TIGER

Journal Articles: 95 results
A New "Bottom-Up" Framework for Teaching Chemical Bonding  Tami Levy Nahum, Rachel Mamlok-Naaman, Avi Hofstein, and Leeor Kronik
This article presents a general framework for bonding that can be presented at different levels of sophistication depending on the student's level and needs. The pedagogical strategy for teaching this model is a "bottom-up" one, starting with basic principles and ending with specific properties.
Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Kronik, Leeor. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1680.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Materials Science |
MO Theory |
Noncovalent Interactions
Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and Conformational Stability of Proteins  Katheryn M. Sanchez, Diana E. Schlamadinger, Jonathan E. Gable, and Judy E. Kim
Describes the integration of absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements to probe important topics in protein folding. Comparison of conformational stabilities of cytochrome c measured via two chemical denaturants illustrates important concepts in protein folding and intermolecular interactions.
Sanchez, Katheryn M.; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1253.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Quantum Chemistry |
Resonance Theory |
Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Acid-Catalyzed Enolization of β-Tetralone  Brahmadeo Dewprashad, Anthony Nesturi, and Joel Urena
This experiment allows students to use 1H NMR to compare the rates of substitution of benzylic and non-benzylic a hydrogens of -tetralone and correlate their findings with predictions made by resonance theory.
Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Nesturi, Anthony; Urena, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 829.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Isotopes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactive Intermediates |
Resonance Theory |
Synthesis
Exploring Solid-State Structure and Physical Properties: A Molecular and Crystal Model Exercise  Thomas H. Bindel
This laboratory allows students to examine relationships among the microscopicmacroscopicsymbolic levels using crystalline mineral samples and corresponding crystal models. The exercise also reinforces Lewis dot structures, VSEPR theory, and the identification of molecular and coordination geometries.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 822.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
VSEPR Theory |
Lewis Structures |
Physical Properties
More on ClO and Related Radicals  William B. Jensen
The novel Lewis structure for the ClO radical and other related 13e isoelectronic species presented by Hirsch and Kobrak is identical to that proposed by Linnett over 40 years ago for the same species on the basis of his well-known double-quartet approach to Lewis structures.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 783.
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Free Radicals
Six Pillars of Organic Chemistry  Joseph J. Mullins
This article focuses on a core set of conceptselectronegativity, polar covalent bonding, inductive and steric effects, resonance, and aromaticitythe proper application of which can explain and predict a wide variety of chemical, physical, and biological properties of molecules and conceptually unite important features of general, organic, and biochemistry.
Mullins, Joseph J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 83.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactive Intermediates |
Resonance Theory
Lewis Structure Representation of Free Radicals Similar to ClO  Warren Hirsch and Mark Kobrak
An unconventional Lewis structure is proposed to explain the properties of the free radical ClO and a series of its isoelectronic analogues, particularly trends in the spin density of these species.
Hirsch, Warren; Kobrak, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1360.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Free Radicals |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
MO Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
Getting the Weights of Lewis Structures out of Hückel Theory: Hückel–Lewis Configuration Interaction (HL-CI)  Stéphane Humbel
A method to obtain the weights of Lewis structures from Hckel calculations is presented and tested against established ab initio methods.
Humbel, Stéphane. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1056.
Computational Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Resonance Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
Aromatic Bagels: An Edible Resonance Analogy  Shirley Lin
Describes a classroom demonstration involving the use of a bagel and cream cheese as an analogy for benzene that emphasizes the deficiencies of using a single Lewis structure to describe this structure.
Lin, Shirley. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 779.
Aromatic Compounds |
Lewis Structures |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Predicting the Stability of Hypervalent Molecules  Tracy A. Mitchell, Debbie Finocchio, and Jeremy Kua
In this exercise, students use concepts in thermochemistry such as bond energy, ionization potentials, and electron affinities to predict the relative stability of two hypervalent molecules (PF5 and PH5) relative to their respective non-hypervalent counterparts.
