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Journal Articles: 1,000 results
A Web-Based Interactive Module to Teach Acid–Base Principles of Drug Action  Maria A. Hernandez and Jolanta Czerwinska
Describes interactive compressed video teleconferencing as the distance learning format for an entry-level doctor of pharmacy program.
Hernandez, Maria A.; Czerwinska, Jolanta. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1704.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Representing Fractional Distributions in Chemistry  Addison Ault
The purpose of this paper is to present a common approach to the representation of all forms of fractional distributions. Using a common approach is simple, easy to understand, and can reveal otherwise hidden relationships between phenomena.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1432.
Acids / Bases |
Amino Acids |
Carboxylic Acids |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Reactions
A Dramatic Classroom Demonstration of Limiting Reagent Using the Vinegar and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Reaction  Romklao Artdej and Tienthong Thongpanchang
This demonstration, appropriate for high school chemistry level and recommended for a large classroom presentation, is designed to illustrate the concept of limiting reagent via a series of experiments in which increasing amounts of sodium bicarbonate are added to a fixed amount of vinegar is fixed until the volume of carbon dioxide generated remains constant.
Artdej, Romklao; Thongpanchang, Tienthong. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1382.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Using Graphics Calculators and Spreadsheets in Chemistry: Solving Equilibrium Problems   Kieran F. Lim ()
Discusses tabular and graphical approaches to equilibrium calculations.
Lim, Kieran F. (). J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1347.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Molecular Models of Indicators  William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules this month are the acid and base forms of three common indicatorsphenolphthalein, methyl orange, and methyl red. These three substances display interesting structural features as the pH-induced transformation from one form to another takes place in three different ways.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1152.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Construction of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Gas Sensor  Shabnam Virji, Bruce H. Weiller, Jiaxing Huang, Richard Blair, Heather Shepherd, Tanya Faltens, Philip C. Haussmann, Richard B. Kaner, and Sarah H. Tolbert
The objectives of this lab are to synthesize different diameter polyaniline nanofibers and compare them as sensor materials. Its advantages include simplicity and low cost, making it suitable for both high school and college students, particularly in departments with modest means.
Virji, Shabnam; Weiller, Bruce H.; Huang, Jiaxing; Blair, Richard; Shepherd, Heather; Faltens, Tanya; Haussmann, Philip C.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1102.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
pH |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation To Reinforce Student Understanding of Intermolecular Forces  Phillip R. Burkholder, Gordon H. Purser, and Renee S. Cole
This article presents a series of experiments incorporating molecular dynamics simulations which predict the motion of chemical species based on the application of empirical rules and a physical analysis of the forces that act between the species. These motions can then be shown in vivid graphical form.
Burkholder, Phillip R.; Purser, Gordon H.; Cole, Renee S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1071.
Computational Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Colorful Chemical Fountains  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
A chemical fountain, constructed from several vertically stacked plastic champagne cups, is used to demonstrate acidbase and chemiluminescence reactions.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1061.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
A Simple Penny Analysis  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
Describes a simple procedure for determining the zinc composition of U.S. pennies in which the penny zinc core is dissolved in acid and the evolved hydrogen gas is collected by water displacement.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 817.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Metals |
Stoichiometry
Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration  Bruce R. Prall
This demonstration uses the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stir bar to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water and provides an excellent opportunity to discuss limiting and excess reagents.
Prall, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 527.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
pH
Perchloric Acid (60–72% Aqueous Solution)  Jay A. Young
Safe handling and laboratory use of perchloric acid (6072% aqueous solution) is discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 493.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Picric Acid  Jay A. Young
Safe handling and laboratory use of picric acid is discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 492.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Netorials  Rebecca Ottosen, John Todd, Rachel Bain, Mike Miller, Liana Lamont, Mithra Biekmohamadi, and David B. Shaw
Netorials is a collection of about 30 online tutorials on general chemistry topics designed as a supplement for high school or college introductory courses. Each Netorial contains several pages of interactive instruction that includes animated mouse-overs, questions for students to answer, and manipulable molecular structures.
Ottosen, Rebecca; Todd, John; Bain, Rachel; Miller, Mike; Lamont. Liana; Biekmohamadi, Mithra; Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 463.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions |
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry
Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions  Emeric Schultz
Describes the dynamic reaction figure, a flexible learning tool that can be used to balance chemical equations, predict the results of potential reactions, present the underlying mechanism of reactions, and solve quantitative problems in a number of areas.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nonmajor Courses
Determining the Solubility Product of Fe(OH)3: An Equilibrium Study with Environmental Significance  Michelle Meighan, Joseph MacNeil, and Renee Falconer
This study explores the environmental impact of acidic mine drainage by investigating the relationship between pH and the aqueous solubility of heavy metals. Students precipitate Fe(OH)3 from acidic FeCl3 and NaOH and use the concentrations of ferric and hydroxide ionsdetermined through pH and flame spectroscopyto calculate the Ksp of Fe(OH)3.
Meighan, Michelle; MacNeil, Joseph; Falconer, Renee. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 254.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Spectroscopy
Six Pillars of Organic Chemistry  Joseph J. Mullins
This article focuses on a core set of conceptselectronegativity, polar covalent bonding, inductive and steric effects, resonance, and aromaticitythe proper application of which can explain and predict a wide variety of chemical, physical, and biological properties of molecules and conceptually unite important features of general, organic, and biochemistry.
Mullins, Joseph J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 83.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactive Intermediates |
Resonance Theory
Determination of Solvent Effects on Keto—Enol Equilibria of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds Using NMR  A. Gilbert Cook and Paul M. Feltman
Expands the classic physical chemistry experiment using of proton NMR to determine the equilibrium position of tautomeric 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in various solvents.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Feltman, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Equilibrium |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Gas Clathrate Hydrates Experiment for High School Projects and Undergraduate Laboratories  Melissa P. Prado, Annie Pham, Robert E. Ferazzi, Kimberly Edwards, and Kenneth C. Janda
Presents a procedure for preparing and studying propane clathrate hydrate. This experiment introduces students to this unusual solid while stimulating a discussion of the interplay of intermolecular forces, thermodynamics, and solid structure.
Prado, Melissa P.; Pham, Annie; Ferazzi, Robert E.; Edwards, Kimberly; Janda, Kenneth C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1790.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Surveying Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Acid–Base Behavior of Substances  Carlos Furió-Más, María-Luisa Calatayud, and Sergio L. Bárcenas
The aim of this article is to ascertain whether grade-12 students have sufficient background knowledge to explain the properties of acids, bases, and salts from their constituent ions or molecules. In addition, this research seeks to discern if certain learning difficulties are due to this lack of knowledge.
Furió-Más, Carlos; Calatayud, María-Luisa; Bárcenas, Sergio L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1717.
Acids / Bases |
Learning Theories |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Carbon Dioxide Fountain  Seong-Joo Kang and Eun-Hee Ryu
This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain that, unlike the traditional ammonia fountain, is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available.
Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
The Use of Conjugate Charts in Transfer Reactions: A Unified Approach  Michael I. Allnutt
Redox reactions are discussed in terms of the relative strengths of the oxidant, the reductant, and their conjugates; a conjugate chart is a convenient and useful way of doing this. A similar chart for acids and bases that can be applied in the same manner is proposed.
Allnutt, Michael I. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1659.
Acids / Bases |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Use of Limits in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course  Paul S. Matsumoto, Jonathan Ring, and Jia Li (Lily) Zhu
This article describes the use of limits in topics usually covered in advanced placement or first-year college chemistry. This approach supplements the interpretation of the graph of an equation since it is usually easier to evaluate the limit of a function than to generate its graph.
Matsumoto, Paul S.; Ring, Jonathan; Zhu, Jia Li (Lily). J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1655.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Thermodynamics
Lactic Acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of lactic acid are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1420.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Concerning Lewis Acid–Base Theory for Proton Transfer  Lawrence J. Sacks
Counterpoint commentary in response to a suggestion that the Lewis acidbase approach be applied to reactions such as ammoniawater and HClwater.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1415.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
J. Chem Ed. 2007, 84, 1056–1061  
The article Getting the Weights of Lewis Structures out of Hckel Theory: HckelLewis Configuration Interaction (HL-CI) has an incorrectly printed table on p. 1059.
J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1277.
Lewis Acids / Bases
Calculating Interaction Energies Using First Principle Theories: Consideration of Basis Set Superposition Error and Fragment Relaxation  J. Phillip Bowen, Jennifer B. Sorensen, and Karl N. Kirschner
With the methanolwater complex as a model, this articles demonstrates how to calculate an interaction energy using four methods fundamental to ab initio theory.
Bowen, J. Phillip, Sorensen, Jennifer B., Karl N. Kirschner. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1225.
Computational Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Analysis and Identification of Acid–Base Indicator Dyes by Thin-Layer Chromatography  Daniel D. Clark
Presents an experiment that serves to illustrate the fundamentals and utility of thin-layer chromatography through the resolution and identification of brightly colored, acidbase indicator dyes on the basis of Rf values and color.
Clark, Daniel D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1186.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Connecting Acids and Bases with Encapsulation… and Chemistry with Nanotechnology  Brett Criswell
This article discusses a design approach to creating nanotechnology-related curricular materials through the construction of activity sets based on the FERA (focus, explore, reflect, and apply)learning-cycle model. The specific example provided involves an activity that focuses on Arrhenius acidbase theory and weak versus strong acids and bases.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1136.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
pH |
Nanotechnology
Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web  Kent A. Chambers and Bob Blake
Web-based pre-lecture questions allow the instructor to evaluate students' prior knowledge and understanding of fundamental concepts, while post-lecture questions evaluate how well the class is mastering individual concepts. Data show that this use of student feedback significantly enhances academic performance.
Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1130.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Learning Theories |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Defining and Teaching pH  Richard F. Burton
At an elementary level, pH and the algebra of equilibria can be simply and correctly taught, without logarithms, in terms of the modern, operationally-defined pH scale that underlies laboratory measurement and relates to activities.
Burton, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1129.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community  S. K. Lunsford, Nicole Speelman, Amber Yeary, and William Slattery
This article describes a first-year chemistry field experience for students preparing to be high school teachers. The students test the quality of surface water in rural and metropolitan areas of their own community to quantify seasonal variations and evaluate the effects of urban sprawl.
Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1027.
Acids / Bases |
Conductivity |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Hydrophobic Solvation: Aqueous Methane Solutions  Oliver Konrad and Timm Lankau
A phenomenological thermodynamical analysis of solvation provides a variant of Henry's law and is used to examine the connections between the excess chemical potential of solvation and the density of the solvent.
Konrad, Oliver; Lankau, Timm. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 864.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Constructing a Graphic Organizer in the Classroom: Introductory Students' Perception of Achievement Using a Decision Map To Solve Aqueous Acid–Base Equilibria Problems  Stephen DeMeo
A decision map is a directional heuristic that helps learners solve problems within a generic framework. The decision map that is presented was created to solve pH problems of varying difficulty that introductory college chemistry students encounter when studying acidbase equilibria.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 540.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Discovering the Thermodynamics of Simultaneous Equilibria. An Entropy Analysis Activity Involving Consecutive Equilibria  Thomas H. Bindel
This activity explores the thermodynamics of simultaneous, consecutive equilibria and is appropriate for second-year high school or AP chemistry. Students discover that a reactant-favored (entropy-diminishing) reaction can be caused to happen if it is coupled with a product-favored reaction of sufficient entropy production.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 449.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
The Roles of Acids and Bases in Enzyme Catalysis  Hilton M. Weiss
In enzyme reactions, only weak acids and bases are available to hydrogen bond to reactants and to transfer protons in response to developing charges. Understanding this difference goes a long way toward applying organic concepts to the mechanisms of bioorganic chemistry.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 440.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Thermochemical Analysis of Neutralization Reactions: An Introductory Discovery Experiment  Kenneth V. Mills and Louise W. Guilmette
Describes a guided-inquiry laboratory pedagogy in which students discover chemical concepts in the lab and the instructor uses their pooled data to guide the lecture portion of the course. This method is illustrated by an experiment that reinforces students' understanding of stoichiometry and allows them to discover neutralization reactions and thermochemistry.
Mills, Kenneth V.; Guilmette, Louise W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 326.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Acids / Bases
How to Compute Labile Metal–Ligand Equilibria  Robert de Levie
The properties of labile metalligand equilibria can be calculated readily by using the concept of a ligand function, analogous to the proton function of acidbase behavior. Use of the ligand function allows one to have a computer perform the tedious iterations, thereby bypassing the traditional trial-and-error method of solving equilibrium problems.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 136.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Acids / Bases
The Rate of Proton Transfer  Eugene E. Kwan
The action of general catalysis should be inferred if the rate of reaction is increased when the buffer concentration is increased at constant pH. This is likely when the pH is near the pKa of the buffer, the degree of protonation in the transition state is partial, and when proton transfer is slow, yet compensated by the increased reactivity of the conjugate acid of the reactant.
Kwan, Eugene E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 39.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
pH |
Catalysis
General Acid and General Base Catalysis  Addison Ault
General catalysis is indicated when the rate of a reaction depends upon buffer concentration and pH; it is most likely to be observed when the pH of the solution is near the pKa of the buffer and the reaction mechanism involves proton transfer in the rate-determining step.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 38.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Catalysis |
pH |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics
A Kinetics Demonstration Involving a Green–Red–Green Color Change Resulting from a Large-Amplitude pH Oscillation  Brian W. Pfennig and Richard T. Roberts
Describes an oxidationreduction, clock reaction involving iodate, sulfite, and thiosulfate that produces large swings in pH, causing a combination of acidbase indicators to effect greenredgreen color changes.
Pfennig, Brian W.; Roberts, Richard T. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1804.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Let Us Give Lewis Acid–Base Theory the Priority It Deserves  Alan A. Shaffer
The Lewis concept is simple yet powerful in its scope, and can be used to help beginning students understand reaction mechanisms more fully. However, traditional approaches to acid-base reactions at the introductory level ignores Lewis acid-base theory completely, focusing instead on proton transfer described by the Br?nsted-Lowry concept.
Shaffer, Alan A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1746.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Lewis Structures |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Astrochemistry Examples in the Classroom  Reggie L. Hudson
In this article some recent developments in astrochemistry are suggested as examples for the teaching of acid-base chemistry, molecular structure, and chemical reactivity. Suggestions for additional reading are provided, with an emphasis on readily-accessible materials.
Hudson, Reggie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1611.
Acids / Bases |
Astrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Chemical Wizardry of J. K. Rowling  Jane Snell Copes
Many of the chemical special effects that take place at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry can be simulated and understood by non-magical chemists. This article connects Rowling's literary special effects to chemical references with safety information and directions.
Copes, Jane Snell. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1479.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Using Balloons for a Dramatic Presentation of the Acid–Bicarbonate Reaction  Miroslav Proka and Anna Tóthová
Describes the use of balloons in demonstrating the reaction between sodium hydrogen carbonate and acid.
Proka, Miroslav; Tóthová, Anna. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1471.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Reactions
Negative pH Does Exist  Kieran F. Lim ()
The misconception that pH lies between 0 and 14 has been perpetuated in popular-science books, textbooks, revision guides, and reference books.
Lim, Kieran F. (). J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1465.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Boric Acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of boric acid are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1459.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
A Test Construction Support System for Chemistry Teachers  Derek Cheung
Describes Windows-compatible software to help teachers to implement formative assessment in secondary-school chemistry. The computer-based environment can be used to create Web-based multiple-choice items for students to self-assess their learning of chemistry.
Cheung, Derek. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1399.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Professional Development
Calix[4]pyrrole: Synthesis and Anion-Binding Properties. An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  James A. Shriver and Scott G. Westphal
Simple calixpyrrole macrocycles provide an easy-to-synthesize example of an anion-binding agent that can be included in the undergraduate laboratory curriculum. The inclusion of a test for anion binding also makes this procedure suitable for a more advanced audience and supplies a bridge for the introduction of supramolecular chemistry and a typical hostguest interaction.
Shriver, James A.; Westphal, Scott G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1330.
Aromatic Compounds |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Recognition |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity Revisited  David Keeports
Subtle arguments based upon the use of chemical potentials show that numerical values of solute molar concentrations can be used as good approximate activities in equilibrium calculations for reactions involving dilute solutions.
Keeports, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity Revisited  E. J. Behrman
In teaching the effects of structure on acid strength, it is useful to compare, inter alia, water with primary alcohols.
Behrman, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity Revisited  E. J. Behrman
In teaching the effects of structure on acid strength, it is useful to compare, inter alia, water with primary alcohols.
Behrman, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
Weak Acid pKa Determination Using Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Mike Solow
In this experiment, students use capillary zone electrophoresis to determine the effective mobility of benzoic acid at two different hydrogen ion concentrations. A plot of these data yields the pKa of benzoic acid.
Solow, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1194.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods
Using a Spreadsheet to Fit Experimental pH Titration Data to a Theoretical Expression: Estimation of Analyte Concentration and Ka  John Burnett and William A. Burns
Presents a method of determining analyte concentration and Ka by least-squares fitting experimental acidbase pH titration data to a single theoretical expression using Excel's Solver Add-in.
Burnett, John; Burns, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1190.
Computational Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Two "Gas-in-a-Bag" Reactions To Show the Predictive Power of the Relative AcidBase Strength Chart  Brett Criswell
Describes a demonstration in which two different pairs of solid chemicals mixed in two different Ziploc bags in the presence of a small quantities of water react to produce gases. Students are informed that the reactions are BrnstedLowry acidbase type reactions and must determine which member in each pair will act as the acid and which as the base.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1167.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Borodin  E. J. Behrman
Borodin made the first synthetic organic fluorine compound by reacting potassium hydrogen fluoride with benzoyl chloride to form benzoyl fluoride, a process known generally today as the Hunsdiecker reaction.
Behrman, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1138.
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Nutrition
The Origin of the Term "Base"  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the term base as used in acid-base chemistry.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1130.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond. A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Thomas K. Green and Charles A. Lane
A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites.
Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1046.
Computational Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Acid–Base Chemistry According to Robert Boyle: Chemical Reactions in Words as well as Symbols  David E. Goodney
Examples of acidbase reactions from Robert Boyle's The Sceptical Chemist are used to illustrate the rich information content of chemical equations. Boyle required lengthy passages of florid language to describe what can be done quite simply with a chemical equation.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
p-Sulfanilic Acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of p-sulfanilic acid are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 990.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Factors That Influence Relative Acid Strength in Water: A Simple Model  Michael J. Moran
The pKa's of diverse aqueous acids HA correlate well with the sum of two gas-phase properties: the HA bond-dissociation enthalpy and the electron affinity of the A radical. It is suggested that rather than bond strength alone or bond polarity, the sum of the enthalpies of these two steps is a fairly good indicator of relative acidity.
Moran, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 800.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals
Intermolecular and Intramolecular Forces: A General Chemistry Laboratory Comparison of Hydrogen Bonding in Maleic and Fumaric Acids  Frazier W. Nyasulu and John Macklin
This article presents a simple laboratory experiment that is designed to enhance students' understanding of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding by demonstrating the comparative effect of these phenomena on some chemical and physical properties.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Macklin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 770.
Acids / Bases |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Modern Physical Organic Chemistry (Eric V. Anslyn and Dennis A. Dougherty)  Richard Pagni
Modern Physical Organic Chemistry is the most well-rounded textbook on physical organic chemistry that this reviewer has seen.
Pagni, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 387.
Acids / Bases |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
MO Theory |
Organometallics |
Photochemistry |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics
Dynamic NMR of Intramolecular Exchange Processes in EDTA Complexes of Sc3+, Y3+, and La3+  Yong Ba, Steven Han, Lily Ni, Tony Su, and Andres Garcia
Describes an advanced physical chemistry lab experiment on dynamic NMR of intramolecular exchange processes in EDTA complexes of Sc3+, Y3+, and La3+. Three, six-hour laboratory sessions are required to obtain rate constants at different temperatures and activation energies of the nitrogen inversion processes for these EDTA complexes.
Ba, Yong; Han, Steven; Ni, Lily; Su, Tony; Garcia, Andres. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 296.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy
Eating Clay?; Look to Soil for New Leads in Arthritis Treatment; The Fate of Tetracyclines  Angela G. King
This look at recent research advances in the literature discusses the link between geology and health; the search for new arthritis medications; and the sorption of tetracyclines.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 186.
Acids / Bases |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides
The Nature of Hydrogen Bonding  Emeric Schultz
Students use toy connecting blocks and Velcro to investigate weak intermolecular interactions, specifically hydrogen bonds.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 400A.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Further Analysis of Boiling Points of Small Molecules, CHwFxClyBrz  Guy Beauchamp
Multiple linear regression analysis has proven useful in selecting predictor variables that could significantly clarify the boiling point variation of the CHwFxClyBrz molecules.
Beauchamp, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1842.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Spectrophotometric Determination of the Dissociation Constant of an Acid–Base Indicator Using a Mathematical Deconvolution Technique  Krystyn P. Alter, John L. Molloy, and Emily D. Niemeyer
Presents a laboratory experiment that uses a spectrophotometric method to determine the apparent acid-dissociation constant of a common acidbase indicator. The experiment incorporates a mathematical deconvolution program that allows students to resolve distinct spectral components within complex absorbance spectra.
Alter, Krystyn P.; Molloy, John L.; Niemeyer, Emily D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1682.
Acids / Bases |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
pH
A Template-Controlled Solid-State Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Tomislav Friscic, Tamara D. Hamilton, Giannis S. Papaefstathiou, and Leonard R. MacGillivray
Describes a laboratory experiment that employs linear hydrogen-bond templates to direct [2 + 2] photodimerization in the solid state. The experiment introduces undergraduates to supramolecular and solid-state chemistry, as well as aspects of green chemistry.
Friscic, Tomislav; Hamilton, Tamara D.; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S.; MacGillivray, Leonard R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1679.
Green Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Materials Science |
NMR Spectroscopy
A Simple and Easy-To-Learn Chart of the Main Classes of Inorganic Compounds and Their Acid–Base Reactions  Grigoriy Sereda
Presents a two-dimensional chart for the classification of the main classes of inorganic compounds with respect to their acidic and basic properties that makes it possible to predict reaction products and determine the coefficients in chemical equations of acidbase reactions.
Sereda, Grigoriy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1645.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Soap Films and the Joy of Bubbles  Mary E. Saecker
Describes soap films, bubble solutions, and wands for making bubbles.
Saecker, Mary E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1447.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated 13C Chemical Shifts and pKa Values of para-Substituted Benzoic Acids  Hongyi Wang
An application of ChemDraw NMR Tool was demonstrated by correlation of program-generated 13C NMR chemical shifts and pKa values of para-substituted benzoic acids. Experimental 13C NMR chemical shifts were analyzed in the same way for comparison. The project can be used as an assignment at the end of the first-year organic chemistry course to review topics or explore new techniques: Hammett equation, acidbase equilibrium theory, electronic nature of functional groups, inductive and resonance effects, structurereactivity relationship, NMR spectroscopy, literature search, database search, and ChemDraw software.
Wang, Hongyi. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1340.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Enantiomeric Resolution of (±)-Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(–)-Ephedrine. An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  Marsha R. Baar and Andrea L. Cerrone-Szakal
There has been an increasing need, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, to prepare chiral substances in single-isomer form. A chiral technique that makes an excellent introductory organic chemistry experiment is enantiomeric resolution. The classical resolution of ()-mandelic acid using the chiral amine, (1R,2S)-()-ephedrine, was adapted for use in introductory organic chemistry lab curricula.
Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1040.
Acids / Bases |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  Eugene E. Kwan
Specific acid catalysis (SAC) and general acid catalysis (GAC) play an important role in many organic reactions. Elucidation of SAC or GAC mechanisms requires an understanding of the factors that affect their relative efficiency. A simple model reaction in which SAC and GAC occur concurrently is analyzed to provide guidelines for such analyses. Simple rules that predict the effect of pH on the relative efficiency of GAC are discussed. An explicit expression for determining the optimal pH at which the effects of GAC are maximized is provided as well as an analogous expression for the general base case.
Kwan, Eugene E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1026.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
Demonstrating Encapsulation and Release: A New Take on Alginate Complexation and the Nylon Rope Trick  Andrienne C. Friedli and Inge R. Schlager
Three variations on a classroom demonstration of the encapsulation of droplets and evidence for release of the interior solution are described. The first two demonstrations mimic biocompatible applications of encapsulation. A third encapsulation exercise exploits the irreversible interfacial polymerization of diamine and diacid chloride to form membranes and illustrates the detection of diamine release from the capsule using an indicator.
Friedli, Andrienne C.; Schlager, Inge R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1017.
Biotechnology |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Consumer Chemistry |
Membranes
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity  David Keeports
General chemistry instructors are faced with a dilemma when introducing the topic of equilibrium constants: These constants are correctly written in terms of activities, yet activity is a complex topic better treated rigorously in a physical chemistry course than superficially in a general chemistry course. Thus, to introduce equilibrium calculations, it is necessary to use approximate forms for equilibrium constants. However, I find that some commonly used textbooks provide incorrect arguments leading to approximate equilibrium constants for aqueous reactions.
Keeports, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 999.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry
Teaching pH Measurements with a Student-Assembled Combination Quinhydrone Electrode  Fritz Scholz, Tim Steinhardt, Heike Kahlert, Jens R. Pörksen, and Jürgen Behnert
A combination pH electrode that can be assembled by the student is described. It consists of a glass holder and two sensors in the form of rubber stoppers that contain quinhydrone and graphite. The combination electrode is suitable to teach potentiometric measurements, pH measurements, and the interplay of acidbase and redox equilibria. The electrode meets highest safety standards and overcomes the troubles associated with the use of the conventional quinhydrone electrode.
Scholz, Fritz; Steinhardt, Tim; Kahlert, Heike; Pörksen, Jens R.; Behnert, Jürgen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 782.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Surface pKa of Self-Assembled Monolayers  Penny S. Hale, Leone M. Maddox, Joe G. Shapter, and J. Justin Gooding
The concept of surface pKa is introduced and developed for self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Students use a titration method to determine the pKa of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) in solution. At the same time they determine the surface pKa of a SAM of MPA on a gold electrode by running a series of cyclic voltammograms of ferricyanide in buffers of differing pH.
Hale, Penny S.; Maddox, Leone M.; Shapter, Joe G.; Gooding, J. Justin. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 779.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science
A Closer Look at AcidBase Olfactory Titrations  Kerry Neppel, Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo, Connie Queen, and Nicole Reed
This laboratory experiment uses the sense of smell to determine end points of acidbase titrations. Olfactory indicators include garlic, onions, and vanillin. Results show that garlic and vanillin gave the most accurate results when calculated NaOH molarities were compared to the standardized values. These olfactory indicators in acidbase titrations gave consistent results when tested by a diverse student population. The preparation times, cost, and safety issues are comparable to traditional titration experiments.
Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 607.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Fifty Ways To Make Boric Acid (with Apologies to Paul Simon)  Craig M. Davis
Many graduate students whose projects are centered on the synthesis of novel compounds know too well the frustration of failed reactions. For me, the dry spells lasted several months at a stretch. Inspired by Paul Simons song Fifty Ways to Leave Your Lover, I penned a poem summarizing my experiences, which I bound at the end of my personal copy of my dissertation.
Davis, Craig M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 541.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis
Nontypical Brønsted Acids and Bases  Tadeusz Michaowski, Maciej Rymanowski, and Andrzej Pietrzyk
The article refers to redox systems exhibiting some uncommon properties as non-monotonic or segmented pH changes affected by addition of some reagents. All the data were obtained on the basis of simulated titrations made according to the iterative computer program MINUIT. The calculation procedure, when made according to the generalized approach suggested by the author, enables one to reconstruct any analytical prescription and apply all attainable physicochemical data involved.
Michaowski, Tadeusz; Rymanowski, Maciej; Pietrzyk, Andrzej. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 470.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
A Quantitative Examination of Multiple Methods for Standardizing a Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Solution in an Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Nancy E. Meagher, Dana B. Bowens, and B. Shawn Clark
The objective of the project was to compare the different published methods for standardizing dilute hydrochloric acid solutions. There are three different suitable bases available for the process and multiple indicator choices. This article attempts to identify the most accurate method(s) for use in the undergraduate laboratory. Students were given an "unknown" solution of dilute HCl and assigned to standardize it by eight methods (32 titrations), reporting both their experimental results and preference for the different indicatorbase combinations.
Meagher, Nancy E.; Bowens, Dana B.; Clark, B. Shawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 428.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Simple Dynamic Models for Hydrogen Bonding Using Velcro-Polarized Molecular Models  Emeric Schultz
This article describes the use of models that dynamically illustrate the unique characteristics of weak intermolecular interactions, specifically hydrogen bonds. The models clearly demonstrate that H-bonds can break and reform while covalent bonds stay intact. The manner in which the models form and break H-bonds reflects the geometric and statistical manner in which H-bonding actually occurs and is not contrived. The use of these models addresses a significant area of student misconceptions. The construction of these molecular models is described.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 401.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Analysis of Natural Buffer Systems and the Impact of Acid Rain. An Environmental Project for First-Year Chemistry Students  David C. Powers, Andrew T. Higgs, Matt L. Obley, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
The purpose of this project is to investigate the basic principles involved in acidbase buffer systems within the context of an environmental issue. It is designed for use in an introductory chemistry course. The students will learn about acidbase interactions and examine how a buffer system composed of a weak acid and its conjugate base can neutralize large quantities of strong acid while resisting drastic change in the pH of the system. Students will also analyze experimentally the various components of the most commonly occurring natural buffer system.
Powers, David C.; Higgs, Andrew T.; Obley, Matt L.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 274.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Intermolecular Forces as a Key to Understanding the Environmental Fate of Organic Xenobiotics  Ryan E. Casey and Faith A. Pittman
We have developed an environmental chemistry module that can be used in high schools or undergraduate nonscience courses to relate chemical structures and properties to the macroscopic behavior of environmentally relevant organic chemicals like pesticides, PCBs, and solvents. The module introduces the concepts of intermolecular forces, polarity, and partitioning to explain complex phenomena such as environmental transport and biomagnification of xenobiotics (human-made chemicals).
Casey, Ryan E.; Pittman, Faith A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 260.
Nonmajor Courses |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Analysis of Gold Ores by Fire Assay  Kristy M. Blyth, David N. Phillips, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
This article describes a laboratory exercise for the analysis of gold using the fire-assay technique. This method of analysis not only provides students with an introduction to the technique of fire assay, but also covers some very interesting acidbase and redox chemistry. The gold is collected in a lead button while the remainder of the constituents find their way into a slag. The gold is recovered from the lead by absorption in a boneash cupel.
Blyth, Kristy M.; Phillips, David N.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1780.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Using Clinical Cases To Teach General Chemistry  Brahmadeo Dewprashad, Charles Kosky, Geraldine S. Vaz, and Charlotte L. Martin
This article describes how a fact-based clinical case was effectively used to motivate and enrich the classroom experience and review many of the concepts covered in general chemistry. The case involves an elderly patient who was brought to the emergency room. The results of his physical examination and laboratory analysis of his blood are presented. The students, in peer-led groups, work through the chemical principles involved in the doctor's diagnosis and treatment options for the patient. The article describes the case study, instructors' observations, and students' perception of the activity.
Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1471.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Medicinal Chemistry
Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base Equilibria  Harry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai
This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero.
Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution  I. A. Leenson
The principal goal of this article is to elucidate some uncommon phenomena that can be observed in the process of diluting sulfuric acid with water.
Leenson, I. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 991.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Class Projects in Physical Organic Chemistry: The Hydrolysis of Aspirin  Peter S. Marrs
The students prepare a pHrate profile for the hydrolysis of aspirin and analyze this profile to determine the mechanism and type of catalysis of the hydrolysis at different pH values.
Marrs, Peter S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 870.
pH |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Major Sources of Difficulty in Students' Understanding of Basic Inorganic Qualitative Analysis  Kim Chwee Daniel Tan, Ngoh Khang Goh, Lian Sai Chia, and David F. Treagust
In Singapore students are first introduced to qualitative analysis in grade 10 chemistry (when they are 16 years old), even though the topic is generally considered to be conceptually difficult to understand and there is inadequate time for comprehensive experimental work. Using extensive interviews, this study was designed to identify the sources of these difficulties.
Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 725.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Keynotes in Organic Chemistry (Andrew F. Parsons)  Joel M. Karty
As a result of the trend towards modularization of chemistry courses, the text attempts to meet the need for smaller, highly focused and accessible organic chemistry textbooks, which complement the very detailed standard texts, to guide students through the key principles of the subject.
Karty, Joel M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 651.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Chloroacetic acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of chloroacetic acid are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 631.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modeling the Hydrogen Bond within Molecular Dynamics  Peter Lykos
Molecular mechanics was given a major impetus by the seminal paper, "Molecular Dynamics Study of Liquid Water", by Rahman and Stillinger. The broad sweep of that article, using a model developed in great detail at a basic undergraduate physics level, offers a rich resource for those people wanting to learn and to teach classical mechanics in the context of modeling bulk matter from a molecular perspective.
Lykos, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 147.
Gases |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Hydrogen Bonding
An Acid Hydrocarbon: A Chemical Paradox  Jeffrey T. Burke
This article explores the use of paradox as a teaching and learning strategy. Specifically, students observe the acid-like paradoxical behavior of the hydrocarbon cyclopentadiene. This observation then serves as a springboard to an understanding of the non-benzenoid aromatics.
Burke, Jeffrey T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 65.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Dipoles  Samuel H. Yalkowsky and Jennifer L. H. Johnson
Reply to comments on original article.
Yalkowsky, Samuel H.; Johnson, Jennifer L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Chemical Bonds  Roy W. Clark
Concerns over students confusing electrical and magnetic fields.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Symbol for pH  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader's inquiry, this column traces the origins of the pH symbol in the work of the Danish biochemist Sren Srensen.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 21.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Simple Experiments To Demonstrate Proton Flux in Pseudomonas after Alkaline or Acidic Stress  Gabriela Previtali, Walter Giordano, and Carlos E. Domenech
A laboratory experiment to ascertain the bacterial response to the stress produced by suspension in different pH solutions has been developed. This laboratory experiment has the pedagogical advantage of giving chemistry students experience with the application of various pH levels to a biological system and enables the students to expand their understanding of pH to mean more than a strictly chemical concept.
Previtali, Gabriela; Giordano, Walter; Domenech, Carlos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1468.
Acids / Bases
Acid–Base Equilibrium in a Lipid/Water Gel  Kristina K. Streb and Predrag-Peter Ilich
A new and original experiment in which partition of bromophenol blue dye between water and lipid/water gel causes a shift in the acidbase equilibrium of the dye is described. The dye-absorbing material is a monoglyceride food additive of plant origin that mixes freely with water to form a stable cubic phase gel; the nascent gel absorbs the dye from aqueous solution and converts it to the acidic form.
Streb, Kristina K.; Ilich, Predrag-Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1464.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Lipids
Bath Bubblers  Mary E. Harris and Barbara Walker
Students make bath bubblers and examine their properties in both cold and hot water.
Harris, Mary E.; Walker, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1416A.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Canadian Tire Money: An Analogy for Use When Discussing Weak Acid–Strong Base Titrations  Arthur M. Last
In this article, use is made of the practice of one well-known Canadian retail chain in returning to its customers a small percentage of an item's purchase price in the form of imitation bank notes that can subsequently be spent in the chain's stores. An analogy is drawn between this practice and the determination of the pKa of a weak acid by titrating it with a strong base, taking into account the hydrolysis of the anion produced.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1403.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The pH at the First Equivalence Point in the Titration of a Diprotic Acid  Addison Ault
I read with interest the paper entitled Easy Derivation of pH  (pKa1 + pKa2)/2 Using Autoprotolysis of HA: Doubtful Value of the Supposedly More Rigorous Equation. I believe the validity of this simple result can be seen even more easily than this paper indicates.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1382.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
An Aquatic Chemistry Spreadsheet for General Chemistry Classes  Chulsung Kim
The Aquatic Chemistry Spreadsheet was produced to help students work through the activities of producing a graph of a titration curve, a distribution diagram, and buffer intensity as a function of pH. These activities help students better understand acidbase equilibrium by exploring the relationship between pKa/pKb, pH, ionization fractions, and buffer intensity.
Kim, Chulsung. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1351.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Using Hydrocarbon Acidities To Demonstrate Principles of Organic Structure and Bonding  Andrew P. Dicks
This article demonstrates the utility of hydrocarbon acidity as a teaching tool within the undergraduate classroom. Acidities of compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon vary by at least 50 orders of magnitude. Differences in acidities are rationalized by invoking principles of hybridization, resonance, induction, and aromaticity.
Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1322.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Pondering Packing Peanut Polymers  Perry A. Cook, Sue Hall, and Jill Donahue
This activity compares polystyrene and cornstarch packing materials. Both are made of polymers, but because of their composition they behave very differently in various solvents. Students extrapolate how these differences in behavior relate to environmental effects.
Cook, Perry A.; Hall, Sue; Donahue, Jill. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1288A.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Hydrogen Bonding
Acid–Base Titrations in Nonaqueous Solvents and Solvent Mixtures  Lajos Barcza and Ágnes Buvári-Barcza
Discussion of acid-base theory, the role of hydrogen bonding in acid-base reactions, and promoting, leveling, and differentiating effects.
Barcza, Lajos; Buvári-Barcza, Ágnes. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 822.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: 'Blooming' beyond a Simple Taxonomy  Michael D. Pungente and Rodney A. Badger
Applying Bloom's taxonomy to introductory organic chemistry classes in order to help students construct their own understanding of the material rather than simply memorize it; includes examples of questions at the various cognitive levels.
Pungente, Michael D.; Badger, Rodney A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 779.
Acids / Bases |
Learning Theories
pH Titration Simulator   N. Papadopoulos and M. Limniou
Windows software that simulates a pH titration.
Papadopoulos, N.; Limniou, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 709.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Determination of the pKaof Multiprotic, Weak Acids by Analyzing Potentiometric Acid–Base Titration Data with Difference Plots  Arno Kraft
Analysis of examples that illustrate the advantages of using difference plots to determine the pKa values of multiprotic, weak acids.
Kraft, Arno. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 554.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
Acid Raindrops Keep Fallin' in My Lake   JCE Editorial Staff
Students simulate acid rain falling on lakes by adding vinegar to bowls of water.
JCE Editorial Staff . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 40A.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry
Correction to "Acid Raindrops Keep Fallin' in My Lake" (re J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 40A)  
Must use low-dust or ant-dust chalk (must contain calcium carbonate).
J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry
Correction to "Acid Raindrops Keep Fallin' in My Lake" (re J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 40A)  
Must use low-dust or ant-dust chalk (must contain calcium carbonate).
J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Demonstration of Structure–Reactivity Relationships in Organic Chemistry  Thomas A. Newton
Demonstration of the correlation between the conductivity of aqueous solutions and the pKa values of various organic compounds.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 294.
Acids / Bases |
Conductivity |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity
The Henderson—Hasselbalch Equation: Its History and Limitations  Robert de Levie
Points out that the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is an approximation and not equivalent to the mass action law.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds  Megumi Fujita, Helen M. Mah, Paulo W. M. Sgarbi, Manjinder S. Lall, Tai Wei Ly, and Lois M. Browne
Software to help students understand the theoretical basis and actual procedures for separating organic compounds from a mixture using liquid-liquid extraction; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 107.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
An Easy Determination of the Surface Chemical Properties of Simple and Natural Solids  Mélanie Davranche, Stella Lacour, François Bordas, and Jean-Claude Bollinger
Method for determining the surface acidity constants and pH of zero point charge for solid samples.
Davranche, Mélanie; Lacour, Stella; Bordas, François; Bollinger, Jean-Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 76.
Acids / Bases |
Geochemistry |
Solids |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Surface Science |
pH
A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide  Lisa M. Goss
Demonstration of the wet deposition of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere.
Goss, Lisa M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 39.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Acid–Base Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions  William F. Coleman and Randall J. Wildman
Introduction to "Principal Species and pH in Acid-Base Solutions".
Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1486.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
C-SNARF-1 as a Fluorescent Probe for pH Measurements in Living Cells: Two-Wavelength-Ratio Method versus Whole-Spectral-Resolution Method  A-C. Ribou, J. Vigo, and J-M. Salmon
Procedure that gives students experience manipulating small quantities of chemicals, applying fluorescence, and comparing the validity and limits of two methods used to analyze experimental data.
Ribou, A-C.; Vigo, J.; Salmon, J-M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1471.
Acids / Bases |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Acid–Base Reactions with Carbon Dioxide  Ana Paula Carvalho, Ångela F. S. S. Mendonça, and M. Fátima M. Piedade
Two acid base demonstrations with carbon dioxide; first neutralizes an aqueous solution of powdered laundry detergent with exhaled carbon dioxide; second uses vinegar and baking soda with laundry detergent to produce a carbon dioxide foam.
Carvalho, Ana Paula; Mendonça, Ångela F. S. S.; Piedade, M. Fátima M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1464A.
Acids / Bases |
Natural Products |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Nitric Acid (approx. 70%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for nitric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1413.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Nonradioactive Simulation of the Viking Mission Labeled-Release Experiment: A Search for Evidence of Life  Eduardo Cortón, Liliana Haim, Santiago Kocmur, Guillermo J. Visbeek, and Lydia Galagovsky
Simulating the Viking Mission labeled-release (LR) experiment to search for signs of life on Mars using inexpensive, nontoxic, and readily available materials in a biochemistry experiment.
Cortón, Eduardo; Haim, Liliana; Kocmur, Santiago; Visbeek, Guillermo J.; Galagovsky, Lydia. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1105.
Acids / Bases |
Astrochemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Gases
Correction to Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Anthracene (re J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 553)  
Response to the question "Can an indicator solution change color upon dilution?"
J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1071.
Acids / Bases
Color Changes in Indicator Solutions  Addison Ault
Addresses the question "Can an indicator solution change color upon dilution?"
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1070.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets  Peter de B. Harrington, Erin Kolbrich, and Jennifer Cline
Determining the acidity of three vinegar samples using multiplexed titrations and an MS Excel spreadsheet.
Harrington, Peter de B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 863.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Alka-Seltzer Fizzing—Determination of Percent by Mass of NaHCO3 in Alka-Seltzer Tablets. An Undergraduate General Chemistry Experiment  Yueh-Huey Chen and Jing-Fun Yaung
Lab activity that introduces the concept of a limiting reactant by incrementally increasing the amount of vinegar added to an Alka Seltzer tablet.
Chen, Yueh-Huey; Yaung, Jing-Fun. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 848.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Hydrogen Bonding Using NMR: A New Look at the 2,4-Pentanedione Keto–Enol Tautomer Experiment  Alexander Grushow and Theresa Julia Zielinski
Modifications to the classic keto-enol experiment that take advantage of improvements in NMR instrumentation.
Grushow, Alexander; Zielinski, Theresa Julia. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 707.
Equilibrium |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Hydrogen Bonding
Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet  Edward B. Flint, Carrie L. Kortz, and Max A. Taylor
A technique for microscale pH titrations using 1-5 mL of analyte and titrant.
Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 705.
Acids / Bases |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 426.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Statistical Study of Distribution Diagrams for Two-Component Systems: Relationships of Means and Variances of the Discrete Variable Distributions with Average Ligand Number and Intrinsic Buffer Capacity  Rosario Moya-Hernández, Juan Carlos Rueda-Jackson, María Teresa Ramírez, Guillermo A. Vázquez, Josef Havel, and Alberto Rojas-Hernández
Analysis of molar fraction distributions of M species as functions of stoichiometric coefficients of L using a distribution diagram for a two-component system.
Moya-Hernández, Rosario; Rueda-Jackson, Juan Carlos; Ramírez, María Teresa; Vázquez, Guillermo A.; Havel, Josef; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 389.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics
Quantifying Meniscus Forces with an Electronic Balance: Direct Measurement of Liquid Surface Tension. A Physical Chemistry Experiment  Rafael M. Digilov
Apparatus and procedure for measuring capillary force with an electronic balance.
Digilov, Rafael M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 353.
Liquids |
Surface Science |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Easy Derivation... (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183)  Stephen J. Hawkes
Analysis of pH derivation by averaging pK values.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 162.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Easy Derivation... (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183)  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Analysis of pH derivation by averaging pK values.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 161.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Formic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for formic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 157.
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids
pH of Sodium Acetate Solutions  Guy Schmitz
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Schmitz, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Oleic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for oleic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 24.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Nobel Centennial Essays. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1903: Svante Arrhenius  Josh Van Houten
Nobel work of Svante Arrhenius in recognition of his electrolytic theory of dissociation.
Van Houten, Josh. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 21.
Proteins / Peptides |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation: Its History and Limitations  Henry N. Po and N. M. Senozan
A critical evaluation of the reliability of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and comments on its history, including the development of the pH scale.
Po, Henry N.; Senozan, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1499.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
The Relative Acidities of Water and Methanol  Henry I. Abrash
Analysis of the disparity between the way the acidity constant of water is presented in general chemistry and organic chemistry textbooks.
Abrash, Henry I. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1496.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Teaching Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory in a Direct Comprehensive Way  Jamie L. Adcock
Unifying all the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base concepts in a quantitative way.
Adcock, Jamie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1495.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Preparation of Buffers. An Experiment for Quantitative Analysis Laboratory  P. T. Buckley
Students prepare buffers to a random pH value given an assortment of conjugate acid-base pairs with a wide range of pKa values.
Buckley, P. T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1384.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
pH
Effect of Dissolved CO2 on Gran Plots  Motomichi Inoue and Quintus Fernando
Effect of dissolved CO2 on Gran plots.
Inoue, Motomichi; Fernando, Quintus. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1132.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
How Do Organic Chemistry Students Understand and Apply Hydrogen Bonding?  J. Henderleiter, R. Smart, J. Anderson, and O. Elian
Examination of how students completing a two-semester organic sequence understand, explain, and apply hydrogen bonding to determine the physical attributes of molecules.
Henderleiter, J.; Smart, R.; Anderson, J.; Elian, O. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1126.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Learning Theories |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Is Every Transparent Liquid Water?  Muhamad Hugerat and Sobhi Basheer
Comparisons of the properties (polarity, electric conductivity, color change due to the presence of an acid-base indicator, and electrolysis) of three transparent and colorless liquids: water, glycerol, hexane, and ethanol.
Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1041.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Conductivity |
Electrophoresis
Color Changes in Indicator Solutions. An Intriguing and Elucidative General Chemistry Experiment  César R. Silva, Renato B. Pereira, and Edvaldo Sabadini
Investigation of a solution in which there is a color change resulting simply from dilution with water.
Silva, Cesar R.; Pereira, Renato B.; Sabadini, Edvaldo. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 939.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Hydrochloric Acid (approx 36%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for hydrochloric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sulfuric Acid (approx. 98%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for concentrated sulfuric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 722.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Acid (glacial)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic acid (glacial).
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 721.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Carboxylic Acids
Class Projects in Physical Organic Chemistry: The Hammett Equation  Peter S. Marrs
This paper provides a brief introduction to the Hammett equation. A laboratory experiment is described that requires students to determine the pKa of three para-substituted phenols through the use of UV-spectroscopy.
Marrs, Peter S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 527.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Phenols
Simulating How a Virus Spreads through a Population: An Introduction to Acid-Base Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Ronald M. Jarret
The traditional lab exercise that achieves separation of a mixture of 4-aminoacetophenone and benzoic acid by chemically active extraction has been expanded to include an exercise that uses materials from the extraction experiment to simulate how a virus spreads through a population.
Jarret, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 525.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Acids and Bases in Layers: The Stratal Structure of an Ancient Topic  Wobbe de Vos and Albert Pilot
This article identifies and discusses six successive "layers" that can be recognized in chapters on acids and bases in general chemistry textbooks, each the result of what once was a modernization; the cumulative result of these layers has become problematic, and some learning problems that students have when studying acids and bases become comprehensible when viewed from this perspective.
de Vos, Wobbe; Pilot , Albert. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 494.
Acids / Bases |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Phenolphthalein Solution  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for phenolphthalein solution.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 448.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium Hydroxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Micelles in the Physical/Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. Acid Dissociation of Neutral Red Indicator  Kathryn R. Williams and Loretta H. Tennant
Third in a series of laboratory experiments demonstrating the effects of micelles on physicochemical properties. The acid dissociation constant for neutral red indicator is measured spectrophotometrically in water and in solutions of Tween-80, a neutral surfactant, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Tennant, Loretta H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 349.
Acids / Bases |
Instrumental Methods |
Micelles |
Surface Science
Drug Distribution: A Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiment in Coupled Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Equilibria  John Hein and Michael Jeannot
This experiment gives students an opportunity to study the distribution of a drug (a common antihistamine drug, diphenhydramine) in a two-phase system by measuring the concentrations of two chemical species and predicting the others by considering charge balance, mass balance, and equilibrium constant expressions.
Hein, John; Jeannot, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 224.
Acids / Bases |
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Lewis Acid/Base Reaction Chemistry (by Mark R. Leach)  John C. Cochran
Short primer and CR-ROM on Lewis acids and bases and their reactions.
Cochran, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 166.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The Strength of the Hydrohalic Acids  Roland Schmid and Arzu M. Miah
This article brings to mind that the textbook acidity constants of the hydrohalic acids (except for HF) are erroneous because of outmoded conjectures about the HX solubilities. Here we invoke theoretical calculations of HX solubilities based on current solvation models.
Schmid, Roland; Miah, Arzu M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 116.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Modification of Small-Scale One-Pot Reactions to an Inquiry-Based Laboratory Exercise  C. Jayne Wilcox
Students are given an initial handout and asked to complete a short, attention-getting exercise. They must continue to work on logical, short exercises given to them one at a time, in handout format. The inquiry-based approach is intended to increase students' comprehension of what they're doing in the laboratory and why.
Wilcox, C. Jayne. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 62.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
The Science Teacher: Winter Break 2001  Steve Long
Summary or chemistry-related articles in the May through November 2000 issues of The Science Teacher.
Long, Steve. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 22.
Acids / Bases |
Forensic Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Agricultural Chemistry
Understanding, Deriving, and Computing Buffer Capacity  Edward T. Urbansky and Michael R. Schock

Urbansky, Edward T.; Schock, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1640.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry
Water: A Powerful Theme for an Interdisciplinary Course  Frederick Dean Tabbutt

Tabbutt, Frederick Dean. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1594.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Climate Change and Its Effect on Coral Reefs  Ralph E. Weston Jr.

Weston, Ralph E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1574.
Acids / Bases |
Geochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Comparisons and Demonstrations of Scientific Calculators  Myung-Hoon Kim, Suw-Young Ly, and Tae-Kee Hong
Scientific calculators are compared in terms of their capacities, featuring many advantages of the graphic calculator over simple nongraphic calculators. Applications in this paper include a simulation of acid-base titration curves, and graphic display of a time course of concentrations of reactants and products for a chemical reaction with first-order kinetics.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Ly, Suw-Young; Hong, Tae-Kee. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Flat as a Pancake? Exploring Rising in Baked Goods   JCE Editorial Staff
This activity investigates the action of baking powder.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1264A.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Acid-Base Titration of (S)-Aspartic Acid: A Circular Dichroism Spectrophotometry Experiment  Ana M. V. Cavaleiro and Júlio D. Pedrosa de Jesus
This laboratory experiment consists of the circular dichroism spectrophotometric acid-base titration of (S)-aspartic acid in dilute aqueous solutions, and the use of the resulting data to determine the ionization constant of the protonated amino group. The work familiarizes students with circular dichroism and illustrates the possibility of performing titrations using a less usual instrumental method of following the course of a reaction.
Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.; de Jesus, Júlio D. Pedrosa. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1218.
Acids / Bases |
Amino Acids |
Instrumental Methods |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Easy Derivation of pH Is Approxiimately Equal To (pKa1 + pKa2) / 2 Using Autoprotolysis of HA-: Doubtful Value of the Supposedly More Rigorous Equation  Stephen J. Hawkes
[H+]2 Ka1Ka2 can be derived in only two lines by recognizing that the principal reaction in a solution of HA- is its autoprotolysis. The supposedly rigorous equation derived in many texts gives pH values that are no more reliable.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
When A + B  Is Not Equal To B + A  Erling Antony, Lindsay Mitchell, and Lauren Nettenstrom
Many acid-base chemistry demonstrations and laboratory manuals include the "baking soda volcano". Others use the formation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in human breath. This demonstration uses principles from both as well as stoichiometry to answer the question "Does the order of mixing of reagents make a difference?"
Antony, Erling; Mitchell, Lindsay; Nettenstrom, Lauren. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1180.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
More Than Meets the Eye: Nonvisual Observations in Chemistry  
An adaptation of an acid-base reaction generating carbon dioxide gas that allows blind students to observe the results. This activity is intended to show sighted students that gathering all the information available in the chemistry laboratory will engage all of their senses.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1104A.
Acids / Bases
Every Year Begins a Millennium  Jerry A. Bell
This article outlines a series of demonstrations and their contexts, leading to recommendations about what we teach and how we teach.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1098.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Learning Theories
Fulminic Acid in the History of Organic Chemistry  Frederick Kurzer
The story of the discovery, investigation, correct formulation, and application of fulminic acid, HCNO, extends over a period of 200 years and reflects uniquely, in its many stages, the evolution of organic chemistry from post-alchemistic times to the age of wave mechanics.
Kurzer, Frederick. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 851.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
Weak vs Strong Acids and Bases: The Football Analogy  Todd P. Silverstein
A football analogy for acids and bases in which acids are compared to quarterbacks, whose job is to get rid of the ball (H+). A strong acid, like an excellent quarterback, delivers the ball effectively; a weak acid, like a poor quarterback, is often left holding the ball. Furthermore, bases may be likened to wide receivers, whose job is to catch and hold onto the ball (H+).
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 849.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Entertaining Chemistry--Two Colorful Reactions  John F. Elsworth
Solutions of acid and iodine, with and without starch, are mixed with alkaline solutions containing thiosulfate and appropriate salts to produce desirable color effects.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 484.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Lewis Acid-Base Computational Chemistry Exercise for Advanced Inorganic Chemistry  Wayne P. Anderson
The exercise employs ab initio or semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations to investigate the adducts of the Lewis acids BH3, BF3, BCl3, AlH3, and AlCl3 with the Lewis bases NH3 and PH3. Adducts of BCl3 with pyridine, 3,5-dimethylpyridine, and 2,6-dimethylpyridine are also investigated.
Anderson, Wayne P. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 209.
Acids / Bases |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Quantum Chemistry
Linking the Lab Experience with Everyday Life: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for Agronomy Students  Sônia Maria N. Gimenez, Maria Josefa S. Yabe, Neide K. Kondo, Rodrigo O. Mouriño, and Graziela Cristina R. Moura
Samples of soils and plants prepared by students were introduced. Soil was treated with molasses residue, organic matter (chicken manure and humus obtained from goat excrement), and lime. The response of plants to the different soil treatments increased student interest in chemical analyses.
Gimenez, Sônia Maria N.; Yabe, Maria Josefa S.; Kondo, Neide K.; Mouriño, Rodrigo O.; Moura, Graziela Cristina R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 181.
Acids / Bases |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories
Gas Me Up, or, A Baking Powder Diver  Henry R. Derr, Tricia Lewis, and Bretton J. Derr
In this procedure, a pipet that repeatedly submerges and rises to the surface in a tub of water is produced from a beral pipet and baking powder. The procedure works well in outreach activities with children aged 4 to 40 and beyond.
Derr, Henry R.; Lewis, Tricia; Derr, Bretton J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 171.
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Liver and Onions: DNA Extraction from Animal and Plant Tissues  Karen J. Nordell, Anne-Marie L. Jackelen, S. Michael Condren, George C. Lisensky, and Arthur B. Ellis*
This activity, which allows students to extract DNA from plant and animal cells, serves as a spectacular example of the complexity of biochemical structure and function and fits well with a discussion of nucleic acids, hydrogen bonding, genetic coding, and heredity. DNA extraction can also be used in conjunction with a discussion of polymers and their properties.
Nordell, Karen J.; Jackelen, Anne-Marie L.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 400A.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Soapmaking  
This activity provides a simple experiment that introduces students to an important reaction of organic chemistry. It also helps students connect chemistry to something that they see and use every day and provides an opportunity for cross-curricular work.
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 192A.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Synthesis of Derivatives of (1R)-(-)- and (1S)-(+)-10-Camphorsulfonic Acid  Steven C. Cermak and David F. Wiemer
The preparation of optically active (camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridines from commercially available (1R)-(-) and/or (1S)-(+)10-camphorsulfonic acid provides a clear demonstration of the lack of relationship between absolute configuration and optical rotation. The parent sulfonic acid can be converted to the corresponding acid chloride and then to the sulfonamide, sulfonylimine, and finally to an oxaziridine in a series of practical organic laboratory experiments.
Cermak, Steven C.; Wiemer, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1715.
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases
Environmental Chemistry Using Ultrasound  Belinda K. Wilmer, Edward Poziomek, and Grazyna E. Orzechowska
In this demonstration, we describe a simple method for presenting the usefulness of sonication in environmental chemistry. When an aqueous solution of carbon tetrachloride is sonicated, it degrades to produce HCl and HOCl. These products cause a reduction of pH, which can be observed visually with a pH indicator.
Wilmer, Belinda K.; Poziomek, Edward; Orzechowska, Grazyna E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1657.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Investigating the Cuprammonium Rayon Process in a High School Laboratory  Lauren J. Pickard and Mary E. Harris
We have found the cuprammonium rayon process to be an excellent system for high school independent study. Meeting twice a week provided time for the student-teacher investigation to result in a productive year of study. The methods for rayon fiber formation and rayon disks are described.
Pickard, Lauren J.; Harris, Mary E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1512.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Phosphate Buffers and Telephone Poles - A Useful Analogy with Limitations  Edwin S. Gould
A visual aid is presented to help general chemistry students establish the major phosphorus species in buffer solutions made from partial neutralizations of phosphoric acid and to estimate concentrations.
Gould, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1511.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
The Chemistry of Modern Dental Filling Materials  John W. Nicholson and H. Mary Anstice
The chemistry underpinning modern tooth-colored dental fillings is described. Two broad groups of material are covered, the so-called composite resins and the glass-ionomer cements. The importance of chemistry to this important branch of health care is emphasized.
Nicholson, John W.; Anstice, H. Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1497.
Acids / Bases |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations: An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry  Cesar R. Silva, Jose A. Simoni, Carol H. Collins, and Pedro L. O. Volpe
Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid.
Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
An Acid-Base Chemistry Example: Conversion of Nicotine  John H. Summerfield
The current government interest in nicotine conversion by cigarette companies provides an example of acid-base chemistry that can be explained to students in the second semester of general chemistry.
Summerfield, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1397.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Equilibrium
Thermochromism in Commercial Products  Mary Anne White and Monique LeBlanc
Many commercial products change color with a change of temperature. How do they do it? The processes responsible for the two major categories of commercial thermochromic coloring agents are presented, along with a description of applications of thermochromic materials.
White, Mary Anne; LeBlanc, Monique. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1201.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Comments on the Treatment of Aromaticity and Acid-Base Character of Pyridine and Pyrrole in Contemporary Organic Chemistry Textbooks  Hugh J. Anderson and Ludwig Bauer
Presentations of aromaticity and acid-base character of pyridine and pyrrole in 18 contemporary organic chemistry textbooks were surveyed.
Anderson, Hugh J.; Bauer, Ludwig. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1151.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds
Fields of pH  Paul Mihas and George Papgeorgiu
Students are taught that the pH of pure water is 7, but the measurement of a sample of distilled water usually gives pH values from 5.5-6.0. In addition, students learn that the ionization of a strong acid determines the pH of an aqueous solution and they cannot distinguish the cases in which ionization of water is significant. Fields of pH was developed to help students overcome such difficulties.
Mihas, Paul ; Papgeorgiu, George. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1032.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A General Simulator for Acid-Base Titrations  Robert de Levie
General formal expressions are provided to facilitate the automatic computer calculation of acid-base titration curves of arbitrary mixtures of acids, bases, and salts, without and with activity corrections based on the Davies equation.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 987.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Do pH in Your Head  Addison Ault
Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 936.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
A pHorseshoe  Roger Plumsky
In this article the pHorseshoe is described not only for the purpose of sharing with other teachers who might find it useful but also to explain why, in this case at least, memorization is the servant of understanding and not a substitute for it.
Plumsky, Roger. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 935.
Acids / Bases
Ammonia Can Crush  Ed Vitz
When a 12-oz aluminum soft drink can filled with ammonia or hydrogen chloride gas is inverted and dipped into water, the rapidly dissolving gas evacuates the can and the can is crushed before water can be drawn into it. This demonstrates, among other things, the remarkable strength of hydrogen bonds.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 932.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Hydrogen Bonding
Why Not Replace pH and pOH by Just One Real Acidity Grade, AG?  Henk van Lubeck
The disadvantages of pH and pOH disappear after replacing them with AG, the acidity grade: AG = log [H+]/[OH-]. AG of neutral solutions equals 0 at all temperatures, whereas AG of acidic solutions is positive and of alkaline solutions, negative. AG offers some other minor advantages as well.
van Lubeck, Henk. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 892.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
A Simple and Convenient Method for Generation and NMR Observation of Stable Carbanions  Hamid S. Kasmai
A simple and convenient method for the generation and NMR study of stable carbanions is described. The data and sample spectra illustrate that reliable and good quality NMR spectra of stable carbanions may be obtained. The experiments described provide a good opportunity for students to apply the basic principles of 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry and the interesting topic of the exchange phenomenon in NMR.
Kasmai, Hamid S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Reactive Intermediates |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
An Introduction to Hydrogen Bonding (by George A. Jeffrey)  Michael J. Minch
A valuable reference for all chemists interested in hydrogen bonding in structural chemistry, supermolecular chemistry, and biomolecular recognition.
Minch, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 759.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Recognition
Hydrogen Bonds Involving Transition Metal Centers Acting As Proton Acceptors  Antonio Martín
A short review of the most remarkable results which have recently reported M----H-X hydrogen bonds, along with a systematization of their structural and spectroscopic properties, is provided in this paper. These M----H interactions are substantially different from the "agostic" M----H ones, and their differences are commented on, setting up criteria that permit their clear differentiation in order to avoid some of the misidentifications that occurred in the past.
Tello, Antonio Martín. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 578.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Hydrogen Bonding
Redox Buffer Strength  Robert de Levie
The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication the redox buffer strength is defined by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 574.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Enzymes
On the "Abnormal" Decomposition Potentials of Aqueous Solutions of Halogen Acids  Yi Liang*, Jie Chen, and Songsheng Qu
A new explanation of the "abnormal" decomposition potentials (ed) of aqueous solutions of halogen acids (hydrochloric, hydrobromic, and hydriodic acids) is proposed in this paper. It is suggested that the disproportionation reactions of these halogen acids in aqueous solutions are responsible for their abnormal decomposition potentials and that textbooks should use sulfuric acid as an example to explain the concept of ed.
Liang, Yi; Chen, Jie; Qu, Songsheng. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 444.
Electrochemistry |
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Simplified Method for Finding the pKa of an Acid-Base Indicator by Spectrophotometry  George S. Patterson
Experiments on determining the pKa of an acid-base indicator by visible spectroscopy are often found in analytical and physical chemistry lab texts. The procedure described here is a modification suitable for general chemistry lab students.
Patterson, George S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 395.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Alka Seltzer Poppers: An Interactive Exploration  A. M. Sarquis and L. M. Woodward
This experiment illustrates concepts concerning the pressure-volume relationship of gases, solubility relationships of both gases and solids in liquids relative to temperature, the kinetics of the reaction of Alka Seltzer in water, and acid-base chemistry.
Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Woodward, L. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 385.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Re-Blue-ing Blue Litmus Paper (the author replies)  Steffel, Margaret J.
Re-blue-ing blue litmus paper using ammonium carbonate.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 319.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
pH
Re-Blue-ing Blue Litmus Paper  Myers, David R.; Crane, Joseph
Re-blue-ing blue litmus paper using ammonium carbonate.
Myers, David R.; Crane, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 319.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure  M. Dale Alexander
The ammonia smoke fountain demonstration utilizes a modification of the apparatus used in the standard ammonia fountain. The modification allows for the introduction of hydrogen chloride gas into a flask of ammonia rather than water. The flow rate of hydrogen chloride gas into the flask in the smoke fountain is not constant, but periodic; that is, the smoke puffs from the end of the tube. This unexpected behavior elicits an interesting thermodynamic explanation.
Alexander, M. Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 210.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Is It Real Gold?  Harold H. Harris
The oxidation-reduction couples involved in the corrosion of gold alloys and the dissolution of "noble" metals are related to an inquiry to the newspaper columnist, Ann Landers. the origin of several contemporary phrases (touch stone, acid test, Hallmark) are found in the chemistry of gold.
Harris, Harold H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 198.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
A Unified Titration Formula  P. Glaister
In a number of standard titrations, a volume of a monoprotic base MOH at a specific concentration is added to a volume of a monoprotic acid HA at a specific concentrations. Four different types of titration are possible, depending on whether the acid and base are strong or weak. A single unifying formula covering all four cases has been determined.
Glaister, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 132.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Spring Shock!: Impact of Spring Snowmelt on Lakes and Streams  Judith A. Halstead
This activity uses frozen vinegar to demonstrate that what melts first forms a liquid more concentrated in acetic acid than normal vinegar. As melting continues, the concentration of acetic acid decreases and the pH goes up.
Judith A. Halstead. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 400A.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry
Buffers Plus  Richard W. Ramette
In 1989 JCE Software published The Acid-Base Package: A Collection of Useful Programs for Proton Transfer Systems. This DOS program has been fully upgraded by the same author to the world of Windows 95.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1504.
Acids / Bases
A Maple Program That Illustrates the Effect of pH on Peptide Charge  Charles W. Sokolik
The program described in this paper, written for Maple V, release 3, uses the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the partial charges of individual amino acids and the net charge of a peptide over the pH range 0 to 14.
Sokolik, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1500.
Acids / Bases |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Using Bad Science To Teach Good Chemistry  Michael S. Epstein
This paper presents examples of bad science ranging from "unintentional mistakes" to "fraud" that can be used as part of traditional courses in general and analytical chemistry to encourage scientific reasoning and ethical behavior, and to provide a classroom atmosphere that encourages students to think and learn.
Epstein, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1399.
Acids / Bases
Kids in a Candy Store: An Analogy for Back Titration  Arthur M. Last
A simple analogy for back titration is presented. The analogy is extended to illustrate what happens when an acidic or basic impurity is present in the system and is further developed to cover a situation in which the acid and unknown base react in a 2:1 ratio rather than a 1:1 ratio.
Last, Arthur M. . J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1121.
Quantitative Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
The Chemistry behind Carbonless Copy Paper  Mary Anne White
Carbonless copy paper, used to make countless copies of forms, is a 1,000,000,000 kg business annually. Copies are made when the pressure of a pen ruptures microcapsules that contain a dye precursor, initiating a chemical reaction between the dye precursor in the top page and an acid source in the bottom page.
White, Mary Anne. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1119.
Acids / Bases |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Ionization or Dissociation?  Adams, David L.
Suggested definitions for these two terms.
Adams, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1089.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Intermolecular Forces in Introductory Chemistry Studied by Gas Chromatography, Computer Models, and Viscometry  Jonathan C. Wedvik, Charity McManaman, Janet S. Anderson, and Mary K. Carroll
Students performing gas chromatographic (GC) analyses of mixtures of n-alkanes and samples that simulate crime scene evidence discover that liquid mixtures can be separated rapidly into their components based upon intermolecular forces. Each group of students is given a liquid sample that simulates one collected at an arson scene, and the group is required to determine the identity of the accelerant. Students also examine computer models to better visualize how molecular structure affects intermolecular forces: London forces, dipole-dipole interactions, and hydrogen bonding.
Wedvik, Jonathan C.; McManaman, Charity; Anderson, Janet S.; Carroll, Mary K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 885.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Modeling |
Forensic Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Why Do Alcoholic Beverages Have "Legs"?  Todd P. Silverstein
After a sip of wine, "legs" of liquid typically run up and down the inside of the glass for many minutes. This phenomenon stems from the dipole-dipole intermolecular forces that are so important in understanding the physical behavior of aqueous solutions.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 723.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Alcohols |
Hydrogen Bonding
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment Part 3: Microscale Electrokinetic Processing of Soils  Jorge G. Ibanez, Mono M. Singh, Ronald M. Pike, and Zvi Szafran
In this paper three phenomena are presented at the microscale level, originating from the application of an electric field to a simulated soil sample: a) Demonstration of metal ion migration, b) Demonstration of the creation and movement of an acidic and a basic front, and c) Demonstration of water movement through soil.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh, Mono M.; Pike, Ronald M.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 634.
Learning Theories |
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry
Kinetic Demonstration of Intermolecular General Acid (GA) Catalysis in Thiolysis of 9-Anilinoacridine   Mohammad Niyaz Khan
After nearly five decades of active research and numerous publications on GA-GB catalysis, introduction of an experiment on GA for students majoring in enzymology/physical organic chemistry at advanced undergraduate/postgraduate level is appropriate. A kinetic experiment involving the reaction of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) with 9-anilinoacridine (9-ANA) is designed to demonstrate intermolecular GA catalysis.
Khan, Mohammad Niyaz. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 632.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Determination of the Equilibrium Constants of a Weak Acid: An Experiment for Analytical or Physical Chemistry   Russell A. Bonham
Allows students to explore the concepts of chemical equilibria, nonideal behavior of aqueous solutions, least squares with adjustment of nonlinear model parameters, and errors. The relationship between the pH of a solution of known initial concentration and volume of a weak acid as it is titrated by known volumes of a monohydroxy strong base is developed rigorously assuming ideal behavior.
Bonham, Russell A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 631.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Letters to the Editor  
The author points out that in a previous article, "Why Is Bismuth Subchloride Soluble in Acid," a key reaction which aids in the dissolving of bismuth subchloride is omitted.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 523.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemical Domino Demonstration  M. Dale Alexander
The Chemical Domino Demonstration is both educational and entertaining. It provides an excellent means for a review of chemical concepts at the conclusion of a general chemistry course. This demonstration consists of a number of different chemical reactions occurring in sequence in a Rube Goldberg-type apparatus.
M. Dale Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 490.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Modified Microburet for Microscale Titration  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and Ronald M. Pike
A modified microburet can be constructed inexpensively from readily available laboratory materials. These materials include a 2 mL graduated pipet, a 5 or 10 mL plastic syringe body, a small piece of latex tubing, and a small size automatic delivery pipet tip. The modified microburet is easy to use, and gives accurate results.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 371.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Organic Chemistry (by Maitland Jones, Jr. )  Michael S. Holden
The general framework that Jones uses is that of Lewis acids reacting with Lewis bases, with an emphasis on the interaction of filled and empty orbitals. Again and again, as you work your way through the text, there are examples of reactions being explained by the overlap of orbitals.
Holden, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 291.
Lewis Acids / Bases
Red Shoe-Blue Shoe: An Acid-Base Demonstration with a Fashionable Twist  Calvin E. Uzelmeier III and Arthur C. Breyer
The use of shoes as indicators is described. By soaking a shoe in indicator solution it will act as an indicator when placed into an acidic or basic solution.
Uzelmeier, Calvin E., III; Breyer, Arthur C. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 183.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
Re-blue-ing Blue Litmus Paper  Margaret J. Steffel
The addition one drop of 15 M ammonia solution to a vial containing the blue litmus paper changes the color back to the proper blue color.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 183.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Dyes / Pigments
The Universal Litmus Test  Leona Heitsch
A poem written about the Litmus Test.
Heitsch, Leona. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 182.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
Buffer Solutions: The Basics (by R. J. Beynon and J. S. Easterby)  Wheeler Conover
The concept of buffers, pH measurements, pH electrodes, and preparation of buffers are explained primarily for biologists and biochemists.
Conover, Wheeler. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 153.
Acids / Bases |
pH
What Is the Geometry at Trigonal Nitrogen?  K. P. Sudlow and A. A. Woolf
The geometry of trigonal nitrogen is discussed from VSEPR, crystallographic, and computational studies. The VSEPR theory is valid unless hydrogen bonding is strong enough or dispersal of nitrogen lone pair density is possible over receptive groups.
Sudlow, K. P.; Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 108.
Learning Theories |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Computational Chemistry |
VSEPR Theory |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Controlled Enolates: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course  Augustine Silveira Jr., Michael A. Knopp, and Jhong Kim
A microscale preparation of thermodynamic and kinetic enolates is given as an undergraduate research laboratory. This experiment provides student involvement and discussion.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Knopp, Michael A.; Kim, Jhong. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 78.
Equilibrium |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Acid-Base Chemistry of the Aluminum Ion in Aqueous Solution  Edward Koubek
A demonstration of the amphoteric behavior of aluminum is given based on an older report that was given many years ago.
Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 60.
Coordination Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Simple Demonstration of How Intermolecular Forces Make DNA Helical  Michael F. Bruist
The usage of stacked identical boxes can be used to demonstrate the helical shape of DNA by the effect of intermolecular forces.
Bruist, Michael F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 53.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Modeling
Rain, Lakes, and Streams - Investigating Acidity and Buffering Capacity in the Environment  Judith A. Halstead
Students discover why normal rain is not neutral when they observe the effect of their breath on the pH of poorly buffered water. The addition of small amounts of lemon juice or vinegar noticeably alters the pH of a poorly buffered solutionthe pH of a well-buffered solution does not change as easily.
Halstead, Judith A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1456A.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Potentiometric Acid-Base Titrations with Activated Graphite Electrodes  P. Riyazuddin and D. Devika
Dry cell graphite (DCG) electrodes activated with potassium permanganate are employed as potentiometric indicator electrodes for acid-base titrations. Special attention is given to an indicator probe comprising activated DCG-non-activiated DCG electrode couple.
Riyazuddin, P.; Devika, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1198.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Anthocyanins: A Colorful Class of Compounds  
The red colors of leaves in the fall, and the colors of radish skins, beets, and some cabbages result from pigments known as anthocyanins. This activity makes use of the fact that these substances are also acid-base indicators.
J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1176A.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science
Ionization Constants  Morris Bader
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A Study of the pH of Sweat for Horses: A Student-Devised Study by Science and Health Science Majors  John Tierney, Lori Peacock, Erica Sorkin, and Susan Ware
This article describes the results obtained when the pH for horse sweat was measured. Comparisons with the studies on humans are also noted. The pH of perspiration produced by mares and gelding was measured under controlled conditions and found to be between 6.7 to 10.
Tierney, John; Peacock, Lori; Sorkin, Erica; Ware, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1135.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Undergraduate Research
Determination of pKa from Luminescence Quenching Data: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Hector E. Gsponer, Gustavo A. Arguello , Gerardo A. Arguello
An experimental procedure is described to study the acid-basic equilibrium in aqueous solutions of phenolic compounds. This procedure is suitable for an undergraduate physical chemical laboratory where the student get acquainted with fluorescence techniques and the principles of photochemistry as well as electron transfer processes combined with the equilibrium concept.
Gsponer, Hector E.; Arguello , Gustavo A. ; Arguello, Gerardo A. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 968.
Photochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
An Inexpensive Demountalbe IR Cell Fitted with Glass Windows  Keiichi Ohno, Hiroatsu Matsuura, Haruhiko Tanaka
An inexpensive demountable IR cell fitted with glass windows is proposed for studying hydrogen bonding in solutions.
Ohno, Keiichi; Matsuura, Hiroatsu; Tanaka, Haruhiko. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 961.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Hydrogen Bonding
The Sodium Rainbow  Miroslav Proksa
A new approach to the reaction of sodium with water to produce a "rainbow" of colors.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 942.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Why and How To Teach Acid-Base Reactions without Equilibrium  Terry S. Carlton
A stepwise method enables students to predict which acid-base reactions occur when two solutions are mixed. The complexities of equilibrium are avoided by treating reactions as all-or-none and by providing a table of acids in order of strength.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 939.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Buffer Index and Buffer Capacity for a Simple Buffer Solution  Veronica Chiriac, Gabriel Balea
Many papers that present the buffering effect of the simple buffer solution consider the notion of buffer index and buffer capacity as being equivalent. Moreover, IUPAC defies them as the same thing. According to the definition of the authors who have introduced these two units, the paper shows that there is a large difference between them.
Chiriac, Veronica ; Balea, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 937.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Dissociation Constant for a Monoprotic Acid (response re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 74, 792)
The authors reply:
  R. Garcia-Domenech, J. V. de Julian-Ortiz, G. M. Anton-Fos, Jorge Galvez-Alvarez
Answers questions raised by related letter.
Garcia-Domenech, R.; Julian-Ortiz, J. V. de; Anton-Fos, G. M.; Galvez-Alvarez, Jorge . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 899.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Dissociation Constant for a Monoprotic Acid (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 74, 792)  Richard W. Ramette
Questions for classroom consideration raised by the original article.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 880.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Pathway to the Ostwald Dilution Law  John T. Stock
The Ostwald Dilution Law, defining the dissociation constant of a weak monobasic acid, or of an analogous base, was announced in 1888. Although this law appears to be simple, the pathway to it was neither straight nor short.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 865.
Acids / Bases |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Influence of pH on Drug Absorption from the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Simple Chemical Model  Raymond J. S. Hickman and Jane Neill
A simple model of the gastrointestinal tract is obtained by placing ethyl acetate in contact with water at pH 2 and pH 8 in separate test tubes. The compounds aspirin, paracetamol and 3-aminophenol are used as exemplars of acidic, neutral and basic drugs respectively to illustrate the influence which pH has on the distribution of each class of drug between the aqueous and organic phases of the model.
Hickman, Raymond J. S. ; Neill, Jane. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 855.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Nonmajor Courses |
pH |
Medicinal Chemistry
Potentiometric Measurement of Transition Ranges and Titration Errors for Acid/Base Indicators  Paul A. Flowers
The pH and visually-assessed color of a millimolar strong acid/base system are monitored as a function of added titrant volume, and the resultant data plotted to permit determination of the indicator's transition range and associated titration error.
Flowers, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 846.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Potentiometry |
Chemometrics
Does Copper Metal React with Acetic Acid?  Stephen DeMeo
Starting with a discrepant event and led through a series of experiments, students of an introductory chemistry course investigate if copper metal reacts with acetic acid. Finding that oxygen from the air plays an important role in the reaction of these substances, students ultimately realize that the conditions under which two reactants interact are important in determining the type of products that are made.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 844.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
The Synthesis, Characterization, and Lewis Acidity of SnI2 and SnI4  Richard W. Schaeffer, Benny Chan, Michael Molinaro, Susan Morissey, Claude H. Yoder, Carolyn S. Yoder, and Stephanie Shenk
In this project the student has the opportunity to learn about: a) the direct synthesis of compounds from the elements, b) stoichiometry and limiting reagent, c) isolation by recrystallization, d) use of inert atmosphere, e) identification by melting point, gravimetric analysis, powder x-ray diffraction, and NMR spectroscopy, and f) at least one method for determination of relative Lewis acidity.
Schaeffer, Richard W. ; Chan, Benny ; Molinaro, Michael; Morissey, Susan ; Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.; Shenk, Stephanie. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 575.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Stoichiometry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy
The Coupling of Related Demonstrations to Illustrate Principles in Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium  Richard A. Pacer
Two very simple lecture demonstrations, both involving the reaction of magnesium with one or more dilute acids, are linked together to illustrate principles in chemical kinetics and equilibrium.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 543.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Sheldon Shore, Small Boranes, and Ammonia  Robert W. Parry
The paper discusses the early studies on "the diammoniate of diborane" and emphasizes how continuing work done by Sheldon Shore at Ohio State University extended the work on the boranes and answered here-to-fore vexing structural problems on intermediates in the borane and borane-ammonia system.
Parry, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 512.
Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Synthesis
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation: Part 4. Alkaline Paper  Henry A. Carter
The use of alkaline paper can minimize the problem of acidity for new papers. This study focuses on the chemistry involved in the sizing of both acid and alkaline papers and the types of fillers used. The advantages and potential problems in alkaline paper making are also discussed.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 508.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Why is Bismuth Subchloride Soluble in Acid?  Damon Diemente
It is shown that the solubility of BiOCl can be explained as a consequence of the shifting of hydrolysis equilibriums upon the addition of acid. Two demonstrations suitable for classroom use are presented, with detailed discussion of each.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 398.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Boiling Point and Molecular Weight  Rich, Ronald L.
No relationship between boiling points and molecular weight.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A294.
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Letters  
No relationship between boiling points and molecular weight.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A294.
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Optical Basicity: A Practical Acid-Base Theory for Oxides and Oxyanions  J. A. Duffy
The optical basicity concept relies on the Lewis approach to acids and bases and was developed for dealing with chemical problems in non-aqueous, non-protonic media such as silicates, phosphates and borates which are important in glass making and (as slags) for refining steel.
Duffy, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1138.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases
Determination of the Dissociation Constant for Monoprotic Acid by Simple pH Measurements  R. García-Doménech, J. V. de Julián-Ortiz, G. M. Antón-Fos, and J. Galvez Alvarez
The dissociation constant for a weak monoprotic acid may be calculated in aqueous alkaline solution by straightforward pH measurements, before and after the addition of the acid, and with the advantage of not having to standardize the solutions.
García-Doménech, R.; de Julián-Ortiz, J. V.; Antón-Fos, G. M.; Alvarez, J. Galvez. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 792.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Using Physics Principles in the Teaching of Chemistry  Warren Gulden
Chemistry and physics may be separate subjects, but that should not prohibit the use of physics in a chemistry course. When this is done, students can use traditional physics principles or laws for the purpose of understanding chemistry better.
Gulden, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 771.
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Electrochemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
The ECW Model  Glenn C. Vogel and Russell S. Drago
The ECW model is a powerful tool for developing an understanding of donor-acceptor interactions.
Vogel, Glenn C.; Drago, Russell S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 701.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Hard and Soft Acid-Base Behavior in Aqueous Solution: Steric Effects Make Some Metal Ions Hard: A Quantitative Scale of Hardness-Softness for Acids and Bases  Robert D. Hancock and Arthur E. Martell
The idea of hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB), developed by R. G. Pearson some 30 years ago, has been used as a unifying principle in several texts. In this article, the behaviour of HSAB in aqueous solution is addressed. A quantitative scale of hardness-softness for acids and bases is presented also.
Robert D. Hancock and Arthur E. Martell. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 654.
Quantitative Analysis |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds
Visible Ion Exchange Demonstration for Large or Small Lecture Halls  Jerry A. Driscoll
This article presents a very simple experiment involving the sense of smell that students can accomplish during lecture. This classroom exercise involves very little preparation time and can be used to illustrate the important concepts of equilibrium along with acid/base properties of various ions.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 639.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Myths about pH and pH meters  Sharma, Brahama D.
The pH meter does not measure the pH, it measures the E of the cell against a standard.
Sharma, Brahama D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 598.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simpler Approach to "Apparent" pKa's  Kildahl, Nicholas
Addition to a recent article on pH, indicating an approach which emphasizes the chemistry behind the titration of a weak acid.
Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 598.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
All Positive Ions Give Acid Solutions in Water  Stephen J. Hawkes
The acidity of aqueous solutions of positive ions is never zero although many texts say incorrectly that most metals of Groups I and II and some others are not acidic.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH
Why Don't Water and Oil Mix?  Katia Pravia and David F. Maynard
To develop an understanding of the molecular interactions of polar and nonpolar molecules, we have developed two simple and extremely useful overhead projection demonstrations that help students conceptualize the solubility rules.
Katia Pravia and David F. Maynard. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 497.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Molecular Properties / Structure
What's the Shiny Stuff in Drãno?  John T. Wood and Roberta M. Eddy
The laboratory activity begins making the students feel as though they are chemists with a problem to be solved. They are told that when E. B. Curious poured bacon grease down the kitchen sink drain,the drain became clogged.
Wood, John T.; Eddy, Roberta M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 463.
Applications of Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Metals
The Teaching of Precipitation Equilibrium: A New Approach  Ana M. V. S. V. Cavaleiro
In this paper we present a simplified integrated approach to the calculation of the solubility in water of a salt, and the pH of the saturated solution, taking into account the acid-base reactions of the anion.
Cavaleiro, Ana M. V. S. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 423.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation: Part 1. The Aging of Paper and Conservation Techniques  Henry A. Carter
The chemical reactions that are responsible for the aging of paper are discussed with the conclusion that acid-catalyzed hydrolysis is the predominant mechanism for cellulose degradation and strength loss.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 417.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry
Procedure Modification for the Use of Corn Starch Packing Puffs for Titration Endpoints  Judith M. Bonicamp
This short article describes the use of Eco-Foam cornstarch packing puffs to make starch indicator solution.
Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 258.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates
Olfactory Titration  John T. Wood and Roberta M. Eddy
The purpose of this experiment is to use unique acid-base indicator--the odor of raw onion--to indicate the end point of the titration of sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. The use of this novel indicator allows the student to detect the completion of the neutralization reaction by olfaction rather than by sight.
Wood, John T.; Eddy, Roberta M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 257.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Preparing "Chameleon Balls" from Natural Plants: Simple Handmade pH Indicator and Teaching Material for Chemical Equilibrium  Naoki Kanda, Takayuki Asano, Toshiyuki Itoh, and Makoto Onoda
Description of preparation and use of polysaccharide beads containing anthocyanins to teach students about chemical equilibrium under different pH conditions.
Kanda, Naoki; Asano, Takayuki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Onoda, Makota. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1131.
Acids / Bases |
Plant Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH
Entertaining Chemistry  John F. Elsworth
"A Volcanic Serpent" (ammonium dichromate), "A Homemade Hydrogen Rocket", and "Johnny's Saga in Chemistry" (sulfuric acid + calcium carbonate) demonstrations.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1128.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Environmental Laboratory Exercise: Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide by Fluorescence Spectroscopy  Judith Weinstein--Lloyd and Jai H. Lee
Procedure in which students analyze precipitation samples for trace concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (a deleterious air pollutant) using fluorescence spectroscopy.
Weinstein-Lloyd, Judith; Lee, Jai H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1053.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
The Stoichiometry of the Neutralization of Citric Acid: An Introductory Laboratory  Susan E. Hayes
Experiment to introduce stoichiometry to pre-college students; includes sample data and analysis.
Hayes, Susan E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1029.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry
A Dating Analogy for Acid-Base Titration Problems  Ronald DeLorenzo
Analogy to help students understand the consequences of concentrating or diluting unknowns before titrating them.
DeLorenzo, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1011.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Ammonia Fountain and Density Gradient Column   Miroslav Proksa
Demonstration combining the ammonia fountain with an acid-base indicator density column.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 931.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
Ion-Pair Complexation in Moderately Strong Aqueous Acids  Lowell M. Schwartz
Discussion/analysis of ion association in aqueous solution, particularly ion pairing involving the hydronium ion.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 823.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chemical Visualization of Boolean Functions: A Simple Chemical Computer   R. Blittersdorf, J. Müller, and F. W. Schneider
Experiments that "calculate" the AND, OR, NAND, and NOR Boolean functions using an neutralization reaction and a chemical neural net; includes pictures of input-output patterns and pH vs. time plots for each function.
Blittersdorf, R.; Mller, J.; Schneider, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 760.
Acids / Bases
From Titration Data to Buffer Capacities: A Computer Experiment for the Chemistry Lab or Lecture  Roy W. Clark, Gary D. White, Judith M. Bonicamp, and Exum D. Watts
Provides titration curve data that students can plot and analyze using spreadsheets to develop student understanding of pH, derivatives, buffer capacity, and the behavior of dilute buffers; includes sample graphs and analysis.
Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D.; Bonicamp, Judith M.; Watts, Exum D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 746.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
More Chemistry in a Soda Bottle: A Conservation of Mass Activity  Daniel Q. Duffy, Stephanie A. Shaw, William O. Bare, and Kenneth A. Goldsby
Conservation of mass activity using vinegar and baking soda in a 2-L soda bottle.
Duffy, Daniel Q.; Shaw, Stephanie A.; Bare, William D.; Goldsby, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 734.
Reactions |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
Can London Dispersion Forces Be Stronger than Dipole-Dipole Forces, Including Hydrogen Bonds?  Thomas T. Earles
Using French fries as an example in which London dispersion forces are stronger than dipole-dipole forces.
Earles, Thomas T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 727.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding
A Dibasic Acid Titration for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  G. D. Brabson, J. T. Clay, and E. A. Walters
Experiment in which the pKa values of a weak dibasic acid, with closely spaced values for pK1 and pK2 are determined in an acid-base titration; analysis is done using a computer connected to a pH meter; sample data and analysis included.
Brabson, G. D.; Clay, J. T.; Walters, E. A. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 665.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Two Paired "Le Chatelier" Reactions  John J. Cawley
Procedure involving acid-catalyzed esterfication and base-catalyzed hydrolysis to illustrate the ideas of equilibrium, percent yield, and Le Chtelier's principle; both reactions result in percentage yields greater than the equilibrium constant would suggest.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 657.
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
A Simple Recipe for Whitening Old Newspaper Clippings  Henry A. Carter
Method for whitening old newspaper clippings.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 651.
Acids / Bases |
Photochemistry
Titration Techniques  Jerrold J. Jacobsen, Kelly Houston Jetzer, and Néha Patani, John Zimmerman, and Gerald Zweerink
Laser disk that contains 20 lessons and demonstrations of lab techniques related to titrations.
Jacobsen, J. J.; Jetzer, K. H.; Patani, N.; Zimmerman, J.; Zweerink,G. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 612.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Small Scale One-Pot Reactions of Copper, Iron, and Silver  Epp, Dianne N.
Investigation of a series of reactions involving copper, iron, and silver, all conducted with very small quantities in a single well.
Epp, Dianne N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 545.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Turmeric as an Acid-Base Indicator  Breedlove, C. H.
Example of turmeric as a natural acid-base indicator.
Breedlove, C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 540.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography  Bertotti, Mauro; Vaz, Jorge Moreira; Telles, Rogerio
Procedure for determining the concentration of ascorbic acid in orange juice using electroanalytical techniques (coulometry and polarography).
Bertotti, Mauro; Vaz, Jorge Moreira; Telles, Rogerio J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 445.
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A Simple Demonstration of the Ion-Pairing Effect on the Solubility of Charged Molecules  Hervas, Manuel A.; Fabara, Carlos E.
Demonstration to illustrate the effect of ion-pair formation on the solubility of charged molecules.
Hervas, Manuel A.; Fabara, Carlos E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 437.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents
Gold Pennies  Dominic, Sheryl
Classic "gold penny" demonstration followed by determinations of the actual composition of the penny through physical and chemical analysis.
Dominic, Sheryl J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 389.
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
An Undergraduate Organic Synthesis, Spectroscopy, and Molecular Modeling Project: Asymmetric Lewis Acid Catalyzed Diels-Alder Reaction of Menthyl Acrylate with Cyclopentadiene  Lee, Moses; Garbiras, Bonnie; Preti, Christopher
A project designed to demonstrate chromatography, spectroscopy, and molecular modeling; includes sample data and analysis.
Lee, Moses; Garbiras, Bonnie; Preti, Christopher J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 378.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Molecular Modeling
Visual demonstration of buffer action  Chang, James C.
A fast and easy demonstration of buffer action without the elaborate preparation of solutions.
Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 345.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
"Crack" - A High-Interest Compound Illustrating Important Concepts in General Chemistry  Hoyt, William
Using crack and cocaine as examples of amine acid-base chemistry.
Hoyt, William J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 322.
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters
The "Magic" Flask  Battino, Rubin; Fortman, John J.
Apparatus designed to "magically" dispense liquids of many different colors without refilling.
Battino, Rubin; Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 246.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) in Sediment: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment  Brouwer, Henry
Experimental procedure for measuring acid volatile sulfides in environmental samples.
Brouwer, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 182.
Acids / Bases
The Determination of "Apparent" pKa's: Part II. An Experiment Using Very Weak Acids (pKa's > 11.4)  Cawley, John J.
Experimental procedure for illustrating when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation fails for very weak acids; data and analysis included.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 88.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hydrogen-Bonding Equilibrium in Phenol Analyzed by NMR Spectroscopy  Lessinger, Leslie
Experimental procedure for determining the equilibrium constant for the hydrogen-bonding equilibrium of phenol in carbon tetrachloride solution; data and analysis included.
Lessinger, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 85.
Equilibrium |
Noncovalent Interactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols
Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations by Iteration: Recycle Your Approximations  Weltin, E.
Using graphing calculators, spreadsheets, and iteration analysis to approximate equilibrium concentrations and judge their accuracy; includes data and analysis.
Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
The Modern Student Laboratory: Determination of the Thermodynamic Dissociation Constant of a Weak Acid by Potentiometric Acid-Base Titration: A Three-Hour Laboratory Experiment  Partanen, Jaako I.; Karki, Merja H.
Improvements upon an earlier potentiometric titration.
Partanen, Jaako I.; Karki, Merja H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A120.
Acids / Bases |
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Small Scale Determination of the pKa Values for Organic Acids  Flash, Patrick
Determination and interpretation of the pKa values for a series of organic acids as a concrete example of the effect of structure on acid strength.
Flash, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A6.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carboxylic Acids
Not So Late Night Chemistry with USD  Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R.
Through the program, college students enhance their knowledge and expertise on a chemical topic and gain experience in scientific presentations. They also serve as role models to the high school students who can relate to college students more easily than the chemistry faculty members and their high school students.
Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 929.
Forensic Chemistry |
Polymerization |
Electrochemistry |
Isotopes |
Acids / Bases
Teaching the Truth about pH  Hawkes, Stephen J.
-log[H+] is only an approximation to pH; how to teach pH to avoid misleading students.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 747.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
beta-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes with Iodine: An Advanced and Inexpensive Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  Diaz, David; Vargas-Baca, Ignacio; Gracia-Mora, Jesus
Simple and inexpensive experiments to demonstrate the remarkable role of intermolecular forces on the behavior and macroscopic properties of substances.
Diaz, David; Vargas-Baca, Ignacio; Gracia-Mora, Jesus J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 708.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes
Fruit Anthocyanins: Colorful Sensors of Molecular Milieu  Curtright, Robert D.; Rynearson, James A .; Markwell, John
Provides background and references as a starting point for the further exploration of anthocyanins.
Curtright, Robert D.; Rynearson, James A .; Markwell, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 682.
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Computers and Practical Chemistry  Gipps, John
164. Particularly appropriate examples for the computer interfacing of laboratory experiments.
Gipps, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 671.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Acid-Base Titration Curves in Disproportionating Redox Systems  Michalowski, Tadeusz; Lesiak, Andrzej
Titrations for disproportioning systems with two bromine compounds (Br2 and HBrO) and iodine (I2) as examples.
Michalowski, Tadeusz; Lesiak, Andrzej J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 632.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Student's Models of Matter in the Context of Acid-Base Chemistry  Nakhleh, Mary B.
Secondary students' understandings of acids, bases, and pH which emerged in semi-structured interviews conducted as part of a larger study of the effects of three levels of instrumentation on students' understandings of acids, bases, and pH.
Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 495.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Pictorial Analogies XI: Concentrations and Acidity of Solutions  Fortman, John J.
Visual analogies of the concentration of a solution, strength of a solution, super saturated solution, conjugate acid-base pairs, and inverse relationship between pH and [H+] and pOH and [OH-].
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 430.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Kinetic Classroom: Acid-Base and Redox Demonstrations with Student Movement  Lomax, Joseph F.
Illustrating Bronsted-Lowry acids / bases and redox reactions by involving student movement and interaction.
Lomax, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 428.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Erroneous Explanations for the Limited Water Solubility of Organic Liquids  Alger, Donald B.
Explaining water solubility of organic liquids in terms of entropy.
Alger, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 281.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Thermodynamics
TITRATE: A Learning Tool for Acid-Base Titrations  Ramette, Richard W.
Software that calculates and simulates the plot of a titration curve for any base or acid (up to hexaprotic) or any mixture (up to five substances).
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 238.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
PHCALC: A Computer Program for Acid/Base Equilibrium Calculations  Kipp, James E.
158. Program uses a matrix method for ionic equilibrium calculations that greatly simplifies setting up the proper set of simultaneous equations for solution.
Kipp, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 119.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chemometrics
Using Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements To Study Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding: Calculating the Degree of Association, Equilibrium Constant, and Bond Energy for Hydrogen Bonding in Benzyl Alcohol and Phenol  Frohlich, H.
This paper presents simple IR spectroscopy experiments that the author has used for two years in a third-year course, which covers spectroscopy and binding.
Frohlich, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A3.
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Covalent Bonding
The mercury beating heart   Martin Sanchez, M.; Martin Sanchez, MaT.
Who is the discoverer of the phenomenon described by the title article?
Martin Sanchez, M.; Martin Sanchez, MaT. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1042.
Acids / Bases
Acid and water: A Socratic dialogue  Todd, David
A dialog between student and tutor regarding the rationale behind adding acid to water.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1022.
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties
Heat of solution of hydrogen chloride: A laboratory experiment  Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A.
A simple technique for measuring the heat of solution of HCl in water.
Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 955.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Determining Hammett sigma and rho values: Improvements on a published student experiment  Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn
Modifications and improvements to laboratory experiments written for an organic chemistry lab text.
Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 953.
Esters |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
A recipe for the preparation of a pH 7.00 calibration buffer  Jackman, Donald C.
Simple recipe for preparation of a pH 7.00 calibration buffer based on the NIST standard.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 853.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
pH
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel   Kelly, T. Ross
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel.
Kelly, T. Ross J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 848.
Separation Science |
Acids / Bases
Statistical analysis of errors: A practical approach for an undergraduate chemistry lab: Part 2. Some worked examples  Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J.
Statistical analysis of errors: A practical approach for an undergraduate chemistry lab.
Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 838.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Heat Capacity |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Theoretical analysis of one-one complexometric titration curves  Tianlin, Wang; Fengling, Liu; Liming, Feng
Using one-one complexometric titration curves to help students locate maximum breakpoint relative to the equivalence point.
Tianlin, Wang; Fengling, Liu; Liming, Feng J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 796.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
General treatment of aqueous ionic equilibria using predominance diagrams  Vale, J.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Alcalde, M.
This paper illustrates the advantage of a unified instructional treatment based on the similarities o equilibria between acid-base and oxidation-reduction reactions that could be used in a general chemistry course.
Vale, J.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Alcalde, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 790.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Rainbow demonstration using acid-base indicators   Loffredo, Robert E.; Crookston, Danette
An attention getting demonstration.
Loffredo, Robert E.; Crookston, Danette J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 774.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Hydrolysis of salts   Malinowski, Edmund R.
The third of three letters from a series of letters dealing with a paper from an earlier issue in this Journal (November 1987, page 957).
Malinowski, Edmund R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 691.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Hydrolysis of salts   Cardinali, M. E.; Giomini, C.; Marrosu, G.
From a series of letters dealing with a paper from an earlier issue in this Journal (November 1987, page 957).
Cardinali, M. E.; Giomini, C.; Marrosu, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 690.
Acids / Bases
Hydrolysis of salts   Aguirre-Ode, Fernando
From a series of letters dealing with a paper from an earlier issue in this Journal (November 1987, page 957).
Aguirre-Ode, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 690.
Acids / Bases
Explaining the "oldie but goodie"   Schaffrath, Robert E.
Questioning an explanation that appeared in a previous article in this Journal ( September 1991 page 778).
Schaffrath, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 606.
Acids / Bases
The determination of "apparent" pKa's: An experiment for liberal arts or science students  Cawley, John J.
An experiment with two different "conclusions" to be reached: one for liberal arts students, one for science students.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 596.
Acids / Bases |
Nonmajor Courses |
pH
Calculating equilibrium concentrations for stepwise binding of ligands and polyprotic acid-base systems: A general numerical method to solve multistep equilibrium problems  Weltin, E.
151. A general numerical method to solve multistep equilibrium problems.
Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 568.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Numbers and "reality"   Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
Authors correspond about the role mathematical understanding plays in the understanding of chemistry.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 518.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Acids / Bases
Numbers and "reality"   Lodwig, Siegfried N.
Authors correspond about the role mathematical understanding plays in the understanding of chemistry.
Lodwig, Siegfried N. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 518.
Acids / Bases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
A pH controller for HPLC mobile phases  Quigley, Michael N.
Apparatus for a more convenient and less expensive way to allow for continuously variable adjustments of pH used in reverse-phase chromatography.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 496.
Acids / Bases |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH
A family of hydrogen bonds in the model system salicylic acid-toluene-water: A biophysical experiment modeled on the distribution of the monomeric acid between two phases and on its dimerization in the organic phase  Worley, John D.
Hydrogen bonding is often studied using model systems: the system salicylic acid-tolune-water offers an interesting example for study by students in a physical or biophysical chemistry lab.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 417.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Proteins / Peptides |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium
A study of the pH of perspiration from male and female subjects exercising in the gymnasium: A practical challenge for students in the nonscience major class  Doran, Daniel; Tierney, John; Varano, Mary; Ware, Susan
An engaging activity is developed out of an authentic inquiry posed by students. This article presents the debate behind the title question, a procedure, sample data, results, and discussion.
Doran, Daniel; Tierney, John; Varano, Mary; Ware, Susan J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 412.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
pH
The rainbow reaction: pH and universal indicator solution   Moore, Howard; Moore, Elizabeth B.
Colorful demonstrations using indicators.
Moore, Howard; Moore, Elizabeth B. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 406.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Potentiometric measurements in a freshwater aquarium  Harris, Thomas M.
The author describes a laboratory activity for an instrumental methods course that is both interesting and instructive to the students while providing a lesson in environmental chemistry and tropical fish care.
Harris, Thomas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 340.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Teas as natural indicators   Epp, Dianne N.
A laboratory procedure including herbal teas and their indicating colors when in acid and base solutions.
Epp, Dianne N. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 326.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
pH
Chemical checkers on the computer  Orlik, Y. G.; Glyakov, P. V.; Varova, R. M.
148. Bits and pieces, 49. A program that is enjoyable and useful because it enables students to organize and sum up their knowledge on topics such as chemical properties of metals and properties of acids, bases, and salts.
Orlik, Y. G.; Glyakov, P. V.; Varova, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 297.
Acids / Bases |
Metals
Explicit expressions of the general form of the titration curve in terms of concentration: Writing a single closed-form expression for the titration curve for a variety of titrations without using approximations or segmentation  de Levie, Robert
Explicit expressions of the shape of a titration curve can provide insight into the feasibility of the titration and into the conditions needed for a sufficiently sharp endpoint. They also allow one to design appropriate algorithms to evaluate titration curves and allow equilibrium constants to be extracted from them.
de Levie, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 209.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
The Erosion of Carbonate Stone by Acid Rain: Laboratory and Field Investigations  Baedecker, Philip A.; Reddy, Michael M.
Describes a laboratory experiment on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone erosion. The purpose is to answer questions concerning the effects of hydrogen ion deposition on stone erosion processes that are difficult to resolve in field experiments alone.
Baedecker, Philip A.; Reddy, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 104.
Acids / Bases |
Green Chemistry
A Discussion of the Term "Polymorphism"  Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin
Authors propose an extended definition for the term "polymorphism", especially in low molecular weight compounds.
Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 101.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding
Studying Acid-Base Equilibria in Two-Phase Solvent Media: Analyzing Results Using Aqueous Surfactant Solutions with Organic Solvents in the Titration of Analytes with Low Solubilities and Low Dissociation Constants  Tucker, Sheryl A.; Amszi, Vicki L.; Acree, William E., Jr.
Authors offer suggestions for the types of problems encountered in an analytical laboratory activity involving the quantitative analysis of weak acids and weak bases.
Tucker, Sheryl A.; Amszi, Vicki L.; Acree, William E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 80.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The acid-base package  Ramette, Richard W.; Holmes, Jon L.
Software that will calculate theoretical titration curve data and the pH for any mixture of acids and/or bases.
Ramette, Richard W.; Holmes, Jon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1010.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Demonstrating the conservation of matter: A trilogy of experiments   Martin, David; Russell, Randy D.; Thomas, Nicholas C.
Three related demonstrations involving calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid explore the conservation of matter.
Martin, David; Russell, Randy D.; Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 925.
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Solving acid-base equilibria: Some concerns (the author replies)  Olivieri, Alejandro
Acknowledges letter of concern.
Olivieri, Alejandro J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 859.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Solving acid-base equilibria: Some concerns  Michalowski, Tadeusz
The simplest way to solve the problem of pH calculation related to c mol/L solutions of certain weak acids and salts.
Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 858.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Replacement reactions using a dissecting microscope  Lam-Erwin, Chuk-Yin; Sprague, Joseph
Performing drop-size experiments under dissecting microscopes, including examining the reactivity of metals and double replacement reactions.
Lam-Erwin, Chuk-Yin; Sprague, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 855.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases
Cautionary note regarding the phenol color test by ferric chloride in acidic solution  Hasegawa, Tadashi; Usui, Toyokazu
Effect of acids on the phenol color test by ferric chloride.
Hasegawa, Tadashi; Usui, Toyokazu J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 840.
Phenols |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
BUFALC crash corrected.  Lambert, William J.
Error in the BUFALC program and availability of a corrected version.
Lambert, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 688.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
The use of potassium alum in demonstrating amphoterism  Tesh, Kris F.
Demonstrating amphoterism with aluminum hydroxide and universal indicator solution.
Tesh, Kris F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Acids / Bases
Red, white, blue, and yellow chemistry  Dewar, Phyllis D.
Producing a colored U.S. flag using Congo red.
Dewar, Phyllis D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 572.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A low-cost pH meter for the classroom.  Harris, David L.; Harris, Daniel C.
Design of an inexpensive yet precise pH meter for classroom use.
Harris, David L.; Harris, Daniel C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 563.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Arrhenius confuses students.  Hawkes, Stephen J.
An acid is a substance from which a proton can be removed; protons are not "donated".
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 542.
Acids / Bases
Precipitation of a murder: A creative use of strychnine chemistry in Agatha Christie's The Mysterious Affair at Styles.  Southward, Robin E.; Hollis, W. Gary, Jr.; Thompson, David W.
Discussion of the chemistry involved in this mystery and its analysis by students.
Southward, Robin E.; Hollis, W. Gary, Jr.; Thompson, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 536.
Applications of Chemistry |
Toxicology |
Acids / Bases
The extent of acid-base reactions (the author replies).  Thompson, Ralph J.
A poor example for calculating the extent of reaction between hydronium ion and aniline was chosen.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions.  Tapparo, Andrea.
Several misleading statements can be found in the original article.
Tapparo, Andrea. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 515.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The acid equilibrium constant is unity! (the author replies)  Thompson, Ralph J.
The interpretation of thermodynamic equilibrium constants by Baldwin and Burchill is quite proper and technically correct.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 515.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The acid equilibrium constant is unity!  Baldwin, W. G.; Burchill, C. E.
The attempt to assign a non-unity value to this equilibrium constant is a consequence of misunderstanding the way in which the (nearly) constant concentration or activity of the solvent in a dilute solution (or of a pure solid or liquid in a heterogeneous system) is treated when formulating the conventional equilibrium constant expression.
Baldwin, W. G.; Burchill, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 514.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The chemical logic of life and the earth's biosphere: A simple, one-diagram outline  Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro
This diagram is intended to give a compact overall picture of the chemical logic of life and of the earth's biosphere.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 356.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Solving equilibrium problems   Ruekberg, Ben
An equation with more than three terms is not cause for despair.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 344.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Graphical presentation of acid-base reactions: Using a computer-interfaced autotitrator  Lake, Michele E.; Grunow, David A.; Su, Meng-Chih
136. The goal of this project is to help students see what occurs in the solution at every single step during the course of a titration.
Lake, Michele E.; Grunow, David A.; Su, Meng-Chih J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 299.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The computer as student: An application of artificial intelligence  Birk, James P.
The author describes how the development of computer software to teach about chemical reactivity also provides information about how we should teach several topics in general chemistry.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 294.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Acidities of oxoacids: Correlation with charge distribution  Meek, Terry L.
In an attempt to ascertain whether acidity can be correlated with some molecular parameter, the charge distribution within 24 oxoacid molecules and their conjugate base anions were examined by calculating the partial positive or negative charge on each atom.
Meek, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 270.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Standard states for water equilibrium (author response).  Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A.
For the purposes of comparison only the unconventionally derived Ka values should be used to compare equilibrium constants for other acids to determine relative acid strengths.
Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 256.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Standard states for water equilibrium.  Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene.
The authors consider that Ka and Kb values for Bronsted acids and bases in aqueous solution represent one data set describing the properties of solutes in dilute aqueous solution.
Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 255.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Cyclic indicator color change by titrant electrogeneration.  Stock, John T.
A simple but striking demonstration of coulometric titration.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 253.
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Estimation of pKa in the first excited singlet state: A physical chemistry experiment that explores acid-base properties in the excited state.  Marciniak, B.; Kozubek, H.; Paszyc, S.
The acid-base reactions in excited states are some of the most elementary processes both in photochemistry and biochemistry and are, therefore, well-suited to form the basis for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment.
Marciniak, B.; Kozubek, H.; Paszyc, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 247.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Photochemistry
Ionophoresis apparatus potentially lethal hazard  Helser, Terry L.
Suggestions for making ionophoresis less dangerous.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 172.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry
Beta-keto esters from tin(II) chloride catalyzed reactions of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate: An undergraduate laboratory experiment drawn from the current literature  Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R.
This is an experimental procedure for producing longer-chain keto esters from unconjugated aldehydes on reaction with ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by Lewis acids for use in an undergraduate laboratory.
Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 68.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters
Demonstrations with red cabbage indicator   Fortman, John J.; Stubbs, Katherine M.
This paper extends the use of the red cabbage extract into demonstrations that illustrate the acidic or basic nature of solutions of gases and gives suggestions for modifications to project the beautiful range of colors and shades for better viewing in large lecture halls.
Fortman, John J.; Stubbs, Katherine M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 66.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Gases
Spreadsheet titration of diprotic acids and bases  Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J.
133. Bits and pieces, 47. A spreadsheet and chart, set up using Excel, for showing titration curves of any diprotic acid or base is described.
Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 46.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chem 1 concept builder (Lower, Steve with Instructional Software)  Hair, Sally R.
A review of a software package designed for tutorial and drill.
Hair, Sally R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A19.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Acid rain investigations   Epp, Dianne N.; Curtright, Robert
A series of reactions that can be carried out to demonstrate the effects of acid rain.
Epp, Dianne N.; Curtright, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1034.
Acids / Bases |
Green Chemistry
A procedure for determining formulas for the simple p-block oxoacids  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
Formulae for p-block oxoacids baffle high school and undergraduate students. This paper presents a procedure for developing these formulas based on the concept of total coordination number of the central atom in the molecule or ion.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
More about the extent of acid-base reactions  Cardinall, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo
In this paper, the authors look at a previously published method that calculates the extent of reaction between a weak monoprotic acid and a weak monoprotic base when both are dissolved in an aqueous solution and point out the conceptual errors made in that publication .
Cardinall, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 989.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Mechanistic interpretation of pH-rate profiles  Loudon, G. Marc
This paper addresses the complexity of pH dependent reaction rates in a systemic fashion. By doing so, the author demonstrates that this complexity can be boiled down to simple principles.
Loudon, G. Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 973.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Rate Law |
pH |
Chemometrics
Direct electrochemical synthesis of fluoroiron compounds: The use of sacrificial metal anodes in aqueous medium  Chakravorti,M.C.; Subrahamanyam, Gampa V.B.
The direct electrochemical synthesis of fluoro iron compounds can be used to show students how metal compounds can be prepared from the pure metal itself and how fluoro compounds can be prepared with relative ease from diluted aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions.
Chakravorti,M.C.; Subrahamanyam, Gampa V.B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 961.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis
Advanced titration plots using spreadsheet scripting  Currie, James O., Jr.; Whiteley, Richard V., Jr.
131. A spreadsheet aids in student understanding of acid/base titration calculations.
Currie, James O., Jr.; Whiteley, Richard V., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 923.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Equilibrium
Computer interfacing: A new look at acid-base titrations  Amend, John R.; Tucker, Kathleen A.; Furstenau, Ronald P.
130. A challenging laboratory experience that illustrates the benefits of gathering titration data via computer.
Amend, John R.; Tucker, Kathleen A.; Furstenau, Ronald P. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 857.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
pH
An oldie but goodie test for carbon dioxide  Hazari, Al
A more colorful test for carbon dioxide than the usual check for supporting combustion.
Hazari, Al J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 778.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Chemical equilibrium: VII. pH approximations in acid-base titrations  Gordos, Adon A.
The seventh article in the series: Using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to describe a titration mixture in the buffer region and other simplified equations to approximate the pH at various other stages in the titration of a typical weak acid.
Gordos, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 759.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Equilibrium
Determination of molar mass and acid constant for a weak acid  Forland, Katrine S.; Hauge-Nilsen, Grete S.
An experiment where students use their titration result to determine the molar mass and the acid constant for an unknown weak acid.
Forland, Katrine S.; Hauge-Nilsen, Grete S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 674.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chemical equilibrium: VI. buffer solutions   Gordus, Adon A.
The sixth article in a series: conditions that permit use of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to describe the titration mixture in the buffer region of a weak acid-strong base titration.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 656.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Acidity and basicity of fertilizers   Hershey, David R.
Understanding root absorption and its relationship to fertilizer uptake.
Hershey, David R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 642.
Acids / Bases |
Green Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A study of some 2-chloro-2-methylpropane kinetics using a computer interface  Allen, Anthony; Haughey, Adam J.; Hernandez, Yolanda; Ireton, Scot
Examining the effects of a few variables on the rate of a chemical reaction using specialized software.
Allen, Anthony; Haughey, Adam J.; Hernandez, Yolanda; Ireton, Scot J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 609.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Multifunctional base unknowns in the introductory analytical chemistry lab  Werner, Jonathan A.; Werner, T. C.
The authors look at mathematical descriptions of acid-base equilibria and emphasize the nature of the assumptions that are being made to simplify the mathematics.
Werner, Jonathan A.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 600.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Making colorful patterns on paper dyed with red cabbage juice  Suzuki, Chieko
Instructions and diagrams for the activity as well as the molecular structures of the dyes.
Suzuki, Chieko J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 588.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
pH
The hydronium ion: How do we know?   Diemente, Damon
Demonstrations and discussions surrounding the hydronium ion.
Diemente, Damon J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 568.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Chemical equilibrium: V. seeing an endpoint in acid-base titrations   Gordus, Adon A.
The fifth article in a series: examining the conditions that permit "seeing" the end point/ equivalence point in a titration.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 566.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Organic electrosynthesis without a potentiostat: Selectivity in the stepwise reduction of trichloromethylphosphonate: A representative experiment  Le Menn, Jean-Christophe; Tallec, Andre; Sarrazin, Jean
In this paper, authors propose two short experiments that illustrate a means of performing easily and selectively the stepwise reduction of a polyhaplophosphonate in aqueous media.
Le Menn, Jean-Christophe; Tallec, Andre; Sarrazin, Jean J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 513.
Acids / Bases |
Alkylation |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Synthesis |
Potentiometry
The dimensions of logarithmic quantities: Implications for the hidden concentration and pressure units in pH values, acidity constants, standard thermodynamic functions, and standard electrode potentials  Molyneux, Philip
Chemical implications of the logarithm of a dimensional quantity are discussed.
Molyneux, Philip J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 467.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
pH
Reaction of phenolphthalein   Hile, Lloyd
Comments on reactions of phenolphthalein.
Hile, Lloyd J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 446.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid  Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J.
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid.
Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 436.
Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Diastereomers
Demonstration properties of sulfur dioxide   Brouwer, H.
Demonstrations of properties of sulfur dioxide are timely, given current debates between Canada and the United States regarding acid rain.
Brouwer, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 417.
Acids / Bases |
Green Chemistry |
pH
Chemical equilibrium: IV. weak acids and bases   Gordus, Adon A.
A series on equilibrium: this article examines weak acids and bases.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 397.
Acids / Bases |
pH
On the standard hydrogen electrode   Wuchang, Z.; Jiaxing, L.; Hebal, S.
A letter examines previous treatment of standard hydrogen electrodes.
Wuchang, Z.; Jiaxing, L.; Hebal, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 356.
Acids / Bases
Teaching photometry with overhead projector experiments   Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Angnes, Lucio; Pedrotti, Jairo J.
Description of a photometry demonstration with an overhead projector.
Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Angnes, Lucio; Pedrotti, Jairo J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 325.
Potentiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Recipes for Belousov-Zhabotinsky reagents  Jahnke, Wolfgang; Winfree, Arthur T.
The Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction has widely been used by several researchers to investigate spatial patterns in an excitable medium. In this paper, the authors have compiled the major recipes.
Jahnke, Wolfgang; Winfree, Arthur T. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 320.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases
Acid and base dissociation constants of water and its associated ions  de Lange, A. M.; Potgieter, J. H.
By applying the Bronsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases, one can derive acid and base dissociation constants for water and its associated ions.
de Lange, A. M.; Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 304.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Chemical equilibrium: III. A few math tricks   Gordus, Adon A.
The third article in a series on chemical equilibrium that considers a few math "tricks" useful in equilibrium calculations and approximations.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 291.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A problem for buffer buffs  Leis, J. Ramon; Pena, M. Elena; Herrero-Latorre, C.
An exam problem particularly for undergraduates studying chemistry as part of some other discipline such as biochemistry, biology, or medicine.
Leis, J. Ramon; Pena, M. Elena; Herrero-Latorre, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 141.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Design of corrosion inhibitors: Use of the hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) theory  Walters, Frederick H.
Using hard and soft acid-base theory to understand corrosion.
Walters, Frederick H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A comparison of three software programs to solve acid/base problems  Nagel, Edgar H.
Compares the use of a spreadsheet (Quattro), Eureka, and MathCad to calculate the pH of monosodium salt solutions of diprotic acids.
Nagel, Edgar H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A302.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
pH
Measurements of equilibrium constants of acid-base indicators with a blocktronic colorimeter  Walters, David; Birk, James P.
A computer-interfaced measurement of equilibrium constants of acid-base indicators (methyl orange, methyl red, and phenolphthalein).
Walters, David; Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A252.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Modified Gran plots of very weak acids on a spreadsheet   Chau, F. T.; Tse, H. K.; Cheng, F. L.
The Gran plot methodology has been utilized very often for analysis of acid-base titration curves.
Chau, F. T.; Tse, H. K.; Cheng, F. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A8.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Numerical solutions for diprotic acid equilibria using spreadsheet iterations  Parker, O. Jerry; Breneman, Gary L.
This software affords the opportunities of solving the problem in an open format that displays any desired intermediate steps as well as final results.
Parker, O. Jerry; Breneman, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A5.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate (the author replies)   Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate  Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A short program for the automatic calculation of pH in solutions having many acids or bases  Campanario, Juan Miguel; Ballesteros, Reyes
121. Bits and pieces, 45. A computer program for calculating the pH of mixtures having many acids or bases.
Campanario, Juan Miguel; Ballesteros, Reyes J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1036.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Endocharm and its production in organic chemistry by mastery learning  Afzal, Dawood; Delaware, Dana L.; Fountain, Kenneth R.
Using concept maps in organic chemistry and the difference between rote and meaningful learning.
Afzal, Dawood; Delaware, Dana L.; Fountain, Kenneth R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1011.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases
Bromothymol surprise  Maier, Linda L.
Dropping a tablet of Alka Seltzer into a bromothymol blue solution.
Maier, Linda L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 963.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
A general approach for calculating polyprotic acid speciation and buffer capacity  King, D. Whitney; Kester, Dana R.
A set of general equations for calculating the speciation of polyprotic acids.
King, D. Whitney; Kester, Dana R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 932.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
An olfactory indicator for acid-base titrations: A laboratory technique for the visually impaired  Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.
Analysis of eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol as aromatic indicators for acid-base titrations.
Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 795.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Minorities in Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
A modified graphical method for acid-base equilibria  Nakagawa, Kuniaki
A method based on logarithmic diagrams for finding the pH values for various systems in acid-base equilibria.
Nakagawa, Kuniaki J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 673.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Avoid misleading the students  Rich, Ronald L.
Chemists have a long-standing habit, misleading at least to students, of saying that strong bases produce acids in various reactions.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 629.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
State-of-the-art pH electrode quality control for measurements of acidic, low ionic strength waters  Stapanian, Martin A.; Metcalf, Richard C.
The relationship between the pH measurement error and the resulting percentage error in [H+] determination is derived, including the use of variable activity coefficients.
Stapanian, Martin A.; Metcalf, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 623.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Analysis of organic acids: A freshman laboratory experiment  Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.
In this experiment students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol.
Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Methods for calculating the pH of aqueous solutions of salts of monoprotic acids and bases  Malinowski, Edmund R.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. The simultaneous-equation method has the capability to solve a wide variety of complicated chemical equilibrium problems, involving polyprotic acids and bases, solubility, and complex formation.
Malinowski, Edmund R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 502.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The pH of any mixture of monoprotic acids and bases  Herman, D. P.; Booth, K. K.; Parker, O. J.; Breneman, G. L.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. The pH of any mixture of monoprotic weak and strong acids and bases can be calculated. A curve can also be plotted for the titration of the mixture by any monoportic weak or strong acid or base.
Herman, D. P.; Booth, K. K.; Parker, O. J.; Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 501.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
The Ka values of water and the hydronium ion for comparison with other acids  Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A.
A primary interest in establishing the correct Ka values for water and the hydronium ion is to be able to compare the strengths of these species acting as acids with the strengths of other compounds acting as acids.
Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
pH
Microscale acid-base extraction: A colorful introduction  Elder, John W.
The concept and the microscale manipulation involved in acid-base extractions are often difficult for beginning students.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 266.
Acids / Bases |
Microscale Lab
Solution of acid-base equilibria by successive approximations  Olivieri, Alejandro C.
The use of the method of successive approximations for solving acid-base equilibria, in conjunction with an intuitive, chemically based analysis is presented.
Olivieri, Alejandro C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 229.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
An efficient method for the treatment of weak acid/base equilibria  Burness, James H.
The use of the ionization ratio concept enables students to perform many of the calculations for aqueous acid/base equilibria more quickly and efficiently.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 224.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
A people-and-Velcro model for hydrogen bonding  Hill, John W.
Perhaps your students will get hooked on chemistry by playing the roles of molecules joined together by Velcro.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 223.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Water / Water Chemistry
The hydrolysis of salts derived from a weak monoprotic acid and a weak monoprotic base  Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo
The limitations as well as the conditions under which this simplified approach to the hydrolysis of salts from a weak acid and a weak base can yield almost exact results are discussed.
Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 221.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions  Thompson, Ralph J.
How to calculate the equilibrium constant of an acid-base reaction.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
BUFCALC: A program for the calculation of buffers of specified pH, ionic strength, and buffer capacity  Lambert, William J.
111. A Turbo Pascal program named BUFCALC has been written for the IBM PC for the calculation of buffer "recipes" given the appropriate thermodynamic dissociation constant(s).
Lambert, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 150.
Acids / Bases |
pH
In praise of thiosulfate  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of thiosulfate make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory experiments.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
A kinetic and mechanistic study of the alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl acetoacetate by acid-base potentiometry: Determination of the pKa of the ester  Paredes, Rodrigo; Ocampo, Rogelio
This experiment illustrates the determination of the kinetic order for a simple reaction. This experiment was used with good results in a physical organic chemistry class by advanced undergraduate students.
Paredes, Rodrigo; Ocampo, Rogelio J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 72.
Esters |
Kinetics |
Potentiometry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Acid content of beverages: A general chemistry experiment involving the resolution of apparent anomalies  Fuchsman, William H.; Garg, Sandhya
The authors connect the chemistry of strong and weak acids not only to the world outside the laboratory but also to the kinds of problem solving that engages real scientists.
Fuchsman, William H.; Garg, Sandhya J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 67.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
pH
Chemistry in the comics: Part 4. The preservation and deacidification of comic books  Carter, Henry A.
The deterioration of book paper as a result of acid attack is a serious problem that cannot be ignored. This problem is even more acute for comic books, newsprint, and other ground wood pulp papers that contain large amounts of lignin.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 3.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates
Modelling and analyzing chemical equilibria on a spreadsheet: Acid-base systems  Leharne, Stephen
Using a spreadsheet to compute how the concentration of an aqeous species varies with some master variables (such as pH or ligand concentrations) and show this variation graphically.
Leharne, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A239.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Illustrating the inductive effect on acid strength of carboxylic acids  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris
The effect of various substituents on acid strength can be easily demonstrated using aqueous solutions of various carboxylic acids containing a suitable indicator.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1034.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids
Sherlock Holmes and the yellow prisms  Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 981.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Toxicology |
Acids / Bases
Separation of a five-component mixture in the microscale laboratory  O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U.
The separation and purification of a five-component mixture consisting of a strong organic acid (bezoic acid), a weak organic acid (2-naphthol), an organic base (pyridine), and two neutral compounds (1-chlorobutane and toluene).
O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 961.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases
Charge transfer in Lewis acid-base reactions: A MO study of the H3+ system  Fernandez, G. M.; Sordo, J. A.; Sordo, T. L.
Analysis of the reaction between H2 and a proton to form H3+ to show clearly the importance of charge transfer from H2 to H+.
Fernandez, G. M.; Sordo, J. A.; Sordo, T. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 898.
Acids / Bases |
MO Theory
Construction of a photoelectric colorimeter and application to students' experiments (Part 2)  Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako
Applications include the quantitative analysis of copper in brass, the analysis of iron in spinach and tea leaves, and the determination of the acid dissociation constant of bromothymol blue.
Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
The acid-base package: A collection of useful programs for proton-transfer systems  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Four programs that deal with the types of acid-base calculations normally encountered in introductory and analytical chemistry courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Thermochromic tetrachlorocuprate(II): An advanced integrated laboratory experiment  Choi, Sunhee; Larrabee, James A.
The tetrachlorocuprate(II) anion displays discontinuous thermochromism, which is a rapid color change over a narrow temperature range; the color change of bright green to yellow corresponds to a coordination geometry change from distorted square-planar to distorted tetrahedral.
Choi, Sunhee; Larrabee, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 774.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Kinetics of the fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution  Nicholson, Lois
The fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution can serve as the basis for an experiment illustrating first-order kinetics.
Nicholson, Lois J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 725.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Enhancement of visual titration endpoints  Williams, Howard P.; Howell, J. Emory; Russell, Joseph L.
Using white styrofoam cups as a titration vessel.
Williams, Howard P.; Howell, J. Emory; Russell, Joseph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 680.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
An alternative procedure for titration curves of a mixture of acids of different strengths  Castillo S., Carlos A.; Jaramillo A., Alonso
An alternative procedure is presented that allows us to get the same kind of information using a single equation plus a graph, that would normally be determined by two plots.
Castillo S., Carlos A.; Jaramillo A., Alonso J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 341.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Potentiometry
Chemical generation and visualization of hydrodynamic instability: An extremely simple demonstration of self-organization  Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J.
The chemical convection system described here is the pattern formation seen when an acidic vapor comes into contact with the surface of an aqueous solution containing indicator.
Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 210.
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Lewis diagrams (Pavia, Donald L.)  Jensen, William P.; Tarr, Donald A.
Two reviews for the titled software designed to help students determine Lewis structures of molecules and ions.
Jensen, William P.; Tarr, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A271.
Lewis Acids / Bases
FABTIC-The final acid-base titration curve program (Ramette, R.W.)  Boiani, James A.
A review of a software program that simulates titration and permits the calculation and plotting of an almost unlimited variety of acid-base pH titration curves. It will also calculate the pH of any mixture of acid and base solutions.
Boiani, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A241.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Acid-base titrations, CHM11A (Nagel, Edgar H.)  Cogdell, Thomas J.
A review of a software program that tutors students to understand and read titration curves.
Cogdell, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A47.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A large digital display for lecture theaters   Beattie, James K.; Trafalski, Z. John
A large pH display for lecture halls.
Beattie, James K.; Trafalski, Z. John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1005.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Uniqueness of zinc as a bioelement: Principles and applications in bioinorganic chemistry III  Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro
The author looks at zinc and shows why it has certain properties making it ideally suited to enzymatic reactions of the acid-base type.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 943.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Acids / Bases
Using infrared spectroscopy to determine the formation constant for the 2-propanol-acetone complex  Li, Ying Sing; Jeng, Mei Lee H.
An experiment suitable for an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory that uses infrared spectroscopic method to determine the complex formation constant of 2-propanol with acetone in carbon tetrachloride.
Li, Ying Sing; Jeng, Mei Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 920.
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Fourier Transform Techniques
Electronegativity and the acid-base character of binary oxides  Bratsch, Steven G.
An investigation of Smith's acid-base parameters within the framework of the Pauling electronegativity system and modern electronegativity theory.
Bratsch, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 877.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
PKIND: An acid-base indicator simulation for Apple II microcomputers  Salyer, Darnell
95. Bits and pieces, 38. An acid-base indicator simulation for Apple II microcomputers.
Salyer, Darnell J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 798.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The perils of carbonic acid and equilibrium constants  Jencks, William P.; Altura, Rachel A.
It is important to remember that the small amounts of carbon dioxide that are usually present in water can have large effects on acid-base equilibria of dilute solutions and that dilute solutions of most weak acids and bases undergo significant protonation or hydrolysis when they are dissolved in water.
Jencks, William P.; Altura, Rachel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 770.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Lewis electron-pair model, spectroscopy, and the role of the orbital picture in describing the electronic structure of molecules  Gallup, G. A.
The author addresses what one can expect quantum chemistry to say about the connections among spectroscopy, molecular structure, and the orbitals usually used to describe them.
Gallup, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 671.
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy
Classroom determination of trace organic substances by catalytic methods  Wenck, Helmut; Kruska, Grit; Lohrie, Ranier; Diemann, Ekkehard
The authors present a catalytic method for making analyses and that can be extended to traces of acetonitrile and oxalic acid.
Wenck, Helmut; Kruska, Grit; Lohrie, Ranier; Diemann, Ekkehard J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 633.
Catalysis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Acid pickling with amines: an experiment in applied chemistry for high school or freshman chemistry   Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C.
A brief description of the removal of corrosion products and millscale from the surface of ferrous metals by acid pickling.
Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 457.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Electrochemistry
Svante August Arrhenius, Swedish pioneer in physical chemistry   Kauffman, George B.
A brief biography of Svante August Arrhenius.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 437.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Safe and efficient handling of sulfuric acid in the general chemistry laboratory  Moran, Michael J.
A long-known but under-utilized method of making large amounts of dilute sulfuric acid.
Moran, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 355.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
Teaching relative acidity in the undergraduate organic chemistry course  Traynham, James G.
The concept of acidity become difficult for students to understand when an instructor goes beyond a few familiar compounds.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 348.
Acids / Bases
Titration of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate  Michalowski, Tadeusz
A look at how sodium carbonate (formed through carbon dioxide reaction with sodium hydroxide) contamination may effect titration results.
Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 181.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Quantitative Analysis
Identification of weak acids and bases by titration with primary standards: A modern version of an old analytical chemistry experiment  Thompson, Robert Q.
A four hour experiment is described in this article in which students are given a weak acid or base and asked to determine its identity by titration.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 179.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Bronsted-Lowry acid base concept  Kauffman, George B.
Brief biography of Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry and their concept.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 28.
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Correct equilibrium constants for water (the authors reply)  Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark
Water and hydronium ion Ka values are special cases.
Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1068.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics
Correct equilibrium constants for water  Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene
Disagreement with the numerical values assigned to equilibrium constants.
Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1067.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
pH measurements on the overhead projector  Solomon, Sally; High, Nancy
Universal indicator solution and a corresponding pH indicator chart are used to make pH measurements of an overhead projector where the results are visible to all students in a large lecture hall.
Solomon, Sally; High, Nancy J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 964.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
A general approach for teaching hydrolysis of salts  Aquirre-Ode, Fernando
Proposes a general, rigorous, and relatively simple approach for the hydrolysis of 1-1 electrolytes.
Aquirre-Ode, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 957.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Advances in acid-base Gran plot methodology  Schwartz, Lowell M.
By suitable modifications in the data analysis, Gran plot methodology can be extended to acidic or basic analyte solutions that would be difficult to treat by the conventional equations.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 947.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The chemical bond  DeKock, Roger L.
Overview of the chemical bond; considers ionic bonds, covalent bonds, Lewis electron dot structures, polar molecules and hydrogen bonds, and bonding in solid-state elements.
DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 934.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Solid State Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Buffer capacity: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.
A quantitative experiment that can demonstrate buffer action and the measurement of buffer capacity, for a given buffer system, over a range of pH.
Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 817.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Some ideas from the past  Kolb, Doris, editor
Demonstrations from past issues of the Journal, including the common ion effect, the silver tree, crystal formation from supersaturated solutions, making iron passive with nitric acid, optical activity, carbon dioxide in human breath, and amphoteric hydroxides.
Kolb, Doris, editor J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 805.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Acids / Bases
A good idea leads to a better buffer  Bering, Charles L.
History of the development of the so-called "Good" buffers by Norman Good and his colleagues.
Bering, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 803.
Acids / Bases
What is the physical significance of the pictures representing the Grotthus H+ conductance mechanism?  Hertz, H. G.; Braun, B. M.; Muller, K. J.; Maurer, R.
Critique of the "Grotthus mechanism" and a constructive argument to arrive at the correct understanding of the problem.
Hertz, H. G.; Braun, B. M.; Muller, K. J.; Maurer, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 777.
Acids / Bases |
Quantum Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Lewis acid catalysis of a Diels-Alder cycloaddition: An undergraduate organic experiment  Marchand, Alan P.; Vidyasagar, V.; Buckner, Mark B.; Holman, Philmore O.
Experiment based upon the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of methylcyclopentadiene to p-benzoquinone with characterization of the products through proton NMR.
Marchand, Alan P.; Vidyasagar, V.; Buckner, Mark B.; Holman, Philmore O. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 642.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Recent advances in the concept of hard and soft acids and bases  Pearson, Ralph G.
The hard / soft acids / bases principle has been justifiably criticized because of the lack of a precise definition of hardness and the inability to quantify this property; recent developments have overcome these objections, however.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 561.
Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
An acidity scale for binary oxides  Smith, Derek W.
A numerical scale of acidity / basicity for oxoacid salts.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 480.
Acids / Bases
How soft is mercury?  Rustad, Douglas S.
The conclusion that the softness of the Hg(II) ion varies going from the gas phase to different solvents is incorrect.
Rustad, Douglas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 470.
Acids / Bases
Passivation of copper in acid medium  Alonso, C.; Ocon, P.
Determining and explaining the polarization curve of copper in a 70% solution of phosphoric acid.
Alonso, C.; Ocon, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 459.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
A convenient, low-cost method for determining sulfate in acid rain  Johns, Nicholas; Longstaff, Stephen J.
Adapting the thoron colorimetric method for determining low sulfate concentrations quickly, simply, and accurately.
Johns, Nicholas; Longstaff, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 449.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
An "indicating" experience for students  Borer, Londa L.
Demonstrations of indicating tests for carbon dioxide, acidity, starch, and chloride aimed at upper elementary students.
Borer, Londa L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 446.
Acids / Bases
Acid rain effects on stone monuments  Charola, A. Elena
What is acid rain? Which stones are used to make mountains? How are the stones affected by acid rain?
Charola, A. Elena J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 436.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Geochemistry
On a common graphical flaw in the carboxylic acid/alcohol relative acidity argument  McClard, Ronald W.
Why are carboxylic acids so much more acidic than aliphatic alcohols?
McClard, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 416.
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases
Making sense of the nomenclature of the oxyacids and their salts  Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L.
An overall scheme or "roadmap" for naming oxyacids and their salts.
Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 409.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Properties of nonideal binary solutions: An integrated physical chemistry experiment  Marshall, David B.; McHale, J. L.; Carswell, Suzanne; Erne, David
Students compare the properties of near-ideal and nonideal binary solutions.
Marshall, David B.; McHale, J. L.; Carswell, Suzanne; Erne, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 369.
Thermodynamics |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Physical Properties
Which will evaporate first?  Stenmark, Allan
The evaporation rate of various short-chain alcohols and diethyl ether are compared.
Stenmark, Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 351.
Physical Properties |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols |
Ethers
Chemistry in the dyeing of eggs  Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
Some experiments that can be used to study factors influencing the intensity of dye that adheres to the surface of an eggshell.
Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 291.
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Hands-on versus computer simulation methods in chemistry  Bourque, Donald R.; Carlson, Gaylen R.
Procedure, results, conclusions, and implications of a study that compares the effectiveness of a hands-on approach versus computer simulations in the same chemistry topics.
Bourque, Donald R.; Carlson, Gaylen R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 232.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Methane pistol  Skinner, James F.
This simple demonstration leaves a lasting impression of the importance of intermolecular forces and hydrogen bonding.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 171.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Kinetics of oxidation of bromcresol green  Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David
Study of the bleaching of bromcresol green by hypochlorite.
Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 81.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemistry: Acids and Bases ( Frazin, J. and partners)  Bendall, Victor I.; Roe, Robert, Jr.
Two reviews of a software package that contains drill and practice programs that are suitable for beginning students of chemistry.
Bendall, Victor I.; Roe, Robert, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A204.
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases
pH-activated displays   Sherrington, D. C.; Carruthers, J.
pH activated displays are chemically and visually interesting and make an attractive contribution to appropriate lecture demonstrations.
Sherrington, D. C.; Carruthers, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1090.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Further observations on the cobalt(II)-chloride equilibrium: Effect of changing the chloride ion concentration  Martins, Luis J. A.; da Costa, J. Barbosa
In this article, the authors supplement previous experiments on equilibrium by confirming the effect of changes in chloride ion concentration.
Martins, Luis J. A.; da Costa, J. Barbosa J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 989.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Acids / Bases
A new road to reactions: Part III. Teaching the heat effect of reactions  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
This series of work summarizes the authors' work on the concept of chemical reactions as a teaching and learning problem.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 972.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
The conjugate acid base chart  Treptow, Richard S.
Conjugate acid-base charts are effective teaching tools for overcoming the problems students often have with understanding the subtleties of acid-base chemistry.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 938.
Acids / Bases
Ion-selective electrode in organic analysis: A salicylate electrode  Chan, W. H.; Wong, M. S.; Yip, C. W.
The project presented in this paper demonstrates to students the principles and techniques of using the ion-selective electrode in organic analysis.
Chan, W. H.; Wong, M. S.; Yip, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 915.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
The lithium bond  Sannigrahi, A. B.
The properties of Li bonds vis--vis that of H bonds.
Sannigrahi, A. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 843.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Hydrogen bonding and retention on silica: A concept illustrated by TLC chromatography of nitrophenols  Feigenbaum, A.
The TLC experiments presented in this paper illustrate several important features regarding retention, elution, and selectivity on silica through the study of the chromatographic behavior of nitrophenols.
Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 815.
Heterocycles |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Hydrogen Bonding
Getting the acid out of your 2,4-DNPH  Behforouz, Mohammad
A method for getting the acid out of a sample of 2,4-DNPH.
Behforouz, Mohammad J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 723.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
On the existence and uniqueness of a chemical root in ionic equilibrium problems  Corao, Enrique; Morales, Daniel; Araujo, Oswaldo
The authors present a method to demonstrate the existence and uniqueness of a root, "the chemical root", in ionic equilibrium problems in the interval allowed by the chemical restrictions. The method is based on two theorems of the theory of algebraic equations.
Corao, Enrique; Morales, Daniel; Araujo, Oswaldo J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 693.
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Uptake and loss of carbon dioxide in volumetric analysis  Macca, Carlo
This paper will show, by means of a few significant examples, how two types of diagrams can be used to illustrate the behavior of systems of interest in volumetric analysis, where absorption of loss of carbon dioxide takes place.
Macca, Carlo J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 691.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases
The new low value for the second dissociation constant for H2S: Its history, its best value, and its impact on the teaching of sulfide equilibria  Myers, Rollie J.
This article reviews evidence for a low value for the K2 of H2S and give the best estimate of this K2. The authors will show that this is a logical value when considering trends in the periodic table.
Myers, Rollie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 687.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
[A-] in weak acid solution   McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D.
The cubic equations that arise when accurately calculating the concentrations of the various species of a monobasic acid or base in solution have recently attracted some attention in this journal. This author furthers the conversation.
McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 597.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A low-noise simplex optimization experiment  Steig, Scott
This experiment overcomes a barrier to thinking about how two or more parameters interact in a system.
Steig, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 547.
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases
"Rubberized" bone: A demonstration of solubility principles, acid base reactions, and biochemistry  Chirpich, Thomas P.
Sometimes a short, simple, demonstration will help students in perceiving the presence of chemical principles in an everyday object and encourage them to try to make chemistry have a more "real" meaning for themselves.
Chirpich, Thomas P. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 519.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A model for hydrogen bonding  Hill, John W.
Hydrogen bonding is a somewhat abstract and difficult concept for many students, yet it is of enormous importance in chemistry.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 503.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Sulfuric acid viewed as a 1-1 electrolyte  King, Edward L.
The author demonstrates the pedagogic advantage of viewing sulfuric acid as a 1-1 electrolyte.
King, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 490.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents
An introductory laboratory exercise for acids and bases  Miller, Richard; Silberman, Robert
The authors have used this exercise as an introduction to acid-base chemistry before they do any acid-base titrations in the laboratory.
Miller, Richard; Silberman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 447.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
An analogy for the leveling effect in acid-base chemistry  Kramer, Axtell F.
Brick layers with union constraints, are the subject of this analogy.
Kramer, Axtell F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 275.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Assigning the pKa's of polyprotic acids  Bodner, George M.
This article makes transparent the problem solving process behind the pKa's of amino acids and finds an interesting conclusion.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 246.
Acids / Bases |
Amino Acids |
pH
Transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylation of methyl acetate  Polichnowski, S. W.
In this symposium paper, the author outlines how coal-derived CO and H2 can be converted to acetic anhydride. The key step in this acetic anhydride process is the homogenous catalysis of the carbonylation of methyl acetate.
Polichnowski, S. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 206.
Acids / Bases |
Green Chemistry
Catalysis of the carbonylation of alcohols to carboxylic acids including acetic acid synthesis from methanol  Forster, Denis; Dekleva, Thomas W.
These authors outline the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggest ways of extending the sythesis to higher carboxylic acids.
Forster, Denis; Dekleva, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 204.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols |
Industrial Chemistry
The protolysis of singlet excited beta-naphthol: A two-day laboratory experiment to introduce photophysics  van Stam, Jan; Lofroth, Jan-Erik
In this report the authors present a two-day laboratory experiment to estimate the pK for the protolysis of beta-naphtol in its ground state and the first singlet excited state.
van Stam, Jan; Lofroth, Jan-Erik J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 181.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics
Reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline solution: a beginning organic chemistry experiment  Hudak, Norman J.; Sholes, Anne H.
A beginning organic chemistry experiment that involves the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline solution.
Hudak, Norman J.; Sholes, Anne H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 161.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
High-efficiency dilution method of sulfuric acid prepared directly in stock bottle with cooler and stirrer  Nara, Osamu
Methods for safer preparation of sulfuric acid for analytical labs.
Nara, Osamu J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 155.
Acids / Bases
Density gradient columns for chemical displays  Guenther, William B.
An important advantage of these demonstrations of complex chemistry is that students can observe them over a period of time as they grasp concepts of solution equilibria.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 148.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Coordination Compounds |
Metals
Consumption of base by glassware  Smith, Allen A.
The effect of strong base on glass is well known. The reciprocal effect of glass on standarized solutions of base is rarely considered.
Smith, Allen A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 85.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chemistry and the courtroom: A chemical inference from missing evidence in a personal injury case  Ellern, James B.
Example of a court case involving a laboratory incident in which nitric acid was allegedly applied to a student's seat.
Ellern, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1064.
Forensic Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Zinc enzymes  Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R.
The role played by catalytic and noncatalytic zinc in biochemical systems. From the "State of the Art Symposium: Bioinorganic Chemistry", held at the ACS meeting, Miami, 1985.
Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 924.
Enzymes |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Proteins / Peptides
The titrimetric determination of acetylsalicylic acid in analgesic tablets  Braun, Robert D.
Example of a titrimetric method in a nonaqueous amphiprotic solvent (methanol).
Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 811.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Acids / Bases
Buffer demonstration  Ophardt, Charles E.
Emphasizes the difference in properties between strong and weak acids and that only a weak acid or base and its salt are a buffer.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 608.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments
To buffer or not to buffer, that is the question  Mancott, A.
Question involves the preparation of a buffer solution by a chemical reaction but does not have the resultant solution act as a buffer.
Mancott, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 606.
Acids / Bases |
pH
An invitation to experiment with an experiment  Phanstiel, Otto
Students are asked to develop an experiment in which they isolate an acid / base indicator from a flower and determine the pH at which it changes color.
Phanstiel, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 522.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH
Metal complexes as color indicators for solvent parameters  Soukup, Rudolf W.; Schmid, Roland
Review of the use of metal ions as color indicators for both the sigma-donor and sigma-acceptor abilities of solvents; briefly describes several experiments involving such metal complexes.
Soukup, Rudolf W.; Schmid, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 459.
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Lewis Acids / Bases
A different view of using titrimetric data  Castillo S., Carlos
Using titration data to obtain the dissociation constant of the acid under consideration.
Castillo S., Carlos J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 443.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Visualization of buffer action and the acidifying effect of CO2  Schonbeck, Niels D.
Includes a discussion of the physiological buffering of CO2 in the human body.
Schonbeck, Niels D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 436.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A simple demonstration of buffer action  Duerst, Marilyn D.
A simple yet impressive visual demonstration of buffer action.
Duerst, Marilyn D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 435.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Hydrogen bonded ionic species of salts of easily accessible acids and bases: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Chawla, B.; Chaudhry, Sarita
A physical-organic chemistry experiment on conductance behavior of H-bonded species of six salts of easily accessible, nitrogen-containing bases and halogenoacetic acids.
Chawla, B.; Chaudhry, Sarita J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 347.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Acids / Bases
Pre-chemistry acid rain activities for kids  Barrow, Lloyd H.
Two activities developed for middle school students: "What is my pH?" and "pH and Lemonade".
Barrow, Lloyd H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 339.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Buffer capacity of various acetic acid-sodium acetate systems: A lecture experiment  Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.
Uses indicators to illustrate the response of two buffers with the same initial pH value but differing buffer capacities.
Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 337.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Consumer applications of chemical principles: Drugs  Hill, John W.; Jones, Susan M.
Acid-base chemistry of drugs (nicotine, cocaine, and aspirin), general anesthesia (nitrous oxide, enflurane, isoflurane, halothane), local anesthetics (procaine, lidocaine, cocaine), and intravenous anesthetics (thiopental, ketamine hydrochloride, phencyclidine).
Hill, John W.; Jones, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 328.
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
Edible acid-base indicators  Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
15 natural indicators obtained from common fruits and vegetables.
Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products
Gelatin as a physically crosslinked elastomer  Henderson, G. V. S., Jr.; Campbell, D. O.; Kuzmicz, V.; Sperling, L. H.
An inexpensive way to count the hydrogen bonds in gelatin as a demonstration or experiment.
Henderson, G. V. S., Jr.; Campbell, D. O.; Kuzmicz, V.; Sperling, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 269.
Hydrogen Bonding
Acid rain analysis by standard addition titration  Ophardt, Charles E.
A simple standard addition titration method for determining the acidity of a rain or snow sample.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 257.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Colorblindness and titrations with visual indicators  Diehl, Harvey; Johnson, Dennis C.; Markuszewski, Richard; Moore, Robert M.
Discussion and investigation of the problem of colorblindness in determining the endpoints of titrations.
Diehl, Harvey; Johnson, Dennis C.; Markuszewski, Richard; Moore, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 255.
Minorities in Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Why isn't my rain as acidic as yours?  Zajicek, O. T.
Calculating of pH values of acid rain and comparisons to uncontaminated samples.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 158.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Periodicity in the acid-base behavior of oxides and hydroxides  Rich, Ronald L.
The aqueous solubilities of many important hydrous oxides and hydroxides are displayed, for various elements, as functions of pH.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 44.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The relative strength of oxyacids and its application  Monroe, Manus
A simple technique for predicting the relative strength of oxyacids and their anions among students unfamiliar with Ka and pKa.
Monroe, Manus J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 41.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Titrator, Review II (Dice, David D.)  Drake, Gordon P.
Program that allows the user to simulate the titration of either a strong or weak acid with a strong base.
Drake, Gordon P. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A273.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Titrator, Review I (Dice, David D.)  Hill, Sister Mary Mechtilde, RSM
Program that allows the user to simulate the titration of either a strong or weak acid with a strong base.
Hill, Sister Mary Mechtilde, RSM J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A273.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
An alternative method for the determination of pKa  Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario
Determining pKa from the titration curve of a weak acid or base.
Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1067.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A new meaning of the terms acid and base hydrolysis  Milic, Nikola B.
Suggestions for distinguishing between solvation, hydration, and solvolysis, and hydrolysis reactions that produce hydroxo and protonated complexes.
Milic, Nikola B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1066.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Paul Klee and the genesis of deltic and squaric acids  Serratosa, Felix
The mental process leading to the synthesis of deltic and squaric acids is essentially identical to that of the pathways leading to the genesis of the triangle and square as visualized by the painter Paul Klee.
Serratosa, Felix J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1035.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis
The preparation of acid-base titration curves  McClendon, Michael
A simple technique for generating mechanically plotted titration curves using an electron pH meter and a low-voltage chart recorder.
McClendon, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1022.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Hydrogen-ion dependence of reaction rates and mechanism  Gupta, K. S.; Gupta, Y. K.
Presents some of the most important kinds of hydrogen-ion dependence that a student of kinetics is likely to encounter.
Gupta, K. S.; Gupta, Y. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 972.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Acids / Bases
Why teach solution equilibrium?  Butler, James N.
What are the most important aspects of solution equilibrium to teach at the elementary level?
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
pH
To space or not to space- that is the question  Hurd, Charles D.
The use of spaces in the words "chloro acids" and "keto esters".
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 667.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
Using the protein alpha-helix in teaching  Van Woert, Howard C., Jr.
Application of the cited article in a molecular models laboratory.
Van Woert, Howard C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 565.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Hydrogen Bonding
Phototherapy and the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia: A demonstration of intra- versus intermolecular hydrogen bonding  Wilbraham, Antony C.
Chemistry of the degradation of the hemoglobin heme after the death of the red blood cell that holds it, and a demonstration to illustrate the effect of sunlight on this process.
Wilbraham, Antony C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 540.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
The useless tea kettle  Perkins, Robert
If a 2.5 L kettle contains 125 g of calcium carbonate (boiler scale), how many times would the kettle have to be filled with distilled water to remove all of the deposits given the Ksp of calcium carbonate?
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Cooking with chemistry  Grosser, Arthur E.
Two demonstrations involving cooking eggs and suggestions for many more examples of cooking that illustrate important principles of chemistry. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 362.
Food Science |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Nitric acid  Pannu, Sardul S.
History, occurrence, preparation, and properties of nitric acid.
Pannu, Sardul S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 174.
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties
The rainbow connection  Hutton, Bill
Demonstrates how the color of certain acid-base indicators can be influenced in a reversible manner by changes in pH.
Hutton, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 172.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments
An analogy for the leveling effect  Macomber, Roger S.
Analogy to help students understand the leveling effect of certain solvents.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 128.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The effect of neutral ions on acid-base balance  Poplin, Loyd E.
Illustrates errors regarding and clarifies the role of neutral ions in acid-base balance.
Poplin, Loyd E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 117.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The generalized Lewis acid-base theory: Surprising recent developments  Brewer, Leo
The author relates his introduction to a surprising application of Lewis' acid-base concepts while working on the Manhattan Project. From the symposium, "Gilbert Newton Lewis: 1875-1946", Las Vegas, 1982.
Brewer, Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 101.
Lewis Acids / Bases
The research style of Gilbert N. Lewis: Acids and bases  Seaborg, Glenn T.
The author relates his graduate research with Lewis regarding acids and bases. From the symposium, "Gilbert Newton Lewis: 1875-1946", Las Vegas, 1982.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 93.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases
The value of (pH) as a criterion for titrimetric differentiation between monobasic and polybasic acids in a mixed solvent  Tchapla, A.; Fabre, C.
Evaluating the value of (pH) as a criterion for titrimetric differentiation between monobasic and polybasic acids in a mixed solvent.
Tchapla, A.; Fabre, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1030.
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Symmetry properties of potentiometric titration curves  Macca, Carlo; Bombi, G. Giorgio
The authors show how one of the symmetry properties of titration curves can be efficiently and rigorously treated by means of a simple method, assisted by the use of logarithmic diagrams. The symmetry properties of several typical titration curves are discussed, comparing the graphical approach and an explicit mathematical treatment.
Macca, Carlo; Bombi, G. Giorgio J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1026.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
What is the boiling point and heat of vaporization of sulfuric acid?  Myers, R. Thomas
The relationship of common sense to chemical data.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1017.
Acids / Bases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A general chemistry demonstration: student observations and explanations  Silberman, Robert G.
As a result of teaching as research, this author discovers that few students achieve the intended objectives of in-class demonstrations.
Silberman, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 996.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction
A demonstration of an autocatalytic reaction   Maric, Dubravko; Strajnar, Franjo
A procedure for a demonstration of an autocatalytic reaction .
Maric, Dubravko; Strajnar, Franjo J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 994.
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases
Color oscillations in the formic acid-nitric acid-sulfuric acid system   Raw, C. J. G.; Kubik, J. P.; Tecklenburg, R. E.
The experimental procedure for producing color oscillations is outlined in this note.
Raw, C. J. G.; Kubik, J. P.; Tecklenburg, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 994.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Reactions
Letters to the editor.  Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, Jim
Comments about an acid and base calculation.
Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, Jim J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 912.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases
Another method for solving equations in acid-base calculations   Olivieri, Alejandro C.
The writer describes alternative calculations.
Olivieri, Alejandro C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 911.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases
Plotting titration curves using an Apple II Plus microcomputer   Meyer, Roger Joseph; Barone, Rene
44. Bits and pieces, 16. A program described here serves for checking the experimental results during the laboratory period.
Meyer, Roger Joseph; Barone, Rene J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 736.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Piaget learning-cycle laboratory approach to teaching descriptive inorganic chemistry  Wulfsberg, Gary
The recent neglect of descriptive chemistry has had adverse consequences for the coming generations of chemists. This author shares a laboratory approach that brings descriptive chemistry back into the curriculum and does so using the learning cycle.
Wulfsberg, Gary J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 725.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Metals |
Acids / Bases
A study on amino acids: synthesis of alpha-aminophenylacetic acid(phenylglycine) and determination of its isoelectric point  Barrelle, M.; Gaude, D.; Salon, M. C.
These authors are proposing a study on aminophenylacetic acid because a project concerning pharmaceutical or natural products is always attractive to students.
Barrelle, M.; Gaude, D.; Salon, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 676.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Natural Products |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Synthesis
The Apple pH meter  Behm, R. K.; Breneman, G. L.
42. Bits and pieces, 15. An inexpensive interface board and BASIC software have been developed to interface Apple II microcomputer to the recorder outputs of pH meters. The output is displayed as a replica of a standard pH meter face with moving needle on a large TV screen serving as a unique tool for demonstration of pH and pH meters for larger classrooms.
Behm, R. K.; Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 567.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Empirical pKb and pKa for nonmetal hydrides from periodic table position  Bayless, Philip L.
The equation in this article was developed by the author. It estimates the aqueous pKa for certain acids to an average deviation of 0.1pK unit for those with experimentally determined values and agrees with experimentally determined values, and as well as with estimates for those too weak or too strong to be measured.
Bayless, Philip L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 546.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
The photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid: an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P.
An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment in the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid.
Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 521.
Acids / Bases |
Photochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers
Determination of phosphoric acid in cola beverages: a colorimetric and pH titration experiment for general chemistry  Murphy, Joe
Two techniques are compared so that students gain an appreciation for the greater sensitivity and selectivity of colorimetric compared to titrimetric methods of analysis.
Murphy, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 420.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry
Molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide  Gigure, Paul A.
The typical textbook treatment of molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide, and the implications of these concepts for the physical properties of hydrogen peroxide tend to be oversimplified and inaccurate.
Gigure, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Hydrogen Bonding
Chlor-alkali technology  Venkatesh, S.; Tilak, B. V.
The aim of this paper is to review the chlor-alkali technology in terms of the electrochemical principles and the manufacturing processes. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Venkatesh, S.; Tilak, B. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 276.
Industrial Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The synthesis of 4,4'-di-tertbutyl biphenyl: a sophomore organic chemistry experiment  Horne, Deane A.
A brief note providing a sequence of experiments for an introductory organic course that is inexpensive and does not pose a health hazard.
Horne, Deane A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 246.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Catalysis |
Alkylation |
Solutions / Solvents
Reactions of phenolphthalein at various pH values  Wittke, Georg
A molecular structural illustration clarifies phenolphthalein's behavior as an indicator.
Wittke, Georg J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 239.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Preservation of mercury in polyethylene containers  Piccolino, Samuel Paul
A report on the effectiveness of 0.5% HNO3 with an oxidant to preserve samples for mercury analyses.
Piccolino, Samuel Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 235.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Free Radicals
Titration calculations- a problem-solving approach  Waddling, Robin E. L.
This author shares a strategy for helping students who might be struggling with understanding how to calculate and understand titration data.
Waddling, Robin E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 230.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Significance, concentration calculations, weak and strong acids   van Lubeck, H.
This note offers some suggestions for helping students better understand significant numbers when working with concentrations.
van Lubeck, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 189.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Sequential color reactions: School colors and a red-white-and-blue demonstration   Lambert, Jack L.; Chejlava, Michael J.; Fina, Gary T.; Luce, Nina L.
Many school colors can be generated using the directions for acid-base demonstrations in this article.
Lambert, Jack L.; Chejlava, Michael J.; Fina, Gary T.; Luce, Nina L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 141.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
A pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations   Guida, Wayne C.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A description of a pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations .
Guida, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 101.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Algorithms used for exact calculation of pH   Muha, G. M.
36. Bits and pieces, 13. A computer program contains algorithms used for exact calculation of pH.
Muha, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 49.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Clay minerals as solid acids and their catalytic properties: A demonstration test with montmorillonite  Helsen, J.
The catalytic power of clays (montmorillonites) and their applications to plant growth and use in brick making.
Helsen, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1063.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Applications of Chemistry
The chemical basis of emergency treatment for the ingestion of toxic alcohols  Breedlove, C. H.
The standard emergency medical treatment for ingestion of toxic alcohols and resultant acidosis offers a good illustration of acid-base chemistry in the body.
Breedlove, C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1031.
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Toxicology
Determination of hydration numbers by near infrared: Modification of an earlier approach  Jayne, Jerrol
An alternative set of assumptions is made about an earlier method for determining the spectroscopic hydration number of a solute by Bonner and Woolsey.
Jayne, Jerrol J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 882.
IR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Hydrogen Bonding
Richard Anschutz (1852-1937), Kekule's forgotten successor Part II: The work  Kauffman, George B.
In his mistaken attempt to prove that maleic and fumaric acids are structural rather than geometric isomers, Anschutz carried out much useful work not only on these compounds but also on many polybasic acids and their derivatives.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 745.
Carboxylic Acids |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Stoichiometric estimation of H0' and H_ values in concentrated aqueous solutions of strong acids and alkalis  Newton, David W.
Statistically validates equations for published H0' and H_ data that permit the precise stoichiometric preparation of aqueous dilutions of five strong acids and three alkali metal hydroxides.
Newton, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 641.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Reaction kinetics: An experiment for biochemistry and organic chemistry laboratories  Ewing, Sheila
Examines the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction.
Ewing, Sheila J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 606.
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
pH
Proposed terminology for intermolecular hydrogen bonds  Isenberg, Norbert
Suggests the use of homomolecular and heteromolecular to describe hydrogen bonds found among the same molecules and between different molecules.
Isenberg, Norbert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 547.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A colorful extraction experiment  Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D.
Separating differently colored organic compounds (azobenzene, benzoic acid, and m-nitroaniline).
Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
The negatively-charged nitrogen in ammonium ion and derived concepts of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics  Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F.
The concept of atomic charges is intimately related to those of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics; among the plethora of numbers derived by calculation and experiment lie simple and useful rules for the understanding and prediction of chemical behavior.
Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 367.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Hydrogen bonding and proton transfer  Joesten, Melvin D.
A review of the types of hydrogen bonds and discussion of the application of spectroscopic and diffraction methods to studies of moderate and strong hydrogen bonds.
Joesten, Melvin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 362.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
One-dimensional K2Pt(CN)4BrO 3H20. A structure containing five different types of bonding  Masuo, Steven T.; Miller, Joel S.; Gebert, Elizabeth; Reis, Arthur H., Jr.
Examples of the five types of bonding found in matter and there manifestations in the title compound.
Masuo, Steven T.; Miller, Joel S.; Gebert, Elizabeth; Reis, Arthur H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 361.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding
Entropy and equilibria: A reassessment of ionization data for substituted acetic acids  Edward, John T.
Investigating the effect of various substituents on the proton-transfer reaction of substituted acetic acids in the gas phase and in water.
Edward, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 354.
Thermodynamics |
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Gases
Buffers  Gold, Marvin
A demonstration based on buffer calculations.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
The construction of inexpensive digital pH meters  Warner, Brian D.; Boehme, Gerhard; Pool, Karl L.
Parts list and circuit diagram for a low-cost pH meter.
Warner, Brian D.; Boehme, Gerhard; Pool, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 65.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Lemon meringue pie  Smith, Douglas D.
The chemistry and physics of lemon meringue pie.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 60.
Gases |
Ionic Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Proteins / Peptides
A physical model to demonstrate acid-base conjugate pairs  Naylor, Robert W.
There seems to be a great deal of confusion among students over the relationship of the strength of a conjugate acid or base to its respective precursor. Using magnets, an extremely simple method of demonstrating that weak acids give strong bases and vice versa can be easily performed.
Naylor, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Acids / Bases
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Buffer pH in electrophoresis  Akers, Hugh A.
The question in this note is appropriate for an instrumental or biological chemistry course that deals with the theory of electrophoresis. It requires intellectual behavior at the applications level.
Akers, Hugh A. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1014.
pH |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
Amperometric determination of phenol bromination kinetics  Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O.
A laboratory that allows students to explore bromination substitution reactions as examples of important non-aqueous solution kinetics including the role of a catalyst, the relationship between rate laws and mechanisms, and acid-base properties.
Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 823.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions
More on effects controlling carboxylic acidity  Schwartz, Lowell M.
The objective of this paper is to show that experimental data gathered during the past decade offers future authors an escape from a dilemma: an explanation of relative acid strengths in the gas phase where, in the absence of solvent molecules, energetic factors, indeed, are controlling.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 778.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
On the preparation of buffer solutions  Thompson, Bruce M.; Kessick, Michael A.
The calculations in this paper are quite useful and of didactic value in that they are relatively straightforward and can be performed easily on many popular programmable calculators.
Thompson, Bruce M.; Kessick, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 743.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Base-catalyzed linkage isomerization: An undergraduate inorganic kinetics experiment  Jackson, W. G.; Lawrance, G. A.; Lay, P. A.; Sargeson, A. M.
An experiment which provides an inorganic kinetics laboratory for the undergraduate on base-catalyzed linage isomerizations.
Jackson, W. G.; Lawrance, G. A.; Lay, P. A.; Sargeson, A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 734.
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases
A continuous variation study of heats of neutralization  Mahoney, Dennis W.; Sweeney, Joyce A.; Davenport, Derek A.; Ramette, Richard W.
A laboratory experiment that examines a continuous variation study of heats of neutralization.
Mahoney, Dennis W.; Sweeney, Joyce A.; Davenport, Derek A.; Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 730.
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Buffer action of proteins   Hardcastle, J. E.
The demonstration presented here shows that a protein can neutralize both basic and acidic solutions.
Hardcastle, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 726.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A conductimetric-potentiometric titration for an advanced laboratory  Rosenthal, Lois C.; Nathan, Lawrence C.
The author describes an experiment for physical chemistry or instrumental analysis laboratory in which the titration of glycogen hydrochloric with standard sodium hydroxide is simultaneously followed with conductimetric and potentiometric measurements.
Rosenthal, Lois C.; Nathan, Lawrence C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 656.
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Theory and practical use of an hydrogen electrode in aqueous-organic media  Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R.
These authors make a case for a greater use of hydrogen electrodes for acidity measurements in student laboratory courses.
Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A white ammonia fountain  Cates, Charles R.; Moore, John T.
Red, white, and blue ammonia fountains are a stunning addition to chemistry magic shows.
Cates, Charles R.; Moore, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 498.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Acids / Bases
Textile chemistry for the artist  Butler, Sara; Malott, Sally
This paper will focus on the chemistry of fibers considered to be the most commonly used by artists.
Butler, Sara; Malott, Sally J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 295.
Applications of Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Metal ions in unusual valency states  Sellers, Robin M.
This paper is concerned with the formation of novel valency states, their characterization and chemical behavior.
Sellers, Robin M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 114.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
The "chemical fountain": An old experiment in a new setting  Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Silberstein, Judith
A new teaching sequence was developed for an introductory high school chemistry course. In this teaching sequence experiments are designed so as to capture student interest, enhance their motivation, and get them involved in the learning process.
Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Silberstein, Judith J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 68.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Acids / Bases
LaMaster's touch   LaMaster, Nancy
Some new and exciting ideas for demonstrations that can be performed in class.
LaMaster, Nancy J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 67.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Conferences |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Acids / Bases
An acid or a base?  Uriarte, Richard J.
Does a diluted acid remain acidic?
Uriarte, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 806.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Esters of some phosphorus acids: A laboratory experiment  Glidewell, Christopher; Pogorzelec, Peter J.
Introduces students two reactions in organophosphorus chemistry, the Azbuzov and Atherton-Todd reactions, and involves the use of infrared and 1H and 31P NMR spectra for the identification of the products.
Glidewell, Christopher; Pogorzelec, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 740.
Esters |
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Exploring chemistry for junior high students  Cohen, Sheldon H.
A five-session program entitled "Exploring Chemistry for Junior High Students."
Cohen, Sheldon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 723.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Dissociation of a weak acid  Ladd, M. F. C.
An earlier treatment of the equilibrium of a weak acid in water gives, for certain ranges of concentration, significantly incorrect results.
Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A Simple Method for Solving Cubic Equations in Acid-Base Calculations  Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.
8. Bits and pieces, 2.
Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 620.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases
Apple dunking  O'Connor, Rod
Question regarding the ratio between ions of p-nitrophenylhydrazone in reducing the pH of basic effluent.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 598.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH |
Industrial Chemistry
Bicarbonate in Alka-Seltzer: A general chemistry experiment  Peck, Larry; Irgolic, Kurt; O'Connor, Rod
Determining the percentage bicarbonate ion by mass in Alka-Seltzer.
Peck, Larry; Irgolic, Kurt; O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 517.
Quantitative Analysis |
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases
A simple demonstration of conformational equilibrium  Partridge, D. A.
The infrared spectra of solutions of pinacol in tetrachloromethane with different molarities are compared to identify the presence of intermolecular hydrogen-bonding.
Partridge, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 508.
Equilibrium |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy
Adolf von Baeyer and the naming of barbituric acid  Kauffman, George B.
Anecdotes regarding the naming of barbituric acid.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 222.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
"To sink or swim"  O'Connor, Rod
A problem regarding the maximum water hardness that can be permitted in a swimming pool if it is desired to avoid calcite formation given the carbonate ion concentration. [Debut]
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 151.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Strong and weak acids and bases  Deck, Joseph C.
The designations "strong" and "weak" are used in various ways, and often with respect to the same compound in different situations.
Deck, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 814.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The singly protonated structure of thiamine: Basicity of the heterocyclic nitrogen versus NH2 nitrogen  Panijpan, Bhinyo
138. Compares basicity of the ring nitrogen in four types of amino substituted N-heterocyclic compounds.
Panijpan, Bhinyo J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 805.
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Heterocycles |
Acids / Bases
Chemistry tutorial programs on display terminals  Heit, M.; Jones, W. E.; Wasson, John

Heit, M.; Jones, W. E.; Wasson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 787.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Hantzsch, Oddo, and the early cryoscopic work in sulfuric acid  Scorrano, Gianfranco; Walter, Wolfgang
Review of the work of Arthur Hantzsch and Giuseppe Otto in describing the processes occurring when an organic compound is dissolved in 100% sulfuric acid.
Scorrano, Gianfranco; Walter, Wolfgang J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 728.
Acids / Bases
Coupled phenomena in chemistry: Understanding of chemistry through Gibbs energy utilization  Nomura, Kazuo; Matsubara, Akira
Provides examples of coupled reactions and the utilization of Gibbs energy in a variety of chemical processes.
Nomura, Kazuo; Matsubara, Akira J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 718.
Thermodynamics |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium
Thermal buffers: An illustrative analogy  Macomber, Roger S.
An analogy between acid-base buffer behavior and the thermal behavior of a two-phase (solid and liquid) system.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 710.
Acids / Bases |
pH
An interpretive experiment in ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy  Burnier, R. C.; Freiser, B. S.
Provides the student with typical ICR spectra with directives aimed toward their interpretation and analysis as they apply to ion identification, ion-molecule reaction sequences, acid-base properties, kinetics, and thermochemistry.
Burnier, R. C.; Freiser, B. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 687.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The principles of flow injection analysis as demonstrated by three lab exercises  Hansen, E. H.; Ruzicka, J.
Determination of chloride in mixtures of seawater and fresh water; determination of phosphate; and the titration of strong acid with strong base.
Hansen, E. H.; Ruzicka, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 677.
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
"Invitation to enquiry": The calcite/acid reaction  Driscoll, D. R.
An experiment or demonstration in which calcite reacts very differently with HCl than H2SO4.
Driscoll, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 672.
Acids / Bases
The chemistry of cleaning  J. Chem Educ. Staff
The theory of detergency, soaps, and synthetic surfactants.
J. Chem Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 610.
Consumer Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Lipids |
Fatty Acids
The great fallacy of the H+ ion: And the true nature of H3O+  Giguere, Paul A.
The hydronium ion is as real as its counterpart, the hydroxide ion.
Giguere, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 571.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An acid can be basic  MCA staff
The uses and production of sulfuric acid.
MCA staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 529.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Pepsin and antacid therapy: A dilemma  Laswick, Patty H.; Batson, W. Brayton
Illustrates some areas of uncertainty in the current literature regarding the mechanism of digestion and presents an experiment that is more consistent with current biochemical research.
Laswick, Patty H.; Batson, W. Brayton J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 484.
Consumer Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Nonmajor Courses
The barium hydroxide ammonium thiocyanate reaction: A titrimetric continuous variations experiment  Harris, Arlo D.
Experiment that uses acid-base titrimetry to study the stoichiometry of a novel solid state reaction.
Harris, Arlo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 477.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Solid State Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Antacids as an extension to neutralization  Smith, Douglas D.
Examines a number of antacids for their suitability for use in studying acid-base behavior in the laboratory.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 338.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry
Antacids as an extension to neutralization  Smith, Douglas D.
Examines a number of antacids for their suitability for use in studying acid-base behavior in the laboratory.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 338.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry
Determination of hydration numbers by near infrared: An advanced undergraduate experiment  Hollenberg, J. Leland
Improvements over a procedure presented earlier in the Journal.
Hollenberg, J. Leland J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 278.
IR Spectroscopy |
Hydrogen Bonding
Equilibration time in adsorption studies  Wood, J. A.
A convenient instrumental method for obtaining an equilibration time the adsorption of an acid onto a solid involves following the pH change of the acid solution with time; this method could be applied to many other simple systems.
Wood, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 277.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Acid-base half-reactions - A useful formalism for review lessons  Atkinson, G. F.
An effective way to draw analogies between acid-base and redox effects while reviewing both.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Titration curve for a programmable pocket calculator  Williams, Howard P.
A titration curve program written for a TI-58 or TI-59 programmable pocket calculator.
Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 237.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A nonaqueous conductimetric titration for the analysis of alkaloids in cigarette tobacco  Brand, M. J.; Hiller, J. M.; Mohan, M. S.
A conductimetric titration in glacial acetic acid is used to determine total alkaloids in cigarette tobacco.
Brand, M. J.; Hiller, J. M.; Mohan, M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 207.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Comparison of strong acid and weak acid titration curves  Schultz, C. W.; Spannuth, S. L.
Allows comparison of mechanically reproduced titration curves of strong acid and one or more weak acids versus strong base on the same piece of paper.
Schultz, C. W.; Spannuth, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 194.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
pH
The pH concept  Kolb, Doris
Reviews pH, the pH scale, pH calculations, buffered solutions, and measuring pH.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 49.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Buffer effect demonstration on the overhead projector  Hobe, Paul G., Jr.
Illustrates that one drop of dilute acid or base will change the pH of water by a large amount while larger amounts can be added to a buffer solution before any change is noted.
Hobe, Paul G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 47.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Double scales for equilibria  Chaston, S. H. H.
The acid / base, oxidant / reductant, and solid / solute scales described here can be used as visual representations of equilibria expressions.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 24.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
p-Carboxystyrene. A Wittig procedure in aqueous medium  Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc
In this paper, the authors present a student preparation of p-carboxyl group, as it makes the reaction product soluble in alkaline and insoluble in acid medium, provides for an easy way of separation.
Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Separation Science
Old business  Smith, Douglas D.

Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 735.
Acids / Bases |
Toxicology
Old business  Smith, Douglas D.

Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 735.
Acids / Bases |
Toxicology
Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of starch   Blackman, David.
This demonstration is easy for an audience to see clearly in a large room.
Blackman, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 722.
Acids / Bases
A Versatile kinetics demonstration  Ruda, Paul T.
The oxidation of tartaric acid by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of cobalt chloride catalyst provides a reaction that can be used in a variety of kinetics demonstrations.
Ruda, Paul T. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 652.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Catalysis
Principles in bioinorganic chemistry. Basic inorganic exercises  Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro
The biochemical roles played by essential inorganic elements and compounds are 1) structural, 2) carrying and transporting electrons and oxygen, 3) catalytic roles in oxidation-reduction reactions, and 4) catalytic roles in acid-base and other reactions.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 631.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Biophysical Chemistry
Intuitive and general approach to acid-base equilibrium calculations  Felty, Wayne L.
The purpose of this paper is to show that the usual intuitive approach used in general chemistry can be readily extended without introduction of additional, sophisticated concepts to give the general, exact expression and to point out the pedagogical advantage of its use.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Explanation of the permutation of the sigma p and pi levels in homonuclear diatomic molecules  Henri-Rousseau, Oliver; Boulil, Belkacme
The authors propose an explanation using the linear combination of bonding orbitals method, which allows an intuitive understanding of transformation of diagram I into diagram II.
Henri-Rousseau, Oliver; Boulil, Belkacme J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 571.
MO Theory |
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
How the chemists got their scents   Lippincott, W.T.
An amusing parable about the legacy of chemists.
Lippincott, W.T. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 477.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Acids / Bases
Synthesis of chrysanthemic acid: A multistep organic synthesis for undergraduate students  Schatz, Paul F.
This laboratory is geared toward intermediate organic chemistry laboratory courses that will acquaint students, predominantly chemistry majors, with the strategies and techniques in carrying out a multistep synthesis.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 468.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
Acids and Bases  Kolb, Doris
Students develop a number of misconceptions about the nature of acids and bases. This article reviews the earliest ideas about acids and bases; Lavoisier's oxygen theory; Liebig's hydrogen theory; dualistic theory of Berzelius; Arrhenius theory of ionization; Franklin's ammonia solvent system; Bronsted's proton theory; solvent- system theory; positive-negative theory; electronic theory of Lewis; current definitions of "acid" and "base"; aluminum chloride as a Lewis Acid; relative strength of acids and bases; hard and soft acids and bases.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 459.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Conjugate acid-base mixtures in the general chemistry laboratory. A comprehensive buffer experiment  Wiger, George R.; de la Camp, Ulrich
A very exact and detailed procedure for a comprehensive buffer experiment is presented in this paper.
Wiger, George R.; de la Camp, Ulrich J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 401.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Chemical predictions from pKa values  Hassanali, A.
The problem presented here develops student understanding of both pKa calculations and organic acids.
Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 378.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Teaching the method of successive approximations  Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R.
The purpose of this papers is to help the teacher show the student why basic methods of successive approximations work, how they may be applied, and under what conditions it will be successful.
Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 376.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Analysis of some synthetic reactions by the HSAB principle  Ho, Tse-Lok
The specificity and efficiency of reactions often have been left unexplained. Addressing these deficiencies, we delineate an empirical analysis of a selected number of synthetic reactions based on the hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) principle.
Ho, Tse-Lok J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 355.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters
Preliminary evaluation of a video program on pH calculations  Monroe, Manus B.
This paper evaluates a 35 minute program titled "Acids and Bases/ pH calculations" designed for students with little or no knowledge of pH calculations.
Monroe, Manus B. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 316.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Stoichiometry
A general potentiometric titration curve computer program  Breneman, G. L.
A program has been written in Basic to plot potentiometric titration curves for a variety of situations.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 246.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction
Acid-base reactions in the gaseous state (an illustrative experiment)   Corso, C. R.; De Oliveira, J. E.
Instructions for a simple method that demonstrates acid-base reactions in the gaseous state.
Corso, C. R.; De Oliveira, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 244.
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Simple method for producing giant scoreboard-like digital displays  Henry, Douglas R.
The authors have successfully used the technique described here with a number of circuits.
Henry, Douglas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 242.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Svante Arrhenius: An early prophet of the energy crisis  Moseley, Charles G.
Arrhenius prognosticated the energy crises facing Americans in the 1970's in his publications of the 1920's.
Moseley, Charles G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 193.
Green Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
Plant pigments as acid-base indicators - An exercise for the junior high school  Forster, Mary
A description of an activity that could help students understand how natural products could be effective acid-base indicators.
Forster, Mary J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 107.
Acids / Bases |
Natural Products |
pH
Unified calculation of titration curves  Stairs, Robert A.
A method of calculation is presented that the author hopes will supplement the traditional methods based on appropriate approximations.
Stairs, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 99.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
pH
General base catalyzed enolization of acetone. An undergraduate kinetics experiment  Waddington, Mark D.; Meany, J. E.
The experiment described below is suitable for students of organic or physical chemistry and requires a minimum of laboratory equipment.
Waddington, Mark D.; Meany, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 60.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy
Derivatives of oxo acids III. Functional derivatives  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
The authors consider some general aspects of nomenclature for the so-called functional derivatives of the inorganic oxo acids.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 30.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Acid phosphatase characterization: An undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment  Adams, Gerald S.; Towers, Craig V.
By systematically varying the general assaying procedure, students can observe reaction velocity as a function of enzyme concentration, reaction velocity as a function of pH, enzyme activity as a function of temperature, and reaction velocity as a function of substrate concentration.
Adams, Gerald S.; Towers, Craig V. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 780.
Acids / Bases |
Rate Law |
Enzymes |
pH
Great E & C plot. Graphical display of the enthalpies of adduct formation for Lewis acids and bases  Cramer, Roger E.; Bopp, Thomas T.
E and C numbers are plotted to allow comparisons in determining acidic strength.
Cramer, Roger E.; Bopp, Thomas T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 612.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Coordination Compounds
Derivatives of oxo acids II. Insertion or infix nomenclature (the Drake Report)  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Considers the general pattern for naming acids containing phosphorus; also examines the systematic nomenclature for new elements.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 610.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
An aid to teaching weak acids and bases  Kennedy, David E. B.
A visual aid in helping students understand equilibrium concepts related to weak acids and bases.
Kennedy, David E. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 550.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Quality levels and the Brønsted theory  Bank, Evelyn
Maintaining standards for a diversity of students and teaching hydrolysis with the Bronsted-Lowry theory. [Debut]
Bank, Evelyn J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 548.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Molecular weight determination of weak acids  Wilson, Stephen A.; Weber, James H.
The use of virial equations for the calculation of molecular weights of weak acids from colligative property experiments.
Wilson, Stephen A.; Weber, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 513.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Organic derivatives of oxo acids II. Acids, salts, and esters of Groups IIIA-IVA elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Considers the nomenclature of acids, salts, and esters of groups IIIA-VA elements.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 509.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
Belousov's oscillating reaction in acid medium other than sulfuric acid  Mishra, H. C.; Singh, C. M.
Reports of the existence of oscillatory phenomenon in the Mn+2 catalyzed reaction between citric acid and potassium bromate in phosphoric and nitric acids.
Mishra, H. C.; Singh, C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 377.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Adapting a pH meter for lecture demonstrations: Construction of an auxiliary scale for overhead projectors  Stanko, Joseph A.; Haas, Charles G.; Lotz, John R.
A pH meter adopted for display on an overhead.
Stanko, Joseph A.; Haas, Charles G.; Lotz, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 365.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Exact equation for calculating titration curves for dibasic salts  Knudson, George E.; Nimrod, Dale
A computer program that calculates titration curves for dibasic salts.
Knudson, George E.; Nimrod, Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 351.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Calculation of potentiometric titration curves. The master variable concept  Still, Ebbe; Sara, Rolf
Provides compact algorithms for the calculation of some potentiometric titration curves.
Still, Ebbe; Sara, Rolf J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 348.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
The effects of HCl and aspirin on the stomach: An equilibrium review  DeLorenzo, Ronald
The chemical effect and medical implications of taking aspirin.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 306.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Organic derivatives of oxo acids. Part I. Acids, salts, and esters of group VIA elements / Knowledge is ready cash  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Nomenclature of organic derivatives of oxo acids and their salts and esters that are derived from the polybasic acids of the nonmetallic elements of Group IIIA through Group VIA.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 299.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
Simplified molecular model of t-RNA for use as a teaching aid  Dugas, Hermann
An easily constructed model of t-RNA.
Dugas, Hermann J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 298.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Hydrogen Bonding
On deducing the pK-temperature equation  Ramette, R. W.
Develops the Ives-Moseley method for obtaining the coefficients necessary for the pK-temperature equation.
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 280.
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Hydrogen bonding and heat of solution  Friedman, Norman
An experiment that clearly illustrates the role of hydrogen bond formation and its effect on the heat of solution.
Friedman, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 248.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Effect of Ionic Strength on Equilibrium Constants  Seymour, M. D.; Fernando, Quintus
Involves the determination of the acid dissociation constant of bromcresol green by a spectrophotometric method; using a graphing calculator, each student can perform the laboratory work and obtain his own data set.
Seymour, M. D.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
pH
Chemistry for electrical engineers  Demetriou, B.; Parsonage, J. R.
Course structure and oral assessment in a chemistry for electrical engineers.
Demetriou, B.; Parsonage, J. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 221.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry
Visual aid for acid-base concepts  Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A.
Three plots that the authors have found particularly useful in concisely illustrating a number of acid-base concepts relating to buffer capacity and acid-base titrations.
Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Computer simulation of acid-base behavior  Hefter, Jesse; Zuehlke, Richard W.
Simulates the spectrophotometric determination of the pK of an acid-base indicator.
Hefter, Jesse; Zuehlke, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 63.
Acids / Bases
Flashy solutions  Riley, John T.
Demonstrations using universal indicator.
Riley, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
A general method for the solution of polynomial equations in H+ ion concentration  Brand, M. J. D.
The authors present an approach to acid-base equilibriua which provides a rapid means of finding solutions to problems which can be tedious in all but the simplest cases.
Brand, M. J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 771.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
pH
Strength of hydrohalogenic acids  Pauling, Linus
A recent paper has been published on the strength of hydrohalogenic acids that the author disagrees with. Pauling refers to a 1956 paper that provided a more accurate analysis.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 762.
Thermodynamics |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Separation of an APC mixture. A quantitative analysis experiment  Haddad, Paul; Rasmussen, Malcolm
In this paper the well known technique of pH, controlled extractive separation of a mixture of an acidic, basic, and neutral organic substance has been applied to separation and analysis of a mixture of the drugs aspirin, caffeine, and phenacetin.
Haddad, Paul; Rasmussen, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 731.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
A multifaceted experiment for quantitative analysis. Back titration, hydroxide determination, and selection of an indicator  Kalbus, L. H.; Petrucci, R. H.; Kalbus, G. E.
In the experiment described here, students are presented with the problem of selecting a suitable indicator for the determination of the hydroxide in basic copper chromate.
Kalbus, L. H.; Petrucci, R. H.; Kalbus, G. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 719.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The use of log-log plots in the determination of reaction orders  Birk, James P.
The author describes the use of log-log plots in the determination of reaction orders.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 704.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases
The carbon electrode in potentiometric titrations  Natarajan, M.; Ramasubramanian, A.
The use of the carbon electrode in place of the conventional platinum electrode and quinhydrone electrode offers an attractive alternative in certain types of potentiometric work and the present article is a report of their authors study of the effectiveness of carbon electrode in redox and acid-base titrimetry.
Natarajan, M.; Ramasubramanian, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 663.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry
An Effective demonstration of the behavior of indicators and biochemicals in buffers   Lerman, Charles L.
The author has found this demonstration of buffers useful for both freshman level courses and as a refresher in biochemistry.
Lerman, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 634.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Planning a kinetic and mechanistic study with cerium (IV)  Hanna, Samir B.; Kessler, Robert R.; Merbach, Andre; Ruzicka, Steve
In this paper, the authors will describe an acidic sulfate medium in which various concentrations of the possible Ce(IV) species can be prescribed. Secondly, they present the computations-based on simultaneous solutions of various equilibrium of the concentration distributed of the sulfato and hydroxo species of Ce(IV). Lastly, the optimum planning of a kinetic study of a Ce(IV)-reductant system, based on the quantitative description of the medium is suggested.
Hanna, Samir B.; Kessler, Robert R.; Merbach, Andre; Ruzicka, Steve J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 524.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
Evaluation of acid-base indicator constants using a limited pH range  Lai, S. T. F.; Burkhart, R. D.
The authors present an experimentally based approach for determining K which does not require that individual e values be known.
Lai, S. T. F.; Burkhart, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 500.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy
A criterion for the simple approximation in dissociation equilibria  Leffler, Amos J.
The author demonstrates quantitative criterion for the assumption that permits the neglect of the amount of dissociated species in the denominator of the dissociation equation.
Leffler, Amos J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 460.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
An answer to Dr. Joseph Priestley's considerations on the doctrine of phlogiston.  Woodhouse, James; Beer, John J.
This is an edited version of the public pronouncement of James Woodhouse against Priestley's views on combustion.
Woodhouse, James; Beer, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 414.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
An advanced laboratory experiment in bioinorganic chemistry  Beckmann, B. A.; Buchman, A.; Pasternack, R. F.; Reinprecht, J. T.; Vogel, G. C.
In this article, the authors describe two experiments involving porphyrin materials which they use in a junior level laboratory.
Beckmann, B. A.; Buchman, A.; Pasternack, R. F.; Reinprecht, J. T.; Vogel, G. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 387.
Solutions / Solvents |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Acids / Bases |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Renaissance of concern with the nascent condition  Bauer, S. H.
The author argues that it is time to restore the term "nascent" to legitimacy.
Bauer, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 372.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases
Compact compact  Solomon, Joseph A.
A contributor offers a procedure for rapid and safe preparation of dilute sulfuric acid.
Solomon, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 370.
Acids / Bases
The use of electron balance in ionic equilibrium calculations  Machado, A. A. S. C.
It is the purpose of this note to show the primary importance of the electron balance condition in ionic oxidation-reduction equilibrium and how to use the formal similarity of oxidation-reduction reactions to Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reactions to express that condition.
Machado, A. A. S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 305.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Imidazole - Versatile today, prominent tomorrow  Matuszak, C. A.; Matuszak, A. J.
Imidazole chemistry has pedagogical utility for all the organic chemistry students pursing careers in the life sciences.
Matuszak, C. A.; Matuszak, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 280.
Grignard Reagents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Phenols |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Hydrogen Bonding
Experiments in alchemy. Part II: Medieval discoveries and "transmutations"  Schwartz, A. Truman; Kauffman, George B.
The authors consider a number of medieval discoveries from the heyday of alchemy: Greek fire, gunpowder sulfurous water, distillation, acids, bases, lead acetate, transmutations, slug gold, Tiffereau's gold, and "Spanish gold."
Schwartz, A. Truman; Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 235.
Metals |
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
Bond valence theory: Part II, Examples   Brown, I. D.
Silica; water and the hydrogen bond.
Brown, I. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 231.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Buffer action with precise pH monitoring   Felty, Wayne L.
A demonstration that illustrates the interactions of weak and strong acids in buffers.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 229.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Weak and strong acids and buffers   Ophardt, Charles E.
A demonstration that illustrates the interactions of weak and strong acids in buffers.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 229.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A buffer solution and its action   Chang, James C.
A demonstration of a buffer solution and its action.
Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 228.
Acids / Bases |
pH
pH change analogy   Boschmann, Erwin
A visual analogy can be used to help students understanding pH change.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 228.
pH |
Acids / Bases
On calculating [H+]  Burke, John D.
The nature of specific acids is better understood only through calculating [H+].
Burke, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 79.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Trends in the acidities of some binary hydrides in aqueous solution  Lessley, Sim D.; Ragsdale, Ronald O.
This paper presents a thermochemical treatment of a series of binary hydrides in aqueous solution.
Lessley, Sim D.; Ragsdale, Ronald O. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 19.
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Acids / Bases
Compact compacts  Evilia, R. F.
The referenced method requires unrealistically accurate pH measurements to yield acceptable results.
Evilia, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 806.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Non-covalent interactions: Key to biological flexibility and specificity  Frieden, Earl
Summarizes the types of non-covalent interactions found among biomolecules and how they facilitate the function of antibodies, hormones, and hemoglobin.
Frieden, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 754.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Hormones
A new buffer demonstration  Friedman, Norman
An Alka-Seltzer tablet in water is used as a buffer system and its resistance to changes in pH are compared to solutions of buffered aspirin and aspirin.
Friedman, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 605.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry
The Del Mod approach to continuing education for high school teachers  Anderson, Wayne P.; Wood, Verne E.
An inservice program is more likely to be successful if the teachers are encouraged to help select activities that are to be offered.
Anderson, Wayne P.; Wood, Verne E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 604.
Professional Development |
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry
Oil formation. An "unexpected" difficulty in an elementary organic laboratory experiment  Lewis, Dennis A.
A chemical extraction experiment that involves the separation of an unknown solid organic acid (a substituted benzoic acid) and an unknown solid organic base requires students to adjust to an "unexpected" situation.
Lewis, Dennis A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 601.
Acids / Bases
Collision and transition state theory approaches to acid-base catalysis  Dunford, H. B.
Shows that the description of acid-catalyzed chemical reactions in terms of transition state acid dissociation constants is formally equivalent to the collision theory approach, in which dissociation constants of acid groups on initial reactants are utilized.
Dunford, H. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 578.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Protective cover for glass electrodes  DeWitt, H. D.
Slipping a piece of perforated vinyl tubing over the end of a glass electrode.
DeWitt, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 498.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Demonstrations for high school chemistry  Castka, Joseph F.
A sequence of demonstrations that may serve to initiate and maintain student interest in the development of acid-base theories and bond strength.
Castka, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 394.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Modification of a constant flow buret  Sturtevant, Floyd; Hartman, Kenneth
Modification and testing of an earlier presented design for of a constant flow buret.
Sturtevant, Floyd; Hartman, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 393.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Physicochemical properties of antacids  Hem, Stanley L.
An experiment to demonstrate the acid neutralizing reaction of sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide gel.
Hem, Stanley L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 383.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Computer simulated titration curves  Wilson, C. E.
Three computer programs for generating theoretical titration curves.
Wilson, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 344.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
180-183. Four biochemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 241.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Photochemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
A comparison of base strengths using visual and EMF observations  Campbell, J. A.
A series of sequentially added dilute aqueous solutions whose changes provide evidence for different degrees of dissociation of a series and complexes.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 185.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
A computer program for the analysis of titration data  Scholler, D. M.; Lyndrup, M. L.
A computer program to analyze titration data for monoprotic and diprotic acids.
Scholler, D. M.; Lyndrup, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 106.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Perchloric acid digestion without a perchloric hood   Griffin, H. G.; Hocking, M. B.
This article focuses on a safe perchloric disposal method.
Griffin, H. G.; Hocking, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, A289.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A general acid-base titration curve computer program  Breneman, G. L.
A Fortran program has been developed that will plot on a line printer the titration curve for the titration of any acid or base with up to eight dissociation constants.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 812.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Two basic programs for plotting theoretical neutralization titration curves  Ellison, Herbert R.
The authors have written two Basic programs for plotting the results of pH calculations of neutralization titrations of weak acids and strong base.
Ellison, Herbert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 738.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Why not CH3COOH rather than HCI in benzene?  Samworth, Eleanor A.
There is an experiment noted here designed to show that a nonpolar solvent is not an ionizing medium and that water is a better solvent for small polar molecules than benzene and that hydrochloric acid is already an aqueous solution.
Samworth, Eleanor A. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 722.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Theoretical shape of acid-base titration curves without using logarithms   Vennos, Mary S.
This presentation of the acid-base titration curve relates to interests students in paramedical careers might have.
Vennos, Mary S. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 631.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Nonmajor Courses
The determination of ascorbic acid: A quantitative analysis experiment  Bailey, David N.
This paper describes an experimental determination of ascorbic acid using a sample which is easily prepared and analyzed, and sufficiently stable to be suitable for use as an unknown in the quantitatively oxidized by iodine in acid solution.
Bailey, David N. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 488.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
A program to determine pK's from spectrophotometric data  Palma, Robert J., Sr.; Meux, John W.
The writers describe a computer program that has been written to calculate the pKa's of very weak monoprotic acids.
Palma, Robert J., Sr.; Meux, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 448.
pH |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Preparation of succinct acid from maleic anhydride: A simple organic laboratory reduction  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Pacey, Gilbert E.
In the experiment described in this paper reduction is accompanied in good yield using readily available chemicals and simple equipment in a short experiment.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Pacey, Gilbert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 345.
Acids / Bases
Preparative reduction of benzil: Use of a polarographic analyzer and simple current booster  Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J.
The authors report a simple laboratory experiment which demonstrates some of the preparative and mechanistic electrochemistry of ketones in acid solution. The also describe a simple and inexpensive apparatus for preparative scale electrochemistry.
Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 343.
Electrochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A modern approach to acid-base chemistry  Drago, Russell S.
The author addresses a common criticism to undergraduate inorganic chemistry: namely that there are relatively few underlying concepts that tie descriptive chemistry together. The author describes a laboratory activity that can be performed that provides an illustration of one such concept.
Drago, Russell S. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 300.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry
Determination of p-aminobenzoic acid in urine: A student laboratory experiment  Gammans, Richard E.; Stewart, James T.
Knowledge of scientific literature reveals the increasing prominence of the application of analytical techniques to the determination of drugs in biological fluids, yet few experiments are designed for students interested in drug analysis. This article describes such an experiment.
Gammans, Richard E.; Stewart, James T. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 275.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Lecture demonstrations in kinetics relevant to the biology student  Pederson, Dennis M.
A large number of students taking chemistry courses today have, as their goal, a career in biologically related fields. It is thus not surprising that one often hears the question: Why do I need to know this? This is especially common in an area like chemical kinetics, where the reactions examined usually involved simple gaseous molecules while those of much more interest to the biology student are often ignored or only given cursory treatment.
Pederson, Dennis M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 268.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Linear plots in the determination of microscopic dissociation constants  Fung, Ho-Leung; Cheng, Lawrence
Materials presented in this report may be incorporated in a biochemistry course while discussing the physical properties of amino acids, or into a physical chemistry course in which solution and pKa measurements are discussed. The experiment described here also gives the students an appreciation of the application and limitations of data treatment using graphical techniques.
Fung, Ho-Leung; Cheng, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 106.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Amino Acids
A crossed aldol condensation for the undergraduate laboratory  Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E.
This two-step experiment for undergraduate organic chemistry students illustrates three basic ideas: organic chemistry students illustrate three basic ideas (1) crossed aldol condensation; (2) the acidity of benzylic hydrogen in hydrocarbons; and (3) reduction of a double bond in hydride transfer.
Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 64.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Functional derivatives of inorganic acids  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
The IUPAC Commission sees no reason for retaining the name "nitrile" in purely inorganic names.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 43.
Acids / Bases
Teaching the facts of chemistry  Kosolapoff, G. M.
Inconceivable student response to a question on basic chemistry.
Kosolapoff, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 728.
Acids / Bases
Nitric acid in rain water  Gleason, Geoffrey I.
This trace analysis experiment is based on the conversion of nitrate to nitrite using a cadmium amalgam reductor column.
Gleason, Geoffrey I. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 718.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
A simplified undergraduate calorimetry experiment  Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M.
A glass calorimeter for determining ?H for the neutralization of a strong acid with a strong base.
Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 637.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A nonaqueous gravimetric titration. Determination of 8-hydroxyquinoline with p-toluenesulfonic acid in acetonitrile  Kratochvil, B.; Findlay, E. J.; Harris, W. E.
This experiment demonstrates the techniques of gravimetric titrimetry and photometric end-point detection.
Kratochvil, B.; Findlay, E. J.; Harris, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 629.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Photochemistry
Estimating equilibrium constants  Harrington, Ernest C.
This demonstration allows the class to compare hydrochloric and acetic acid quantitatively and actually determine the ionization constant of acetic acid using a standard classroom conductivity apparatus.
Harrington, Ernest C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 549.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
A graphical-analytical iterative procedure for equivalence point determinations  Sellers, Neal G.; Caruso, Joseph A.
An iterative approach has been developed that combines graphical measurements with analytical calculations to give an exact potentiometric endpoint irrespective of the stoichiometry of the reaction and magnitude of the associated equilibrium constants.
Sellers, Neal G.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 547.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Experimental determination of pKa values by use of NMR chemical shift  Handloser, Carolyn S.; Chakrabarty, M. R.; Mosher, Melvyn W.
A new technique for the determination of the pKa of a heterocyclic base using NMR spectrometry.
Handloser, Carolyn S.; Chakrabarty, M. R.; Mosher, Melvyn W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 510.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases |
Heterocycles |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Four questions requiring an application of chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 498.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Acids / Bases
A questionable method of distinguishing maleic and fumaric acids  Noldan, Lawrence R.; Pollard, Bruce
Fumaric acid causes no change in the blue color of ditto print, but maleic acid turns it a bright green.
Noldan, Lawrence R.; Pollard, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 457.
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Lewis acid-base equilibria. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Brice, L. K.
Describes an experiment involving the spectrophotometric determination of formation constants of Lewis adducts formed between metal halides and organic bases in diethyl ether as a solvent.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 430.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
Derivatives of oxo acids. IUPAC Publications on Nomenclature. Other International Reports. SI Units  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes the nomenclature of oxo acid derivatives.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 341.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
A simple, effective demonstration of titration curves and indicator selection  Nathan, Lawrence C.
The concepts of acid-base titration curves and selection of the appropriate indicator for an acid-base titration can be easily and effectively demonstrated by use of a potentiometric titration.
Nathan, Lawrence C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 262.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis
The aspirin project. Laboratory experiments for introductory chemistry  Brown, David B.; Friedman, Lawrence B.
This laboratory project involves the synthesis, characterization, and study of some reactions of acetylsalicylic acid, and the comparison of acetylsalicylic acid with the major components of various commercial brands of aspirin tablets.
Brown, David B.; Friedman, Lawrence B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 214.
Constitutional Isomers |
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Conjugate acid-base and redox theory  Pacer, Richard A.
Consideration of relative oxidizing / reducing strength would be greatly facilitated if this topic were presented in terms of transfer of one or more electrons between members of a conjugate redox pair.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 178.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Experimental observation of pH 7  Arnott, Robert A.; Bratton, W. Kevin; Post, Elroy W.; Propp, Jacob H.
The authors obtained results that differed significantly from those published in the referenced article.
Arnott, Robert A.; Bratton, W. Kevin; Post, Elroy W.; Propp, Jacob H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 158.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents
Oxoacids and their salts  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Reviews the conventions for naming oxoacids and their salts.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 123.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Extraction of acid with aqueous base  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This is a visual demonstration of the principle that acidic organic substances can be extracted from an organic solvent via conversion to a salt, and the latter extracted from the aqueous solution via reconversion to the acid form.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A694.
Acids / Bases
The difference in oxidizing strength of dilute and concentrated nitric acid  Glasoe, Paul K.
H2S gas is bubbled through dilute and concentrated HNO3.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A644.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Safe handling of the perchloric acid in the laboratory  Muse, Lowell A.
Following a perchloric acid explosion at the University of Georgia, a practical set of recommendations for the safe handling and storage of perchloric acid was developed.
Muse, Lowell A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A463.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Great affinity of ammonia for water  Chen, Philip S.
Demonstrates the great affinity of ammonia for water.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A267.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding
Hydrogen bonding (Vinogradov, Serge N.; Linnell, Robert H.)  Ibers, James A.

Ibers, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A102.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Modern theory of acids and bases (Pearson, Ralph G.)  Daly, John M.

Daly, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A44.
Acids / Bases
pH range -47 to +47?  Pilar, Frank L.
The author of the cited article corrects a mistake in his original manuscript.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 851.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Preparation of solutions in the pH range of approximately -47 to +47  Pilar, Frank L.
By adding more and more water to an acidic solution, one can produce as high a pH as desired.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 776.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Caffeine and benzoic acid in soft drinks  Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A.
Simple procedures for isolating caffeine and benzoic acid from commercial soft drinks.
Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 708.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry
N-acetylanthranilic acid. A highly triboluminescent material  Erikson, John
The triboluminescence of N-acetylanthranilic acid adds intrigue to its synthesis.
Erikson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 688.
Acids / Bases |
Photochemistry |
Synthesis
Polybasic weak acids indistinguishable from monobasic ones by acid-base titrimetry  Meites, Louis
Presents a general equation describing the statistical ratio of the ith an (i + 1)th dissociation constants of a j-basic acid and shows that any such acid whose dissociation constants conform to those ratios will give a titration curve indistinguishable from that obtained for a monobasic acid at an appropriate concentration.
Meites, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 682.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The vegetable chameleons  Heines, Virginia
Summarizes the work by Tswett with natural and artificial anthocyanins, as well as subsequent efforts.
Heines, Virginia J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 605.
Plant Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds
An interactive program for teaching pH and logarithms  Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J.
A computer program written in APL for teaching students logarithms and pH calculations.
Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 571.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
The dissociation constant of HF. An undergraduate experiment with the lanthanum fluoride ion selective electrode  Covington, A. K.; Thain, Jennifer M.
A procedure for measuring the dissociation constant of HF with the lanthanum fluoride ion selective electrode.
Covington, A. K.; Thain, Jennifer M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 554.
Acids / Bases |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Acid dissociation constant of the ammonium ion using the glass electrode. An undergraduate experiment  Covington, A. K.; Caudle, J.
This experiment illustrates a number of important principles about the use of glass electrodes and the thermodynamics of electrochemical cells.
Covington, A. K.; Caudle, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 552.
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Using silica to demonstrate hydrogen bonding  Most, Clark, Jr.
The efficiency of a multitude of hydrogen bonds can be demonstrated by comparing the fluid character of mineral oil to the more solid character of the same oil to which has been added a small amount of finely divided silica.
Most, Clark, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 419.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Prediction of periodic acid oxidation products  Blackman, David
Presents an even simpler approach than that offered in the cited article.
Blackman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 379.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation State
Acid and base catalyzed isomerization of 5-cholesten-3-one. An experiment in UV/kinetics  Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A.
This experiment is designed to introduce the student to the principles of ultraviolet spectroscopy and point out its application to following the rate of a chemical change; the experiment also clearly demonstrates that a conjugated system is thermodynamically more stable than a nonconjugated system.
Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 373.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Location of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations. A simulated laboratory exercise  Kozarek, W. J.; Fernando, Quintus
The simulated laboratory experiment described introduces the use of a small computer in the analytical chemistry laboratory and demonstrates the practical utility of Gran's method for the location of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations.
Kozarek, W. J.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 202.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Computer evaluation of titrations by Gran's method. An analytical chemistry experiment  MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A.
A computer program has been developed for the evaluation of potentiometric redox titration data by Gran's method.
MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Pain: A chemical explanation  Plumb, Robert C.; Lindahl, Olov
In sensing pain the nervous system acts like a pH meter.
Plumb, Robert C.; Lindahl, Olov J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
A simple table of logarithms  Myers, R. Thomas
A method for memorizing the base 10 logs of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 140.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Solvent properties: A three-dimensional Bronsted model  Eller, Peter M. P.; Caruso, Joseph A.
Common solvents are plotted as a function of their acid strength, base strength, and dielectric constant.
Eller, Peter M. P.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 46.
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Gas Laws, Equilibrium, and the Commercial Synthesis of Nitric acid. A Simple Demonstration  Alexander, M. Dale
This demonstration of the commercial production of nitric acid uses a simple apparatus to illustrate a number of basic chemical concepts, including Le Chatelier's principle.
Alexander, M. Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 838.
Synthesis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Polyurethanes. A study in chemical principles  Bailey, Maurice E.
Examines the many fundamental chemical principles involved in the production of polyurethanes, including hydrogen bonding, polymers and their properties, kinetics, steric and inductive effects, catalysis, consecutive and simultaneous reactions, and equilibrium.
Bailey, Maurice E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 809.
Industrial Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Alcohols |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Catalysis
Notes on high school safety   Bensinger, Richard E.
The author cautions readers about some safety advise that appeared in the Journal.
Bensinger, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 780.
Acids / Bases
Hydrolysis of ethyl acetate in concentrated sulfuric acid. A group experiment for advanced students  Jaques, Derek
Theory and procedure for a series of experiments, results and discussion are provided for a series of experiments for advanced students.
Jaques, Derek J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 623.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Beginning chemistry can be relevant  Corwin, James F.
The continuing criticism offered by students of the science that the present day courses are not relevant to contemporary problems. This can be answered in part by a laboratory program based on environmental problems.
Corwin, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 522.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Activation energies for a base-catalyzed and enzyme-catalyzed reaction  Maler, Joyce F.; Cory, Joseph G.
This experiment is suitable for either biochemistry or physical chemistry laboratory and has been devised to demonstrate the difference in Arrehnius activation energy between an enzyme-catalyzed and base-catalyzed reaction.
Maler, Joyce F.; Cory, Joseph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 475.
Enzymes |
Catalysis |
Thermodynamics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Actual effects controlling the acidity of carboxylic acids  Calder, G. V.; Barton, T. J.
The authors discuss the inaccurate treatment of the actual effects controlling the acidity of carboxylic acids found in many textbooks.
Calder, G. V.; Barton, T. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 338.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Reactions
A study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl  Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben
The authors describe the experimental procedure and a discussion of results for a study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl.
Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 327.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Determination of pK of phenolphthalein and its discoloration rate  Lalanne, J. R.
The author discusses a laboratory performed with future teachers as this lab can easily be incorporated into a high school setting.
Lalanne, J. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 266.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Measurement of acidic catalysis. A physical-organic laboratory experiment  Berndt, Donald C.
This article describes an experiment for undergraduate laboratory courses which illustrate the acidic catalysis of many reactions of carbonyl and carboxyl functions.
Berndt, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 200.
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The structure and properties of choleic acids. A biologically oriented organic experiment  Jesaitis, R. G.; Krantz, A.
The experiment described here introduces students to techniques which are often not introduced in the context of a laboratory experiment.
Jesaitis, R. G.; Krantz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 137.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Stoichiometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Reduction of trichloroacetic acid to dichloroacetic acid. An organic electrosynthesis experiment  Iversen, Palle E.
This experiment has been designed to demonstrate the method of controlled, potential electrolysis (CPE) by selectively reducing trichloroacetic acid to dichlorioacetic acid on a mercury cathode in a divided cell at room temperature in an aqueous ammonia buffer.
Iversen, Palle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 136.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Simultaneous equilibria in the benzoic acid-benzene-water system. A distribution experiment  Ellison, Herbert R.
The author shares a typical physical chemistry activity with some of the calculation burdens eased.
Ellison, Herbert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 124.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents
Acids and bases (Drago, Russell S.; Matwinyoff, Nicholas A.)  Hepler, L. G.

Hepler, L. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A128.
Acids / Bases
Benzoic acid tree  Chen, Philip S.
Benzaldehyde undergoes autoxidation to benzoic acid by air, particularly upon exposure to light; the white benzoic acid is caused to form a crystalline tree on twisted pipe cleaners.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Calculation of hydrogen ionic concentrations (1)  Freiser, Henry
The author brings attention to misimpressions regarding the graphical method for estimating [H+] in the cited article.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 844.
pH |
Acids / Bases
Acid-base reaction parameters  Freiser, Henry
The author demonstrates how the combined algebraic graphical approach can be extended to acid-base titration curve calculations as well as to buffer and sharpness index formulation.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 809.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Representation of titration errors in logarithmic diagrams  Inczedy, J.
This work attempts to give uniform treatment for the titration error in all kinds of titrations.
Inczedy, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 769.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Parris, Michael
(1) Explains how free radicals differ from species such as NO3- and NH4+. (2) Explains why HI is a stronger acid than HF in aqueous solution. - answer by Parris. (3) Explains that it is possible to alter the half-life of a some radioactive processes through chemical means.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Parris, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 697.
Free Radicals |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
The acidities of ascorbic and sialic acids  Hurd, Charies D.
This note concerning the pKa's of ascorbic and sialic acids id presented since the compounds are of general interest to organic chemists and carbohydrate chemists as well as biochemists.
Hurd, Charies D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 481.
Acids / Bases |
Vitamins |
Carboxylic Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Special projects for the physical chemistry laboratory  West, Rose G.; Pinson, James W.
Provides a list of special projects for the physical chemistry laboratory.
West, Rose G.; Pinson, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 460.
Undergraduate Research |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy
Understanding a culprit before eliminating it. An application of Lewis acid-base principles to atmospheric SO2 as a pollutant  Brasted, Robert C.
The SO2 molecule offers ample opportunities for teaching practical chemistry. [Debut of first run. This feature reappeared in 1986.]
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An automatic titrator for demonstrating indicator color change  Stock, John T.
two high-sensitivity relays and a latching relay are used in a device for demonstrating the behavior of an acid-base indicator upon alternate addition of acid and alkali.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 311.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Models for tertiary structures: Myoglobin and lysozyme  Smith, Ivor; Smith, Margaret J.; Roberts, Lynne
Presents the design details for constructing three dimensional models of proteins, including myoglobin and lysozyme.
Smith, Ivor; Smith, Margaret J.; Roberts, Lynne J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 302.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Proteins / Peptides |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
A coulometric titration experiment: Simultaneous potentiometric and photometric endpoint detection  Beilby, Alvin L.; Landowski, Catherine A.
The course of the titration in this experiment is followed simultaneously by potentiometric and photometric means.
Beilby, Alvin L.; Landowski, Catherine A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 238.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Isopoly and heteropoly compounds: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Kauffman, George B.; Vartanian, Paul F.
This procedure involves the preparation of isopoly and heteropoly salts and introduces the beginning student to liquid-liquid extraction, titration, ion exchange, conductance, and a variety of synthetic and analytical techniques.
Kauffman, George B.; Vartanian, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 212.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry
Ratio diagrams: A simple graphical representation of complicated equilibria  de Levie, R.
Introduces and demonstrates the usefulness and general applicability of ratio diagrams as the simplest graphical representation of equilibria involving mononuclear species.
de Levie, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 187.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Determination of successive ionization constants: A computer assisted laboratory experiment  Jensen, R. E.; Garvey, R. G.; Paulson, B. A.
The computer programs described here plot students' titration data, locate equivalence points of the titration, calculate the apparent equivalent mass of the acid, and determine the successive ionization constants of the acid.
Jensen, R. E.; Garvey, R. G.; Paulson, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 147.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Computer programs for calculating equivalent conductivity and dissociation constants  Zimmerman, A. A.
Lists several computer programs available for calculating equivalent conductivity and dissociation constants.
Zimmerman, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Component concentrations in solutions of weak acids  Goldish, Dorothy M.
presents a new approach to teaching the subject of weak acid equilibria and its associated calculations.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 65.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
pH
Hydrofluoric acid burn treatment  Reinhardt, C. F.; Hume, W. G.; Linch, A. K.; Wetherhold, J. M.
Discusses the treatment of chemical burns due to hydrofluoric acid and the effectiveness of this new method.
Reinhardt, C. F.; Hume, W. G.; Linch, A. K.; Wetherhold, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A171.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Analog computer simulation of log(K)-pH profiles  Lordi, Nicholas G.
This report describes the computer simulation of log (K)-pH profiles used to characterize aqueous phase stabilities of drugs, particularly hydrolytic degradations.
Lordi, Nicholas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 861.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The pKa of a weak acid as a function of temperature and ionic strength: An experiment using a pH meter  Bada, Jeffrey L.
This report presents a procedure for using a pH meter to determine the pKa of a weak acid as a function of temperature and ionic strength.
Bada, Jeffrey L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 689.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Equilibrium
Correlation of composition of acid solutions with activity and acidity functions  O'Connor, Charmian J.
Presents correlation tables of percentage composition with molarity, molality, activity coefficient, water activity, and Hammett Acidity function for aqueous solutions of hydrochloric, perchloric, phosphoric, and sulfuric acids.
O'Connor, Charmian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 686.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Kinetics
Computer programs for calculating pH  Schlessinger, Gert G.
A brief note on the availability of a Fortran II program for calculating the pH of weak acids and bases and salts of these species in aqueous solution.
Schlessinger, Gert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 680.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A versatile reagent for general chemistry  Dauphinee, G. A.; Heit, M. L.
This short note lists seven general chemistry experiments on various aspects of potassium hydrogen oxalate.
Dauphinee, G. A.; Heit, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 660.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Graphical method for acidity constants  Heck, Ludwig
The author presents a graphical method for the determination of acidity constants of very weak acids.
Heck, Ludwig J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 535.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
A distribution experiment  Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John
An experiment to determine the distribution coefficient of an acid between an aqueous and nonaqueous phase.
Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 454.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Monoprotic or diprotic?  Goldman, James A.
The author demonstrates that the results of an earlier article are not altogether unexpected.
Goldman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 123.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) Is there such a thing as a negative pH value? Or one above 14? (2) What is entropy, in terms a beginner may understand? (3) On calculating the molecular weight of a solute from concentration and freezing point depression.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Circular slide rule conversion of pH to [H+]  Grimm, Larry C.
This short note discusses the use of a circular slide rule to convert pH to [H+].
Grimm, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 22.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Dielectric aspects of the hydrogen-bond interaction  Davies, Mansel
The influence of hydrogen-bonding on dielectric parameters and, therefore, the study of hydrogen-bonding by dielectric methods, can be summarized in terms of four variables: concentration, temperature, frequency, and electric field strength.
Davies, Mansel J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 17.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The chemistry of the OH group (Clapp, Leallyn B.)  Massie, Samuel P.

Massie, Samuel P. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A700.
Acids / Bases
Le Chtelier's principle  Melott, Adrian L.
Adding a strong base to aqueous ammonia causes gaseous ammonia to be released.
Melott, Adrian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A519.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation of copper by hydrochloric acid  Walker, Noojin; George, Donald L.
Demonstrates the oxidation of copper by hydrochloric acid.
Walker, Noojin; George, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry
Boron and silicon. A. Boron  Alyea, Hubert N.; Hornbeck, LeRoy G.
Demonstrations include boric acid from borax and borax beads.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Hornbeck, LeRoy G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A151.
Acids / Bases
Preparation and standardization of constant boiling hydrochloric acid  McGuinness, E. T.; Clarke, K. S.
Presents a procedure for producing a calibration curve for the standardization of constant boiling hydrochloric acid.
McGuinness, E. T.; Clarke, K. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 740.
Acids / Bases |
Calibration |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Errors in calculating hydrogen ion concentration  House, J. E., Jr.; Reiter, R. C.
The possibility of avoiding the full quadratic calculation in determining hydrogen ion concentration depends on both the dissociation constant and the concentration of the acid or base.
House, J. E., Jr.; Reiter, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 679.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Corrections for simple equations for titration curves of monoprotic acids  Cortelyou, W. P.
Presents corrections for simple equations for titration curves of monoprotic acids and their derivations.
Cortelyou, W. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 677.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part II: Underlying theories  Pearson, Ralph G.
Explores possible explanations for and presents applications of the principles of hard and soft acids and bases.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 643.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
Equations for potentiometric titration (the author replies)  Sturrock, Peter E.
Response to the cited letter.
Sturrock, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 621.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Equations for potentiometric titration  Lomax, Ann; Bard, Allen J.
Examines some difficulties arising with assumptions made in a previously published experiment.
Lomax, Ann; Bard, Allen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 621.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part 1: Fundamental principles  Pearson, Ralph G.
Using the principles of hard and soft acids and bases to estimate the strength and softness of an acid or base.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 581.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds
Acids as derivatives of aldehydes prepared with silver oxides  Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G.
Examines the use of silver(i) and silver(II) oxide to convert aldehydes into acid derivatives.
Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Le Chtelier and ionic equilibria  Ringbom, Anders
When s solution contains several weak acids, the squares of the separately calculated hydrogen ion concentrations of all weak acids in the solution are additive.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 442.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
The dissociation of acetic acid dimer in the gas phase  Barton, Donald; Ralph, Roy; Kane, Kevin
The dissociation of acetic acid dimer in the gas phase is used to determine the temperature dependence of equilibrium constants.
Barton, Donald; Ralph, Roy; Kane, Kevin J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 440.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Carboxylic Acids
A simple preparation of sulfanilic acid  Roeges, Noel
A short note concerning the preparation of sulfanilic acid.
Roeges, Noel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 274.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis
Chromic acid oxidation of alcohols: A simple experiment on reaction rates  Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G.
In this experiment, students determine the relative rates of oxidation by adding quantities of several different alcohols to a solution of chromium(VI) in dilute sulfuric acid and visually monitoring the course of the reaction.
Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 269.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Is a weak acid monoprotic? A new look at titration curves  Sturrock, Peter E.
It is suggested that experimental values of ?pH may be employed as a simple, yet sensitive, criterion to determine whether an unknown acid is monoprotic.
Sturrock, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 258.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Physical-inorganic chemistry  Tamres, Milton
Examines the background and recent developments in donor-acceptor complexes.
Tamres, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 221.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Intermolecular association by vapor pressure osmometry: A physical chemistry experiment  Schrier, Eugene E.
Measurement of the effective concentration of all molecules in various solutions containing amide and lactam are made using vapor pressure osmometry.
Schrier, Eugene E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 176.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The chemistry of orthophosphoric acid and its sodium salts  Neidig, H. A.; Teates, T. G.; Yingling, R. T.
The purpose of this article is to suggest a number of possible laboratory investigations of the chemistry of phosphoric acid and its sodium salts involving potentiometric titration studies and thermochemical studies.
Neidig, H. A.; Teates, T. G.; Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 57.
Acids / Bases
Atomic structure. Radioactivity (continued)   Alyea, Hubert N.
Formation of the complex Cu(NH3)4++ as an example of coordinate covalent bonding and hydrogen bonding as evidenced by viscosity.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A599.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Liquids
Dissociation of weak acids and bases at infinite dilution  Stock, D. Irwin
It is all too easy to forget that in a solution of infinite dilution the solvent itself is ionized to an extent governed by its ionization constant, and that the concentration of its ions will appear in the expression for the dissociation constant of the solute.
Stock, D. Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 764.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The structure of choleic acids  Herndon, William C.
This article reviews evidence for the inclusion compound structure of the choleic acids and their possible significance with respect to the transport of bile.
Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 724.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Metabolism
Le Chtelier's principle and rigorous ionic equilibria equations  Goldman, James A.
Presents an approach, exemplified by acid-base and solubility equilibria, that relates the concept of Le Chtelier's principle to rigorous ionic equilibria equations.
Goldman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 658.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Interactions of enzymes and inhibitors  Baker, B. R.
Examines the kinetics and interactions of enzymes and inhibitors and considers specifically lactic dehydrogenase, dihydrofolic reductase, thymidine phosphorylate, guanase, and xanthine oxidase.
Baker, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 610.
Enzymes |
Catalysis |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Recognition |
Hydrogen Bonding
Evaluation of titration analyses with logarithmic concentration diagrams  Yingst, Austin
Examines the use of logarithmic concentration diagrams in the evaluation of strong and weak acid-base titrations.
Yingst, Austin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 601.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
The significance of hydrogen bonds in biological structures  McClellan, A. L.
Examines RNA, DNA, some proteins, and enzyme (lysozyme), and yellow mosaic virus as examples to illustrate the significance of hydrogen bonds in biological structures.
McClellan, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 547.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes
The acid base calculator  Flack, Arnold
This short note describes an acid base calculator designed to assist in the teaching of logarithmic relationships.
Flack, Arnold J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 466.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Nitration of benzoic acid: Determination of isomer distribution by the isotope dilution technique  Feldman, Martin; Wheeler, J. W.
The analysis of the nitrobenzoic acids, obtained by direct nitration of C14-labeled benzoic acid, is used to illustrate the determination of isomer distribution by the isotope dilution technique.
Feldman, Martin; Wheeler, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 464.
Acids / Bases |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Acid anhydride functionality  Hurd, Charles D.
Examines several different structural types, each of which posses the acid anhydride functionality, though most are named on a different basis.
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 454.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Syntheses and titrations of unknown acids: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Kauffman, George B.; Houghten, Richard A., Jr.
Students prepare a solid unknown acid from an unknown starting material and then determine its equivalent weight by titration with a standard base.
Kauffman, George B.; Houghten, Richard A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 408.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A pH scaler  Alpern, D. K.
Describes a convenient pocket size scale made using log paper and a linear graph sheet.
Alpern, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 330.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The intrinsic basicity of the hydroxide ion  Jolly, William L.
Examines the basicity of the hydroxide ion.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 304.
Acids / Bases
Acid-base titration and distribution curves  Waser, Jurg
Presents an alternative method for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 274.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Ionization, electricity. A. Proof that ions exist   Alyea, Hubert N.; Johnson, William.; Cocoran, Paul; Barnard, Robert; Rolf, Fred; Klug, Evangeline
Demonstrations include conductivity using a meter, conductivity of HCl in water versus in toluene, conductivity of HCl in water versus in benzene, acids plus zinc, indicators with acids and bases (H3O+ and OH-), rate of reaction and acid strengths, colors of ions, and color of cobalt ion and a cobalt complex.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Johnson, William.; Cocoran, Paul; Barnard, Robert; Rolf, Fred; Klug, Evangeline J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A539.
Acids / Bases |
Conductivity |
Dyes / Pigments |
Rate Law
A new twist to Ksp evaluation  Hazel, J. Fred
Evaluating the concentration of slightly soluble slats by passing the saturated solution through a cation resin and titrating the resulting acid in the eluate.
Hazel, J. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 636.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Theoretical error in acid-base titrations  Butcher, John; Quintus, Fernanado
The purpose of this report is to describe simple derivations of equations for titration error calculations for a number of acid-base titrations, and to show error curves for some typical cases.
Butcher, John; Quintus, Fernanado J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 546.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
The interaction of chromium(III) ion with hydroxide ion. An experiment for the undergraduate inorganic laboratory  Reinhardt, Richard A.
In the interactions with hydroxide ion, at least three different types of reactions may be considered: protolysis, the formation of a sparingly soluble hydroxide, and the formation of polymeric species.
Reinhardt, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 382.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Demonstration of chemical reaction via aerosol spray reagents  Stedman, Earl D.
Demonstrations of chemical reactions via aerosol spray reagents may include acid-base indicators and precipitation reactions.
Stedman, Earl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 377.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions
Lewis acid-base titration in fused salts  Schlegel, James M.
Dichromate ion, a Lewis acid, is titrated with carbonate ion, a Lewis base, in a fused KNO3-NaNO3 solvent.
Schlegel, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 362.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Letter to the editor  Onwood, D. P.
Discusses variations in the usage of the terms "acid" and "base," including Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis systems.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 335.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Excited-state dissociation: Laboratory exercise using fluorescence  Ellis, David W.
In this experiment the acidity of 2-naphthol is measured using fluorescence techniques and then compared with the ground-state acidity as determined by absorption measurements or reference to the literature.
Ellis, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 259.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Letter to the editor  Roberts, N. K.
Discusses the action of buffer solutions to resist changes in pH.
Roberts, N. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 108.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A computer program for use in teaching chemical equilibrium  Zajicek, O. T.
Describes a computer program for use in teaching chemical equilibrium.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 622.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The ionization of polyhydric acids: Numerical results for phosphoric acid  Cooke, S. L., Jr.
Presents calculated ionization values for phosphoric acid across the normal aqueous pH range.
Cooke, S. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 620.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Potentiometric titration of aspirin in ethanol  Shen, Samuel Y.; Gilman, Alfred J.
This experiment illustrates the potentiometric end point in nonaqueous acid-base titrations.
Shen, Samuel Y.; Gilman, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 540.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Thermodynamics of the ionization of acetic and chloroacetic acids  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
Students are asked to determine the effect of the structure of acetic, chloroacetic, dichloroacetic, and trichloroacetic acid on equilbria and to discuss the observed effects in terms of standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 484.
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Effect of amine structure on the relative acidity of conjugate acids  Griswold, Robert E.
the primary objectives of this experiment are to investigate the effect of structure of amines on the relative acidity of their conjugate acids and to study some of the factors affecting equilibrium constants.
Griswold, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 483.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Equilibrium |
pH
Experiments on metal amine salts  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Tetrammine monaquo copper(II) sulfate is prepared and studied qualitatively and quantitatively.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 468.
Metals |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Applications of sodium-lead alloy in qualitative inorganic analysis  Edge, Robert A.; Fowles, Gerald W. A.
This note describes how sodium-lead alloy may be used n qualitative inorganic analysis, both as a reductant in acid and alkaline media, and as a source of sodium hydroxide for hydroxide precipitations.
Edge, Robert A.; Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 436.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution  Krause, Richard E.
This short note describes a simple method for the preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution.
Krause, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 426.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
Potentiometric titrations using Gran plots: A textbook omission  Rossotti, F. J. C.; Rossotti, Hazel
Describes Gran's graphical method of end point determination for the precise analysis of acids and bases.
Rossotti, F. J. C.; Rossotti, Hazel J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 375.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Lineweaver-Burk treatment of acid-base dissociation  Solomons, C. C.
The advantage of using the Lineweaver-Burk treatment of acid-base dissociation before introducing the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation lies in the fact that K (dissociation) is determined by a straight-line relationship which is nonlogarithmic.
Solomons, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves  Emery, Allan R.
Describes the development of a computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Emery, Allan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 131.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Teaching ionic equilibrium: Use of log chart transparencies  Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus
The use of graphical methods brings the problem of significance of various terms in complicated expressions into proper focus. Furthermore, a pictorial representation permits the student to see at a glance how the concentrations of various species in a system at equilibrium change with conditions.
Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 35.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Overhead projection with the pH meter  Hoff, Darrel B.
Describes a means of projecting an image of a pH meter.
Hoff, Darrel B. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 662.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Systematic names for the tartaric acids  Baxter, J. N.
Examines the use of the small capital letters D and L in naming tartaric acids.
Baxter, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 619.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
The hydration of carbon dioxide: A double clock experiment  Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L.
This extension of the "Soda Water Clock" experiment provides a quantitative kinetics investigation.
Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 610.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Sulfuric acid and the hydrated hydronium ion  Jurale, Bernard
Describes how the sulfuric acid-water system can be used to establish the identity of the hydronium and hydrated hydronium ions.
Jurale, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 573.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Automatic titrimetry in introductory college chemistry  Zajicek, O. T.
The experiment described here employs an automatic pH titrator as a tool for the teaching of a detailed treatment of simultaneous equilibria.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 554.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Recent advances in the base-catalyzed reactions of sulfur compounds  Wallace, Thomas J.
Examines base-catalyzed condensation, addition, elimination, rearrangement, methylation, displacement and oxidation reactions of various sulfur derivatives.
Wallace, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 542.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Reactions
The effect of mineral acid on methyl violet solutions  McKaig, Nelson, Jr.
Test results indicate that the four common strong mineral acids cause fading of methyl violet indicator.
McKaig, Nelson, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 441.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Glass tubes coated with methyl violet as an indicator  McKaig, Nelson, Jr.
Describes the use of glass tubes coated with methyl violet as an indicator as a method superior to paper strips.
McKaig, Nelson, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 439.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters  Byer, Albert J.
Suggestion for obtaining sharp endpoints in the titration of saponified acids.
Byer, Albert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 288.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Indicators: A historical perspective  Szabadvary, Ferenc
Examines natural acid-base indicators, endpoint indications in acid-base titrations, synthetic indicators, redox indicators, and the theory of indicators.
Szabadvary, Ferenc J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Entropy and Equilibrium: Interpretations of ionization data for organic acids  Allen, C. R.; Wright, P. C.
Any adequate explanation or understanding of chemical equilibria must involve a detailed examination of the relevant thermodynamic functions, and in particular of the change in entropy concerned; such an examination is especially important when considering small differences between equilibria involving related substances.
Allen, C. R.; Wright, P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 251.
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A versatile and inexpensive pH recording electrometer  Malmstadt, H. V.
Presents the design and operation of a modular pH unit with automatic temperature compensation.
Malmstadt, H. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 148.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Development of the pH concept: A historical survey  Szabadvary, Ferenc; Oesper, Ralph E., trans.
Traces the historical development of the following: a recognition of the importance of hydrogen ion concentration; an understanding of buffer solutions; and the concept and measurement of pH.
Szabadvary, Ferenc; Oesper, Ralph E., trans. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 105.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Homogeneous catalysis: A reexamination of definitions  Leisten, J. A.
Considers common questions regarding the action of catalysts by examining various typical examples.
Leisten, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 23.
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases
An easily prepared wide range buffer series  Carmody, W. R.
Provides suggestions for research to accompany earlier published articles.
Carmody, W. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A386.
Undergraduate Research |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The application of organic bases in analytical chemistry (Ostroumov, E. A.)  Barnard, A. J., Jr.

Barnard, A. J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A318.
Acids / Bases
Demonstration of some properties of Prussian blue  Kohn, M.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Kohn, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A135.
Undergraduate Research |
Dyes / Pigments |
Coordination Compounds |
Acids / Bases
The hydrated hydronium ion  Clever, H. Lawrence
It is the purpose of this brief review to cite and discuss some of the evidence for the existence of the trihydrated hydronium ion.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 637.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
On hydrogen bonds  Donohue, Jerry
Calls attention to examples of errors regarding the precise geometry of hydrogen bonds.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 598.
Hydrogen Bonding
What is humic acid?  Steelink, Cornelius
Presents the origin, definition, properties, and chemical studies of humic acid.
Steelink, Cornelius J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 379.
Acids / Bases
Letters to the editor  Schleyer, Paul von
Identifies several literature sources reporting hydrogen bonding involving alkyl monofluorides.
Schleyer, Paul von J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 270.
Hydrogen Bonding
The dissociation quotient of bromcresol green: A class study of ionic strength effects  Ramette, Richard
The purposes of this study include the use of spectrophotometry, a thorough application of various acid-base equilibrium principles, and a realistic look at the behavior of activity coefficients.
Ramette, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 252.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments
The decarboxylation of organic acid  March, Jerry
Simple aliphatic acids (except for acetic) do not give good yields of the corresponding alkanes through decarboxylation, although many organic chemistry textbooks cite this as a general method for the preparation of alkanes.
March, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 212.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids
Graphical treatment simplifies acid-base equilibria calculations  Thomas, E. B.
In dealing with equilibria involving polybasic acids, considerable simplification of the calculation of the relative distribution of the various species with changes in pH may be obtained by a graphical treatment of the ratios involved.
Thomas, E. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 70.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
pH
Nitric acid: Manufacture and uses (Miles, Frank Douglas)  Sisler, Harry H.

Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A694.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry
The inorganic ozonides  Petrocelli, A. W.; Chiarenzelli, R. V.
Examines the discovery of ozonides and recent developments in ozonide chemistry, including ozonide stability, reactions of ozonides with water, trimethylammonium ozonide, and ammonium ozonide.
Petrocelli, A. W.; Chiarenzelli, R. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 557.
Acids / Bases
Cryogenic calorimetric contributions to chemical thermodynamics  Westrum, Edgar F., Jr.
It is the purpose of this paper to review current areas of research in cryogenic calorimetry.
Westrum, Edgar F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 443.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
Laboratory group exercises in acid-base theory  Zuehlke, R. W.
An experiment to introduce the topic of acid-base titrimetry and illustrate the properties of acids and bases.
Zuehlke, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 354.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Writing a chemical equation from titration data: Experiment for general chemistry  State, Harold M.
Students titrate phosphoric acid with sodium hydroxide to determine the chemical formula of Na2HPO4.
State, Harold M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 297.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Preparation of hydrazoic acid by ion exchange techniques  Bryant, J. I.; Rosenwasser, H.
Describes the preparation of hydrazoic acid by ion exchange.
Bryant, J. I.; Rosenwasser, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 296.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Ion Exchange
Acids, Bases, and the Chemistry of the Covalent Bond (VanderWerf, Calvin A.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 273.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Hydrocinnamic acid: Catalytic hydrogenation for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory  Wilen, Samuel H.; Kremer, Chester B.
A catalytic hydrogen transfer avoids the problems of dealing with gaseous hydrogen; tetralin serves as both a solvent and source of hydrogen for hydrogenation.
Wilen, Samuel H.; Kremer, Chester B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 209.
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases
Equilibria in ionic solutions  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
In conjunction with lectures on equilibria in electrolytic solutions, students perform a set of laboratory experiments in which they determine both the ionization constant of chloroacetic acid and the solubility of its silver salt.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 93.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Demonstrations for the overhead projector  Spiegler, K. S.; Gruenberg, J.; Trattner, Adriana; Weiss, W.
Demonstrations include the production of iron, potentiometric titration, photography, and the measurement of pH by indicators.
Spiegler, K. S.; Gruenberg, J.; Trattner, Adriana; Weiss, W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 86.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Acid-base reactions in fused alkali nitrates  Duke, F. R.
Reviews acid-base reactions in fused alkali nitrates.
Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 57.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Determining ionization constants from ion exchange equilibrium measurements  Bonner, O. D.; Jackson, R.; Rogers, O. C.
This discussion shows how measurements of ion exchange equilibria may be used as a rapid and convenient method for the estimation of the ionization constants.
Bonner, O. D.; Jackson, R.; Rogers, O. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 37.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ion Exchange |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
Letters  Seymour, Raymond B.
Suggests a supplemental acidity scale for use in swimming pool maintenance for those who have difficulty understanding pH.
Seymour, Raymond B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 638.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A titration controller for demonstrating the behavior of acid-base indicators  Stock, John T.
Presents a circuit diagram for a device that permits the automatic back-and-forth titration with acid and alkali of a solution containing an appropriate indicator.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 633.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Easily prepared wide range buffer series  Carmody, Walter R.
A series of buffers with pH values ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 that requires the preparation of only two stock solutions and requires only three common chemicals.
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 559.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Management
Heat of reaction and H2SO4 concentration: A general chemistry experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander
This procedure measures the heat of reaction between water and sulfuric acid of various concentrations; this information is used to determine the concentration of an unknown acid sample.
Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 472.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A simple test for nitric acid fumes  Chan, Alfred, Jr.
This simple test for nitric acid fumes relies on an ordinary kraft paper towel.
Chan, Alfred, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 412.
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Is there an alternative to pH?  Crane, Francis E., Jr.
Provides some alternatives to the traditional definition of pH that introductory students may find more intuitive and less confusing.
Crane, Francis E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 365.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An approach to complex equilibrium problems  Butler, James N.
Presents an approach to equilibrium problems that sets up enough equations relating the various concentrations present to define the system completely and then makes approximations that simplify the equations.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 141.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Experiments in acid-base catalysis  Leisten, J. A.
Experiments in acid-base catalysis include the mutarotation of glucose and the hydration of dimethyl ketal.
Leisten, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 132.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
The Hydrogen Bond (Pimentel, George C.; McClellan, Aubrey L.)  Huggins, Maurice L.

Huggins, Maurice L. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A754.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Hydrogen Bonding (Hadzi, D., ed.)  Reinheimer, John D.

Reinheimer, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A490.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The heat of mixing of organic liquids  Zaslow, B.
Describes a calorimetric experiment on the heat of mixing organic liquids where a Dewar flask is used as an adiabatic container.
Zaslow, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 578.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Acid-base titrations with the tellurium electrode  Ricketts, John A.; Bowen, Ronald E.
Describes the use of the tellurium-tellurium oxide electrode for determining hydrogen ion activity.
Ricketts, John A.; Bowen, Ronald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 473.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes
Solvents of high proton availability  Kilpatrick, Martin
Both sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids differ from water in that the proton availability is higher; in addition to protonating many oxygen and nitrogen compounds, they protonate some aromatic compounds to an appreciable extent.
Kilpatrick, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 403.
Acids / Bases
Letters  Hines, Wallis G.
Recommends a mixture of chromic and sulfuric acids as a superior general purpose glass cleaner.
Hines, Wallis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 315.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Letters  Franks, F.
Compares chromic and nitric acids for cleaning laboratory glassware.
Franks, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 315.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Chemical aspects of open-heart surgery  DeFeo, John J.
Considers acid-base balance, temperature and gas solubility, coagulation control, and muscular control by ion balance.
DeFeo, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 159.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Applications of Chemistry
A safe method for preparation of uncontaminated hydrazoic acid  Kemp, Maryland D.
This modification eliminates the hazard of high concentrations of hydrazoic acid in the vapor phase and yields a product free of sulfate impurity.
Kemp, Maryland D. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 142.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
Inorganic Polymerization Reactions II. Addition Polymerization  Sowerby, D. B.; Audrieth, L. F.
Describes processes of addition polymerization in which repeating units of the high molecular weight aggregates are identical with the monomers from which the polymers are derived.
Sowerby, D. B.; Audrieth, L. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 86.
Polymerization |
Hydrogen Bonding
pH meters (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design and operating characteristics of several commercial pH meters.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A663.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
pH meters (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Considers the standardization, calibration, and testing of pH meters, as well as Beckman pH meters.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A595.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calibration
pH meters  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the operation and individual components of pH meters.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A477.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Preparation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones: Demonstrating acid catalysis  Shine, H. J.
The use of solutions of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in the dimethyl ether of diethylene glycol enables acid catalysis to be demonstrated very easily, and also permits a comparison of catalysis between weak and strong acids.
Shine, H. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 575.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Synthesis
Inorganic chemistry taught as a requirement for all professional chemists  Sisler, Harry H.
The author argues that inorganic chemistry is an essential part of the training of every professional chemist, identifies several specific, theoretical concepts that inorganic courses develop, and provides an outline of a course in structural inorganic chemistry.
Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 515.
Covalent Bonding |
Stereochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Potentiometric measurements of equilibria: In general chemistry laboratory  Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr.
The authors describe an experiment in which the solubility product of silver chloride, the ionization constant of the silver-ammonia complex, and the ionization constant of acetic acid can be determined with one afternoon of work.
Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 496.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Titration without burets  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Describes the use of small polyethylene bottles to measure the acid strength of vinegar.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Colorimetric determination of the dissociation constant of acetic acid  Forst, Wendell
The "color," or absorbancy, of a methyl orange solution is used as a measure of hydrogen ion concentration, from which the dissociation constant of acetic acid is calculated.
Forst, Wendell J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 289.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The chemistry of silicic acid  Greenberg, S. A.
This article attempts to address the many incorrect concepts regarding silicic acid that still appear in textbooks and the literature.
Greenberg, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 218.
Acids / Bases
The dissociation constant of iodic acid: Experiments for the analytical laboratory  Ramette, Richard
This paper describes a replacement for an earlier equilibrium constant experiment.
Ramette, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 191.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Base-catalyzed alkylations with alcohols  Becker, Ernest I.
It is the purpose of this paper to collect the based-catalyzed alkylations with alcohols and to indicate their scope and mechanism.
Becker, Ernest I. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 119.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
Fluosilicic acid  Colton, Ervin
This paper describes the preparation and properties of fluosilicic acid and some of its important uses as well as those of its metallic salts, the fluosilicates.
Colton, Ervin J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 562.
Acids / Bases
The acid dissociation constant of methyl red. A spectrophotometric measurement  Tobey, Stephen W.
Many physical chemistry laboratory courses fail to include an experiment involving the determination of a dissociation constant of a weak acid or base; methyl red is a particularly good acid for this purpose.
Tobey, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 514.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy
Acidity measurements with indicators in glacial acetic acid  Kolling, Orland W.
In the measurement of acidity in glacial acetic acid solutions of acids as strong as perchloric, the color change of a basic indicator may be used.
Kolling, Orland W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 452.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases
Research project for general chemistry laboratory  Schwolow, Jean
In order to modify the routine experiment in which students know the answers before ever entering the laboratory, freshmen were presented with a simulated research project connected with acids, bases, and pH measurements.
Schwolow, Jean J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 416.
Undergraduate Research |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A pipet for thermochemistry  Hanson, Allen L.
A modified transfer pipet allows the two solutions used in a neutralization reaction to reach thermal equilibrium before being mixed.
Hanson, Allen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 245.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Acids / Bases
The oxidation of propionic acid with chromic acid at 120C  Tocher, Mab Hirschman
Describes the results of a kinetic study investigating the oxidation of propionic acid by chromic acid at an elevated temperature.
Tocher, Mab Hirschman J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 207.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Chemical bonds: A central theme for high school chemistry  Strong, Laurence E.; Wilson, M. Kent
Proposes an outline for a high school chemistry course based on chemical bonds as the central theme.
Strong, Laurence E.; Wilson, M. Kent J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 56.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding
Letters to the editor  Nightingale, E. R., Jr.
The symmetry of the Charlot equation belies the ease with which it may be solved.
Nightingale, E. R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 574.
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Reactions in liquid dinitrogen tetroxide: Molecular addition compounds with donor molecules  Sisler, Harry H.
Examines dinitrogen tetroxide as the basis for a solvent system, phase studies of N2O4-Lewis base systems, evidence concerning the structure of N2O4-addition compounds, and the electronic structure of dinitrogen tetroxide complexes.
Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 555.
Reactions |
Lewis Acids / Bases
Nitrogen derivatives of phosphorus and sulfur  Audrieth, L. F.
Examines ammono and aquo carbonic, phosphoric, and polyphosphoric acids; phosphonitrilic compounds; sulfur-nitrogen compounds; and tetrasulfuur tetranitride and related sulfur-nitrogen compounds.
Audrieth, L. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 545.
Acids / Bases
Letters to the editor  Hitchcock, David I.
The author clarifies mathematical expressions found in an earlier article.
Hitchcock, David I. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 520.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hydrogen bonding in high polymers and inclusion compounds  Huggins, Maurice L.
Examines factors affecting the strength of hydrogen bonds, symmetrical and unsymmetrical hydrogen bonds, and hydrogen bonding in high polymers and inclusion compounds.
Huggins, Maurice L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 480.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Letters to the editor  Freedman, Jules
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Freedman, Jules J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters to the editor  Pickering, Roger A.
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Pickering, Roger A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Logarithmic triangular chartsII. Application to the ionization equilibria of weak acids and bases and their salts  Guerra, Jorge
The application of logarithmic triangular plotting to the ionization equilibria of weak acids and bases and their salts is shown with respect to the ionization of pure acetic acid and the hydrolysis of alkali acetates.
Guerra, Jorge J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 341.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Preparation of carbonate-free bases  Powell, Jack E.; Hiller, Maynard A.
Various methods for producing carbonate-free base to be used in titrations.
Powell, Jack E.; Hiller, Maynard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 330.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The evidence from infrared spectroscopy for hydrogen bonding: A case history of the correlation and interpretation of data  Gorman, Mel
Examines the effect of hydrogen bonding on infrared absorption, the collection of data and empirical correlation, and theoretical interpretation.
Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 304.
IR Spectroscopy |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The use of exact expressions in calculating hydrogen ion concentrations  Nightingale, E. R., Jr.
If an exact expression for hydrogen ion concentration is to be obtained, approximations in the derivation cannot be permitted.
Nightingale, E. R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 277.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases
Safe mixing and storage of acid or alkali solutions  Nicholson, Douglas G.
Describes specialized containers for the safe mixing and storage of acid or alkali solutions.
Nicholson, Douglas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 254.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Lone pair electrons  Fowles, Gerald W. A.
The lone pair electrons, whether in simple or hybrid orbitals, have profound effects on the properties of the molecule; these effects may be discussed as bond angles, dipole moments, bond energies and lengths, and coordination and hydrogen bonding.
Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: The Wohl conventions  Abernethy, John Leo
Examines the Wohl system for designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Abernethy, John Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 150.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Acids / Bases
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: An unsettled stereochemical question  Nenitzescu, Costin D.
Examines the Wohl and Freudenberg systems of designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Nenitzescu, Costin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 147.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Universal indicator for pH 1-13  Richardson, F. R.
Describes a mixture of indicators that serves as a universal indicator for pH 1-13.
Richardson, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 517.
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Some aspects of hydrogen bonding in inorganic chemistry  Gorman, Mel
The purpose of this review is to present some of the research which is illustrative of the methods used and the results obtained with a variety of inorganic compounds in which hydrogen bonding is one of the structural features.
Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 468.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Indicators and the basis for their use  Gorin, George
Describes the method for selecting appropriate indicators and the teaching of this subject.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 318.
Dyes / Pigments |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
pH
Hydrogen bonding and physical properties of substances  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
Physical properties influenced by hydrogen bonding considered in this paper include transition temperatures, vapor pressure, water solubility, the ionization of carboxylic acids, stereoisomerism, adsorption, and infrared spectra.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 267.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
On the species present in aqueous solutions of "salts" of polyvalent metals: II. Polymerization of aquo-bases  Pokras, Lewis
Examines the general properties of weak and aquo-ion acids, the polymerization of aquo-bases via hydroxy bridging, the application of the polymer concept to acidity data, and a variety of systems that illustrate the importance of these types of polymerization reactions.
Pokras, Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 223.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Polymerization
Letters to the editor  Seeger, Walfried
The author identifies the cited comparison between acetic acid and hydrochloric acid in indefinite concentrations as inadmissible.
Seeger, Walfried J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 149.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Amphoteric molecules, ions and salts  Davidson, David
It is the aim of this paper to call attention to the splendid opportunity amphoteric substances afford for the teaching of acid-base principles.
Davidson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 550.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A mnemonic for dicarboxylic acids  Cox, Gerald J.
This short note provides a mnemonic for the names of the dicarboxylic acids.
Cox, Gerald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 363.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
A general equation for approximate hydronium ion calculations  Drenan, James W.
Presents a general equation for simplifying calculations of the hydronium ion.
Drenan, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
The Bronsted theory applied to acid-base balance and respiration  Devor, Arthur W.
The purpose of this paper is to point out that advantages can be gained in using Bronsted theory when explaining acid-base balance and respiration.
Devor, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 425.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The mechanism of diazotization  Gillis, Richard G.
Recent investigation has shown conclusively that the diazotization reaction is between free base and a number of Lewis acids, of which one or more be effective at any one time.
Gillis, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 344.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases
A log table for pH problems  Condon, Francis E.
Provides a readily remembered log table suitable for computing pH from hydronium-ion concentration and the reverse.
Condon, Francis E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 323.
pH |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry. III  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the practical applications of electronegativities and charge distribution.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Acids / Bases
Calculating the concentrations of the species present in complex buffers  King, Edward L.
Presents a relatively simple approach by which the composition of even the most complicated buffer solutions can be calculated.
King, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 183.
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Verification of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation  Blackwell, R. Quentin
A simple experiment is used to aid in increasing student understanding with respect to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and its relationship to buffer action.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 138.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Two experiments in spectrophotometry  Phillips, John P.
Presents procedures for determining the ionization constants of weak acids and a complex formula by the method of continuous variations through spectrophotometry.
Phillips, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 81.
Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Investigation of complex metal ions by the polarographic method  Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J.
The purpose of this paper is to present in a simplified and readily understandable manner the outline of one of the instrumental methods that, in recent years, has become an increasingly prominent tool in the investigation of complex metal ions.
Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 557.
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters  Davidson, David
Responds to comments made in a related letter.
Davidson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 534.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Ricci, John E.
Discusses the question of teaching students how to "solve" problems requiring more than one equilibrium constant.
Ricci, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 532.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ammonia and "ammonium hydroxide"  Davis, John B.
One of several reactions that needs reevaluation in the light of the modern theory of valence is the reaction between ammonia and water and the fiction of the ammonium hydroxide molecule.
Davis, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 511.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Carbonate alkalinity indicators  Brooke, Maxey
Compares the properties of a variety of acid / base indicators.
Brooke, Maxey J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 419.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The action of nitric acid on metals  Tillu, Mahadeo M.
A general equation for the action of nitric acid on metals has been computed.
Tillu, Mahadeo M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 290.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Reactions
The hydrogen ion concentration of weak monobasic acids and their salts  Park, Bart
Presents several tables of calculated pH values of a wide variety of weak acid solutions.
Park, Bart J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 257.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents
The algebra of simultaneous equilibria  Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth
Presents a series of rules for dealing with simultaneous equilibria using simple algebra.
Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 238.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Models illustrating the Lewis theory of acids and bases  Herron, Fred Y.
The purpose of this article is to describe a method of presenting the Lewis theory of acids and bases by means of cardboard models.
Herron, Fred Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 199.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Molecular Modeling
pH approximations  McBay, Arthur J.
Describes the use of data from tables to approximate pH values.
McBay, Arthur J. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 526.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Determination of the ranges and constants of double-range indicators  Hallam, H. E.
Describes a laboratory in which the ranges and constants (pKIn) of thymol blue, o-cresol red, and m-cresol purple are determined.
Hallam, H. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 445.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Letters  Miller, Julius Sumner
The author discusses the importance of mathematical competence in physical chemistry and physics.
Miller, Julius Sumner J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 262.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Acids / Bases
Acid-base titration curves: An experiment in acidimetry  Hendel, James M.
The purpose of this activity is to introduce a bit of research into the quantitative analysis course and to illustrate the value of titration curves in deciding what indicator should be used for a particular acid-base titration.
Hendel, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 148.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
A common misunderstanding of Hess' law  Davis, Thomas. W.
The statement, sometimes attributed to Hess, that "In any series of chemical or physical changes the total heat effect is independent of the path by which the system goes from its initial to its final state" is incorrect.
Davis, Thomas. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 584.
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The overhead projector and chemical demonstrations  Slabaugh, W. H.
Chemical demonstrations described for use with an overhead projector include the relative activity of metals, the electrolysis of water, the random motion of gas molecules, the action of metal couples, the relative strength of acids, the qualitative aspects of optical activity, and electrochemistry.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 579.
Metals |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The story of barbituric acid  Carter, Mary Kathleen
Describes the relationships between the synthetic work of several chemists that led to the production of barbituric acid by Baeyer in 1864.
Carter, Mary Kathleen J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 524.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis
Teaching amino acid formulation  Patton, A. R.
Presents a device that aids in explaining the concept of dipolar ions necessary to an understanding of the behavior of amino acids and proteins.
Patton, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 471.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The effect of nitrous acid on the oxidizing power of nitric acid  Brasted, Robert C.
this demonstration illustrates that the oxidizing action of nitric acid may be considerably enhanced by small quantities of nitrous acid which are usually present.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 442.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An experiment for the pH meter  Pecsok, Robert L.
These procedures are designed for a Beckman Model H-2 line operated pH meter and include standardization, measurement of pH, titration curve of phosphoric acid, standardization of base, and analysis of mixed phosphate solutions.
Pecsok, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 252.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis