TIGER

Journal Articles: 469 results
Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams  Ed Vitz
This series of demonstrations elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines using common laboratory materials and can be adapted for elementary through tertiary levels. The formation of fogs is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1385.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Polymeric, Metallic and Other Glasses in Introductory Chemistry  Stephen J. Hawkes
Polymeric, metallic, and other glasses and their importance are described in a manner suitable for introductory chemistry.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1377.
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids
Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties  Robert M. Hanson, Patrick Riley, Jeff Schwinefus, and Paul J. Fischer
The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level.
Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1142.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Understanding the Clausius–Clapeyron Equation by Employing an Easily Adaptable Pressure Cooker  Monica Galleano, Alberto Boveris, and Susana Puntarulo
Describes a laboratory exercise to understand the effect of pressure on phase equilibrium as described by the ClausiusClapeyron equation. The equipment required is a pressure cooker adapted with a pressure gauge and a thermometer in the lid, allowing the measurement of the pressure and the temperature of the chamber containing the water heated until vaporization.
Galleano, Monica; Boveris, Alberto; Puntarulo, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 276.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on Teaching and Learning Phases of Matter and One-Component Phase Diagrams  Kemal Doymus
Describes a study whose objective was to determine the effects of cooperative learning (using the jigsaw method) on students' achievement in a general chemistry course.
Doymus, Kemal. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1857.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids
Gas Clathrate Hydrates Experiment for High School Projects and Undergraduate Laboratories  Melissa P. Prado, Annie Pham, Robert E. Ferazzi, Kimberly Edwards, and Kenneth C. Janda
Presents a procedure for preparing and studying propane clathrate hydrate. This experiment introduces students to this unusual solid while stimulating a discussion of the interplay of intermolecular forces, thermodynamics, and solid structure.
Prado, Melissa P.; Pham, Annie; Ferazzi, Robert E.; Edwards, Kimberly; Janda, Kenneth C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1790.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Freezing Point of Milk: A Natural Way To Understand Colligative Properties  Mercedes Novo, Belén Reija, and Wajih Al-Soufi
Presents a laboratory experiment that illustrates the use of freezing point measurements to control milk quality and determine molecular weight.
Novo, Mercedes; Reija, Belén; Al-Soufi, Wajih. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1673.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
Constructing a High-Sensitivity, Computer-Interfaced, Differential Thermal Analysis Device for Teaching and Research  L. M. Martínez, M. Videa, F. Mederos, and J. Mesquita
Reports the construction of a homemade differential thermal analysis instrument interfaced with a computer through a data acquisition board and handled with a program written in LabVIEW. Constructing this instrument can help students to understand the basic elements of analytical instrumentation and introduce them to digital data acquisition and computer interfacing.
Martínez, L. M.; Videa, M.; Mederos, F.; Mesquita, J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1222.
Calibration |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Thermal Analysis |
Undergraduate Research
"Concept Learning versus Problem Solving": Does Particle Motion Have an Effect?  Michael J. Sanger, Eddie Campbell, Jeremy Felker, and Charles Spencer
210 students were asked to answer a static, particulate-level, multiple-choice question concerning gas properties. Then they viewed an animated version of the question and answered the multiple-choice question again. The distribution of responses changed significantly after students viewed the animation.
Sanger, Michael J.; Campbell, Eddie; Felker, Jeremy; Spencer, Charles. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 875.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
What Are Students Thinking When They Pick Their Answer?  Michael J. Sanger and Amy J. Phelps
330 students were asked to answer a multiple-choice question concerning gas properties at the microscopic level and explain their reasoning. Of those who selected the correct answer, 80% provided explanations consistent with the scientifically accepted answer, while 90% of the students who picked an incorrect choice provided explanations with at least one misconception.
Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 870.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Qualitative Analysis
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Physics Teacher: The Four States of Matter—Solid, Squishy, Liquid, and Gas  Roy W. Clark
A recent article in The Physics Teacher presents several demonstrations and experiments regarding substances that seem to be neither solid nor liquid, but somewhere in between.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 588.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Solids |
Gases
Hurricanes as Heat Engines: Two Undergraduate Problems  Pekka Pyykkö
Hurricanes can be regarded as Carnot heat engines in which evaporation of water vapor from the ocean and its subsequent condensation is the main heat transfer mechanism. The arguments presented here are simple enough to use as an illustration in a second-year chemical thermodynamics course.
Pyykkö, Pekka. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 447.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Are Crystallization and Melting the Reverse Transformation of Each Other?  Hermínio P. Diogo and Joaquim J. Moura Ramos
Differential scanning calorimetry is used to demonstrate that crystallization is a two-step process in which both nucleation and crystal growth exhibit thermodynamic and kinetic control, making it far more complex than the single-step, thermodynamically controlled melting process.
Diogo, Hermínio P.; Moura Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1389.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Prospective Teachers' Misconceptions of Vaporization and Vapor Pressure  Nurtaç Canpolat, Tacettin Pinarbasi, and Mustafa Sözbilir
This study aimed to determine students' misconceptions related to vaporization and vapor pressure. Seven different misconceptions were identified. The results have implications for tertiary-level teaching, suggesting that a substantial review of teaching strategies is needed.
Canpolat, Nurtaç; Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Sözbilir, Mustafa. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1237.
Equilibrium |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Endothermic Chemical and Physical Changes: An Introductory Chemistry Experiment  Margaret J. Steffel
Each of eleven unidentified compounds is heated in a test tube to determine whether the endothermic change each undergoes is a chemical or a physical change.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1185.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams  Jennifer K. Woodworth, Jacob C. Terrance, and Markus M. Hoffmann
A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1065.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
A Demonstration of the Continuous Phase (Second-Order) Transition of a Binary Liquid System in the Region around Its Critical Point  Michael R. Johnson
The purpose of this demonstration is to illustrate the critical point associated with colloid chemistry where immiscible or partially miscible species become completely miscible at a specific temperature and mole fraction for a particular binary liquid system.
Johnson, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1014.
Colloids |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Undergraduate Pre–Service Teachers' Understandings and Misconceptions of Phase Equilibrium  Nursen Azizoglu, Mahir Alkan, and Ömer Geban
This study aimed to reveal pre-service chemistry teachers' misunderstandings in phase equilibrium. The results indicated that some misunderstandings originated from a misuse of Le Chatelier's principle and the ideal gas law.
Azizoglu, Nursen; Alkan, Mahir; Geban, Ömer. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 947.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Undergraduate Research
New Approaches to Chemistry Teaching. 2005 George C. Pimental Award  J. N. Spencer
There is overwhelming evidence that students learn best by interactive, collaborative methods of instruction. Resistance to these new findings is based on custom and tradition, the difficulty for instructors to adapt to a new pedagogy, and the inability to acknowledge research on how students learn.
Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 528.
Learning Theories |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Constructivism |
Student-Centered Learning
Popping Popcorn Kernels: Expanding Relevance with Linear Thinking  Jordan L. Bennett, Michael M. Fuson, and Thomas A. Evans
Graphing skills and an understanding of linear relationships are developed in the context of popping of individual popcorn kernels. Introductory-level chemistry students determine mass changes as the result of popping along with the volume and density of the popcorn flakes produced.
Bennett, Jordan L.; Fuson, Michael M.; Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 414.
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Use of Physicochemical Parameters To Assess the Environmental Fate of Organic Pollutants: The Fugacity Model  Xavier Domènech, José Antonio Ayllón, and José Peral
Describes the use of physicochemical data to estimate the fate of chemical pollutants in environmental systems through a series of labs in an environmental chemistry course.
Domènech, Xavier; Ayllón, José Antonio; Peral, José. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 237.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Binary Temperature–Composition Phase Diagram  Philip C. Sanders, James H. Reeves, and Michael Messina
Equations for a binary liquid temperaturecomposition phase diagram are derived based on the approximations that ?Hvap of the two liquids are the same and the mixture is ideal. These approximations lead to a simple set of equations for the liquid and gas lines in the phase diagram that can be plotted using a hand calculator.
Sanders, Philip C.; Reeves, James H.; Messina, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 150.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  Alfonso Aranda and María del Prado Rodríguez
Introduces the basic considerations for managing pressurized fluids, mainly liquefied and compressed gases.
Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, María del Prado. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 93.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
The Nature of Hydrogen Bonding  Emeric Schultz
Students use toy connecting blocks and Velcro to investigate weak intermolecular interactions, specifically hydrogen bonds.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 400A.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Colors in Liquid Crystals  George Lisensky and Elizabeth Boatman
This activity is suitable for exploring relationships between color, wavelength, reflection, and transmission and illustrates how temperature changes the liquid crystal's Bragg reflection wavelength.
Lisensky, George; Boatman, Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1360A.
Nanotechnology |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Spectroscopy |
Fatty Acids
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Chemistry of Moth Repellents  Gabriel Pinto
A real-life example consisting of the study of the different substances used as moth repellents is presented to introduce students to miscellaneous topics such as sublimation, intermolecular forces, insecticides, and the effect of moths on clothes. A set of questions about the most common moth repellents, well known to students, is used to motivate them to understand several everday phenomena through chemistry concepts.
Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1321.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Consumer Chemistry
Some Insights Regarding a Popular Introductory Gas Law Experiment  Ed DePierro and Fred Garafalo
This paper alerts readers to a potential source of error in one approach to the Dumas method as it is often practiced in introductory chemistry laboratories. The room-temperature vapor pressures of volatile compounds that might be considered as unknowns for the experiment lead to determined molar masses that are too low. The greater the vapor pressure of the compound, the lower the determined molar mass will be, when compared to the accepted value.
DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1194.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Computing Liquid–Vapor Phase Diagrams for Non-Ideal Binary Mixtures  Franklin M. C. Chen
This Mathcad worksheet is intended to help students learn about determining vaporliquid phase diagrams for ideal and non-ideal binary mixtures. The document starts with a brief review of chemical potential, activities, and the two component phase rule. The first task for students is to construct a binary boiling point diagram for the benzene-toluene pair of liquids. Seventeen exercises guide the students as they learn the thermodynamics concepts of activity and activity coefficients as related to boiling point phase diagrams. van Laar's theory is used to calculate solvent and solute's activity coefficients for non-ideal mixtures. The document concludes with construction of a binary phase boiling point diagram for a pair of liquids that form a non-ideal solution.
Chen, Franklin M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1100.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Symbolic Mathematics Documents Large and Small  Theresa Julia Zielinski
The SymMath DLib collection consists of learning objects. Each symbolic mathematics document presents a fully developed presentation of a topic with clearly articulated goals and objectives that focus student learning. Students interactively manipulate mathematical segments, read explanations, complete exercises, interpret plots, create animations, and complete mastery learning projects. Any SymMath document that presents a complete topic be it small or large is appropriate for the collection.
Zielinski, Theresa Julia. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1099.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics
The q/T Paradox: Which "Contains More Heat", a Cup of Coffee at 95°C or a Liter of Icewater?  Ed Vitz and Michael J. Schuman
In this demonstration, heat is removed from 10 cm3 of water at ~95C and 42 cm3 of water at ~0C by adding each to a measured sample of liquid nitrogen. The heat removed from the water boils the N2(l), and the quantity of liquid nitrogen that is evaporated by boiling is determined. The quantity of heat that was absorbed is calculated from the heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen and found to be about 10,000 J in the case of the hot water and 25,000 J in the case of the icewater.
Vitz, Ed; Schuman, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 856.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Simple Dynamic Models for Hydrogen Bonding Using Velcro-Polarized Molecular Models  Emeric Schultz
This article describes the use of models that dynamically illustrate the unique characteristics of weak intermolecular interactions, specifically hydrogen bonds. The models clearly demonstrate that H-bonds can break and reform while covalent bonds stay intact. The manner in which the models form and break H-bonds reflects the geometric and statistical manner in which H-bonding actually occurs and is not contrived. The use of these models addresses a significant area of student misconceptions. The construction of these molecular models is described.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 401.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Sublimination of Iodine at Various Pressures: Mutlipurpose Experiments in Inorganic and Physical Chemistry  Ilya A. Leenson
The aim of this article is to elucidate some interesting phenomena, which can be observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at various pressures. The experiments provide useful possibilities for discussing the following items: vaporization and melting of iodine crystals at atmospheric pressure; long storage of iodine crystals in air and in vacuum; temperature at which iodine vapors above crystals in a closed vessel becomes visible; the rate of iodine sublimation in high vacuum; jumping of heated iodine crystal in vacuum and jet force which emerges at different temperatures; diffusion of iodine vapors and random walk of iodine molecules; experimental determination of mean free path and collision frequency; mean free path in real life; calculation of the number of iodine atoms in equilibrium with molecular iodine at boiling point; and safety considerations (strength of glass ampules of different diameters against internal and external pressure).
Leenson, Ilya A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 241.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Transport Properties |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Use of a Tea Infuser To Submerge Low-Density Dry Ice  Carl P. Fictorie
A tea infuser is used as a container to hold low-density dry ice. When used with the classic demonstration where dry ice is used to acidify a solution in a graduated cylinder, the dry ice is suspended in the middle of the cylinder, allowing the solution in the upper half of the cylinder to change color while the lower half remains unchanged. Phase changes, acidbase chemistry, and diffusion phenomena are all illustrated.
Fictorie, Carl P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1473.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Purification of Water by Zone Melting: A Phase Diagram Interpretation  Mohamed Jemal
Oughton, Xu, and Battino published a paper in this Journal on the application of zone melting to the purification of water from NaCl aqueous solutions. I would like to comment on this interesting paper by giving an interpretation of some of their results taking into account the binary phase diagram.
Jemal, Mohamed. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 952.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Liquid-Crystal Displays: Fabrication and Measurement of a Twisted Nematic Liquid-Crystal Cell  Eric R. Waclawik, Michael J. Ford, Penny S. Hale, Joe G. Shapter, and Nico H. Voelcker
The relationship between molecular shape, molecular order, and macroscopic properties, such as optical birefringence, phase transitions, and electricallycontrolled birefringence, as demonstrated by the electrooptic effect, are investigated.
Waclawik, Eric R.; Ford, Michael J.; Hale, Penny S.; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nico H. . J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 854.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Materials Science
Correction re: J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 414-418  
The article Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance by L. Glasser published in the March 2004 issue contained misprints on page 418.
J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 645.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Does Molecular Mass Greatly Affect Boiling and Melting Points?  R. J. C. Brown
I have read the letter by Ronald L. Rich with interest. There are some interesting points to be made.
Brown, R. J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 643.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Does Molecular Mass Greatly Affect Boiling and Melting Points?  D. Blane Baker
Ronald L. Richs letter clearly alludes to two common concerns for those of us who teach. The first is that general dependences in science can be assumed mistakenly from highly specialized cases. A second is that these misleading generalizations often appear in the classroom.