Mitchell, Tracy A.; Finocchio, Debbie; Kua, Jeremy. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 629.
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Let Us Give Lewis Acid–Base Theory the Priority It Deserves  Alan A. Shaffer
The Lewis concept is simple yet powerful in its scope, and can be used to help beginning students understand reaction mechanisms more fully. However, traditional approaches to acid-base reactions at the introductory level ignores Lewis acid-base theory completely, focusing instead on proton transfer described by the Br?nsted-Lowry concept.
Shaffer, Alan A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1746.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Lewis Structures |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
More on the Nature of Resonance  Robert C. Kerber
The author continues to find the use of delocalization preferable to resonance.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1291.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
More on the Nature of Resonance  William B. Jensen
Supplements a recent article on the interpretation of resonance theory with three additional observationsone historical and two conceptual.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
A Novel Exploration of the Hartree–Fock Homolytic Bond Dissociation Problem in the Hydrogen Molecule by Means of Electron Localization Measures  Eduard Matito, Miquel Duran, and Miquel Solà
Provides new insight into the restricted HartreeFock (HF) method of homolytic bond dissociation by using localization and delocalization indices defined in the framework of the atoms-in-molecules theory to analyze homolytic bond dissociation in the hydrogen molecule.
Matito, Eduard; Duran, Miquel; Solà, Miquel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1243.
Computational Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Lecture Templates: Convenient Partial Lecture Delivery System  Elzbieta Cook and Robert L. Cook
Reports on the use of two forms of PowerPoint lecture presentationsa complete version used by the lecturer and a corresponding partial version available in advance to students. Pre-prepared lecture presentations allow for the sharing of lecture materials among teaching faculty and ensure consistency among several lecture sections in team taught courses.
Cook, Elzbieta; Cook, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1176.
Equilibrium |
Lewis Structures |
Professional Development
Valence, Oxidation Number, and Formal Charge: Three Related but Fundamentally Different Concepts  Gerard Parkin
The purpose of this article is to clarify the terms valence, oxidation number, coordination number, formal charge, and number of bonds and illustrate how the valence of an atom in a molecule provides a much more meaningful criterion for establishing the chemical reasonableness of a molecule than does the oxidation number.
Parkin, Gerard. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 791.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Oxidation State |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
If It's Resonance, What Is Resonating?  Robert C. Kerber
This article reviews the origin of the terminology associated with the use of more than one Lewis-type structure to describe delocalized bonding in molecules and how the original usage has evolved to reduce confusion
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 223.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Comments on Purser's Article: "Lewis Structures are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure"   Gordon H. Purser
Weinhold makes four major criticisms of my article. I shall address each of these criticisms.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 528.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Resonance Theory |
MO Theory
Comments on Purser's Article: "Lewis Structures are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure"  Frank Weinhold
Some time ago in this Journal, Purser expressed strong views on the proper teaching of Lewis structures, as summarized in the quoted title. Because his criticisms are based on substantial factual misrepresentations and errors, it seemed desirable to call attention to a few of the conspicuous misstatements in order that readers may judge the opinions and conclusions from a more informed perspective.
Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 527.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Resonance Theory |
MO Theory
The Concept of Oxidation States in Metal Complexes  Dirk Steinborn
After a brief historical survey, basic considerations are given to assign oxidation numbers of atoms in molecules on the basis of their Lewis structures by splitting shared electrons in covalent bonds heterolytically. Advantages over the frequently used method to assign oxidation numbers by using a set of hierarchical rules are demonstrated for some nonmetal compounds. Assignment of oxidation numbers of metals is systematically worked out for metal complexes with n-, pi-, and s-ligands. Furthermore, it is shown how the concept of oxidation states is embedded in the teaching process of molecular chemistry for early chemistry students.
Steinborn, Dirk. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1148.
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Lewis Structures |
Metals |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Writing Electron Dot Structures   Kenneth R. Magnell
Drill with feedback for students learning to write electron dot structures.
Magnell, Kenneth R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 711.
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Resonance Theory |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Anomalous Reactivity of Fluorobenzene in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution and Related Phenomena  Joel Rosenthal and David I. Schuster
Extensive analysis of the reactivity of fluorobenzene (electrophilic substitution); includes resonance and other inductive effects, acidities of fluorinated aromatic compounds, and properties of other organofluorine compounds.
Rosenthal, Joel; Schuster, David I. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 679.
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Resonance Theory
The Molecular Model Game  Stephanie A. Myers
Student teams must draw Lewis structures and build models of various molecules and polyatomic ions; different team members have different responsibilities.
Myers, Stephanie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 423.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry: From Lewis to Electron Densities (Gillespie and Popelier)  Daniel Rabinovich
Overview of the classical and modern concepts used to explain and predict molecular geometries of the nonmetallic elements and their compounds.
Rabinovich, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 31.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
Lewis Structures |
Nonmetals
How We Teach Molecular Structure to Freshmen  Michael O. Hurst
Examination of how textbooks discuss various aspects of molecular structure; conclusion that much of general chemistry is taught the way it is for historical and not pedagogical reasons.
Hurst, Michael O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 763.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Keto-Enol Tautomers in a Carbonyl Phosphonium Salt  David E. Berry and G. W. Patenaude
Observations of keto-enol tautomers of a phosphonium ion.
Berry, David E.; Patenaude, G. W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 498.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Resonance Theory
The Mechanism of Aqueous Hydrolysis of Nitro Derivatives of Phenyl Phenylmethanesulfonate. An Organic Laboratory Experiment  S. D. Mulder, B. E. Hoogenboom, and A. G. Splittgerber
Synthesis, purification, and characterization of three esters.
Mulder, S. D.; Hoogenboom, B. E.; Splittgerber, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 218.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Reactive Intermediates |
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Aromatic Compounds |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Role of Lewis Structures in Teaching Covalent Bonding  S. R. Logan
Difficulties with the Lewis theory of covalent bonding and upgrading it to the Molecular Orbital theory.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1457.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Nonmajor Courses |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis Structures in General Chemistry: Agreement between Electron Density Calculations and Lewis Structures  Gordon H. Purser
The internuclear electron densities of a series of X-O bonds (where X = P, S, or Cl) are calculated using quantum mechanics and compared to Lewis structures for which the formal charges have been minimized; a direct relationship is found between the internuclear electron density and the bond order predicted from Lewis structures in which formal charges are minimized.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 981.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Quantum Chemistry
Drawing Lewis Structures from Lewis Symbols: A Direct Electron-Pairing Approach  Wan-Yaacob Ahmad and Mat B. Zakaria
We describe a different, more student-friendly approach to writing Lewis structures for covalent molecules and ions based on Lewis theory and Abegg's rule. Several rules for selecting central atoms are provided. Separate sets of rules are provided for diatomic molecules and ions and for polyatomic molecules and ions.
Ahmad, Wan-Yaacob; Zakaria, Mat B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 329.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures
Lewis Structures Are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure  Gordon H. Purser
This article argues against a close relationship between Lewis dot structures and electron structure obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. Lewis structures are a powerful tool for structure prediction, though they are classical models of bonding and do not predict electronic structure.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1013.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling
The "Big Dog-Puppy Dog" Analogy for Resonance  Todd P. Silverstein
In this analogy, puppy dogs are restricted to a specific dog run; they represent s-bond electron pairs. Big dogs are allowed to roam freely over several consecutive dog runs; they represent delocalized p-bond electron pairs. By adding a bunny rabbit who is chased by the big dog, the analogy can be expanded to account for delocalized formal charge in a resonance hybrid.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 206.
Covalent Bonding |
Learning Theories |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simplified Lewis Structure Drawing for Nonscience Majors  Barnabe B. Miburo
Lewis structures are drawn using a simplified novel method with the following features: 1) the atoms used are brought in carrying all their valence electrons; 2) bonds are created by pairing up valence electrons between the central atoms and peripheric atoms; 3) anions are formed by addition of electrons to single electrons on appropriate atoms, while cations are formed by removal of single electrons.
Miburo, Barnabe B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 317.
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Nonmajor Courses |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Making Organic Concepts Visible  Robert S. H. Liu and Alfred E. Asato
Graphic illustrations, with a Hawaiian flavor, have been introduced to clarify the following concepts encountered in introductory organic chemistry: functional groups, resonance structures, polarizability, ionization in mass spectroscopy and difference in reactivities between alkyl and vinyl halides
Liu, Robert S. H.; Asato, Alfred E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 783.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Resonance Theory
Experimental Illustration of the Utility of Lewis Structures: An FTIR Experiment for Introductory Chemistry  James E. Swartz and Kurt Schladetzky
An experiment is described in which students record the FTIR spectra of a series of organic liquids which contain a carbonyl group and to predict the strength of the carbonyl bonds based upon drawing and examination of various Lewis structures.
Swartz, James E.; Schladetzky, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 188.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Lewis Structures
Lewis Structures of Oxygen Compounds of 3p-5p Nonmetals  Darel K. Straub
Procedure for writing Lewis structures of oxygen compounds of 3p-5p nonmetals.
Straub, Darel K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 889.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
Common Textbook and Teaching Misrepresentations of Lewis Structures   Laila Suidan, Jay K. Badenhoop, Eric D. Glendening, and Frank Weinhold
Clarifying leading Lewis structures using computational software.
Suidan, Laila; Badenhoop, Jay K.; Glendening, Eric D.; Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 583.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis Structures of Boron Compounds Involving Multiple Bonding  Straub, Darel K.
Considers evidence for multiple bonding in boron compounds and supposed exceptions to the octet rule.
Straub, Darel K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 494.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding
Using Formal Charges in Teaching Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry  DeWit, David G.
Using the concept of formal charges to predict bond properties, determine molecular structure, and explain reactivities and the tendency to polymerize.
DeWit, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 750.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Polymerization
The Lewis Structure: An Expanded Perspective  Reed, James L.
A simple bridge between the molecular orbital and valence bond models.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 98.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A New Approach To Teaching Organic Chemical Mechanisms  Wentland, Stephen H.
Describing the mechanisms of organic reactions using five simple steps or operations.
Wentland, Stephen H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 3.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Do our students really understand the Hammett equation?   Schwan, Adrian L.
In this author's experience, many students can proceed through text questions dealing with the Hammett equation without having a full understanding of the Hammett analysis. He offers a question that enables students to gain a better appreciation of this concept.
Schwan, Adrian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1001.
Chemometrics |
Resonance Theory |
Constitutional Isomers
Writing Lewis structures   Weeks, Daniel
In response to a problem posed in a June 1991 article, this author points to a solution he authored 17 years ago.
Weeks, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 519.
Lewis Structures
Davidsoniana Jones and the cult of the curved arrow  Brisbois, Ronald G.
Puzzles to help students understand valence bond theory, resonance, and tautomerism.
Brisbois, Ronald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 971.
Resonance Theory
Drawing Lewis structures: A step-by-step approach  Ahmad, Wan-Yaacob; Omar, Siraj
A simple step-by-step approach for deriving Lewis structures for students studying introductory chemistry.
Ahmad, Wan-Yaacob; Omar, Siraj J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 791.
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Spontaneous detonation of a mixture of two odd electron gases   Briggs, Thomas S.
Instructions for safe detonation of ClO2 and NO (the fastest known reaction between two stable molecules at room temperature).
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 938.
Reactions |
Resonance Theory
Explaining resonance - a colorful approach  Abel, Kenton B.; Hemmerlin, William M.
An analogy using color to help students understand that a resonance molecule does not shift back and forth between Lewis Structures, but is in fact a hybrid of the two structures.
Abel, Kenton B.; Hemmerlin, William M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 834.
Resonance Theory |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis structures, formal charge, and oxidation numbers: A more user-friendly approach  Packer, John E.; Woodgate, Sheila D.
This paper presents a set of rules for writing Lewis structures requiring only the ability to add, subtract, count, and know the number of valence electrons of neutral atoms.
Packer, John E.; Woodgate, Sheila D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 456.
Lewis Structures |
Oxidation State
Lone electron motion delocalization and relocalization to write Lewis structures  McGoran, Ernest C.
A protocol for writing Lewis electron dot structures that attempts to unite the standard symbolism with our more contemporary interpretations given to the covalent bond.
McGoran, Ernest C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 19.
Lewis Structures
A new approach to the generation of sigma complex structures  Young, Joseph G.
An alternative to the electron pushing approach for determining intermediate resonance structures for electrophilic aromatic substitutions.
Young, Joseph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 550.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Resonance Theory |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A visual aid for teaching the resonance concept  Delvigne, Francis
Using "dot clouds" to represent electron densities and resonance in structures such as benzene.
Delvigne, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 461.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds
Teaching a model for writing Lewis structures  Pardo, Juan Quilez
A general procedure for the representation of Lewis structures.
Pardo, Juan Quilez J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 456.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The chemical bond  DeKock, Roger L.
Overview of the chemical bond; considers ionic bonds, covalent bonds, Lewis electron dot structures, polar molecules and hydrogen bonds, and bonding in solid-state elements.
DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 934.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Solid State Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis structures for compounds with expanded octets  Malerich, Charles J.
A simple method for recognizing expanded octets given only the molecular formula of the compound.
Malerich, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 403.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching the concept of resonance with transparent overlays  Richardson, W. S.
The overlap method can be useful in the development of the concept of a partial charge on the atoms of an ion.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 518.
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The arithmetic of aromaticity  Glidewell, Christopher; Lloyd, Douglas
In this article, the authors explore an aspect of conjugated systems that have received little attention, namely polycyclic hydrocarbons.
Glidewell, Christopher; Lloyd, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 306.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds
Drawing Lewis structures without anticipating octets  Carroll, James Allen
This note presents a discussion of several examples of appropriate Lewis structures and the fine structural predictions that are possible.
Carroll, James Allen J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 28.
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling
Gilbert Newton Lewis and the amazing electron dots  Tiernan, Natalie Foote
Development of electron dot formulas by and brief biography of Gilbert Lewis.
Tiernan, Natalie Foote J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 569.
Lewis Structures
The "6N+2 Rule" for writing Lewis octet structures  Zandler, Melvin E.; Talaty, Erach R.
Applying the "6N+2 Rule" to writing Lewis octet structures.
Zandler, Melvin E.; Talaty, Erach R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 124.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Another procedure for writing Lewis structures  Clark, Thomas J.
A simple procedure for writing a correct Lewis structure for a molecule or ion containing only s- and p-block elements.
Clark, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 100.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The synthesis of 4,6,8-trimethylazulene: an organic laboratory experiment  Garst, Michael E.; Hochlowski, Jill; Douglass, III, James G.; Sasse, Scott
A procedure for a two-step synthesis of 4,6,8-trimethylazulene.
Garst, Michael E.; Hochlowski, Jill; Douglass, III, James G.; Sasse, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 510.
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Chromatography
Electron-dot structures of O2 and NO: Ignored gems from the work of J. W. Linnett  Levy, Jack B.
The presented treatment makes it easier for students to make predictive models with electron-dot structures.
Levy, Jack B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 404.
Lewis Structures |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Structure-resonance theory for pericyclic transition states  Herndon, William C.
The purpose of this article is to show that structure-resonance theory can be used to understand the effects of structure or substituents on the rates of thermal pericyclic reactions.
Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 371.
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Computer instruction in Lewis structures of simple molecules  Bendall, Victor I.
7. Bits and pieces, 1.
Bendall, Victor I. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 252.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The aromatic ring  Kolb, Doris
Historic analysis and attempts to explain the structure of benzene, the concept of resonance, Huckel's rule, polycyclic aromatic compounds, non-classical aromatic compounds, and a definition for aromaticity.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 334.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
Electrons, bonding, orbitals, and light: A unified approach to the teaching of structure and bonding in organic chemistry courses  Lenox, Ronald S.
A suggested list of topics and methods for teaching introductory organic students bonding concepts.
Lenox, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 298.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
Back-of-the-envelope molecular orbital "calculations". Using bond orbitals and group theory  Davidson, Robert B.
Outlines the prediction of orbital symmetries from Lewis structures using bond orbitals and group theory.
Davidson, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 531.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Lewis Structures |
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Frank C. Whitmore and the first successful explanation of some intramolecular rearrangements  Saltzman, Martin D.
In 1932 Frank C. Whitmore presented a beautifully succinct and detailed pathway using the octet concept of Lewis to show the common basis of many intramolecular rearrangements discovered during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Saltzman, Martin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 25.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures
A direct calorimetric demonstration of resonance energy in the benzene nucleus  van Vugt, W. H.; Mosselman, C.
This calorimetric experiment is intended as a first contact in chemical education with the aromaticity concept.
van Vugt, W. H.; Mosselman, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 746.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Resonance Theory
An alternative procedure to writing Lewis structures  Imkampe, Karl
Using simple molecular orbital pictures to represent all the resonance structures of larger organic molecules.
Imkampe, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 429.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
Resonance theory and the enumeration of Kekule structures  Herndon, William C.
The formulation of resonance theory as it is practiced today is explicated in the well-known books by Pauling and Wheland. Study of these texts show that resonance theory are so drastic that many theoreticians are loathe to ascribe validity to the less rigorous method.
Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 10.
Resonance Theory |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis structures and the octet rule. An automatic procedure for writing canonical forms  Lever, A. B. P.
Canonical Lewis structures may be derived by a simple, almost automatic, procedure, enabling one to write down, correctly and rapidly, the resonance forms of any short period species.
Lever, A. B. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 819.
Lewis Structures
The determination of the resonance energy of benzene. A physical chemistry laboratory experiment  Stevenson, Gerald R.
This procedure relies on calorimetry to measure the resonance energy of benzene, a useful way to relate the concepts of aromaticity and resonance energy to experimental thermodynamics.
Stevenson, Gerald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 781.
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Selective reduction of dinitrobenzenes. An organic laboratory experiment  Idoux, John P.; Plain, Wendell
Different students are assigned different reducing agents and asked to explain why their particular selective reduction occurs as their results indicate.
Idoux, John P.; Plain, Wendell J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 133.
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
Guanidine, trimethylenemethane, and "Y-delocalization." Can acyclic compounds have "aromatic" stability?  Gund, Peter
It appears that the Y-shaped configuration of 6 pi electrons as found in guanidine derivatives is an exceptionally stable one.
Gund, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 100.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
MO Theory
Evidence of d pi-acceptor resonance in halogen substituents  Abdulla, Riaz F.
The association of various structural and dynamic phenomena through the postulate of d pi resonance has potential additional predictive value.
Abdulla, Riaz F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 64.
Resonance Theory |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Dewar resonance energy  Baird, N. C.
In the present paper, some of the general properties of the Dewar Resonance Energy definition are developed. In particular, the DRE value for a compound is shown to be independent of the numerical values used to bond energies, and the use of DRE in judging the aromaticity of organic molecules is illustrated.
Baird, N. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 509.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Understanding a culprit before eliminating it. An application of Lewis acid-base principles to atmospheric SO2 as a pollutant  Brasted, Robert C.
The SO2 molecule offers ample opportunities for teaching practical chemistry. [Debut of first run. This feature reappeared in 1986.]
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Cross conjugation  Phelan, Nelson F.; Orchin, Milton
Although qualitative conclusions may be obtained by judicious use of simple resonance theory, even in simple systems the electron distribution and extent of conjugation between the nonconjugated centers in cross conjugation is most effectively illustrated by molecular orbital descriptions.
Phelan, Nelson F.; Orchin, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 633.
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory |
Resonance Theory
The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. II. An alternative to resonance hybrids  Luder, W. F.
The author proposes the electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond as an alternative to resonance hybrids.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 269.
Covalent Bonding |
Resonance Theory
Electronic interactions between nonconjugated groups  Ferguson, Lloyd N.; Nnadi, John C.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the different molecular systems in which electronic interactions between classically nonconjugated groups are explicable in terms of molecular orbital theory as well as nonclassical resonance theory.
Ferguson, Lloyd N.; Nnadi, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 529.
MO Theory |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Rules for molecular orbital structures  Meislich, Herbert
In view of the fact that molecular orbital theory makes more correct predictions and avoids the misconceptions that arise in the minds of novice students when they are exposed to resonance theory, it would be better to use M.O. theory as much as possible in teaching organic chemistry.
Meislich, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 401.
MO Theory |
Resonance Theory
The electronic structures and stereochemistry of NO2+, NO2, and NO2-  Panckhurst, M. H.
A comparison of the electronic structures and stereochemistry of NO2+, NO2, and NO2-.
Panckhurst, M. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 270.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
The contributions of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory  Campaigne, E.
Examines the contribution of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory and his work regarding the nature of bonds in pyrone ring systems.
Campaigne, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 336.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Theoretical chemistry in Russia  Hunsberger, I. Moyer
Examines contributions to organic structural theory and Russian criticisms of resonance theory.
Hunsberger, I. Moyer J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 504.
Resonance Theory
Kekule's theory of aromaticity  Gero, Alexander
Examines what Kekule really wrote in his famous paper on the structure of benzene.
Gero, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 201.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
Predicting reactions of a resonance hybrid from minor canonical structures  Gero, Alexander
Little effort seems to have been made to set up any general rules on the relative contributions of the several structural formulas (canonical structures) used to represent a resonance hybrid to the reactions of the hybrid.
Gero, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 136.
Resonance Theory |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Letters  Bent, Richard L.
Addresses issues raised regarding an earlier paper on isomerism and mesomerism.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 648.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Letters  Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho
Identifies some inconsistencies in an earlier paper on isomerism and mesomerism.
Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 647.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Letters  Wolfrom, Melville L.
The author encourages American chemists to familiarize themselves with the conventions of representing configurational formulas.
Wolfrom, Melville L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 479.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Aspects of isomerism and mesomerism. I. (a) Formulas and their meaning (b) Mesomerism  Bent, Richard L.
Examines molecular, empirical, structural, configurational, and projection formulas, as well as mesomerism (electronic isomers) and various types of resonance.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 220.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Letters  Brescia, Frank
The author calls for someone to invent another term for the word resonance as applied to the field of molecular structure.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 261.
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The concept of resonance energy in elementary organic chemistry  Gero, Alexander
The author describes an empirically-based presentation of resonance energy that is perfectly within reach of introductory organic students.
Gero, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 82.
Resonance Theory
About a machistic theory in chemistry and its propagandists  Tatevskii, V. M.; Shakhparanov, M. I.
Russian scientists attack the resonance theory and the use of resonance structures.
Tatevskii, V. M.; Shakhparanov, M. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 13.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
The present state of the chemical structural theory  Kursanov, D. N.; Gonikberg, M. G.; Dubinin, B. M.; Kabachnik, M. I.; Kaverzneva, E. D.; Prilezhaeva, E. N.; Sokolov, N. D.; Freidlina, R. Kh.
Several members of the Russian Academy of Sciences attack the resonance theory and resonance structures.
Kursanov, D. N.; Gonikberg, M. G.; Dubinin, B. M.; Kabachnik, M. I.; Kaverzneva, E. D.; Prilezhaeva, E. N.; Sokolov, N. D.; Freidlina, R. Kh. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 2.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory