroflotation  Jorge G. Ibanez, M. M. Singh, and Z. Szafran
Due to the large production of aqueous waste streams from textile mills and dye production plants, several processes have been under intense study. Electrochemical processes offer some distinctive advantages, including effects due to: 1) the production of electrolysis gases, and 2) the production of polyvalent cations from the oxidation of corrodible anodes (like Fe and Al).
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1040.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab
Analysis of Iron in Ferritin, the Iron-Storage Protein: A General Chemistry Experiment  Maureen J. Donlin, Regina F. Frey, Christopher Putnam, Jody Proctor, and James K. Bashkin
The chemical properties of the iron-storage protein ferritin will be examined in this experiment by quantitating the average amount of iron in a ferritin sample, and observing the kinetics of iron release from the protein core under reducing conditions. Students learn and apply the principles of absorption spectroscopy, redox reactions, and metal chelation to study ferritin.
Maureen J. Donlin, Regina F. Frey, Christopher Putnam, Jody Proctor, and James K. Bashkin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides
Using Cyclic Voltammetry and Molecular Modeling To Determine Substituent Effects in the One-Electron Reduction of Benzoquinones  Janell E. Heffner, Jeffrey C. Raber, Owen A. Moe Jr., and Carl T. Wigal
An electrochemical experiment that correlates the electronic effects of substituents on the reduction potential of benzoquinones. The experiment combines cyclic voltammetry (CV), molecular modeling, and the Hammett equation and can be used in either organic, physical, or instrumental laboratory courses.
Heffner, Janell E.; Raber, Jeffrey C.; Moe, Owen A., Jr.; Wigal, Carl T. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 365.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Kinetics of p-Nitrophenol Degradation by Pseudomonas sp.: An Experiment Illustrating Bioremediation  Michelle H. Duong, Samuel L. Penrod, and Stanley B. Grant
This paper describes a simple experiment illustrating bioremediation which is well suited for undergraduate classes in environmental chemistry, microbiology, or engineering.
Duong, Michelle H.; Penrod, Samuel L.; Grant, Stanley B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1451.
Biotechnology |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 2: Microscale Indirect Electrolytic Destruction of Organic Wastes  Jorge G. Ibanez, M. M. Singh, R. M. Pike, and Z. Szafran
The objective of this experiment is to destroy, at the microscale level, a sample of surrogate organic waste by generating a powerful oxidizer at the anode of an electrochemical cell. This generated species oxidizes the waste to harmless products. The oxidizer can then be regenerated and recycled.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh M. M.; Pike, R. M.; Szafran, Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1449.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
UV-Visible Spectrooelectrochemistry of the Reduction Products of Anthraquinone in Dimethylformamide Solutions: An Advanced Undergraduate Experiment  Ali Babaei, Paul A. Connor, A. James McQuillan, and Siva Umapathy
This advanced undergraduate experiment shows how cyclic voltammetry, digital simulations of cyclic voltammograms, and UV-visible spectroelectrochemistry may be used to examine the reduction behaviour of AQ in dimethylformamide (DMF), both in the absence and presence of benzoic acid.
Babaei, Ali; Connor, Paul A.; McQuillan, A. James; Umapathy, Siva. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1200.
Electrochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
pH Dependent Redox Couple: An Illustration of the Nernst Equation  Mary M. Walczak, Deborah A. Dryer, Dana D. Jacobson, Michele G. Foss, and Nolan T. Flynn
An experiment utilizing the hydroquinone/quinone redox was developed which follows the potentials of the anodic and cathodic cyclic voltammetric waves as a function of solution pH.
Walczak, Mary M. ; Dryer, Deborah A.; Jacobson, Dana D.; Foss, Michele G.; Flynn, Nolan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1195.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
pH
Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate(III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Flow Injection Kinetic Experiment  Joanquim A. Nobrega and Fabio R. P. Rocha
This work describes the use of a flow diagram to perform a kinetic experiment: the effect of ionic strength on the rate of reduction of hexacyanoferrate(III) by ascorbic acid.
Nobrega, Joaquim A.; Rocha, Fabio R.P. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 560.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Microburger Biochemistry: Extraction and Spectral Characterization of Myoglyobin from Hamburger  Sheri A. Bylkas and Laura A. Andersson
The protocol combines protein extraction, oxidation and reduction, and simple spectroscopic analysis, as well as gel filtration chromatography and generation/analysis of spectral scans. Mammalian myoglobin (Mb) is easily extracted from steak, to illustrate and address why fresh meat is red and aged meat is brown; the protein has unique spectral properties that are diagnostic for characterization of sample identity.
Bylkas, Sheri A.; Andersson, Laura A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Proteins / Peptides |
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Methylene Blue - Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics  T. Snehalatha, K. C. Rajanna, P. K. Saiprakash
Clock reaction experiments with methylene blue (MB) and L-ascorbic acid (H2 A) were designed in aqueous sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media with a view to demonstrate and explain the concepts in chemical kinetics such as order of the reaction, effect of ionic strength, dielectric constant and temperature. On the basis of the obtained results, a plausible mechanism for the reduction of MB by H2 A has been proposed.
Snehalatha, T.; Rajanna, K. C.; Saiprakash, P. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 228.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reduction of Carboxylic Acids with Sodium Borohydride and an Electrophile  Jan William Simek, Thad Tuck, and Kelly Courter Bush
Integration of new reduction conditions into a procedure applicable to the first-year organic chemistry laboratory, where reduction of the carboxylic acid group has remained an obstacle, notwithstanding the use of borane or LiAlH4 (2) on the microscale. The NaBH4 method with either electrophile can be modified to any scale; in our hands, the use of I2 as the electrophile performed better at the semimicro scale than the H2SO4 method.
Simek, Jan William; Tuck, Thad; Bush, Kelly Courter . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 107.
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Ems-Wilson, Janice
The progress of two microscale reactions, the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride and the photochemical formation of benzopinacol, was monitored, qualitatively, using FT-IR.
Ems-Wilson, Janice J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A171.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
IR Spectroscopy
A Student-Designed Potentiometric Titration: Quantitative Determination of Iron(II) by Caro's Acid Titration  Joyce R. Powell, Sheryl A. Tucker, William E. Acree Jr., Jennifer A. Sees, Lindsey H. Hall
A laboratory experiment involving the feasibility of using Caro's acid, H2SO5, as a titrant in the potentiometric determination of iron(II) is presented.
Powell, Joyce R.; Tucker, Sheryl A.; Acree Jr., William E.; Sees, Jennifer A.; Hall, Lindsey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 984.
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
Understanding the Difference between Inner- and Outer-Sphere Mechanisms: An Electrochemical Experiment  Luz María Torres, Adrián F. Gil, Laura Galicia, and Ignacio González
The concepts of inner- and outer-sphere mechanisms for complex charge transfer reactions in homogeneous phase have been applied to heterogeneous charge transfer reactions.
Torres, Luz María; Gil, Adrián F.; Galicia, Laura; González, Ignacio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 808.
Solutions / Solvents |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Transport Properties |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Constant-Current Coulometric Titration of Hydrochloric Acid  James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul
In this experiment we have combined the titration of a strong acid with a strong base and the electrolysis of water into one complete laboratory experience.
James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 679.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Improved End Point Detection in the Redox Titration of Vitamin C in Green Peppers  S. Todd Deal and Sandi R. Pope
We have used E. R. Johnson's "infamous pepper lab" (titrimetric determination of vitamin C content in raw and cooked green peppers) in our introductory biochemistry course for years with varying success. Our solution to the problem discussed in this article has proven to be remarkably simple.
Deal, S. Todd; Pope, Sandi R. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 547.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Food Science
Sodium Chloride Revisited  Robert V. Stick and Mauro Mocerino
This "Tested Demonstration" describes the preparation of sodium chloride from its elements, sodium and chlorine. Along the way, tests for chlorine, iodine, and the chloride ion are included.
Stick, Robert V.; Mocerino, Mauro. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 539.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Curing of Unsaturated Polyester: Network Formation  R. F. Toorkey, K. C. Rajanna, and P. K. Sai Prakash
Unsaturated polyester resins in styrene as comonomer solvent gels to a thermoset stageby network formation due to free radicals produced by the redox reaction between cobalt octoate (promoter) and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) as initiator. The technique of hand lay-up for producing glass reinforced fiber (GRF) is described.
Toorkey, R. F.; Rajanna, K. C.; Prakash, P. K. Sai. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 372.
Polymerization |
Oxidation / Reduction
Bacterial Toxicity Assessment Using Resazurin Reduction Kinetics: An Undergraduate Toxicity Experiment for the Chemistry-Biology Major  S. Helliwell and T. J. Harden
An undergraduate toxicity experiment is described using the redox indicator resazurin as an indicator of dehydrogenase activity. Two types of bacteria are utilized, the Gram positive Streptococcus cremoris and a Gram negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, to demonstrate the potentially different toxicological responses to the same chemical.
Helliwell, S.; Harden, T. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 368.
Toxicology |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
The Mechanism of NaBH4 Addition to Aldehydes: A Labeling Experiment  Rolland K. Robinson and Karl De Jesus
In order to determine the sources of hydrogens in NaBH4 reductions of aldehydes, a series of reductions were carried out using differentially deuterated reagents and solvents.
Robinson, Rolland K.; De Jesus, Karl. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 264.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Phase Transfer Catalysis Applied to Oxidation  Claude Amsterdamsky
Benzhydrol and cycloheptanol have been oxidized to ketones using commercial bleach as oxidizer and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate as a phase transfer catalyst.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 92.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Catalysis
Monitoring Oxidation of Bromocresol Green with a Diode Laser: A General Chemistry IBM Personal Science Laboratory (PSL) Experiment  Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick
Procedure for monitoring the oxidation of bromocresol green using a diode laser and a radiometric probe; includes data and analysis.
Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A118.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Lasers
Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Indane-1-ones: Monitoring of the Reaction by VPC and IR Spectroscopy  Elie Stephan
Procedure for the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of indane-1-ones.
Stephan, Elie. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1142.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Making Sparklers: An Introductory Laboratory Experiment   Allen Keeney, Christina Walters, and Richard D. Cornelius
Method for producing sparklers to illustrate redox reactions.
Keeney, Allen; Walters, Christina; Cornelius, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 652.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Metals
Resistance Measurement as a Tool for Corrosion Studies  Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R.
Procedure for determining the rate of corrosion by measuring changes in the resistance of a thin wire or strip of metal; sample data and analysis included.
Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum: Student Experiments  Muller, Bodo
Investigation of the effect different chelating agents have on inhibiting the corrosion of aluminum flakes in paint (metallic basecoats).
Muller, Bodo J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 350.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Industrial Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Baker's Yeast Reduction of alpha-Diketones: A Four-Hour Experiment for Undergraduate Students  Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri
Procedure for quickly and efficiently reducing alpha-diketones using bakers' yeast.
Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 277.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Solid-State Redox Chemistry: Preparation of 1,4-Naphthoquinone, Hydroquinone, and the Corresponding Mixed Quinhydrone in the Solid State  Morey, Jeroni; Frontera, Antoni
Procedure for synthesizing a mixed quinhydrone using solid-state methods.
Morey, Jeroni; Frontera, Antoni J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 63.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Solid State Chemistry
A More Affordable Undergraduate Experiment on the Reduction of Acetophenone by Yeast  Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha
Preparation of Mosher's esters through the reduction of acetophenone with baker's yeast.
Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A62.
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Esters |
Synthesis
A Simple and Safe Catalytic Hydrogenation of 4-Vinylbenzoic Acid  De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G.
An alternative procedure to catalytic hydrogenation is catalytic transfer hydrogenation. In this technique, the reduction of an organic compound is achieved with the aid of a donor substance in the presence of a catalyst.
De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 992.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
Photometric Determination of the Rate Expression for MnO4- Mediated Organic Oxidations  Crouch, R. David
Photometric procedure for studying the kinetics of the MnO4- mediated oxidation of mandelic acid in KOH.
Crouch, R. David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 597.
Rate Law |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics
Equilibrium Constant of the Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C): An Experiment in Biochemistry Laboratory  Rao, T. S.; Dabke, R. B.; Biradar, B. S.
An experiment to determine the equilibrium constant of the oxidation of ascorbic acid.
Rao, T. S.; Dabke, R. B.; Biradar, B. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 438.
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Vitamins
A Handy Reagent for Testing the Reducing Power of Sugars  Sandell, Arvid
Using the reduction of copper(II) as a semi-quantitative test for reducing sugars.
Sandell, Arvid J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 346.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
Oxidation of Tris(2-diphenylphosphinoethyl)phosphine: An Undergraduate 31P and 77Se NMR Experiment  Dakternieks, Dainis; Dyson, Gail A.; O'Connell, Jenny L.; Schiesser, Carl H.
Exposing students to heteronuclear coupling and nuclear relaxation by introducing them to 31P and 77Se NMR spectroscopy.
Dakternieks, Dainis; Dyson, Gail A.; O'Connell, Jenny L.; Schiesser, Carl H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 168.
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
The Blue Bottle Experiment Revisited: How Blue? How Sweet?  Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E.
Determining whether other colors and carbohydrates are possible with the "Blue Bottle" reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 160.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction
A new use for the candle and tumbler myth  Peckham, Gavin D.
In the time it takes to complete the popular but lengthy steel-wool experiment, this author proposes an activity that can be done to add an extra dimension to analyzing oxygen content. This combination of "good" and "bad" experiments proves to be a powerful pedagogical tool.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1008.
Quantitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Investigating protective coatings for steel   Runyan, Tom; Herrmann, Mary
Learning about corrosion chemistry provides students with authentic inquiry experience as well as an opportunity to learn relevant and applicable content.
Runyan, Tom; Herrmann, Mary J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 843.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science
Gas reactions in plastic bags: Relating laboratory observations to the atomic-molecular model  Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M.
Carrying out chemical reactions in Ziplock bags to investigate a variety of chemical concepts.
Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1026.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Synthesis of a heteropolytungstate and its use in outer-sphere redox kinetics  Walmsley, Frank
An inorganic chemistry experiment has been developed combining two topics usually included in inorganic chemistry: heteropoly ions and mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions of transition metal ions.
Walmsley, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 936.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
A more environmentally acceptable determination of iron in an ore  Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W.
The method for titrimetric determination of iron in which zinc is used as the reactant in situ rather that as a Jones reductor, has several advantages over conventional determination of iron.
Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 935.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
How bright are you? Energy and power hands-on activities  Steitberger, H. Eric
A Saturday session is described in which students and their parents learn about oxidation and calorimetry.
Steitberger, H. Eric J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 307.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Food Science
A new method for the oxidation of 4-phenylurazole to 4-phenyltriazolinedione.  Mallakpour, Shadpour E.
The procedures describe the synthesis of 4-phenyl-urazole from ethyl carbazate and then the oxidation of the urazole with NO2-N2O4 to yield 4-phenyl-1,2,4-trizoline-3,5-dione.
Mallakpour, Shadpour E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
The synthesis of cobalt(III) sepulcrate from tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) and its purification by ion-exchange chromatography: An experiment for the advanced undergraduate inorganic laboratory   Hamilton, Dorothy E.
An experiment for the advanced undergraduate inorganic laboratory in the synthesis of cobalt(III) sepulcrate from tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) and its purification by ion-exchange chromatography.
Hamilton, Dorothy E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A144.
Synthesis |
Ion Exchange |
Chromatography |
Oxidation State |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy
A mild and convenient oxidation of alcohols: Benzoin to benzil and borneol to camphor  Straub, Thomas S.
A traditional organic chemistry laboratory poses threat to both student safety and the environment: this author provides an alternative procedure.
Straub, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1048.
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols
Direct electrochemical synthesis of fluoroiron compounds: The use of sacrificial metal anodes in aqueous medium  Chakravorti,M.C.; Subrahamanyam, Gampa V.B.
The direct electrochemical synthesis of fluoro iron compounds can be used to show students how metal compounds can be prepared from the pure metal itself and how fluoro compounds can be prepared with relative ease from diluted aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions.
Chakravorti,M.C.; Subrahamanyam, Gampa V.B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 961.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis
Chelate-assisted carbon-halogen bond cleavage by oxidative addition at a W(O) carbonyl-metal complex: Inorganic-organometallic laboratory experiment for advanced undergraduates  Lucht, Brett; Poss, Mitchell J.; Richmond, Thomas G.
These ligands are readily prepared, air-stable, and easily characterized making them the basis of a laboratory experiment suitable for senior undergraduate synthesis.
Lucht, Brett; Poss, Mitchell J.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 786.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Addition Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Oxidation / Reduction
Hydroboration-oxidation of (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene to isopinocampheol: A microscale experiment that displays regio- and stereochemistry using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations  Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes is an important route to alcohols and therefore receives considerable treatment in standard organic textbooks. These authors present their findings of an example (an alkene that undergoes the hydroboration oxidation process) that displays both regiochemistry and stereochemistry.
Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 693.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols
Reduction of a carbonyl compound using baker's yeast: An underground laboratory synthesis of ferrocenylmethanol  Bozak, Richard E.; Prater, Michael E.; Hicks, Ronald J.
The transformation of ferrocenecarboxaldehyde to the corresponding alcohol using the intact cells of actively fermenting baker's yeast is a simple, inexpensive experiment demonstrating the general features of microbial reduction.
Bozak, Richard E.; Prater, Michael E.; Hicks, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 427.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Organometallics
Rotating disk voltammetry experiment  Town, Julie L.; MacLaren, Fiona; Dewald, Howard D.
The experiment described is designed to acquaint the graduate or advanced undergraduate student with the theory and application of rotating disc electrode method.
Town, Julie L.; MacLaren, Fiona; Dewald, Howard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 352.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experimental demonstration of corrosion phenomena: Part II. corrosion phenomena of steel in aqueous media  Arce, Elsa M.; Ramirez, Roman; Cortes, Felipe; Ibanez, Jorge G.
A description of an experiment that uses a sample of carbon steel to show the effect of aggressive ions and inhibiting ions upon it corrosion behavior.
Arce, Elsa M.; Ramirez, Roman; Cortes, Felipe; Ibanez, Jorge G. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 351.
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Hydroboration for the large organic laboratory  Pickering, Miles
This paper reports an experiment in hydroboration without large hood space requirements, without special glassware requirements, and without inert atmospheric precautions.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 436.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
The palladium-catalyzed oxidation of 2-vinylnaphthalene: A microscale organic synthesis experiment   Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R.
The Wacker oxidation experiment as described is cost-efficient due to the small scale employed, and is a valuable addition to the undergraduate organic curriculum.
Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 340.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Alkynes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
The effects of crown ethers on the rate of oxidation of oxalic acid by the permanganate ion: An integrated senior chemistry experiment  Miles, Bruce; Nyarku, Samuel K.
The oxidation of oxalic acid by the permanganate ion in the presence of an acid is a very simple and interesting experiment that lends itself to both visual and spectrophotometric studies.
Miles, Bruce; Nyarku, Samuel K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 269.
Ethers |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Spectroscopy
Oxidation of cysteine to cystine using hydrogen peroxide  Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E.
This synthesis has several advantages as an undergraduate laboratory exercise.
Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 172.
Amino Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction
The reduction of a nitrile (CN) group by sodium borohydride: The preparation of phosphineamine and phosphine-imidate complexes of tungsten carbonyl  Faust, Kristen E.; Storhoff, Bruce N.
Experiments designed to reinforce and extend student experiences with recording and interpreting IR and NMR spectra and assigning probable structures for organometallic structures based on that data.
Faust, Kristen E.; Storhoff, Bruce N. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 688.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Organometallics |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
The corrosion inhibition of a metal: Student corrosion experiment III  Onuchukwu, A. I.
Presents the principles and an investigation of the corrosion inhibition of a metal.
Onuchukwu, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 681.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Selective reductions in the teaching laboratory  Jones, Alan G.
Reductions of nitrophenylethanone, aminophenylethanone, and nitrophenylethanol.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 611.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
A laboratory procedure for the reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III)  Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.
The authors describe work aimed at reducing the hazards associated with the disposal of Cr(VI) compounds.
Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 443.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Interaction between scientific research and chemical education: Development of a corrosion experiment  Higa, Claudio O.; da Costa, Sylvia L. F. A.; Agostinho, Silvia M. L.
This work presents the results of an investigation of the effect of the corrosion inhibitor benzotriazole on copper corrosion through weight-loss experiments.
Higa, Claudio O.; da Costa, Sylvia L. F. A.; Agostinho, Silvia M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 441.
Oxidation / Reduction
The use of cyclic voltammetry in the study of the chemistry of metal-carbonyls: An introductory experiment  Carriedo, Gabino A.
This article presents a practical exercise that is helpful as an introduction to the study of simple EC systems and that shows how cyclic voltammetry can be used to predict reactions and syntheses. At the same time it illustrates some aspects of the electrochemistry of metal-carbonyl complexes.
Carriedo, Gabino A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1020.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds |
Potentiometry |
Diastereomers
The evaluation of corrosion susceptibility of a metal: Student corrosion experiment II  Onuchukwu, A. I.
This paper seeks to present the principles of the weight-loss method of corrosion evaluation of a metal in aqueous media.
Onuchukwu, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 934.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Materials Science
Polarographic determination of composition and thermodynamic stability constant of a complex metal ion  Marin, Dolores; Mendicuti, Francisco
This laboratory experiment is designed to encourage laboratory cooperation among individual undergraduate students or groups. Each student (or group) contributes results individually and exchange of data is essential to obtain final results.
Marin, Dolores; Mendicuti, Francisco J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 916.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Potentiometry
Experimental work with tin(II) chloride in a high school   Sanchez, Manuela Martin
The author describes a final-project performed by students that integrates concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Students seek answers to questions such as: "What reactions were involved; why is an aqueous solution of SnCl2 acidic; how can elemental tin be recovered from the system?"
Sanchez, Manuela Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 898.
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation of secondary alcohols by duckweed: A biotransformation experiment for undergraduate students  Kafarski, Pawel; Ottenbreit, Barbara; Wieczorek, Piotr; Pawlowicz, Pawel
Description of a biotransformation experiment for undergraduate students.
Kafarski, Pawel; Ottenbreit, Barbara; Wieczorek, Piotr; Pawlowicz, Pawel J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 549.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Hormones |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Acid pickling with amines: an experiment in applied chemistry for high school or freshman chemistry   Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C.
A brief description of the removal of corrosion products and millscale from the surface of ferrous metals by acid pickling.
Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 457.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Electrochemistry
Test tube geology: A slowly developing redox system for class study   Cortez, James A.; Powell, Dick; Mellon, Ed.
To capture the imagination of advanced high school chemistry students, this simply constructed experiment can reinforce their proper observation and recording techniques while getting them to think about the chemical techniques and concepts presented in their previous courses.
Cortez, James A.; Powell, Dick; Mellon, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 350.
Geochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Iron analysis by redox titration: A general chemistry experiment  Kaufman, Samuel; Devoe, Howard
The authors have devised a simplified redox method for total iron analysis suitable for execution in a three-hour laboratory period by general chemistry students.
Kaufman, Samuel; Devoe, Howard J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 183.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The effect of complex formation upon the redox potentials of metallic ions: Cyclic voltammetry experiments  Ibanez, Jorge G.; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Cardenas, Marco A.
In the experiment described in this paper, students taking analytical, inorganic, or electrochemical courses will be able to prepare in situ soluble complexes of Fe(III) with different ligands and to observe and estimate the change in the formal potential that Fe3+ undergoes upon complexation.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Cardenas, Marco A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 173.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Preparation of lead compounds: An exercise in applied chemistry  Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj
Uses and synthesis of Pb(NO3)2, PbO2, PbCrO4, PbS, PbO, lead carbonate, lead acetate, and lead metal itself.
Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 811.
Synthesis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
Passivation of copper in acid medium  Alonso, C.; Ocon, P.
Determining and explaining the polarization curve of copper in a 70% solution of phosphoric acid.
Alonso, C.; Ocon, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 459.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Polymer-supported oxidation reactions: Two contrasting experiments for the undergraduate laboratory  Buglass, Alan J.; Waterhouse, John S.
These experiments illustrate the common advantages of polymer-supported reagents and contrast the behavior of macroreticular resins and gel resins.
Buglass, Alan J.; Waterhouse, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 371.
Oxidation / Reduction
A cyclic voltammetry experiment using a mercury electrode  Brillas, Enrique; Garrido, Jose A.; Rodriquez, Rosa M.; Domenech, Javier
An easy and inexpensive experiment designed to illustrate cyclic voltammetry in the study of a simple reversible reaction.
Brillas, Enrique; Garrido, Jose A.; Rodriquez, Rosa M.; Domenech, Javier J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 189.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The science and magic of chemistry: A learning cycle laboratory on oxidation-reduction  Silberman, Robert G.; Zipp, Arden P.
This article reports the details of an experiment that can be helpful in developing the topic of oxidation-reduction using the learning cycle.
Silberman, Robert G.; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1098.
Learning Theories |
Oxidation / Reduction
Color perception and factor analysis  Cartwright, Hugh
The experiment described here gives students the chance to study a dichromatic systems and introduces them to chemometrics.
Cartwright, Hugh J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 984.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Complete characterization of trans-[Co(en)2Cl2]3[Fe(ox)3]4 l/2 H2O: An extended undergraduate project involving an unknown metal complex  Bull, Graham S.; Searle, Graeme. H.
The authors describe an extension of a previously published article.
Bull, Graham S.; Searle, Graeme. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 902.
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Magnetic Properties
Laboratory scale electrodepositon: Practice and applications  Bruno, Thomas J.
In this paper, some of the practical aspects of electrodepositon or electroplating are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the techniques required to make electrodepositon work reliably in the laboratory. The authors go on to discuss some of the problem-solving applications that have been of value in the author's laboratory.
Bruno, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 883.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Determination of reaction stoichiometries by flow injection analysis: A laboratory exercise  Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel
These authors took advantage of the features of Flow Injection Analysis and developed an easy and simple photometric method intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries.
Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 552.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods |
Photochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
An experiment to illustrate the effects of salt and zinc on the rate of corrosion  Meloan, Clifton E.
The experiment described in this article has been used for the past 15 years and and clearly illustrates several basic rates of corrosion, the use of a sacrificial anode, and why it is important to avoid the use of a small anode and large cathode in the fabrication of buildings and equipment.
Meloan, Clifton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 456.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Selective oxidation in the presence of a heterocycle  Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R.
The process of weighing the advantages and disadvantages of various oxidation methods are presented in this paper.
Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 358.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carboxylic Acids
Corrosion evaluation of a metal in aqueous media: student corrosion experiment  Onuchukwu,A.I.; Obande, O.D.
The authors contribute to the experiments that are needed that would acquaint students with unique properties of metal behavior in environments.
Onuchukwu,A.I.; Obande, O.D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 269.
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Materials Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Verification of the Nernst equation and determination of a standard electrode potential  Arevalo, Agustin; Pastor, Gloria
Procedure to verify the Nernst equation, the standard potential of a redox system, and ion-ion interaction theory.
Arevalo, Agustin; Pastor, Gloria J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 882.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
The nitric acid oxidation of selected alcohols and ketones: An organic laboratory experiment  Field, Kurt, W.; Shields, James P.; Standard, Jean M.; Ash, Craig K.; Hoch, Daniel J.; Kolb, Kenneth E.
Preparation of C6-C12 a, ?-dioic acids, glutaric acid, and substituted benzaldehydes and benzophenones.
Field, Kurt, W.; Shields, James P.; Standard, Jean M.; Ash, Craig K.; Hoch, Daniel J.; Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 637.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The design of laboratory experiments in the 1980's: A case study on the oxidation of alcohols with household bleach  Mohrig, Jerry R.; Nienhuis, David M.; Linck, Catherine F.; Van Zoeren, Carol; Fox, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Peter G.
Improved safety by replacing chromium(VI) with bleach in the oxidation of an alcohol.
Mohrig, Jerry R.; Nienhuis, David M.; Linck, Catherine F.; Van Zoeren, Carol; Fox, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 519.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Estimating the one electron reduction potential for vanadium (V) by chemical techniques: An experiment for general chemistry  Wentworth, R. A. D.
Procedure requires no electrochemical equipment because the method depends solely upon observations of the spontaneity of the reactions of V(V) with a series of potential reducing agents and V(IV) with a series of potential oxidizing agents.
Wentworth, R. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 440.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
The oxidation of secondary alcohols with Cr(VI): A spectrophotometric method  Mason, Timothy J.; Turrell, J. A.; Went, C. W.
Follows the progress of the oxidation of sterically hindered secondary alcohols using UV spectrophotometry.
Mason, Timothy J.; Turrell, J. A.; Went, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 344.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Oxidation kinetics of copper: An experiment in solid state chemistry  Ebisuzaki, Y.; Sanborn, W. B.
Describes oxidations kinetics in metals and illustrates the role defects play in diffusion-controlled reactions.
Ebisuzaki, Y.; Sanborn, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 341.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Solid State Chemistry |
Rate Law |
Metals
Oxidation of alcohols using calcium hypochlorite and solid/liquid phase-transfer catalysis  Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L.
Includes synthesis of an aldehyde from a primary alcohol as well as several ketones from secondary alcohols.
Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1118.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Preparation and analysis of potassium tris(oxalato)ferrate(III)trihydrate: A general chemistry experiment  Olmsted, John, III
The analysis of this compound combines gravimetric and titrimeric methods and includes a unique and colorful photoredox reaction.
Olmsted, John, III J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1098.
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Fe(II)-Cr(VI) reaction without using mercury  Klett, Lee D.; Black, Arthur H.; Parker, Gordon A.
Procedure that employs titanium rather than mercury in the oxidation-reduction titration of iron(II) with chromium(VI).
Klett, Lee D.; Black, Arthur H.; Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1020.
Reactions |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
A cyclic voltammetry experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory  Baldwin, Richard P.; Ravichandran, K.; Johnson, Ronda K.
Some redox systems that have been employed with success in the laboratory to illustrate both the nature of the cyclic voltammetry technique and its application in the characterization of organic electrode processes.
Baldwin, Richard P.; Ravichandran, K.; Johnson, Ronda K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 820.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Metal-ligand complexes-a calculation challenge  Ramette, R. W.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate one of the most important experimental methods for studying complex equilibria and to present synthetic data as a challenge to the many sophisticated calculation procedure that enjoy various degrees of loyalty around the world.
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 946.
Equilibrium |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
Cyclic voltammetry experiment  Van Benschoten, James J.; Lewis, Jane Y.; Heineman, William R.; Roston, Daryl A.; Kissinger, Peter T.
This three-part experiment has been designed specifically for introducing cyclic voltammetry to students who are at the advanced undergraduate or early graduate level.
Van Benschoten, James J.; Lewis, Jane Y.; Heineman, William R.; Roston, Daryl A.; Kissinger, Peter T. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 772.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
pH |
Heterocycles |
Aromatic Compounds |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
Solubility product constants in a 4-inch by 4-inch by l-inch nutshell  Baca, Glenn; Lewis, Dennis A.
The experiment presented here allows students to conclude that although it is generally true that decreasing solubility product values are accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the respective molar solubilities of the salts being examined, one cannot assume that this direct relationship will always exist.
Baca, Glenn; Lewis, Dennis A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 762.
Electrochemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Cyclic voltammetry  Kissinger, Peter T.; Heineman, William R.
It is the purpose of this article is to provide a description of cyclic voltammetry and its capabilities. This article is accompanied by an experiment which has been developed to demonstrate important features of CV.
Kissinger, Peter T.; Heineman, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 702.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
An introduction to cyclic voltammetry  Mabbott, Gary A.
This article details the procedural steps and their theoretical implications for a laboratory in cyclic voltammetry.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 697.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Hydrogen peroxide in cleansing antiseptics  Worley, John D.
The author shares a procedure for determining peroxide content by measuring the volume of oxygen released when the peroxide was oxidized by permanganate.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 678.
Oxidation / Reduction
A phase transfer catalyzed permanganate oxidation: preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate  Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.
There are several attractive features in this reaction sequence for the undergraduate laboratory. These include (1) use of a protecting acetate group, (2) use of a familiar "textbook" oxidant, potassium permanganate, (3) use of phase transfer catalyst, (4) preparing of an aldehyde, (5) short reaction period, and (6) the laboratory has a pleasant aroma.
Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 503.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
Cyclic voltammetry  Evans, Dennis H.; O'Connell, Kathleen M.; Petersen, Ralph A.; Kelly, Michael J.
A simple experiment is descried here that has become extremely popular in chemical research because it can provide useful information about redox reactions in a form that is easily obtained and interpreted. In this paper the authors present the principles of the method and illustrate its use in the study of four electrode reactions. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Evans, Dennis H.; O'Connell, Kathleen M.; Petersen, Ralph A.; Kelly, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 290.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Undergraduate Research |
Electrochemistry
Anodizing aluminum with frills  Doeltz, Anne E.; Tharaud, Stanley; Sheehan, William F.
This paper adds to an article that appeared previously by connecting purely electrolytic results to a wide range of topics such as chemical reactivity of Al and its oxide, amphoterism of aluminum oxide, and idealized crystal structure calculations involving close-packing.
Doeltz, Anne E.; Tharaud, Stanley; Sheehan, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 156.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The oxidation of secondary alcohols with Cr(VI): A kinetic investigation of steric strain  Mason, Timothy J.
A titrimetric method for the determination of the rate of acid dichromate oxidation of a series of secondary alcohols; using and excess of the alcohol substrate, pseudo first-order rate constants can be calculated from which estimates of the relative steric strain within these molecules may be obtained.
Mason, Timothy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 980.
Kinetics |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Student preparation of acetone from 2-propanol  Kauffman, J. M.; McKee, J. R.
Using swimming pool chlorine for the oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone.
Kauffman, J. M.; McKee, J. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 862.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Cathodic protection against corrosion: An experiment  Pare, J. R. Jocelyn; Jankowski, Krzsyztof
Magnesium is used as a sacrificial anode for a cylinder of soft steel in this electrochemistry experiment.
Pare, J. R. Jocelyn; Jankowski, Krzsyztof J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 798.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry
The oxidation of terminal alkenes by permanganate: A practical demonstration of the use of phase transfer agents  Brown, Keith C.; Chang, Victor S.; Dar, Fazal H.; Lamb, Shannon E.; Lee, Donald G.
An oxidative cleavage of a terminal alkene to give the corresponding carboxylic acid with one less carbon atom.
Brown, Keith C.; Chang, Victor S.; Dar, Fazal H.; Lamb, Shannon E.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 696.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carboxylic Acids
Some tungsten oxidation-reduction chemistry: A paint pot titration  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
Mild reducing agents reduce WO3 to a nonstoichiometric blue oxide, "mineral blue," whose approximate formula is WO2.2-3.0.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 693.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
The direct electrochemical synthesis of [(C6H5)3Ph]2[CoCl4]: An example of the use of anodic oxidation in the preparation of metal ion complexes  Oldham, Colin; Tuck, Dennis G.
Uses a 6 V lantern battery and a simple voltmeter / ammeter.
Oldham, Colin; Tuck, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 420.
Electrochemistry |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
The preparation of lucigenin: An experiment with charm  Amiet, R. G.
The preparation of lucigenin involves both nucleophilic and electrophilic aromatic substitution, nucleophilic aliphatic substitution, reductive coupling, and oxidation reactions.
Amiet, R. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 163.
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
Oxidation of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone by sodium hypochlorite  Zuczek, Norbert M; Furth, Paul S.
A laboratory that was previously published is modified for a smaller scale in this note.
Zuczek, Norbert M; Furth, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 824.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
Detection of carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke using molybdosilicate  Feinstein, H. I.
This carbon monoxide detector was first developed during WWII: it is simple, rapid, and extremely sensitive.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 633.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds
Theory and practical use of an hydrogen electrode in aqueous-organic media  Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R.
These authors make a case for a greater use of hydrogen electrodes for acidity measurements in student laboratory courses.
Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Soil analysis for high school chemistry students  Eisenmann, Mary A.
Students examine the solubility of nitrate ions, the insolubility of iron hydroxide and iron carbonate, and the reaction between acid and carbonates.
Eisenmann, Mary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 897.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A laboratory introduction to polymeric reagents  Wade, L. G., Jr.; Stell, Linda M.
The oxidation of 9-fluorenol to 9-fluorenone by use of a polymer-bound chromium trioxide reagent.
Wade, L. G., Jr.; Stell, Linda M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 438.
Polymerization |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ion exchange separation of the oxidation states of vanadium  Cornelius, Richard
An experiment designed to emphasize the discrete nature of the different oxidation states of vanadium by giving students an opportunity to separate the four species by ion exchange chromatography.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 316.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ionic strength effect on the rate of reduction of hexacyanoferrate(III) by ascorbic acid: A physical chemistry laboratory experiment  Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A.
Ascorbic acid is oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid by hexacyanoferrate(III) ; the reaction displays second order behavior and is followed by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer.
Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 158.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Polymer photoxidation: An experiment to demonstrate the effect of additives  Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.
Production of a polymer that is photochemically active and degrades when exposed to UV light.
Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 273.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Physical Properties
Anodizing aluminum: An electrolytic oxidation experiment for general chemistry  Blatt, Rita G.
Using Faraday's Law, one can calculate the weight of aluminum oxidized and a theoretical film thickness.
Blatt, Rita G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 268.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Aqueous chromic acid oxidation of secondary alcohols in diethyl ether: A convenient undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M.
A two-phase procedure for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones that is applicable to a wide variety of substrates.
Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 203.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Ethers |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Electrochemistry in a nutshell A general chemistry experiment  Baca, Glenn; Dennis, A. Lewis
In this experiment, students can construct and obtain the cell voltages of two precipitation cells, three concentration cells, and six redox cells.
Baca, Glenn; Dennis, A. Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 804.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Why green? More chemistry in the student synthesis of tris(ethylenediamine) cobalt(III) chloride  Krause, Ronald A.
What began as a "failure" in this laboratory exercise turned into a great opportunity for inquiry.
Krause, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 453.
Coordination Compounds |
Alcohols |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Dissolving iron nails: A kinetics experiment  Monaghan, Charles P.; Fanning, James C.
These authors share a kinetics experiment that appeals to students due to its familiarity.
Monaghan, Charles P.; Fanning, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 400.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
End-point aid for starch-iodine and Bronsted plots  Woolley, G. R.; Walshaw, A. H.
An approach toward titration that is more instructive for students is outlined in this note.
Woolley, G. R.; Walshaw, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidative coupling of phenols. A biomimetic undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Hart, Harold; Reilly, James L.
It is the purpose of this paper to describe a laboratory experiment suitable for undergraduates which illustrates the oxidative coupling of phenols. To place the experiment in proper context, the authors briefly review general features of the reaction.
Hart, Harold; Reilly, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 120.
Phenols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electroplating of polyethylene  Gorodetsky, Malka
In the process of reorganizing a first-year chemistry laboratory for engineering students the authors have developed experiments that reproduce the approach in solving industrial chemical problems.
Gorodetsky, Malka J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 66.
Industrial Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Oxidation state determinations for some reduction products of vanadium(V). A multicolored titration  Hentz, F. C., Jr.; Long, G. G.
The authors describe an experiment in which the student prepares and observes all four of the vanadium oxidation state obtainable in aqueous solution, but uses the satiable V(III) and V(IV) states for determination of their oxidation numbers.
Hentz, F. C., Jr.; Long, G. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 55.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation State
Selective reduction of functionalized carboxylic acids with borane-methyl sulfide: A convenient undergraduate organic experiment  Krishnamurthy, S.; Thompson, Kerry L.
Introduces a new selective reducing agent, borane-methyl sulfide.
Krishnamurthy, S.; Thompson, Kerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 778.
Carboxylic Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Preparation of vanillin from eugenol and sawdust  Lampman, Gary M.; Andrews, Jennifer; Bratz, Wayne; Hanssen, Otto; Kelley, Kenneth; Perry, Dana; Ridgeway, Anthony
Two procedures are described for the conversion of eugenol to vanillin.
Lampman, Gary M.; Andrews, Jennifer; Bratz, Wayne; Hanssen, Otto; Kelley, Kenneth; Perry, Dana; Ridgeway, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 776.
Synthesis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Industrial analytical procedure for undergraduate analytical chemistry  Hurtubise, Robert J.
A procedure for determining the amount of BHA in cooking oil.
Hurtubise, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 651.
Industrial Chemistry |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Vanadium for high school students  Grant, A. Ward, Jr.
After the instructor performs the reduction of vanadium(V) as a demonstration, students can perform the oxidation of the vanadium(II) back to its original state.
Grant, A. Ward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 500.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Transition Elements
Sodium perborate oxidation of an aromatic amine  Huestis, Laurence
Upon learning that the mechanism and even the nature of the oxidizing species is unknown, this reaction assumes new significance and provides an excellent opportunity for speculation on the nature of the reaction and a review of factors that affect the yield.
Huestis, Laurence J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 327.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Oxidation of benzoin by hexaxyanoferrate (III). An advanced kinetic experiment  Jarrar, Adil A.; El-Zaru, Ribhi
An experiment in which the student can measure a second-order rate constant and then proceed easily to determine an overall third-order rate constant.
Jarrar, Adil A.; El-Zaru, Ribhi J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 326.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law
The carbon electrode in potentiometric titrations  Natarajan, M.; Ramasubramanian, A.
The use of the carbon electrode in place of the conventional platinum electrode and quinhydrone electrode offers an attractive alternative in certain types of potentiometric work and the present article is a report of their authors study of the effectiveness of carbon electrode in redox and acid-base titrimetry.
Natarajan, M.; Ramasubramanian, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 663.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry
An electrochemical experiment using an optically transparent thin layer electrode  DeAngelis, Thomas P.; Heineman, William R.
In this experiment, the use of the OTTLE for determining formal redox potentials, n values, and spectra of redox couples is illustrated by measurements on solutions of ferricyanide and o-tolidine using a variety of electrochemical techniques.
DeAngelis, Thomas P.; Heineman, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 594.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
An introductory chemistry synthesis and kinetics experiment. Utilizing a low cost linear-log output spectrophotometer modification  Crumbliss, A. L.; McCabe, M. E. III; Dilts, J. A.; Herman, Harvey B.
The authors present an inorganic oxidation-reduction kinetics experiment suitable for use in an introduction laboratory program. In addition, they describe a low cost modification of the Bausch and Lomb spectrophotometer.
Crumbliss, A. L.; McCabe, M. E. III; Dilts, J. A.; Herman, Harvey B. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 528.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Kinetics
The simultaneous potentiometric titration of Cu and Fe in nonaqueous media  Braun, Robert D.
The purpose of this paper is to report a potentiometric, redox titration in n,N-dimethylformatioide which has been used in the author's chemical analysis course.
Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 463.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Potentiometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A simple oxidation-reduction experiment  Ludeman, Susan Marie; Brandt, Joan A.; Zon, Gerald
The lab featured here is a redox lab, which is simply and economically performed with zinc, lead acetate, and copper sulfate, has been used to demonstrate the principles of electronegativity, ionization, metal plating, stoichiometry and electron transfer.
Ludeman, Susan Marie; Brandt, Joan A.; Zon, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 377.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Stoichiometry
A simple general chemistry kinetics experiment  Gellender, Martin
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate provides a gradual and clearly distinguishable appearance of color as the reaction proceeds.
Gellender, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 806.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes. A convenient anti-Markownikoff hydration experiment  Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr.
A hydroboration-oxidation sequence that relies on the borane dimethylsulfide complex as the hydroborating agent and trimethylamine-N-oxide dihydrate as the oxidizing agent.
Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 745.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Addition Reactions
The kinetics and inhibition of the enzyme methemoglobin reductase: A biochemistry experiment  Splittgerber, A. G.; Mitchell, K.; Dahle, G.; Puffer, M.; Blomquist, K.
Describes the preparation and kinetics of a convenient oxidation-reduction system, methemoglobin reductase.
Splittgerber, A. G.; Mitchell, K.; Dahle, G.; Puffer, M.; Blomquist, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 680.
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Natural Products
The selective reduction of meta- (and para-) nitroacetophenone  Jones, Alan G.
By appropriate choice of reagent and reaction conditions a nitroketone can be selectively reduced to an aminoketone or a nitroalcohol; aromatic nitro groups can be reduced to primary arylamines using various chemical reducing agents.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 668.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Raku: A redox experiment in glass  Cichowski, Robert S.
In this experiment, students are given the opportunity to handle a glass making process, choosing a colorant and exploring possible reduction-oxidation reactions involving the colorant.
Cichowski, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 616.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Microbial oxidation of alkenes. An integrated organic-biology experiment  Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J.
The conversion of an appropriate terminal alkene to a 1,2-epoxyalkane by Pseudomonas oleovorans introduces students to the techniques used in carrying out chemical conversions employing microorganisms.
Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 475.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Natural Products
Synthesis of sulfuric acid by the contact process. A student laboratory experiment  Martin, J. A.; Baudot, P.; Monal, J. L.; Lejaille, M. F.
Experimental apparatus and details for the synthesis of sulfuric acid by the contact process.
Martin, J. A.; Baudot, P.; Monal, J. L.; Lejaille, M. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 188.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Industrial Chemistry
A new oxidation-reduction experiment  Williams, T. R.; Van Doren, J. D.
The authors describe an experiment in oxidation and reduction that also introduces students to spectroscopy.
Williams, T. R.; Van Doren, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
Reduction of copper(II) oxide by alkanes of low molecular weight  Hoffman, A. B.; Hoffman, A. J.
This paper describes a laboratory where general chemistry students investigate the reduction of CuO by alkanes of low molecular weight.
Hoffman, A. B.; Hoffman, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 418.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A novel approach for qualitative analysis  Ophadt, Charles E.
This qualitative analysis series allows students to spend a semester exploring the behavior of one ion during the course of a semester that might not be readily learned from a textbook.
Ophadt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 415.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
The preparation, oxidation and characterization of an unknown secondary alcohol  Chittum, John W.; Haynes, LeRoy W.
The authors share an experiment that blends a sequential set of reactions and elements of qualitative organic analysis.
Chittum, John W.; Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 57.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis
Analysis of reducing sugars in breakfast cereal and other foods. A general chemistry experiment  Bittman, Robert
The experiment described here has been introduced in the freshman chemistry laboratory and has been found to be of interest to the student and instructive as well.
Bittman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 46.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science
The reduction of CuO with burner gas and without a fume hood. A high school chemistry experiment  Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas
This experiment is a modification of the classic reduction of CuO with hydrogen gas, except natural gas is used as the reducing agent, eliminating the danger of working with hydrogen.
Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 717.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Analysis of commercial vitamin C tablets by iodometric and coulometric titrimetry  Marsh, Daniel G.; Jacobs, Deborah L.; Veening, Hans
The ascorbic acid content of vitamin C tablets is determined iodometrically using a back titration with standard thiosulfate; ascorbic acid is then titrated coullometrically by direct oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid using electrolytically generated bromine.
Marsh, Daniel G.; Jacobs, Deborah L.; Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 626.
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Molecular weight determination of aldehydes and ketones. A quantitative organic experiment  Steinhaus, Ralph K.
The reaction between semicarbazide and an unknown ketone is used to determine molecular weight.
Steinhaus, Ralph K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 293.
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation of fats. A study using glc  Hamilton, R. J.; Raie, M. Y.
Olive oil is oxidized under von Rudloff conditions; the short-chain fatty acids that are liberated are then analyzed using gas-liquid chromatography.
Hamilton, R. J.; Raie, M. Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 507.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Lipids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Fatty Acids
Dissolved oxygen. A relevant experiment for the introductory laboratory  Stagg, William R.
Students measure the dissolved oxygen content of water from several natural sources as well as the change in solubility with temperature.
Stagg, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 427.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Selective reduction of dinitrobenzenes. An organic laboratory experiment  Idoux, John P.; Plain, Wendell
Different students are assigned different reducing agents and asked to explain why their particular selective reduction occurs as their results indicate.
Idoux, John P.; Plain, Wendell J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 133.
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
Photo-oxidation of leuco methyl crystal violet. A physical chemistry experiment  Thyrion, F. C.
The experiment of carbon tetrachloride-sensitized oxidation of leuco methyl crystal violet described in this paper can easily be easily achieved in 3 hr and does not required special procedures that are often necessary in this field.
Thyrion, F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 766.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation of ethanol by chromium(VI). A kinetics experiment for freshmen  Finlayson, Muriel E.; Lee, Donald G.
The experiment presented here generates a good deal of interest and gives clear cut results without the necessity of using elaborate equipment.
Finlayson, Muriel E.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 473.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols
Preparation of 6-aminosaccharin  Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford
This synthesis involves the substitution of a chlorosulfonyl group onto an aromatic ring at a position predictable on the basis of the directing ability of the groups already present, the oxidation of a methyl group, a cyclization that is an example of the ease with which five-membered rings are formed, and the reduction of a nitro group.
Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 649.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
General chemistry experiments: Six short, inexpensive procedures  Heit, M. L.; Dauphinee, G. A.
These simple experiments involve conductivity comparisons of derivatives of the acetate ion, paper chromatography, sublimation, the effect of temperature on equilibrium, the detection of I-, and an example of an equilibrium shift.
Heit, M. L.; Dauphinee, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 532.
Electrochemistry |
Chromatography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Controlled potential electrolysis: An experiment for elementary quantitative analysis  Kennedy, John H; Adams, Frank
Iron(II), iodide, and arsenic(III) are oxidized and data recorded using the E-cell Data-Stor Unit, a small silver coulometer.
Kennedy, John H; Adams, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 461.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The preparation and kinetics of aquation of bromopentaaquochromium(III): A new multipurpose experiment  Herman, I. J.; Lifshitz, Assa
This experiment involves four chromium compounds in their most stable oxidation states and complex formation and dissociation; the student conducts three different oxidation-reduction reactions while collecting kinetic measurements.
Herman, I. J.; Lifshitz, Assa J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 231.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Oxidation State |
Coordination Compounds
The oxidation of hydrazine by basic iodine solutions: A stoichiometric study  Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W.
This experiment relies on an oxidation-reduction reaction for which a variety of products is energetically possible.
Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 872.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis: A factorial design experiment for the introductory organic laboratory  Norcross, B. E.; Clement, G.; Weinstein, M.
Students carry out the two-step Hantzsch pyridine synthesis; students are required to select the oxidizing agent and conditions for the second reaction step.
Norcross, B. E.; Clement, G.; Weinstein, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 694.
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Heterocycles |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A simple method for the analysis of cobalt in Co(III) complexes  Hughes, R. Graham; Endicott, John F.; Hoffman, Morton Z.; House, D. A.
Presents two direct chemical methods for effecting the Co(III) to Co2+ reduction.
Hughes, R. Graham; Endicott, John F.; Hoffman, Morton Z.; House, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 440.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management