Baker, D. Blane. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 643.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics
Does Molecular Mass Greatly Affect Boiling and Melting Points?  Ronald L. Rich
Too many otherwise well-prepared chemists still teach and write about a supposed general dependence of boiling point on molecular weight or mass, and some readers may take this article as supporting that.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 643.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics
Boiling Point versus Mass  Michael Laing
I am very pleased that Ronald Rich has written making these comments, because he is pre-eminent in this field, beginning with his early book, Periodic Correlations.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling Point versus Mass   Ronald L. Rich
Laing gave a useful examination of the boiling points of small molecules versus molecular mass. However, a molecule escaping from a liquid is not closely analogous to a satellite breaking free from the earths gravitational field with the requirement of a minimum escape velocity, such that the required kinetic energy is proportional to the mass of the satellite at that escape velocity.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Liquids |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Using Science Fiction To Teach Thermodynamics: Vonnegut, Ice-nine, and Global Warming  Charles A. Liberko
When covering the topic of thermodynamics at the introductory level, an example from Kurt Vonnegut, Jr's, fictional novel, Cat's Cradle, is used to take what the students have learned and apply it to a new situation.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 509.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The Gibbs Energy Basis and Construction of Boiling Point Diagrams in Binary Systems  Norman O. Smith
Following an earlier paper (J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1080-1084) on binary melting point diagrams, a method of constructing boiling point diagrams for each of the kinds of behavior of binary miscible liquid pairs (those without an azeotrope, those with a maximum boiling azeotrope, and those with a minimum boiling azeotrope) is described and illustrated.
Smith, Norman O. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 419.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Learning Theories |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties
Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  L. Glasser
A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships.
Glasser, L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 414.
Materials Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Measuring PVT Phase Behavior with a Variable Volume View Cell  Markus M. Hoffmann and Jason D. Salter
Isotherms are measured on the pressurevolumetemperature (PVT ) surface of a pure fluid, such as carbon dioxide. Students use the data to construct the portion of the vapor pressure curve near the critical point of the substance and obtain the changes in volume, ?V(T), entropy, ?S(T), and enthalpy ?H(T) for the observed phase transitions.
Hoffmann, Markus M.; Salter, Jason D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 411.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
A Classroom Exercise Aimed at the Development of an Intuitive Understanding of PVT Phase Behavior of Fluids  Markus M. Hoffmann
The classroom activity involves a group exercise over several classroom periods where students are required to construct 2D phase representations from a provided PVT block model. The broader implications of the classroom exercise are discussed.
Hoffmann, Markus M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 376.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Dipoles  Samuel H. Yalkowsky and Jennifer L. H. Johnson
Reply to comments on original article.
Yalkowsky, Samuel H.; Johnson, Jennifer L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Chemical Bonds  Roy W. Clark
Concerns over students confusing electrical and magnetic fields.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Colorful Iodine  Richard W. Ramette
Design for an iodine thermometer, demonstrating sublimation of iodine.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 878.
Main-Group Elements |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry
Uncle Tungsten  Martin E. Fuller
Design for an iodine thermometer, demonstrating sublimation of iodine.
Fuller, Martin E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 878.
Main-Group Elements |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry
Study of Polymer Glasses by Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry in the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory  J. C. W. Folmer and Stefan Franzen
A modulated differential scanning calorimetry experiment comparing a polymer glass to a semicrystalline polymer to introduce the distinction between first- and second-order phase transitions.
Folmer, J. C. W.; Franzen, Stefan. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 813.
Instrumental Methods |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Cement: Its Chemistry and Properties  Douglas C. MacLaren and Mary Anne White
A brief history, chemistry, and properties of cement, including its composition, preparation, and physical and chemical degradation.
MacLaren, Douglas C.; White, Mary Anne. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 623.
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry
The Author Replies to Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules (re: J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544-1550)  Michael Laing
Electron clouds of exposed atoms dictate boiling point.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 385.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules (re: J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544-1550)  Jonathan Mitschele
Consideration of what factors determine boiling points, particularly molecular mass.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 385.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules (re: J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544-1550)  Jonathan Mitschele
Consideration of what factors determine boiling points, particularly molecular mass.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 385.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Using Ice-Cooled Condensers in Chemistry Laboratory  Sally Solomon, Bryan Brook, Susan Rutkowsky, and Joseph Bennet
Using ice-cooled condensers in the chemistry laboratory; includes two simple experimental applications.
Solomon, Sally; Brook, Bryan; Rutkowsky, Susan; Bennet, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 299.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An After-Dinner Trick   JCE Editorial Staff
Using freezing-point depression to lift an ice cube out of a glass of water with a thread.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 480A.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Correction to "Achieving Absolute Negative Pressures in Liquids: Precipitation Phenomena in Solution" (J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 869)  
Complete Figure 2.
J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1203.
Equilibrium |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
A Three-Dimensional Model for Water  J. L. H. Johnson and S. H. Yalkowsky
Using Molymod spheres and magnets to simulate the structure and properties of water and aqueous systems.
Johnson, J. L. H.; Yalkowsky, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1088.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Nucleation in Gas–Liquid Transitions  Vicente Talanquer
Analysis of the process of nucleation of a new phase in the midst of a metastable state, with emphasis on the nucleation of fluid phases (liquids and gases).
Talanquer, Vicente. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 877.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases |
Surface Science
Equations of State and Phase Diagrams  L. Glasser
Presentation and analysis of three-dimensional pVT diagrams for carbon dioxide.
Glasser, L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 874.
Materials Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Achieving Absolute Negative Pressures in Liquids: Precipitation Phenomena in Solution  Z. P. Visak, L. P. N. Rebelo, and J. Szydlowski
Explanation of negative pressures generated in liquids and solids.
Visak, Z. P.; Rebelo, L. P. N.; Szydlowski, J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 869.
Equilibrium |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Is Salt Melting When It Dissolves in Water?  Alan Goodwin
Analysis of the chemical meaning of the terms melting and dissolving.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 393.
Liquids |
Solids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Purification of Water by Freeze-Thaw or Zone Melting  James Oughton, Silas Xu, and Rubin Battino
Quantitative investigation of the purification of slat water solutions through the process of partial freezing.
Oughton, James; Xu, Silas; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1373.
Conductivity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Generalizing the Phase Rule  William B. Jensen
Supplementary information on the Gibbs phase rule.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1369.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Fluorescence Polarization as a Tool to Pinpoint Vesicle Thermal Phase Transitions  Gary A. Baker, Thomas A. Betts, and Siddharth Pandey
Preparation of fluorescently labeled, small unilamellar vesicles and their analysis through fluorescence polarization.
Baker, Gary A.; Betts, Thomas A.; Pandey, Siddharth. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1100.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Lipids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Diagrams of Selected Organic Compounds. A Complete Listing of 15 Binary Phase Diagrams  Jürgen Gallus, Qiong Lin, Andreas Zumbühl, Sebastian D. Friess, Rudolf Hartmann, and Erich C. Meister
A simple and low-cost apparatus that allows accurate and reproducible phase measurements in a broad temperature range; fifteen solid-liquid phase diagrams of binary systems that result from the systematic combination of six aromatic hydrocarbons are summarized.
Gallus, J¨rgen; Lin, Qiong; Zumb¨hl, Andreas; Friess, Sebastian D.; Hartmann, Rudolf; Meister, Erich C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 961.
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Aromatic Compounds
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Exploring Phase Diagrams Using Supercritical Fluids. An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Steven G. Mayer, Jeremy M. Gach, Evelyn R. Forbes, and Philip J. Reid
Students explore phase behavior using subcritical and supercritical fluids. In this experiment, the pressure-dependent dielectric constant of carbon dioxide (CO2) is measured at four temperatures spanning the critical point.
Mayer, Steven G.; Gach, Jeremy M.; Forbes, Evelyn R.; Reid, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 241.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
JCE Classroom Activity: Out of "Thin Air": Exploring Phase Changes  John J. Vollmer
This Activity illustrates sublimation/deposition with para-dichlorobenzene (mothballs) and evaporation/condensation with water.
Vollmer, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 488A.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Physical Properties |
Solids |
Gases
Ultramicro-Boiling-Point Determination--A Modification  Henry Brouwer
The determination of microscale boiling points in a melting-point tube may be simplified by replacing the micro-bell bubbler with an ultrathin capillary tube bubbler.
Brouwer, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1480.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Thermodynamics of Water Superheated in the Microwave Oven  B. H. Erné
Water is conveniently heated above its normal boiling point in a microwave oven in a glass microwave oven teapot. Water stops boiling soon after heating is interrupted, but subsequently added rough particles can still act as nucleation centers for a brief, spectacular burst of steam bubbles. The heat to make those steam bubbles obviously comes from the water itself, so that one can conclude that the boiling water was superheated, which is confirmed with a thermometer.
Erné, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1309.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Liquids
The Influence of Solidification Techniques on the History of Material Culture  Norman E. Shank
This article describes three methods of solidification that have major importance in the material culture of today. Each method is illustrated with a survey of the history and chemistry of two or three classes of materials commonly used for manufacture and construction.
Shank, Norman E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1133.
Materials Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Industrial Chemistry
Glass Doesn't Flow and Doesn't Crystallize and It Isn't a Liquid  Stephen J. Hawkes
It is widely believed that glass flows in historic time and it is often asserted that glass is a liquid. The evidence of archeology, geology, and viscosity and of research on glass structure and on conservation of antique glass is examined and the conclusion in the title is reached. These fallacies should not be taught.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 846.
Geochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry
A Thermodynamic Analysis to Explain the Boiling-Point Isotope Effect for Molecular Hydrogen  D. Blane Baker and Byron K. Christmas
The analysis reported provides an explanation for the boiling-point isotope effect observed for molecular hydrogen isotopes (H2, D2, and T2); that is, an explanation for the increase in normal boiling point with increasing molecular mass.
Baker, D. Blane; Christmas, Byron K. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 732.
Isotopes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Learning Theories
Melting Point and Molecular Symmetry  R. J. C. Brown and R. F. C. Brown
In 1882 Thomas Carnelley observed that high molecular symmetry is associated with high melting point. The application of the rule to a number of different molecular crystals is discussed. The rule applies to different categories of crystal for different reasons, which can be explained by thermodynamic analysis.
Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, R. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 724.
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography
A Closer Look at Phase Diagrams for the General Chemistry Course  Stephen A. Gramsch
The information provided by the high-pressure phase diagrams of some simple systems (carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, and iron) can provide a useful extension to the traditional discussion of phase diagrams in the general chemistry course. At the same time, it can prepare students for a more illuminating presentation of the concept of equilibrium than is possible through the discussion of gas phase, acid-base, and solubility product equilibria alone.
Gramsch, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 718.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Geochemistry
Spectroscopic Determination of Ternary Phase Diagrams  Kerry K. Karukstis, Sara K. Avrantinis, Stephanie L. Boegeman, Jeanie N. Conner, Blaine M. Hackman, Jennifer M. Lindsay, Alexander L. Mandel, and Elizabeth J. Miller
A modern experiment using conventional absorbance or fluorescence spectroscopy to rapidly, accurately, and conveniently construct the n-propanol-n-heptane-water ternary phase diagram.
Karukstis, Kerry K.; Avrantinis, Sara K.; Boegeman, Stephanie L.; Conner, Jeanie N.; Hackman, Blaine M.; Lindsay, Jennifer M.; Mandel, Alexander L.; Miller, Elizabeth J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 701.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Illustrating Thermodynamic Concepts Using a Hero's Engine  Pedro L. Muiño and James R. Hodgson
A modified Hero's engine is used to illustrate concepts of thermodynamics and engineering design suitable for introductory chemistry courses and more advanced physical chemistry courses. This demonstration is suitable to illustrate concepts like gas expansion, gas cooling through expansion, conversion of heat to work, interconversion between kinetic energy and potential energy, and feedback mechanisms.
Muio, Pedro L.; Hodgson, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 615.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Crystals Out of "Thin Air"  John J. Vollmer
In this experiment crystals of para-dichlorobenzene form readily and efficiently from mothballs in a safe setting, using canning jars with ice cubes. The experiment can serve as an introduction to the concept of molecules, especially when combined with the condensation of liquids and the perception of odors.
Vollmer, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 486.
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium: Verification of the Lever Rule  A. D. Jordan
An extension to the traditional determination of the mutual solubility curve for a binary system of partly miscible liquids for the methanol-cyclohexane system. It allows for the determination of the composition of one of the phases and the ratio of its mass to the total mass of the mixture, at a given temperature.
Jordan, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 395.
Equilibrium |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
Reply to Inflection at the Triple Point  Myers, R. Thomas
Response to challenges in graphing the triple point of water and correction to original article.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Inflection at the Triple Point  Myers, R. Thomas
Challenges in graphing the triple point of water.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Letters  
Challenges in graphing the triple point of water.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Gibbs Phase Rule Revisited: Interrelationships between Components and Phases  Joseph S. Alper
This paper discusses the stoichiometric constraints in multiphase reactive systems. It is shown that two simple, seemingly similar systems can differ in their number of components.
Alper, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1567.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Survey of Binary Azetropes  Yates, Paul C.
Using water/1-propanol as an example of a low-boiling azetrope.
Yates, Paul C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1483.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Letters  
Using water/1-propanol as an example of a low-boiling azetrope.
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1483.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Entropy, Disorder, and Freezing  Brian B. Laird
It is argued that the usual view that entropy is a measure of "disorder" is problematic and that there exist systems at high density, for which packing considerations dominate, where a spatially ordered state has a higher entropy than a disordered one.
Laird, Brian B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1388.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
An Inexpensive Microscale Method for Measuring Vapor Pressure, Associated Thermodynamic Variables, and Molecular Weight  Jason C. DeMuro, Hovanes Margarian, Artavan Mkhikian, Kwang Hi No, and Andrew R. Peterson
Existing methods for measuring vapor pressure are too expensive or not quantitative enough for chemistry classes in secondary schools. Our method measures the vapor pressure inside a bubble trapped in a graduated microtube made from a disposable 1-mL glass pipet.
DeMuro, Jason C.; Margarian, Hovanes; Mkhikian, Artavan; No, Kwang Hi; Peterson, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1113.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items  Danielle R. D. Campanizzi , Brenda Mason, and Christine K. F. Hermann
Inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores.
Campanizzi , Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1079.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A More Dramatic Container to Crush by Atmospheric Pressure  Robert D. Meyers and Gordon T. Yee
The familiar demonstration of collapsing a can by filling it with water vapor and then sealing it and allowing it to cool is improved by performing it with a 20-L steel solvent drum instead.
Meyers, Robert D.; Yee, Gordon T. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 933.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Mean Field Theory of Phase Transitions  Jurgen M. Honig
A heuristic approach is provided for a review of the mean field theory of phase transformations. The approach leads to a single formalism that can deal with first- or second-order transitions and supplies criteria under which these transformations can be expected to occur.
Honig, Jurgen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 848.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics
Correction to The Bobbing Bird  Gesser, Hyman D.
Problem with demonstration if humidity is high and correction for this.
Gesser, Hyman D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 757.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Equipment for a Low-Cost Study of the Naphthalene-Biphenyl Phase Diagram  David Calvert, Michael J. Smith, and Eduardo Falcão
In this experiment a simply constructed, low-cost experimental assembly is described that allows accurate, reproducible results to be obtained by students with little practical experience. The samples, based on mixtures of organic compounds, may be readily prepared by technicians and sealed, isolating the students who will use the equipment from contact with the chemicals.
Calvert, David; Smith, Michael J.; Falcão, Eduardo. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 668.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermal Analysis
Survey of Binary Azeotropes as Physical Chemistry Lab Experiments with Attention to Cost, Safety, and the Environment  Robert J. Glinski, Christopher W. Smith, and Jason B. Cooke
A survey is presented of possible binary azeotropic systems suitable for study in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. From a range of sources, a list has been compiled of the most acceptable systems on the basis of health, safety, waste disposal, and practicability concerns. More than 80 systems were reviewed.
Glinski, Robert J.; Smith, Christopher W.; Cooke, Jason B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 227.
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Management
There Is No Perceptible Inflection at the Triple Point  Stephen J. Hawkes
At the triple point, phase diagrams have no discontinuity that is observable on any practical scale.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 226.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Melting Point Range and Phase Diagrams- Confusing Laboratory Textbook Descriptions  Kenn E. Harding
This paper proposes use of a modified phase diagram as a better tool for students to understand the relationship of observed melting point behavior and a physically correct phase diagram.
Harding, Kenn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 224.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Description of Regions in Two-Component Phase Diagrams  Robert M. Rosenberg
This paper is concerned with helping students in an undergraduate physical chemistry course to interpret various geometric regions in reduced two-component phase diagrams in which either temperature or pressure is constant. This aim is accomplished by correlating the dimensionality of a geometric region with the degrees of freedom of the system obtained from the phase rule.
Rosenberg, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 223.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Realistic Thermodynamic Curves Describing a Second-Order Phase Transition  Paul W. R. Bessonette and Mary Anne White
Despite the number and variety of phase transitions that are observed, they are all thermodynamically bound by the common feature that the Gibbs energy function (G ) must be continuous upon passing through any phase transition. We consider the temperature dependence of G, H, S, Cp, and V for a variety of types of phase transitions and correct an error common to depiction of Ehrenfest second-order phase transitions in the introductory physical chemistry textbooks presently available.
Bessonette, Paul W. R.; White, Mary Anne. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 220.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Learning Theories
Thermodynamic Diagrams  Scot Chaston
This article discusses examples of three thermodynamic diagrams that have been developed for this purpose. They are the thermodynamic energy account (TEA), the total entropy scale, and the thermodynamic scale diagrams. These diagrams help in the teaching and learning of thermodynamics by bringing the imagination into the process of developing a better understanding of abstract thermodynamic functions, and by allowing the reader to keep track of specialist thermodynamic discourses in the literature.
Chaston, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 216.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Physics Teacher  Volker B. E. Thomsen
Selected articles with a chemistry emphasis.
Thomsen, Volker B. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 18.
Spectroscopy |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An Excursion into Phase Tetrahedra-Where Physical Chemistry and Geometry Meet  S. Ezrahi, A. Aserin, N. Garti, and G. Berkovic
In this article we show how phase behavior of ternary (three-component) and quaternary (four-component) systems can be represented as phase triangles and tetrahedra. In particular, we discuss a quaternary system composed of oil, water, surface-active agent (surfactant), and cosurfactant. It is shown that although the behavior can be fully described by a phase tetrahedron, it is more convenient to display two-dimensional representations given by slices cut through the tetrahedron.
Ezrahi, S.; Aserin, A.; Garti, Nissim; Berkovic, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1648.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Surface Science |
Micelles |
Physical Properties
The Influence of Distillation Conditions on the Azeotropic Composition  Jaime Wisniak
It is shown that using simple models for describing vapor-liquid equilibria and vapor pressure data of the pure components it is possible to determine rather accurately how the azeotropic point will shift if the distillation is carried out at a different pressure or temperature.
Wisniak, Jaime. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1486.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Raoult's Law: Binary Liquid-Vapor Phase Diagrams: A Simple Physical Chemistry Experiment  Roger W. Kugel
A new physical chemistry laboratory experiment illustrating Raoult's law behavior of ideal solutions is described. The vapor composition of binary mixtures of a ketone and an aromatic solvent is measured spectrophotometrically and the results used to generate Raoult's law vapor pressure plots and binary liquid-vapor phase diagrams.
Kugel, Roger W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1125.
Instrumental Methods |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Teaching Distillation Knowledge: A Video Film about Distillation Bridging a Gap Between Theory and Practice  Martin J. Goedhart, Hanno van Keulen, Theo M. Mulder, Adri H. Verdonk, and Wobbe De Vos
The authors observed that first year students hardly used their knowledge of phase theory in the design and performance of distillations. They therefore developed a video in which they confront students with the boiling properties of liquid mixtures.
Goedhart, Martin J.; van Keulen, Hanno; Mulder, Theo M.; Verdonk, Adri H.; De Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 378.
Learning Theories |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
The Behavior of a Pair of Partially Miscible Liquids  S. R. Logan
In this paper, the fundamental reasons for liquids not mixing are carefully examined, along with the question of the compositions of co-existent phases. This is developed using only the general criterion that, at equilibrium, the Gibbs energy of the system should be minimized, and assuming that the liquid mixtures behave as "regular solutions".
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 339.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Liquids
Thermochromic Solids  Jeffrey G. Hughes
The preparation of thermochromic compounds and various ways to use them.
Hughes, Jeffrey G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 57.
Coordination Compounds |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Determination of Enthalpy of Vaporization Using a Microwave Oven  Alvin P. Kennedy Sr.
An experiment to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of polar solvents at elevated pressures and temperatures. The liquid-vapor phase curve was determined by heating a polar solvent in a microwave oven under constant volume conditions.
Kennedy Sr., Alvin P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1231.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Undergraduate Research |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The Gibbs Energy Basis and Construction of Melting Point Diagrams in Binary Systems  Norman O. Smith
Determining melting point diagrams for binary systems. The detailed procedures for doing so are illustrated, and the necessary data for fifteen real and fictitious examples of the various types are provided for further exercise.
Smith, Norman, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1080.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Onium Compounds  Nicolay V. Tsarevsky, Vera Slaveykova, Stefan Manev, Dobri Lazarov
The onium salts are of significant interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis, while the application of different onium salts is immense.
Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazaroz, Dobri. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 734.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Experiments of Modern Chemistry: Simultaneous Recording of Multiple Cooling Curves  Ronald A. Bailey, Sudhen B. Desai, Norbert F. Hepfinger, Henry B. Hollinger, Peter S. Locke, Kenneth J. Miller, James J. Deacutis, Donald R. VanSteele
An apparatus for simultaneous recording of six heating/cooling curves of metallic mixtures is described. Data are recorded using computer data acquisition and temperature-time data displayed and printed out for evaluation.
Bailey, Ronald A.; Desai, Sudhen B.; Hepfinger, Norbert F.; Hollinger, Henry B.; Locke, Peter S.; Miller, Kenneth J.; Deacutis, James J.; VanSteele, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 732.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A Computer Model for Soda Bottle Oscillations: "The Bottelator"  Leonard J. Soltzberg, Peter G. Bowers, Christine Hofstetter
Oscillatory release of gas sometimes occurs when a small pinhole is made in a bottle of commercial soda water. We present experimental documentation of these oscillations, and have modeled them using the Stella II modeling package.
Soltzberg, Leonard J.; Bowers, Peter G.; Hofstetter, Christine. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 711.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Phase Separation in Binary Systems: the Possibility of Gas-Gas Equilibrium at Subcritical Conditions  Jaime Wisniak
The possibility of gases exhibiting limited solubility under subcritical conditions is analyzed and discussed.
Wisniak, Jaime. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 546.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Phase Diagrams  Lunelli, B.
Mistake in Figure 5.
Lunelli, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A228.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Air Stream-Assisted Sublimation on a Microscale: A Rapid Procedure Suitable for Sophomore Laboratory  Prem D. Sattsangi
Using familiar apparatus, such as a 3-mL reaction vial, an air condenser, a stream of clean air/nitrogen/argon, an aluminum heating block and a hot plate, several compounds in the microscale amounts (50 mg), with its melting points ranging from 50-240 C, have been successfully sublimed in 40 minutes.
Sattsangi, Prem D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A3.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Nonlinear Dynamics of the BZ Reaction: A Simple Experiment that Illustrates Limit Cycles, Chaos, Bifurcations, and Noise  Peter Strizhak and Michael Menzinger
A simple batch experiment is described that involves the recording of time series of the oscillating Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. It displays a variety of dynamical phenomena that illustrate some of the key concepts of nolinear dynamics.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 868.
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A Simple Experiment for Demostration of Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide   Van T. Lieu
The experiment involves the compression of small pieces of dry ice and carbon dioxide gas mixture in a 1-mL tuberculin syringe with the needle end of the syringe sealed.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 837.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Demonstration of the Plasma State  Joachim P. Schreckenbach and Klaus Rabending
Important basic properties of the plasma state are recognized in a simple experimental arrangement described in this article.
Schreckenbach, Joachim P.; Rabending, Klaus. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 782.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Conductivity |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Mechanical Coefficients of Liquids by a Differential Expansion Method  Valentín García Baonza, Mercedes Cáceres, and Javier Núñez
This paper describes a simple experiment designed to measure the isothermal compressibility and the thermal expansion coefficient of liquids.
Valentín García Baonza, Mercedes Cáceres, and Javier Núñez. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 690.
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Joys of Liquid Nitrogen  William T. Nolan and Thaddeus J. Gish
In this paper we describe a laboratory experience with liquid nitrogen that youngsters find especially exciting.
Nolan, William T.;Gish, Thaddeus J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 651.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gases
Multichannel DTA Apparatus for the Measurement of Phase Diagrams  A. Lötz
An inexpensive five-channel DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) apparatus for educational use is described in detail.
Lotz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 195.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermal Analysis
Visualizing p-v-T and p-x-T Relationships using Geomview  David, Carl W.
Using Geomview software to produce and explore three-dimensional p-v-T and p-x-T diagrams.
David, Carl W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A78.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Iodine Demonstration of Sublimation  Robert H. Goldsmith
Simple sublimation demonstration using iodine and an overhead projector.
Goldsmith, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1132.
Main-Group Elements |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Dynamite Demo?  Dale D. Clyde
Caution for boiling-water-with-ice demonstration.
Clyde, Dale D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1130.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases
Chemistry Abounds: An Educational Outreach Program Designed for Elementary School Audiences  Henry J. Tracy, Chris Collins, and Paul Langevin
Description of "Phases of Matter" program, consisting of nine modules, to awaken curiosity among elementary students.
Tracy, Henry J.; Collins, Chris; Langevin, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1111.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A Ternary Phase Diagram for a Less Hazardous System  Barbara A. Udale and John D. Wells
Using a n-propanol-n-heptane-water system to generate data for construction of a ternary phase diagram.
Udale, Barbara A.; Wells, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1106.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Solutions / Solvents
Determination of Heats of Fusion: Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry for the AP Chemistry Course   Susan M. Temme
Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in AP chemistry.
Temme, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 916.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Computer-Generated Ternary Phase Diagram   Combs, Leon L.; Lynn, Gregory W.
175. Bits and pieces, 54. Procedure for generating ternary phase diagrams (triangle coordinate graphs) using spreadsheet software.
Combs, Leon L.; Lynn, Gregory W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 608.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Binary-Solution Critical Opalescence: Mole Fraction versus Temperature Phase Diagram  Stenland, Chris; Pettitt, B. Montgomery
Physical chemistry laboratory to investigate the thermally controlled critical demixing of binary fluid mixtures; includes experimental setup, sample data, and analysis.
Stenland, Chris; Pettitt, B. Montgomery J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 560.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Large-Scale Sublimation and Evaporative-Distillation Using an Improved Apparatus  Eisenbraun, E. J.; Cagle, M. D.; Lucas, J. M.; Denton, T. T.
Apparatus for improving large-scale sublimation and evaporative-distillation.
Eisenbraun, E. J.; Cagle, M. D.; Lucas, J. M.; Denton, T. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Kinetics in Thermodynamic Clothing: Fun with Cooling Curves: A First-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr.
A series of experiments examining the phenomenon of cooling by producing part of the cooling curve for water at different initial temperatures, focussing on the fact that the curve is nonlinear (unlike the information presented in many texts).
Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 346.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics
Put the Body to Them!  Perkins, Robert R.
Examples of chemistry demonstrations involving student participation, including quantized states and systems, boiling point trends, intermolecular vs. intramolecular changes, polar/nonpolar molecules, enantiomers and diastereomers, and chromatography.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 151.
Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Quantum Chemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Spinodal Decomposition as an Interesting Example of the Application of Several Thermodynamic Principles  Clerc, Daryl G.; Cleary, David A.
Analysis of phase separation through spinodal decomposition and nucleation and growth.
Clerc, Daryl G.; Cleary, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 112.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Problem of Counting the Number of Molecules and Calculating Thermodynamic Properties: An Experimental Approach  Torres, Luis Alfonso; Hernandez-Contreras, Imelda; Guardado, Juan Antonio
Experimental procedure that counts molecules by measuring changes in the piezoelectric properties of a cooled quartz crystal as molecules of naphthalene sublimate onto its surface (the Knudsen effusion method); includes data and analysis.
Torres, Luis Alfonso; Hernandez-Contreras, Imelda; Guardado, Juan Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 67.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
The phases of sulfur  Birdwhistell, Kurt R.
Demonstrating the phases of sulfur through viscosity differences.
Birdwhistell, Kurt R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 56.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Use of a Spreadsheet in an Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory  O'Connor, Sally; Bailey, Dechelle
Use of a commercial spreadsheet program to assist physical chemistry students in processing empirical data (bomb calorimetry and the heat of vaporization of ethanol or water).
O'Connor, Sally; Bailey, Dechelle J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A91.
Chemometrics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Journey around a Phase Diagram  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
This paper deals in depth with questions that arise from phase diagrams in an introductory level chemistry course.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1052.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
Solving Nonlinear Simultaneous Equations by the Method of Successive Substitution: Applications to Equations of State  Eberhart, J. G.
Several student programming exercises based on the use of various equations of state to predict a variety of fluid properties are described.
Eberhart, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1038.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
The Wonder in Spider Thread Chemistry  Glickstein, Neil
The interdisciplinary unit described here leads students into an investigation of the complexities of silk generation through literature, visual arts, natural history, and mythology.
Glickstein, Neil J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 948.
Natural Products |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A Melting Point Depression Activity Using Two Inorganic Substances  DeMeo, Stephen
Measuring melting point depression using iodine and sulfur.
DeMeo, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 796.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Solid-Liquid Phase Diagram Experiment: Updated for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Williams, Kathryn R.; Collins, Sean E.
An experiment using differential scanning calorimetry and fusion microscopy to determine the phase diagram for a eutectic system.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Collins, Sean E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 617.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Liquids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Nickel-Titanium Memory Metal: A "Smart" Material Exhibiting a Solid-State Phase Change and Superelasticity  Gisser, Kathleen R. C.; Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Cappellari, Ann; Hunsberger, Lynn; Ellis, Arthur B.; Perepezko, John; Lisensky, George C.
Several simple experiments that illustrate the shape-memory, mechanical, and acoustical properties of Nitinol.
Gisser, Kathleen R. C.; Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Cappellari, Ann; Hunsberger, Lynn; Ellis, Arthur B.; Perepezko, John; Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 334.
Solid State Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Cryophori, Hot Molecules, and Frozen Nitrogen  Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L.
Freezing water and nitrogen at low atmospheric pressure.
Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 67.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Modifications to the angle-dependent line of normals model for gas-phase reaction rate constants  Wiseman, Floyd L.; Rice, Amanda G.
This article addresses improvements that need to be made to the angle-dependent line of normals (ADLN) model.
Wiseman, Floyd L.; Rice, Amanda G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 914.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Critical point phase separation in binary liquid mixtures   Bowen, L. H.; Benevides, M. L.
Critical point demonstrations are not usually practical to perform. This author provides a suggestions using hexane, nitrobenzene, triethylamine, water and phenolphthalein.
Bowen, L. H.; Benevides, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 775.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Sublimation demonstrated: Parking in a winter wonderland  Hill, John W.
Driving through the winters of Wisconsin provides lessons in phase change.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 621.
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Phase diagrams for aqueous systems  Treptow, Richard S.
Review of basic principles involving a phase diagram for an aqueous system and subsequent discussion of how diagrams for specific systems can be used both in the laboratory and for practical applications.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 616.
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Phase diagrams of one-compound systems: What most textbooks don't say, but should!  Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.
High school and introductory chemistry texts contain errors and omissions in phase diagrams.
Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 560.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Molecular dynamics simulator  Matthews, G. Peter, Heald, Emerson F.
A review of a computer program that provides a display of molecular motion in a solid, liquid, or gas.
Matthews, G. Peter, Heald, Emerson F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 387.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Compounds for Cooling Curve Experiments  Kirksey, H. Graden
Suggestions for good (safe, effective,) compounds to melt in instructional laboratories, especially in secondary schools.
Kirksey, H. Graden J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 164.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A Discussion of the Term "Polymorphism"  Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin
Authors propose an extended definition for the term "polymorphism", especially in low molecular weight compounds.
Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 101.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding
Understanding the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment  Chen, Chien T.
This article reviews our current understanding and then specifies the requirements for research that will improve our ability to detect hydrocarbons and predict their fate in the subsurface environment.
Chen, Chien T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 357.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling and freezing simultaneously - with a feeble vacuum pump!   Ellison, Mike
The author uses this demonstration of freezing and boiling at reduced pressure to reinforce concepts about energy effects in phase changes.
Ellison, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 325.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Vapor pressure demonstrations using a butane lighter  Delumyea, R. Del
The concept of the change of state of matter and particularly the volatitlity of liquids is an important concept taught in introductory chemistry courses.
Delumyea, R. Del J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 321.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An Ace reducing adapter for screw vials.  Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce.
Using this device, solvents contained in vials can be evaporated quickly without problems.
Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The use and utility of phase science  Laughlin, Robert G.
Phase diagrams describe the phase behavior, for a particular system of mixtures spanning a particular range of system variables. One must know how to read and interpret phase diagrams in order to extract and use the information they contain.
Laughlin, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 26.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
Freezing point depression in a bottle of soda   Bare, William D.
The "ravenous consumption of soda" by today's students makes an interesting model with which to demonstrate the effect of solute concentration on the freezing point of an aqueous solution.
Bare, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1038.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry
Handling dry ice in a grade school setting  Berger B., Tomas G.; Mellon, Edward K.; Bare, William D.
A safe way to present dry ice to young students that also engages them in an exercise of inquiry.
Berger B., Tomas G.; Mellon, Edward K.; Bare, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 868.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Wet dry ice   Becker, Robert
A method for demonstrating the triple point of carbon dioxide in a safe way.
Becker, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 782.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The critical point and the number of degrees of freedom  Battino, Rubin
The question, "how many degrees of freedom are there at the critical point?" is a favorite of the author's because it always elicits interesting answers and comments.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 276.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A computer-aided optical melting point device  Masterov, Michael; Pierre-Louis, Bredy; Chuang, Raymond
The device should improve the precision of these determinations by eliminating human judgement from the process.
Masterov, Michael; Pierre-Louis, Bredy; Chuang, Raymond J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A75.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Distillation and the Macintosh: PT Nomograph, an "in-lab" utility  Simon, R.; Senecal, T.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. This program duplicates the generic pressure-temperature nomograph, found in a variety of sources, for the detection of the boiling point of a liquid under reduced pressure.
Simon, R.; Senecal, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 505.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
A discourse on the drinking bird  Vemulapalli, G. K.
The aims of this article are to describe the operation of the drinking bird in quantitative terms, and to show the similarities between heat engines and the bird.
Vemulapalli, G. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 457.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A vapor pressure demonstration   Sears, Jerry A.
The fact that all liquids exert a vapor pressure is an abstract concept that many students have difficulty understanding. The following demonstration offers dramatic, visual evidence of the pressure exerted by the vapor of a liquid.
Sears, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 427.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Heat of solution and colligative properties: An illustration of enthalpy and entropy   Mundell, Donald W.
This demonstration provides a means for challenging the students to interpret some examples where both enthalpy and entropy are possible.
Mundell, Donald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 426.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
Phase diagrams for ternary liquid systems  Stead, Rebecca J.; Stead, Keith
A very simple adaptation to the original Clarke procedure allows this experiment to stand alone without the calibration curve.
Stead, Rebecca J.; Stead, Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 385.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
A useful method for obtaining crystals from viscous oils  Qian, Chengyi
The method of slowly evaporating solvents was tried in the present study with oily reaction residues, which did not crystallize on standing for some time.
Qian, Chengyi J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 355.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Preparation of sterno from blackboard chalk: A "safe" student-teacher activity   Welsh, Michael J.
The goal of this program is exposing students to safe, exciting, hands-on activities that illustrate simple, basic chemistry.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 337.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Alcohols
Laboratory experiments on phase-transfer-catalyzed reactions of neutral molecules  Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K.
In order to illustrate the application of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC), the preparation of benzophenone oxime was attempted under different conditions.
Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 273.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
"Melting points are uncorrected": True or false?  Tiers, George V. D.
The classical capillary melting-point determination providing a simple measurement of an unpredictable characteristic property of solid organic compounds, together with a good indication of purity, has been of central importance to the development of organic chemistry.
Tiers, George V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 258.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Design of a microscale sublimator   Winston, Anthony
Sublimation is particularly useful when unfavorable solubility properties may lead to high losses of material during crystallization.
Winston, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 162.
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Precipitation / Solubility
A eutectic mixture with medicinal applications   Hudson, Reggie L.; Osburn, Vicki Perez; Brashear, Robert
The authors have found that the menthol-phenol eutectic has some important advantages for classroom use.
Hudson, Reggie L.; Osburn, Vicki Perez; Brashear, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 156.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The direct relation between altitude and boiling point  Earl, Boyd L.
Since the physical parameter whose variation is responsible for the change in boiling point due to altitude is atmospheric pressure, one must make the connection between boiling point and altitude via the pressure, which is directly connected to both.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 45.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Supercritical phase transitions at very high pressure  Schlosky, Kevin M.
Discussion of supercritical phase transitions at very high pressures.
Schlosky, Kevin M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 989.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The liquid phase of carbon dioxide: A simple lecture demonstration  Andrews, Lester
Demonstrating that liquid CO2 can exist at higher pressures.
Andrews, Lester J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 597.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Doing Chemistry: A resource for high school chemistry teachers  Brooks, David W.; Chapman, Kenneth M.; Epp, Dianne N.; Erdman, Richard A.; Farrington, Paul S.; Freeman, Maria A.; Glahn, Michael L.; Gonzalez, Barbara L.; Grosse, Connie A.; Hardwick, E. Russell; Lagowski, J. J.; Lyons, Edward J.; McGahan, James E.; Moo
Doing chemistry is a practical resource for high school chemistry teachers that ties specifics of classroom chemistry content to the specifics of teaching practice.
Brooks, David W.; Chapman, Kenneth M.; Epp, Dianne N.; Erdman, Richard A.; Farrington, Paul S.; Freeman, Maria A.; Glahn, Michael L.; Gonzalez, Barbara L.; Grosse, Connie A.; Hardwick, E. Russell; Lagowski, J. J.; Lyons, Edward J.; McGahan, James E.; Moo J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 425.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Phase equilibrium and G minimum: Displacements of the equilibrium under external parameters  Deumie, M.; Henri-Rousseau, O.; Boulil, K.; Boulil, B.
The object of this paper is to treat the displacement of a phase equilibrium with respect to changes in pressure, temperature, amount of solute, and amount of an inert gas, in the framework of the Perona approach.
Deumie, M.; Henri-Rousseau, O.; Boulil, K.; Boulil, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 232.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
The freezing point depression law in physical chemistry: Is it time for a change?  Franzen, Hugo F.
The purpose of this article is to suggest a change in physical chemistry courses to a slightly more complicated but significantly more useful generalization of the simple freezing point depression law.
Franzen, Hugo F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1077.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Physical Properties
A computer-simulated experiment on vapor-liquid phase equilibrium  Craig, Norman C.; Brown, Brian J.; Chamness, William S.; Mulvey, Elaine B.
95. Bits and pieces, 38. A computer simulation of a traditional physical chemistry lab deaing with vapor-liquid phase equilibrium.
Craig, Norman C.; Brown, Brian J.; Chamness, William S.; Mulvey, Elaine B. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 792.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Interfacial phenomena   Anwander, Alberto E.; Grant, Richard P. J. S.; Letcher, Trevor M.
The interfaces between liquids, and liquids and gases, have a number of possible permutations that lead to exotic phenomenon such as antibubbles, floating drops, boules, polyaphrons, and hanging air bubbles. The authors give directions for demonstrating these in the classroom or lab.
Anwander, Alberto E.; Grant, Richard P. J. S.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 608.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Heating values of fuels: An introductory experiment  Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin; Karl, David J.
This experiment is a simple, inexpensive way for students to determine the heats of combustion of common solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels.
Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin; Karl, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 554.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry
Mutual solubilities of liquids in a binary two phase system: A physical chemistry experiment  Halpern, Arthur M.; Gozashti, Saeed
A description of an activity that looks at a binary, two-phase system.
Halpern, Arthur M.; Gozashti, Saeed J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 371.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Liquids
Preparation of a simple thermochromic solid  Van Oort, Michiel J. M.
An easy, dramatic, and effective laboratory introduction to solid-solid phase transitions, thermochromism, and color changes associated with changes in ligand coordination suitable for undergraduate students in physical and general chemistry.
Van Oort, Michiel J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 84.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Thermodynamics
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Heat of vaporization of nitrogen  Hamlet, Peter
A very simple procedure for measuring the heat of vaporization of nitrogen.
Hamlet, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1060.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Demonstration of vapor pressure  Richardson, W. S.
Demonstrating the vapor pressure of several different materials using a water manometer.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 968.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
The tin/lead solid/liquid phase diagram: A computer-controlled experiment  Williams, Kathryn R.; Eyler, John R.; Colgate, Samuel O.
83. Bits and pieces, 34. A computer interfaced experiment in which students plot the phase diagram for a mixture of tin and lead.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Eyler, John R.; Colgate, Samuel O. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 499.
Solids |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2  Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin
Design, construction, and use of a safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2.
Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 347.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
The binary liquid-solid phase diagram of naphthalene-p-dichlorobenzene: An physical chemistry laboratory experiment  Blanchette, Paul P.
The liquid-solid phase diagram of naphthalene-p-dichlorobenzene is obtained easily by thermal analysis methods with minimum laboratory equipment.
Blanchette, Paul P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 267.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Solids |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Carbon dioxide: Its principal properties displayed and discussed  Bent, Henry A.
The principal properties of carbon dioxide demonstrated and discussed.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 167.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Demonstration of condensation-vaporization  Ackerson, Rex D.
Demonstrating the condensation and vaporization of Freon-12 using dry ice.
Ackerson, Rex D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 70.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Simulation of two-dimensional Jahn-Teller phase-transitions in solids  Maaskant, W. J. A.; de Graaff, R. A. G.
77. This paper describes a simulation of two-dimensional phase transitions that mimic part of what occurs in a certain class of cooperative Jahn-Teller compounds.
Maaskant, W. J. A.; de Graaff, R. A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 966.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
The true meaning of component in the Gibbs phase rule  Franzen, H. F.
The purpose of this article is to call careful attention to the nature of "c".
Franzen, H. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 948.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
An important elementary theorem in thermodynamics  Schomaker, Verner; Waser, Jurg
The authors argue for a more coherent presentation of thermodynamic material, and to facilitate this they outline all possible permutations of the variables as well as give a theorem for finding the least work required for a changing state.
Schomaker, Verner; Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 935.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Alternative approach to phase transitions in the van der Waals fluid  Mau, Meredith; McIver, James W., Jr.
In this article the authors report an alternative method of discussing phase changes in the van der Walls fluid. This method has a number of pedagogical advantages over the traditional "equation of state" approach even though it contains no new information.
Mau, Meredith; McIver, James W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 880.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
When are two aqueous salt solutions insoluble in each other?: A phase-diagram experiment illustrating a peculiarity of micelle-forming systems  Franklin, Thomas C.; Benson, Susan B.
The lab described in this article not only gives some exposure to the peculiarities of micelle systems, it also gives experience in the common methods of determining three-component phase diagrams around room temperature.
Franklin, Thomas C.; Benson, Susan B. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 821.
Micelles |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding
Guided inquiry laboratory  Allen, J. B.; Barker, L. N.; Ramsden, J. H.
The primary purpose of this article is to illustrate the concepts involved in converting a traditional "verification" experiment to a "guided inquiry" experiment.
Allen, J. B.; Barker, L. N.; Ramsden, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 533.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A simple illustration of zone refining  White, Alvan D.
This illustration can tie into a discussion on the importance of silicon and germanium in today's society.
White, Alvan D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 514.
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Supercritical fluid: Liquid, gas, both, or neither? A different approach  Meyer, Edwin F.; Meyer, Thomas P.
How do you make counterintuitive ideas in chemistry visible and "real"? One way is to show directly the manifestation of a theory. These authors report on a rare instance when this is possible.
Meyer, Edwin F.; Meyer, Thomas P. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 463.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases
Simple demonstrations of the liquefaction of gases  Marzzacco, Charles J.
This demonstration uses simple hydrocarbons to demonstrate the important ideas of states of matter and changes in state.
Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 436.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Subtleties of phenomena involving ice-water equilibria  Loucks, Leon F.
A close examination of the chemistry that occurs at the blade-ice interface when one ice skates.
Loucks, Leon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 115.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry |
Equilibrium
A simple demonstration of a gas evolution oscillator  Kaushick, A.M.; Yuan, Zhi; Noyes, Richard M.
A demonstration is suggested that demonstrates the decomposition of aqueous ammonium nitrate into nitrogen gas and water.
Kaushick, A.M.; Yuan, Zhi; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 76.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases |
Reactions |
Transport Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The liquid-vapor phase diagram of CO2 near the critical temperature  Halpern, Arthur M.; Lin, Min-Fa
The authors report an improved procedure for carrying out an experiment in which the liquid-vapor phase diagram of CO2 is constructed near its critical temperature. This is an excellent experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory.
Halpern, Arthur M.; Lin, Min-Fa J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 38.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases
Graphical representation on logarithmic triangular coordinates  Rigbi, Zvi
Using triangular coordinates that allow negative values
Rigbi, Zvi J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 855.
Chemometrics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Tie-line analysis in ternary liquid systems  Splittgerber, Allan G.; Hansen, Jeffrey C.; Brue, Milton D.
The tie line is determined most simply by forming a two=phase mixture, weighing separately the two phases, and finding the ratio of the phase masses.
Splittgerber, Allan G.; Hansen, Jeffrey C.; Brue, Milton D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 382.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Molecular fluorescence for studying phase changes in solid state decomposition: 9-cyanoanthracene photodimer  Ebeid, El-Zeiny M.
Observation of molecular fluorescence is an excellent and easy technique for following the phase changes accompanying the thermal monomerization of 9-cyanoanthracene photodimer.
Ebeid, El-Zeiny M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 164.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry
Theory of the liquid-vapor transition of a perfect binary solution  Silverman, M. P.
A simple theory of the boiling temperature of a perfect binary solution valid for the full range of component concentrations and for arbitrary volatility.
Silverman, M. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 112.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
A classroom experiment on phase equilibria involving orientational disordering in crystals  Mjojo, C. C.
The plastic crystal phase provides a remarkable opportunity for the discussion of complex transitions with relatively well-defined configurational properties; this procedure involves the determination of such a phase diagram using a differential scanning calorimeter.
Mjojo, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 83.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
A simple and economic three dimensional model for the PVT surface of water  Frugoni, Juan A. Coch; Zepka, Marilene; Figueira, Alvaro Rocha; Coretti, Miriam
Plans of a cardboard PVT model for water.
Frugoni, Juan A. Coch; Zepka, Marilene; Figueira, Alvaro Rocha; Coretti, Miriam J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1048.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
A new derivation of the approximate phase change formula ?T = Km  Bonicelli, Maria Grazia; di Giacomo, Francesco; Cardinali, Mario Emillio; Carelli, Italo
A new derivation of the approximate formula for the freezing point depression or boiling point elevation of a dilute solution of a nonelectrolytic solute at constant pressure.
Bonicelli, Maria Grazia; di Giacomo, Francesco; Cardinali, Mario Emillio; Carelli, Italo J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 423.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Pistons, pressures, and the phase rule  Blandamer, Michael J.; Burgess, John; Scott, John W. M.
Using a frictionless piston to introduce important equations relating the chemical potentials of components in liquid mixtures and solutions.
Blandamer, Michael J.; Burgess, John; Scott, John W. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 418.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents
The error in ln x  Ludwig, Oliver G.
All alternative derivation of the cited author's result.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 267.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
What is the boiling point and heat of vaporization of sulfuric acid?  Myers, R. Thomas
The relationship of common sense to chemical data.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1017.
Acids / Bases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Potential-energy surfaces and transition-state theory   Moss, S. J.; Coady, C. J.
41. A set of programs is outlined that allows students to carry out certain studies of any selected triatomic system. Studies include: using zero-point energies to correct the classical activation energy; comparing the calculated quantities with experimental values; determining the classical activation energy for the system, and many more.
Moss, S. J.; Coady, C. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 455.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide  Gigure, Paul A.
The typical textbook treatment of molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide, and the implications of these concepts for the physical properties of hydrogen peroxide tend to be oversimplified and inaccurate.
Gigure, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Hydrogen Bonding
Inorganic thermochromism: A lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition  Willett, Roger D.
A description of an activity using thermochromic material is an easy way to demonstrate solid state phase transition.
Willett, Roger D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 355.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Letters to the editor.  Schubert, F. E.
The writer of this letter makes some comments about abbreviating derivations by referring to formulas or arguments previously developed.
Schubert, F. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 88.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Depression of freezing point and elevation of boiling point  Ladd, M. F. C.
The writer of this letter submits a direct and practical approach for the removal of an assumption in deriving freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation formulas.
Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 88.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Third Law of Thermodynamics and the residual entropy of ice: "Stillwater" or ?SH2Of,T=0 = 0  Julian, Maureen M.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Festa, Roger R.
This paper will explore the connection between the third law of thermodynamics and the residual entropy of ice.
Julian, Maureen M.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Festa, Roger R. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 65.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Computer Calculations for Multicomponent Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibria Prausnitz, J. M.; Anderson, T. F.; Grens, E. A.; Eckert, C. A.; Hsieh, R.; O'Connell, J. P.)  Winnick, Jack
Provides means for predicting or calculating fluid-phase equilibria.
Winnick, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, A29.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
The iron-iron carbide phase diagram: A practical guide to some descriptive solid state chemistry  Long, Gary J.; Leighty, H. P., Jr.
A discussion of the solid state chemistry of iron and steel in terms of the iron-iron carbide phase diagram.
Long, Gary J.; Leighty, H. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 948.
Solids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Vapor pressure apparatus for general chemistry  Long, Joseph W.
A simple apparatus for collecting vapor pressure data; relies on a mercury manometer.
Long, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 933.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Collapsing can  Sands, Richard D.
Demonstrates the solubility of ammonia gas in water.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Dispensing low-melting solids: Freezing point depression  Hill, John W.
A solution for dispensing low-melting point solids.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 699.
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A convenient melting/freezing point depression apparatus  Singman, Charles; Sophianopoulos, Judy; Johnson, Ronald
Incorporates an easily read digital thermometer.
Singman, Charles; Sophianopoulos, Judy; Johnson, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 682.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Component vapor pressures as a function of initial quantity of solution  Koubek, Edward; Elert, Mark L.
Development of an alternative formulation of Raoult's Law to point out that component vapor pressures can vary quite substantially as a function of the initial quantity of solution for fixed initial composition, especially for small solutions.
Koubek, Edward; Elert, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 357.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple experiment for determining vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of water  Levinson, Gerald S.
It is possible to determine the vapor pressure of water using only a tall beaker, a graduated cylinder, and a thermometer.
Levinson, Gerald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 337.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Entropy and its role in introductory chemistry  Bickford, Franklin R.
The concept of entropy as it applies to phase changes.
Bickford, Franklin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 317.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Two safety improvements for a standard experiment on the boiling point-composition diagram of a binary system  Michiels, Bro. Leo P.; Barile, Raymond C.; de la Fuente, German F.
Replacing the benzene / ethanol system with the less toxic cyclohexane / 2-propanol system and using a hetaing mantle.
Michiels, Bro. Leo P.; Barile, Raymond C.; de la Fuente, German F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 157.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases |
Laboratory Management
Boiling points and small volumes: An apparatus and a method  Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D.
The authors describe a convenient apparatus that can be used with thousands of students to perform qualitative analysis of organic substances using boiling points.
Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1029.
Qualitative Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Macromolecules in undergraduate physical chemistry  Mattice, Wayne L.
Recent developments in the understanding of macromolecules would indicate that the topic needs to be incorporated into undergraduate study.
Mattice, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 911.
Chemometrics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Transport Properties
Freeze-proof bugs   DeLorenzo, Ronald
Actual data instructors can use when presenting colligative properties to a class regarding insects that produce their own antifreeze is sure to be more interesting than using made-up numbers.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 788.
Natural Products |
Chemometrics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Colmolaity   DiPippo, Ascanio G.
It is suggested that a more generally descriptive unit, "the colomole" be adapted in place of the "osmole" in discussions and calculations involving the colligative properties of solutions.
DiPippo, Ascanio G. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 619.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Solids  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 62.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Electrochemistry
Solids  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 62.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Electrochemistry
A phase rule footnote  Ellern, James B.; Adamson, Arthur W.
The need for care in describing phase equilibria.
Ellern, James B.; Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A171.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Enthalpy of vaporization from Henry's law measurements  Raldow, Wiktor M.; Wentworth, Wayne E.
Calculating the enthalpy of vaporization for ammonia from Henry's law measurements of temperature, equilibrium vapor pressure, and the mole ratio in the liquid phase.
Raldow, Wiktor M.; Wentworth, Wayne E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 879.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
A binary solid-liquid phase diagram experiment including determination of purity, enthalpy of fusion, and true melting point  Meyer, Edwin F.; Meyer, Joseph A.
Produces a solid-liquid binary phase diagram for a mixture of C24-C24S.
Meyer, Edwin F.; Meyer, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 831.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents
Preparation of solid derivatives by differential scanning calorimetry  Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine
Derivatives of alcohols, amines, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, and haloalkanes are prepared and their phase transitions observed using a differential scanning calorimeter.
Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 824.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Stormy weather  Taylor, Thomas E.
Question regarding the formation of rain clouds and the exothermic process of condensation.
Taylor, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 732.
Thermodynamics |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Measuring the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation  Driscoll, Jerry A.
Uses toluene, methylcyclohexane, or piperidine to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 667.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Convenient freezing point depression apparatus  Marzzacco, Charles; Collins, Marie
Uses a magnetic stirrer to continuously mix the sample being measured.
Marzzacco, Charles; Collins, Marie J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 650.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Paramagnetism and color of liquid oxygen: A lecture demonstration  Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Williams, Lloyd G.
Demonstrates the blue color of liquid oxygen and its ability to be held between the poles of a magnet.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Williams, Lloyd G. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 373.
Magnetic Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
The experimental determination of the heat of vaporization of volatile liquids  Chames, Frances; Farver, Nina; Grieve, Catherine; Lynche, Archie; Mac, Michelle; Rickel, Renee; Sears, Jerry
An experiment whereby the heat of vaporization of a volatile liquid can be determined from an Arrhenius plot.
Chames, Frances; Farver, Nina; Grieve, Catherine; Lynche, Archie; Mac, Michelle; Rickel, Renee; Sears, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 362.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Illustrating chemical concepts through food systems: Introductory chemistry experiments  Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S.
Illustrating the vaporization of liquids, reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration using foods.
Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 312.
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Colloids |
Acids / Bases
The preparation of capillary tubes for the study of the critical state of carbon dioxide  Banna, M. S.; Mathews, R. D.
A simple apparatus that ensures quantitative filling of the capillary tubes with carbon dioxide.
Banna, M. S.; Mathews, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 838.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
The free energy change during the vaporization of a liquid: A classroom example  Perona, Michael J.
The free energy of a system consisting of a liquid and its vapor at 25C and 1 atm is calculated as a function of the fraction of the substance in the vapor phase.
Perona, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 726.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Gases
Solar energy storage: A demonstration experiment  Kimmel, Howard S.; Tomkins, Reginald P. T.
A demonstration of a phase transition that can be used for heat storage.
Kimmel, Howard S.; Tomkins, Reginald P. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 615.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Lecture demonstration of vanishing meniscus in vapor liquid transition  Duus, H. C.
Shows how the interface between vapor and liquid propane vanishes.
Duus, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 614.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Determination of purity by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)  Brown, M. E.
Details the determination of purity by differential scanning calorimetry by considering the melting process, the DSC melting curve, thermal lag, undetermined premelting, and the preparation of DSC curves.
Brown, M. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 310.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Removal of an assumption in deriving the phase change formula ?T = Km  Schubert, Frederic E.
Part of the uncertainty involved in using the title formula arises from mathematical approximations made in its derivation.
Schubert, Frederic E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 259.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents
Study by NMR of a three-component system. A physical-organic experiment  Claasen, Randy; Wolcott, Randy; Reinbold, Paul E.
The experimental study of a ternary phase system is rarely attempted at the undergraduate level. This is unfortunate since the ternary phase diagram can yield important information in the areas of physical and organic chemistry, such as the optimum conditions for an extraction, the thermodynamic factors which affect distribution, and the effect of a solute on two immiscible phases.
Claasen, Randy; Wolcott, Randy; Reinbold, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 542.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Demonstrations in cryogenics  Lothrop, Kenneth H.
At very low temperatures, many strange and fascinating changes occur in matter.
Lothrop, Kenneth H. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 531.
Solids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Phase transfer catalysis. Part II: Synthetic applications  Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P.
In this month's continuation of an article, the authors have catalogued a number of illustrative examples so that the range of applicability of phase transfer catalysis will be.
Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 429.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Organometallics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkylation
Binary solid-liquid phase equilibria  Ellison, Herbert R.
It is the purpose of this article to point out some of the information that may obtained from a popular physical chemistry experiment and to describe a computer program that will plot an ideal phase diagram to which the experimental one may be compared.
Ellison, Herbert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 406.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
Chemical thermodynamics and the phase rule  Franzen, Hugo F.; Myers, Clifford E.
The authors follow the development of the phase rule with comments on some important thermodynamic relationships with particular emphasis on the distinction between chemical components and chemical species.
Franzen, Hugo F.; Myers, Clifford E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 372.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Derivation of some basic properties of ideal gases and solutions from processes of elastic collisions  Lachish, Uri
The author presents a derivation that can be used in a discussion of colligative properties of dilute solutions, osmosis, vapor pressure, and elevation of the boiling temperature.
Lachish, Uri J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 369.
Solutions / Solvents |
Transport Properties |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Phase transfer catalysis. Part I: General principles  Weber, William P.; Gokel, George W.
For a substance to function as a phase transfer catalyst means that it must be lipophilic and either a charge-diffuse or buried-charge cation capable of paring with an anion.
Weber, William P.; Gokel, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 350.
Lipids |
Catalysis |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Solutions / Solvents |
Transport Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics
Flow densimetry. A simple analytical technique for activity measurements by freezing point data  Desnoyers, Jacques E.; Ostiguy, Claude; Perron, Gerald
The authors describe a simple analytical technique for activity measurements by freezing point data.
Desnoyers, Jacques E.; Ostiguy, Claude; Perron, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 137.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Beckmann freezing point method: easy arresting or supercooling  Karunakaran, K.
A simple procedure with a slightly modified Beckmann freezing point setup is described to prevent the troublesome large supercooling.
Karunakaran, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 42.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Toys in the chemistry classroom  Ziegler, Gene R.
Using toys to teach chemical principles; lists common toys and their potential applications.
Ziegler, Gene R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 629.
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Differential thermal analysis system for the teaching laboratory  Malawer, Edward G.; Allen, Eric R.
Construction and operation of a differential thermal analysis system assembled from commercially available modular units.
Malawer, Edward G.; Allen, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 582.
Thermal Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Determination of the latent heats and triple point of perfluorocyclobutane. The importance of a simple vapor pressure study  Briggs, A. G.; Strachun, A. N.
Perfluorocyclobutane is a distinctly preferable alternative to benzene as a working substance to illustrate the variation of vapor pressure with temperature.
Briggs, A. G.; Strachun, A. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 482.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Binary heterogeneous vapor-liquid equilibrium. A physical chemistry experiment  Kurtyka, Zdzislaw M.
Describing the vapor-liquid equilibrium in a heterogeneous system.
Kurtyka, Zdzislaw M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 389.
Gases |
Liquids |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Le Chtelier's principle: A laboratory exercise  Friedman, Frederica
Le Chtelier's principle can be demonstrated by showing that water can boil at temperatures below 100C due to reduced vapor pressure.
Friedman, Frederica J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 236.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry
Demonstration of zone-refining   Hawkins, Malcolm D.

Hawkins, Malcolm D. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, A48.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography
What the standard state doesn't say about temperature and phase  Carmichael, Halbert
125. The author develops the concept of the "standard state" in a manner that is more robust than typical textbook treatment.
Carmichael, Halbert J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 695.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A sample holder for hot stage microscopy  McGhie, A. R.
The author advises an improved set-up for observing melting points.
McGhie, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 637.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A sample preparation technique for column chromatography  Beller, Nicholas R.; Hilleary, Christopher J.
The authors have found a simple and effective method of sample preparation for use in column chromatography which resembles the application of a sample to a thin layer chromatography plate, where the solid sample in solution is absorbed by the solid phase as the solvent evaporates.
Beller, Nicholas R.; Hilleary, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 498.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry
Copper(II) acetate monohydrate - An erroneous melting point  Trimble, R. F.; Brown, Gaila
There appears to be an error in the melting point in the CRC.
Trimble, R. F.; Brown, Gaila J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 397.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
X-Y-Z models  Snadden, R. B.
Numerous situations outwit phase equilibrium and lend themselves to an X-Y-Z model display. This paper outlines a few such situations.
Snadden, R. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 368.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A computer program for calculation of boiling points at sub- and super-atmospheric pressures  Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David
An interactive program has been written in Fortran IV for the IBM 370/125 which will compute the boiling points of organic compounds at a range of pressures.
Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
A computer program for calculation of boiling points at sub- and super-atmospheric pressures  Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David
An interactive program has been written in Fortran IV for the IBM 370/125 which will compute the boiling points of organic compounds at a range of pressures.
Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
The diffusion coefficient of sucrose in water. A physical chemistry experiment  Linder, Peter W.; Nassimbeni, Luigi R.; Polson, Alfred; Rodgers, Allen L.
In this paper, the authors present an experiment that focuses on the diffusion of a solute in a liquid solution is governed by the same basic laws as gaseous diffusion.
Linder, Peter W.; Nassimbeni, Luigi R.; Polson, Alfred; Rodgers, Allen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 330.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Thermotropic liquid crystals. A use of chemical potential-temperature phase diagrams  Van Hecke, Gerald R.
The purpose of this paper is to present liquid crystals as examples of materials which often exhibit fascinating phase equilibrium that are readily demonstrable, and discuss liquid crystalline phase not in terms of the usual pressure and temperature variable's but rather in terms of the all too often neglected alternative chemical potential and temperature variables.
Van Hecke, Gerald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 161.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Materials Science
An interactive computer program for binary liquid-vapor equilibria  Pollnow, Gilbert F.; Vander Wielen, Michael J.
An interactive computer program for binary liquid-vapor equilibria.
Pollnow, Gilbert F.; Vander Wielen, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 97.
Liquids |
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Freezing ice cream and making caramel topping  Plumb, Robert C.; Olson, John Otto; Bowman, Leo H.
The obscurity of "colligative properties" can be dispelled by this ice cream example.
Plumb, Robert C.; Olson, John Otto; Bowman, Leo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 49.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
The latent heat of vaporization of an organic solid: An undergraduate experiment  Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O.
A series of experiments based on a mass spectrometer to help students visualize the latent heat of vaporization for a relatively involatile solid.
Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 730.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Footnote to the drinking duck exemplum  Plumb, Robert C.; Cross, Judson B.; Keil, Robert G.
Variations on the drinking bird demonstration.
Plumb, Robert C.; Cross, Judson B.; Keil, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 728.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A timesharing computer program for a general chemistry laboratory  Cutler, Gary L.; Drum, Donald A.
Determining the heat of vaporization of a volatile substance from experimental data using timesharing techniques.
Cutler, Gary L.; Drum, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 529.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Relationship between rate of evaporation and vapor pressure of binary systems  Shapiro, J. S.; Watton, E. C.; Kilford, J. M.
A series of experiments in which the rate of evaporation of binary liquid mixtures are followed isothermally by weighing.
Shapiro, J. S.; Watton, E. C.; Kilford, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 439.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Gases
Relationship of melting point to triple point  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Availability of selected values of the melting points and triple points of compounds.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 276.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A simple, isothermal calorimeter for determining accurate heats of vaporization  Arnett, Edward A.; Oancea, Dumitru
A simple and inexpensive system that may be used to determine heats of vaporization with high accuracy and precision.
Arnett, Edward A.; Oancea, Dumitru J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 269.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Phase changes of hexachloroethane  Shavitz, Richard
A demonstration of the sublimation of hexachloroethane.
Shavitz, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 231.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Low temperature melting point apparatus  Curtis, Ralph J.; Dolenga, Arthur
A melting point apparatus using mostly standard laboratory equipment and permits direct observation of the sample over a temperature range of -65C to room temperature.
Curtis, Ralph J.; Dolenga, Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 201.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Spectroscopic determination of thermodynamic quantities  Berger, Michael; Bell, Jerry A.; Steel, Colin
A straightforward method that can be used to determine thermodynamic quantities for milligram or submilligram amounts of solid or liquid materials.
Berger, Michael; Bell, Jerry A.; Steel, Colin J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 191.
Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A simple equilibrium method for determining heats of sublimation  Chickos, James Speros
Report on a modification of a simple method previously described for determining enthalpies of sublimation.
Chickos, James Speros J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 134.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The mercury-water system. A deviation from Raoult's Law  Sanders, M. L.; Beckett, R. R.
Mercury covered with a layer of water will continue to vaporize and escape as if the water were not even there.
Sanders, M. L.; Beckett, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 117.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Equilibrium composition, additive properties and stoichiometry  Atkinson, G. F.
This article demonstrates the use of presenting chemical data graphically using trilinear coordinates for three-component phase diagrams.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 792.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A relevant sublimation experiment  Mitchell, R. H.; Scott, W. A.; West, P. R.
The new "solid state" air fresheners provide the basis of an interesting sublimation experiment for the first assignment of a non-majors laboratory entitled "Physical Constants."
Mitchell, R. H.; Scott, W. A.; West, P. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 683.
Nonmajor Courses |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Freezing points, triple points, and phase equilibria  Parker, Richard C.; Kristol, David S.
There is widespread ambiguity concerning the theoretical definitions and everyday practical applications involving the terms: triple point, melting point, freezing point, and freezing point depression.
Parker, Richard C.; Kristol, David S. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 658.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Molecular weight of volatile liquids by freezing point depression  Parker, Richard C.
There is a misunderstanding about the theory of freezing point depression and its applicability to volatile liquids.
Parker, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 492.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Evaporation of liquids: A kinetic approach  Brennan, J. F.; Shapiro, J. S.; Watton, E. C.
The experiment described in this article takes a kinetic approach to the evaporation of several liquids (such as chloroform, benzene, and a few others that are probably now illegal for classroom use.
Brennan, J. F.; Shapiro, J. S.; Watton, E. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 276.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Kinetics |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Tie lines in phase diagrams for ternary liquid systems  Clarke, J. R.
It has been found that students who complete this exercise have a good comprehension of the relation of the phase diagram to the physical reality. They are able to interpret three-component phase diagrams with considerable confidence even for more complex cases. Two students working as a team can easily complete the laboratory work in a three-hour session.
Clarke, J. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 255.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Lyophilization apparatus  Lunelli, Bruno
A method based on an easily constructed apparatus that allows laboratory-scale lyophilizations to be carried out.
Lunelli, Bruno J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 577.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Management
An equation relating the vapor pressure of a solid to that of the supercooled liquid  Rouse, Robert A.; Berndt, Alan F.
Presents the derivation of an equation relating the vapor pressure of a solid and the supercooled liquid to other properties of the system.
Rouse, Robert A.; Berndt, Alan F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 571.
Solids |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Chemometrics
Recrystallization: unexpected behavior. An undergraduate organic demonstration or experiment  Lilje, Kenneth C.; Macomber, R. S.
A simple method for providing a demonstration of an exception to the rule that solubility increases with temperature.
Lilje, Kenneth C.; Macomber, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 567.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
A practical energy experiment or lecture demonstration  Garin, David L.
Presents two demonstrations: one involves heating different volumes of water on the same heater and measuring their temperatures; the other involves heating different volumes of water on the same heater and calculating the heat of vaporization.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 497.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Physical chemistry of the drinking duck  Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E.
The operation of the drinking bird is easily understood in terms of a few elementary physical chemistry principles.
Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 213.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Lecture demonstration of a phase transition in a solid  Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred
The solid-solid phase transition between two different allotropes of silver iodide.
Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 109.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Computer simulation of critical point phenomena  Zinman, Walter G.
Modification of an earlier published program (cited).
Zinman, Walter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 757.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Faster dinner via molecular potential energy  Modestino, Sherwood A.
The cooking time for a beef roast can be reduced by using a device that acts as a heat pipe.
Modestino, Sherwood A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 706.
Heat Capacity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Freezing curves for Salol  Laswick, Patty Hall
The convenient freezing temperature of salol (40-43 C) means that students can easily and safely melt the material using warm water
Laswick, Patty Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 537.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
A simple method for deriving a boiling point-composition diagram for a binary mixture  Coleman, H. M.
Presents a simple method for deriving a boiling point-composition diagram for a binary mixture.
Coleman, H. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 471.
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A supercritical phase separation: The gas-gas equilibrium  Gordon, R. P.
Shows in a pictorial manner how phase separation behavior may arise.
Gordon, R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 249.
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
The chemistry of a cooling drink  Albrecht, Gustav
Explanation for why ice cubes fuse.
Albrecht, Gustav J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 146.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Evaporation rate: A beginning chemistry experiment  Feinstein, H. I.; Walters, C.
A simple procedure for determining the evaporation rate of volatile solvents.
Feinstein, H. I.; Walters, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 135.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Knowing some thermodynamics can save a life  Plumb, Robert C.; Bass, David E,; Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
Nature makes extraordinarily good use of physical chemistry principles to keep the body functioning isothermally.
Plumb, Robert C.; Bass, David E,; Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 112.
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Computer iteration of handbook data  Krieger, Albert G.; Wallace, Clark K.
A computer program has been written in FORTRAN IV to iterate boiling temperatures of organic compounds at reduced vapor pressures.
Krieger, Albert G.; Wallace, Clark K. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 457.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Program for colligative properties and thermodynamic data  Schlessinger, Gert G.
A program has been written in Fortran II which calculates the molal freezing or boiling point depression or elevation constants from conventional colligative or thermodynamic data input.
Schlessinger, Gert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 142.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The vapor pressure of water. A good reference system?  Pupezin, Jovan; Jancso, Gabor; Van Hook, W. Alexander
The authors discuss the phase diagram of water in great detail in the region about its triple point and over its liquid range as far as the normal boiling point.
Pupezin, Jovan; Jancso, Gabor; Van Hook, W. Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 114.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
13 demonstrations, including electrophoresis, electrolysis, corrosion inhibition, endothermic and exothermic reactions, crystals and crystallization, reactions with sodium, and the kinetics of H2O2 decomposition.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A387.
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Kinetics
A classroom demonstration of exothermicity  Boschmann, Erwin
The heat generated by dissolving NaOH in water causes iodine crystals to sublime.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Volume variable in phase diagrams  Petrucci, R. H.
Examines the intersection of a constant volume plane with a three-dimensional P/V/C diagram for two immiscible liquids.
Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 825.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases |
Equilibrium
Evaporative cooling condenser  Goldberg, Stanley I.; Bailey, William D.
Design for a condenser that operates on the principle of evaporative cooling through the use of compressed air and is constructed from ordinary laboratory condensers.
Goldberg, Stanley I.; Bailey, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 783.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Assembly of a differential thermal analysis apparatus  Scism, Allen J.
Describes the construction of an apparatus used to show thermal changes in samples due to phase changes and loss of waters of hydration.
Scism, Allen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 772.
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Thermodynamics of hard molecules  Runnels, L K.
The purpose of this article is to point out some thermodynamic features of interest held in common by all systems of hard molecules whose translational motion can be described by classical mechanics.
Runnels, L K. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 742.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Rainy weekends and heterogeneous nucleation  Schaefer, Vincent J.; Frederick, Ralph H.; Plumb, Robert C.
Provides an explanation for why it rains more during the week than on the weekends.
Schaefer, Vincent J.; Frederick, Ralph H.; Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 691.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Rainy weekends and heterogeneous nucleation  Schaefer, Vincent J.; Frederick, Ralph H.; Plumb, Robert C.
Provides an explanation for why it rains more during the week than on the weekends.
Schaefer, Vincent J.; Frederick, Ralph H.; Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 691.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Atmospheric Chemistry
General chemistry experiments: Six short, inexpensive procedures  Heit, M. L.; Dauphinee, G. A.
These simple experiments involve conductivity comparisons of derivatives of the acetate ion, paper chromatography, sublimation, the effect of temperature on equilibrium, the detection of I-, and an example of an equilibrium shift.
Heit, M. L.; Dauphinee, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 532.
Electrochemistry |
Chromatography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Cloud Caps on High Mountains  Stevenson, Philip E.
The formation of cloud caps on high mountains illustrates cooling in an adiabatic expansion and the change in vapor pressure of a liquid with temperature.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 272.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Some aspects of the graphical calculation of phase diagrams  Oonk, H. A. J.
The object of this paper is to draw attention to some aspects of the graphical calculation of phase diagrams that may be of educational value.
Oonk, H. A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 227.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents
The snowmaking machines  Plumb, Robert C.
Illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 176.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Chemical principles exemplified  Plumb, Robert C.
Introduction to a new series, containing "exempla" (brief anecdotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles). [Debut]
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 175.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Photochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The hard-boiled egg controversy  Long, Arthur O.
The author comments on the model presented in the cited work.
Long, Arthur O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 879.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
The hard-boiled egg controversy  Rund, John V.
Results of an experiment boiling eggs at Pike's Peak.
Rund, John V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 879.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
A vacuum sublimation apparatus for the undergraduate organic laboratory  Kraus, Josef G.
Presents a vacuum sublimation apparatus for the undergraduate organic laboratory that is low in cost, easy to assemble, easy to heat at constant temperature, and has a large sample capacity.
Kraus, Josef G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 790.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An attachment for semiautomatic melting point determination  Vogel, George
This simple yet rugged device notifies the experimenter when a small crystalline sample in a capillary tube first begins to melt.
Vogel, George J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 789.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Purification of low-melting compounds  Kaye, Irving Allan
Presents a procedure that addresses difficulties to purification by recrystallization caused by the tendency of some low-melting compounds to precipitate from solution as oils.
Kaye, Irving Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 696.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management |
Precipitation / Solubility
Basic organic laboratory techniques and problem solving: The nitration of 4-nitrophenol  Pearson, Robert E.
The experiment described requires application of melting point data and the technique of recrystallization to identify the product of a simple chemical reaction.
Pearson, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 692.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Qualitative Analysis |
Phenols
Binary phase diagrams  Berndt, Alan F.
The juxtaposition of two binary eutectic diagrams should produce a liquidus with a slope of zero at the melting point of the congruently melting compound.
Berndt, Alan F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 594.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
Egg boiling  Gatz, Carole R.
The author presents calculations and arguments regarding the time it takes to boil an egg atop Pike's Peak.
Gatz, Carole R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 534.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Tantalum recovery by liquid-liquid extraction  Alexander, Guy B.
Examines the challenges associated with increasing yields on an industrial scale by examining the example of tantalum recovery by liquid-liquid extraction.
Alexander, Guy B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 157.
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A bonding parameter. III, Water solubilities and melting points of the alkali halogens  Elson, Jesse
It is proposed to include lithium in a study of the water solubilities and melting points of the alkali halogenides.
Elson, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 86.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Chemistry and the sense of wonder  Battino, Rubin
The sense of wonder in chemistry is something that can be taught.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 38.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Group VI. The Sulfur Family D. Sulfur Dioxide  Alyea, Hubert N.
Seven demonstrations involving sulfur dioxide.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A977.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of a liquid-vapor phase diagram  Molski, N. J.; Swain, H. A., Jr.
An experiment for determining the liquid-vapor phase diagram for the benzene-toluene system by gas liquid chromatography.
Molski, N. J.; Swain, H. A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 48.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases |
Chromatography
A modified micro-boiling-point technique  Bulbenko, George F.
A short note regarding the use of a commercial melting point tube as a fine capillary bubbler for micro-boiling-point determination.
Bulbenko, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 43.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab
Evaporative distillation assembly  Giese, Roger
A short note diagramming the construction of an evaporative distillation assembly.
Giese, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 690.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A simple distillation apparatus  Fenster, A. N.
This short note presents a modified Kugelrohr-type short-path distillation apparatus.
Fenster, A. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 660.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Useful techniques for micro and macro sublimation  Johnson, B. L.
Describes some useful designs and techniques for micro and macro sublimation
Johnson, B. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 608.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab
Molten carbonate electrolytes as acid-base solvent systems  Janz, George J.
Examines the properties of some fused salts and their use as acid-base solvent systems.
Janz, George J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 581.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
The triplet point of water  Swinton, F. L.
Several textbooks show significant disagreement regarding the equilibrium temperature for water at its triple point.
Swinton, F. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 541.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Laboratory demonstration of fractional distillation  Coleman, H. M.
The method described here permits a quick analysis of the several distillates by direct visualization of one of the two components of a binary mixture containing toluene and acetone.
Coleman, H. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 476.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Microboiling point determination at atmospheric pressure  Chaco, M. C.
This microboiling point determination uses a melting-point capillary
Chaco, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 474.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab |
Physical Properties
Techniques for internal distillation-condensation  Johnson, B. L.
Presents modifications and apparatus for the semi-micro collection of pure substances and macro extraction.
Johnson, B. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 465.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
The 2-butoxyethanol-water system: Critical solution temperatures and salting-out effects  Ellis, C. M.
The 2-butoxyethanol-water system is extremely convenient for demonstrating and investigating certain liquid phase relationships.
Ellis, C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 405.
Alcohols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Capillary tube experiments for introductory chemistry laboratory  Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian
Describes the use of a capillary tube to determine how vapor changes with temperature.
Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 387.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Generalization of Gibbs' phase rule for heterogeneous chemical equilibrium  Lee, V. J.
This note presents a formalism of the generalized Gibbs' phase rule for reactive heterogeneous systems.
Lee, V. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 164.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A new short-path distillation apparatus  Morrison, Harry
This design is basically a modification of the kugelrohr method but was created to surmount difficulties in cooling the receiver and removing the distillant.
Morrison, Harry J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 161.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An automatic distillation apparatus  Hinton, J. F.; Than, A.; Amis, E. S.
Presents a design for an automatic distillation apparatus capable of handling large amounts of liquid.
Hinton, J. F.; Than, A.; Amis, E. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 112.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Unattended laboratory operations. Part 1. The safe operation of laboratory distillations over night  Conlon, D. R.
Examines issues related to the safe operation of laboratory distillations over night.
Conlon, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A589.
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
States of matter (Continued). D. Solid state  Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A.
Demonstrations include writing with alum crystals, the rate of crystallization and crystal size, purification by crystallization, growing salol crystals in a polarizer, growing crystal blossoms, the melting point of eutectic (salol + benzophenone) and butectic (p-toluidine + a-naphthol), sublimation of organic substances (methyl oxalate), and the pseudo-sublimation of naphthalene.
Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A241.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Solids
Energy B. Heat energy   Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the heat of crystallization (sodium acetate and Na2S2O3[5H2O]), heat of formation (ZnCl2), heat of hydration (CaO and CuSO4), heat of neutralization, heat of solvation (alcohols), evaporation of ether and methyl chloride, and heat of solution (NH4NO3).
Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1079.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Triangular coordinates versus rectangular coordinates  Bornmann, John A.
Introduces the subject of triangular coordinates.
Bornmann, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 387.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Teaching aid for three-component systems  Hermens, R. A.
Describes a triangular graph that can serve as a useful teaching aid for three-component systems.
Hermens, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 334.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple high-resolution differential thermal analysis unit  Zaret, Matthew E.; McClenon, John R.; Aikens, David A.
Describes the design and operation of a simple high-resolution differential thermal analysis unit.
Zaret, Matthew E.; McClenon, John R.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 307.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A broad-surface condenser  Schultz, Harry P.
Describes a light, broad-surface condenser made from two Pyrex watch glasses whose edges have been sealed to one another with epoxy.
Schultz, Harry P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 272.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Demonstration of the glass transition  Koleske, Joseph V.; Faucher, Joseph A.
Glucose pentaacetate (GPA) has been found to be an excellent compound to use for a simple demonstration of the glass-rubber and amorphous-crystalline transitions.
Koleske, Joseph V.; Faucher, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 254.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Three dimensional models in phase rule studies  Peretti, E. A.
Three-dimensional phase models are constructed from soldered iron wire.
Peretti, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 253.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Melting point depression  Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam
The eutectic temperature of the piperonal / resorcinol system is well below room temperature.
Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A413.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Instrumentation for condensing and absorbing vapors  Dalin, George A.
Examines the application of water-cooled condensers; heat transfer and mass transport considerations; the testing of condensers and improvement of condenser design; vapor removal and vapor absorbers; high flow rates and aerosols.
Dalin, George A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A5.
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Transport Properties
Improvised melting point apparatus  Rogers, F. E.
A simple substitute for the Fisher-Johns melting point apparatus can be improvised using Wood's alloy.
Rogers, F. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 619.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Melting point techniques for volatile mixtures  Wilcox, W. R.
Describes two techniques for avoiding volatilization while taking melting points of small quantities of a mixture.
Wilcox, W. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 616.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Melting point apparatus  Brown, Richard K.
Describes a simple melting point apparatus that relies on a soldering iron element for heat.
Brown, Richard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 433.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
"Non-contact'' eutectic fusion in binary systems  Petrucci, Ralph H.; Melnyk, Alexandra; Muller, Olaf
This article reports observations of "non-contact'' eutectic fusion in certain binary inorganic systems performed in a Kofler microscope hot stage.
Petrucci, Ralph H.; Melnyk, Alexandra; Muller, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 362.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A variation of the Victor Meyer Experiment  Shombert, Donald J.
The determination of the molecular weight of dry ice is an interesting variation of the classic Victor Meyer experiment.
Shombert, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 343.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Vapor pressure over solution droplets  Byers, Horace R.
The purpose of this note is to examine the theory of cloud and fog formation through condensation nuclei.
Byers, Horace R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 338.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Three dimensional models in phase rule studies  Petrucci, Ralph H.
Describes the results of a NSF program to illustrate and encourage the use of three-dimensional representations in the teaching of phase rule principles.
Petrucci, Ralph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 323.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A modified condensing apparatus for both refluxing and distilling  Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C.
The condenser described here can be pivoted from a vertical position (refluxing) to one approximately horizontal (distilling) without having to switch the inlet and outlet condensor connections.
Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 221.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Management
Achieving ultrapurity in pharmaceuticals by zone melting  Jannke, Paul J.; Friedenberg, Robert
Examines the use of zone melting to purify pharmaceuticals.
Jannke, Paul J.; Friedenberg, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 157.
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Apparatus for steam distillation  Mallory, Frank B.
This apparatus for steam distillation eliminates the time required to bore corks with a more traditional apparatus.
Mallory, Frank B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 108.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A versatile hot stage microscope: Lab studies in high temperature chemistry  Glasser, L.; Miller, R. P.
Presents a simple and elegant technique for demonstrating the processes of chemical change at high temperatures, from which phase diagrams can be constructed.
Glasser, L.; Miller, R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 91.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Sulfuric acid and the hydrated hydronium ion  Jurale, Bernard
Describes how the sulfuric acid-water system can be used to establish the identity of the hydronium and hydrated hydronium ions.
Jurale, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 573.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A novel distillation flask  Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A.
Presents a design for a distillation flask that relies on boiling the liquid in an inverted conical flask heated by a Nichrome wire element.
Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Thermodynamics of phase equilibria and phase diagrams  Rastogi, R. P.
The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive account of phase equilibria from a thermodynamic viewpoint.
Rastogi, R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 443.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A thermal analysis experiment for introductory chemistry  Haworth, Daniel T.; McGrath, J. D.
This experiment involves the preparation of a tin-lead phase diagram.
Haworth, Daniel T.; McGrath, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 372.
Thermal Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A constant-level oil-bath melting point apparatus  Powell, H. B.; Mellon, E. K., Jr.; Burow, D. F.
Presents a modification of the Theile-Denis melting point apparatus.
Powell, H. B.; Mellon, E. K., Jr.; Burow, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 345.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Kugelrohr distillation apparatus  Graeve, Rolf; Wahl, George H., Jr.
Presents the design of a Kugelrohr distillation apparatus.
Graeve, Rolf; Wahl, George H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 279.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
The burning sugar cube: Still unexplained?  Doty, Gene
This brief note discusses possible explanations for the melting of a sugar cube where another rubbed with cigarette ashes burns.
Doty, Gene J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 244.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A eutectic experiment for general chemistry laboratory  Wise, John H.; Shillington, James K.; Watt, William J.; Whitaker, R. D.
This eutectic experiment examines the biphenyl-naphthalene system.
Wise, John H.; Shillington, James K.; Watt, William J.; Whitaker, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 96.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Demonstration notes: Fog formation  Benson, John E.
Suggests a modification to producing a cloud in a jar.
Benson, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A simple condensation isotherm for a hard sphere gas  Vaslow, Fred
It is found here that a first-order condensation can actually occur in a hard sphere gas under the basic assumption that the effective volume of a molecule is larger in the gas phase than its occupied volume in the condensed phase.
Vaslow, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 485.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Freezing point observations on micellar solutions  Hutchinson, Eric.; Tokiwa, Fumikatsu
Describes freezing point observations on solutions of p-methylphenyl glucose and p-butylphenylglucose.
Hutchinson, Eric.; Tokiwa, Fumikatsu J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 472.
Micelles |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Simple evaporator for heat sensitive compounds  Begeman, Charles R.
Presents a simple evaporator for heat sensitive compounds that is similar to common flask rotating devices.
Begeman, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 427.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Apparatus for molecular distillation and vacuum sublimation  Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F.
A simple, inexpensive yet highly effective apparatus for laboratory scale purifications by molecular distillation or vacuum sublimation has been designed.
Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Heat of vaporization of I2 using absolute entropy data: A physical chemistry experiment  Stafford, Fred E.
The purpose of this article is to present a student experiment using a powerful method of calculating enthalpy changes from equilibrium constant data.
Stafford, Fred E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 249.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
A unified quantitative interpretation of two-component phase diagrams  Jones, George L., Jr.
Describes an instructional method that attempts to eliminate a common mistake made in the interpretation of two-component phase diagrams.
Jones, George L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 38.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Stoichiometry
Crystallization: Theory and practice (Van Hook, Andrew)  Loehlin, James H.

Loehlin, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A690.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Letters  Dence, Joseph B.
The author provides some suggestions regarding the distillation of benzyl alcohol following the Cannizzaro reaction.
Dence, Joseph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 320.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Gideon's fleece tests: The earliest recorded vapor phase adsorption experiment?  Giles, C. H.
Provides a physical explanation for Gideon's biblical fleece test.
Giles, C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 584.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling point and molecular weight  Rich, Ronald
This short note points out that molecular weight, by itself, has negligible influence on boiling point.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 454.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Magnetic stirring promotes smooth boiling  Bloomfield, Jordan J.
This short note indicates that the use of a magnetic stirrer effectively prevents violent bumping.
Bloomfield, Jordan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 355.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Fractional distillation: A laboratory experiment  Campbell, Richard D.
This experiment demonstrates in a practical way the factors involved in the performance characteristics of a common distillation apparatus.
Campbell, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 348.
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A convenient laboratory sublimation apparatus  Mallory, Frank B.
Reduced-pressure sublimation can eliminate many of the problems involved in purification through recrystallization.
Mallory, Frank B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 261.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Rotating vacuum evaporator  Carleton, Richard O.
Presents a design for a rotating vacuum evaporator.
Carleton, Richard O. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 256.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Close packing of atoms: A lecture demonstration  Mellor, D. P.; Shuk, V.
This lecture demonstration illustrates the close packing of atoms and the effect of melting; it relies on steel balls and a permanent magnet.
Mellor, D. P.; Shuk, V. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 130.
Metals |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Ternary systems (Masing, G.)  Smith, Norman O.

Smith, Norman O. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A848.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Miscellanea no. 4  Mysels, Karol J.
Errors examined include the chromyl chloride test for chlorides, "monovalent" oxygen compounds, and ternary diagrams.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 627.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Fractionation technique for vacuum distillation  Radell, Jack; Connolly, J. W.
Presents a fractionation technique and apparatus for vacuum distillation.
Radell, Jack; Connolly, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 459.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Hydrogen in zirconium: An experiment in chemical equilibria  Katz, O. M.; Gulbransen, E. A.
This paper describes a simple apparatus that can be sued to determine equilibria data for several regions of the zirconium-hydrogen phase diagram.
Katz, O. M.; Gulbransen, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 533.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Martensite transformations and the phase rule  Wolten, Gerard M.
Martensite reactions constitute an interesting and unusual class of phase transformations.
Wolten, Gerard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 237.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Metals
An apparatus for the continuous production of triple distilled water  Taylor, Jay E.
Presents the design of an apparatus for the continuous production of triple distilled water.
Taylor, Jay E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 204.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Measurement of vapor pressure: A gas saturation method  Feighan, Joseph A.
Presents an experiment involving the measurement of vapor pressure using a gas saturation method.
Feighan, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 149.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Freezing point measurement  Hoare, James P.
Describes a method involving freezing point depression in which supercooling is desired and encouraged.
Hoare, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 146.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Tie line correlation and plait point determination  Heric, E. L.
This experiment involves tie line correlation and Plait Point determination for an acetic acid-benzene-water system.
Heric, E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 144.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
On the boiling point of a dilute solution  Cerceau, O.
It is the purpose of this paper to show how to derive Raoult's laws, starting with Boltzmann's theorem and making no explicit use of the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
Cerceau, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 40.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
A vapor phase mechanism of eutectic fusion  Petrucci, Ralph H.
Provides one possible answer to the question, "How does a mixture of two solid, completely immiscible substances commence to melt at a temperature below the melting point of either pure substance?"
Petrucci, Ralph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 603.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Solutions / Solvents
Determination of vapor pressure: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden
Provides a method for obtaining good vapor pressure measurements using simple equipment.
Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 494.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A simple universal apparatus for steam distillation  Wallenberger, Frederick T.; O'Connor, William F.; Moriconi, Emil J.
This paper reports on modifications to an earlier apparatus for steam distillation and its operating characteristics with respect to recovering organic products.
Wallenberger, Frederick T.; O'Connor, William F.; Moriconi, Emil J. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 251.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Apparatus for the study of liquid-vapor equilibria  Balson, E. W.
Diagrams an a student apparatus for the study of liquid-vapor equilibria.
Balson, E. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 214.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Principles of thermodynamic phase diagrams: A teaching approach for engineers  Bieber, Herman; Henley, Ernest J.
Examines pressure-temperature, pressure-enthalpy, and energy-volume diagrams.
Bieber, Herman; Henley, Ernest J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 616.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A boiling point apparatus  Lykos, Peter G.
A one-piece boiling-point apparatus that utilizes Cottrell's principle of spraying the thermometer with boiling liquid is described.
Lykos, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 565.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Letters  Copley, G. N.
The author proposes terms and symbolism to represent different phase changes.
Copley, G. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 528.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A temperature sensitive stirring rod: Liquefaction of NO2 as a student experiment  Eddy, Robert D.; Scholes, Samuel R., Jr.
NO2 is generated from Pb(NO3)2 and collected, condensed, and sealed in a hollow stirring rod, which is then observed in hot, cool, and cold water.
Eddy, Robert D.; Scholes, Samuel R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 527.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A phase rule experiment: The system lead nitrate-sodium nitrate-water  Heric, E. L.
It appears that a laboratory exercise involving the study of a less easily interpreted solid-liquid type of system might be of more value to the student.
Heric, E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 510.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Liquids
Molecular weight determination by boiling-point elevation: A freshman research project  Wolthuis, Enno; Visser, Marilyn; Oppenhuizen, Irene
Describes an investigation into factors influencing the results of molecular weight determination by boiling-point elevation and the procedure refined through these efforts.
Wolthuis, Enno; Visser, Marilyn; Oppenhuizen, Irene J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 412.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Undergraduate Research |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Letters  Petrucci, Ralph H.
The author offers another approach to the question, "Why should a mixture of A and B melt at a lower temperature than either component individually?"
Petrucci, Ralph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 367.
Solids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
The length of the liquid range for a pure substance: A molecular interpretation  Bauer, S. H.
The analysis presented serves as an interesting exercise with the Clapeyron equation and calls for a general analysis by the instructor of the molecular basis for the magnitudes of enthalpy and entropy increments during phase changes.
Bauer, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 289.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Nomenclature of phase transition  McDonald, James E.
Discusses the curious situation in which the terminology of chemistry and physics has only five words to describe the six possible transitions between three states of matter.
McDonald, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 205.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Textbook errors: Guest column. XVI: The vapor pressure of hydrated cupric sulfate  Logan, Thomas S.
Examines variability in the values of pressures of water vapor in equilibrium with pairs of cupric sulfate in hydrates quoted in the literature and texts.
Logan, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 148.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Meaningful teaching of phase diagrams  Smith, Norman O.
It is the purpose of this article to suggest a few aids in the teaching of phase diagrams (including one-component, binary, and ternary systems), to emphasize the connections between many seemingly unrelated diagrams, and to point out some conclusions derivable from them that have a direct bearing on everyday laboratory phenomena.
Smith, Norman O. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 125.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The vapor pressure of curved surfaces  Hammel, E. F.
Distinguishes between the treatment of vapor pressure in small drops and capillary condensate and that for vapor bubbles within a liquid.
Hammel, E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 28.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
How should we define the critical state?  Roof, J. G.
The purpose of this paper is to review a few points about the critical behavior of pure substances and of mixtures in order to emphasize the fundamental concept of the critical state that applies to gas-liquid mixtures of any number of components.
Roof, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 492.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
The determination of normal boiling points at high altitudes  Levy, Luis; Proano, Oswaldo E.
A pressurized distillation apparatus is useful for the direct determination of the normal boiling point, regardless of the outside atmospheric pressure.
Levy, Luis; Proano, Oswaldo E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 440.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An apparatus for the microdetermination of melting points  Jennings, Walter G.
Presents a microscope-mounted melting point apparatus constructed from a machined aluminum block.
Jennings, Walter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 95.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab
A nomograph for correction of boiling points  Myers, R. Thomas
Provides a nomograph for the correction of boiling points at elevations above sea level.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 58.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A convenient method of determining vapor pressures  Leonard, J. M; Bultman, J. D.
This apparatus can be used with equal facility for solids and liquids.
Leonard, J. M; Bultman, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 623.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids
Apparatus for the triple distillation of mercury  Joncich, M. J.; Alley, C. A.; Kowaka, M.
The rising cost of mercury coupled with the extensive use of this element in a variety of laboratory applications emphasizes the need for an efficient apparatus for purification.
Joncich, M. J.; Alley, C. A.; Kowaka, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 607.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The simple relation between critical temperature and boiling point  Marschner, Robert F.; Beverly, J. B.
At the boiling point, molecular motion partially overcomes, and at the critical point, completely overcomes, liquefying forces.
Marschner, Robert F.; Beverly, J. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 604.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Inexpensive apparatus for speedy evaporation  Greef, Frances; Larsen, Clifford T.
A rotary film type of evaporator has been constructed from materials available in the laboratory.
Greef, Frances; Larsen, Clifford T. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 556.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The heat of sublimation of carbon  Kern, David M.
Examines method for and progress in determining the heat of sublimation of carbon.
Kern, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 272.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
History of distillation  Liebmann, A. J.
Traces the history of distillation, from the ancient Greeks through the seventeenth century.
Liebmann, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 166.
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Zone refining  Christian, John D.
A brief description of zone refining.
Christian, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 32.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Batch distillation  Houtman, J. P. W.; Husain, Asghar
A scheme is presented consisting of a simple method for predicting distillation conditions for a desired separation and the procedure for checking the results with simple apparatus in the laboratory.
Houtman, J. P. W.; Husain, Asghar J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 529.
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A new vapor-pressure apparatus  Colgate, S. O.; Whealy, Roger D.
The apparatus described provides data for pressure-temperature plots for liquids, solids, and solutions.
Colgate, S. O.; Whealy, Roger D. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 484.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Phase equilibria and the chemical potential  Castellan, Gilbert W.
It is the purpose of this article to present several graphic examples of key relationships in the subject of phase equilibria.
Castellan, Gilbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 424.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Modified Ramsey-Young apparatus for measuring vapor pressures of liquids  Dumke, Walter H.
Describes the design and operation of a modified Ramsey-Young apparatus for measuring vapor pressures of liquids.
Dumke, Walter H. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 383.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Colligative properties  Chinard, Francis P.
In this note an attempt is made to bring into an integrated system the several colligative properties of importance to physiology and biochemistry.
Chinard, Francis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 377.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations  Hubbard, Edward M.
Describes an automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations that avoids a key difficulty in the earlier Nickels trap.
Hubbard, Edward M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 376.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A new melting-point apparatus  Singh, Tara
Presents the design of a new melting-point apparatus constructed to overcome difficulties in a modified Hershberg melting-point apparatus.
Singh, Tara J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 646.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A simple melting-point apparatus  Gero, Alexander
The melting-point apparatus described in this paper is distinguished by extreme simplicity of construction and negligible cost.
Gero, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 645.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Phase equilibrium diagrams for multicomponent systems  Kelley, F. H. C.
The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the work of Janecke, which contains very useful ideas for the quantitative delineation of multicomponent systems.
Kelley, F. H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 637.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Bakhuis Roozeboom and the phase rule  Van Klooster, H. S.
This year commemorates the centenary of the birth of Hendrik Willem Bakhuis Roozeboom, the foremost exponent of Gibbs' phase rule.
Van Klooster, H. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 594.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A sublimation apparatus for rapid separations  Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III
Presents the design of a macrosublimation apparatus constructed to allow accurate temperature control and ease recovery of the residue.
Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Sublimation curve, vaporization curve, and triple-point determination: An undergraduate experiment  Smith, Norman O.; Costich, Constance M.
The determination of the vapor-pressure curve of a pure liquid by the Ramsay and Young method is applicable, with some modification, to the sublimation curve of an appreciably volatile solid.
Smith, Norman O.; Costich, Constance M. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 421.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
F. E. C. Scheffer  Van Klooster, H. S.
Examines the life of F. E. C. Scheffer, who made important contributions to phase-rule chemistry.
Van Klooster, H. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 210.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Letters to the editor  Lash, M. E.
The author clarifies the definition of critical temperature, which is often stated uncritically in textbooks.
Lash, M. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A phase-study apparatus for semimicro use above atmospheric pressure  Marshall, William L.; Wright, Henry W.; Secoy, Charles H.
Describes the design and use of a phase-study apparatus for semimicro use above atmospheric pressure.
Marshall, William L.; Wright, Henry W.; Secoy, Charles H. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 34.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab
A cheap hot stage  Kiplinger, C. C.
Describes an inexpensive air bath and its use in melting point determinations.
Kiplinger, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 33.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A visual demonstration of fractional distillation  Osburn, James O.
Describes the design of a glass bubble-cap column, a glass-packed column, and an equilibrium diagram for an engineering department open-house.
Osburn, James O. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 412.
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The kinetic structure of gases  Slabaugh, W. H.
Describes a model that illustrates the kinetic properties of gases and ii use to demonstrate the effect of temperature changes on the motion of gas particles.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 68.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Correction of boiling points for variation in barometric pressure  Hakala, Reino W.
Examines several methods for correcting boiling points for variations in barometric pressure.
Hakala, Reino W. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 616.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An interpretation of the phase rule  Hollingsworth, C. A.
The phase rule can be interpreted as a statement of the invariance of the number of independent variables of a system in the following sense: The number of independent variables necessary to describe a system (with respect to both its extensive and intensive properties) is independent of the number of phases present.
Hollingsworth, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 464.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A constant-reflux-ratio distilling head  Miller, Glenn H.
An improved constant-reflux-ratio distillation head has been designed that is especially suitable for analytical work involving the fractional distillation of mixtures that boil below 0 degrees C.
Miller, Glenn H. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 73.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A rapid method for routine checking of melting points  Hughes, Virgil E.
Offers a device and procedure for checking the melting points of ten samples simultaneously.
Hughes, Virgil E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 479.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A graphical free energy approach to unary systems  Smith, Norman O.
Experience shows that equations such as the variation of free energy with pressure or with temperature will not be regarded as mere mathematics if one utilizes this simplified treatment of Gibbs' thermodynamic surfaces, particularly if the treatment is correlated with the familiar unary or one-component phase diagrams, thereby making the free energy function more vivid.
Smith, Norman O. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 462.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Quicker steam-bath evaporations  Rouse, George E.
Describes the use of "surrounded evaporations" to reduce the time required to evaporate solutions to dryness.
Rouse, George E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 327.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Management
An improved melting point apparatus  Nickels, J. E.
Describes an improved form of the Hershberg precision melting point apparatus.
Nickels, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 303.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A method of estimating the boiling points of organic liquids  Pearson, D. E.
Discusses the relationship between the molecular structure of organic liquids and their boiling point.
Pearson, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 60.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure