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Journal Articles: 999 results
Orbital Exponent Optimization in Elementary VB Calculations of the Chemical Bond in the Ground State of Simple Molecular Systems  Valerio Magnasco
Orbital exponent optimization in the elementary ab-initio VB calculation of the ground states of H2+, H2, He2+, and He2 gives a fair description of the exchange-overlap component of the interatomic interaction that is important in the bond region.
Magnasco, Valerio. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1686.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Valence Bond Theory
A New "Bottom-Up" Framework for Teaching Chemical Bonding  Tami Levy Nahum, Rachel Mamlok-Naaman, Avi Hofstein, and Leeor Kronik
This article presents a general framework for bonding that can be presented at different levels of sophistication depending on the student's level and needs. The pedagogical strategy for teaching this model is a "bottom-up" one, starting with basic principles and ending with specific properties.
Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Kronik, Leeor. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1680.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Materials Science |
MO Theory |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Rotating Morse–Pekeris Oscillator Revisited  José Zúñiga, Adolfo Bastida, and Alberto Requena
Examines the MorsePekeris oscillator model for the calculation of the vibrationrotation energy levels of diatomic molecules, demonstrating that it is possible to develop the model through an alternative method that allows correction of the MorsePekeris model through first-order perturbation theory.
Zúñiga, José; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1675.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
[#99] Clip Clues: Discovering Chemical Formulas  Carmen Fies and Diana Mason
Students use deductive reasoning skills as they identify formulas of unknown elements and compounds modeled by paperclips. The activity supports formation of a basic understanding of elements and compounds, including allotropes, oxidation states, and diatomic elements.
Fies, Carmen; Mason, Diana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1648A.
Covalent Bonding |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Student-Centered Learning
Teaching Avogadro's Hypothesis and Helping Students to See the World Differently  Brett Criswell
This article uses a model from educational psychologyChi's theory of ontological misclassificationto explain the source of students' difficulties in understanding Avogadro's hypothesis and provide a method to successfully teach this fundamental concept.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1372.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases
Birge–Sponer Estimation of the C–H Bond Dissociation Energy in Chloroform Using Infrared, Near-Infrared, and Visible Absorption Spectroscopy  M. L. Myrick, A. E. Greer, A. A. Nieuwland, R. J. Priore, J. Scaffidi, Danielle Andreatta, and Paula Colavita
The fundamental and overtone vibrational absorption spectroscopy of the CH unit in CHCl3 is measured for transitions from the ? = 0 energy level to ? = 1 through ? = 5 energy levels. These data are then used as the basis for a BirgeSponer estimation of the dissociation energy for the CH bond in chloroform.
Myrick, M. L.; Greer, A. E.; Nieuwland, A. A.; Priore, R. J.; Scaffidi, J.; Andreatta, Daniele; Colavita, Paula. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1276.
Covalent Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Exploring Solid-State Structure and Physical Properties: A Molecular and Crystal Model Exercise  Thomas H. Bindel
This laboratory allows students to examine relationships among the microscopicmacroscopicsymbolic levels using crystalline mineral samples and corresponding crystal models. The exercise also reinforces Lewis dot structures, VSEPR theory, and the identification of molecular and coordination geometries.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 822.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
VSEPR Theory |
Lewis Structures |
Physical Properties
The Return of the Black Box  Malka Yayon and Zahava Scherz
In this activity, students make indirect observations of a sealed box containing different objects and try to deduce the properties and identities of the unseen contents.
Yayon, Malka; Scherz, Zahava. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 541.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nonmajor Courses
Inexpensive Alcohol Burners for Flame Tests Using Aluminum Tea Light Candle Holders  Tom Mortier, Annie Wellens, and Marie-Josée Janssens
This article describes a safer alternative to traditional methanol-based flame tests.
Mortier, Tom; Wellens, Annie; Janssens, Marie-Josée. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 522.
Alcohols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Flames Tests with Flair  Nicholas C. Thomas
When conducted in a suitable fume hood, spraying hydrogen-filled balloons with aqueous solutions of metal salts provides a simple and safe method for demonstrating flame tests.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 521.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals
Netorials  Rebecca Ottosen, John Todd, Rachel Bain, Mike Miller, Liana Lamont, Mithra Biekmohamadi, and David B. Shaw
Netorials is a collection of about 30 online tutorials on general chemistry topics designed as a supplement for high school or college introductory courses. Each Netorial contains several pages of interactive instruction that includes animated mouse-overs, questions for students to answer, and manipulable molecular structures.
Ottosen, Rebecca; Todd, John; Bain, Rachel; Miller, Mike; Lamont. Liana; Biekmohamadi, Mithra; Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 463.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions |
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry
On the Relative Merits of Non-Orthogonal and Orthogonal Valence Bond Methods Illustrated on the Hydrogen Molecule  Celestino Angeli, Renzo Cimiraglia, and Jean-Paul Malrieu
This article presents an alternative approach to the introduction of the valence bond in which valence bond structures are based on orthogonal atomic orbitals. This approach has the advantage of attributing a unique nature to valence bond structures and therefore make their didactic presentation clearer.
Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Malrieu, Jean-Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 150.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Valence Bond Theory
Six Pillars of Organic Chemistry  Joseph J. Mullins
This article focuses on a core set of conceptselectronegativity, polar covalent bonding, inductive and steric effects, resonance, and aromaticitythe proper application of which can explain and predict a wide variety of chemical, physical, and biological properties of molecules and conceptually unite important features of general, organic, and biochemistry.
Mullins, Joseph J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 83.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactive Intermediates |
Resonance Theory
Elementary to High School Students' Growth over an Academic Year in Understanding Concepts of Matter   Xiufeng Liu
This paper reports findings on the changes in students' understandings of the concept of matter during an academic year, for students from grade 3 through high school chemistry.
Liu, Xiufeng. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1853.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Constructivism
E = mc2: An Intuitive Derivation  James J. Leary and William H. Ingham
Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 is derived using a thought experiment that can easily be understood by any serious student of chemistry.
Leary, James J.; Ingham, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1651.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
New Ideas in Chemistry from Fresh Energy for the Periodic Law (Henry A. Bent)  A. Truman Schwartz
The central thesis of the book is the chemical and pedagogical superiority of the left-step periodic table.
Schwartz, A. Truman. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1431.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Lewis Structure Representation of Free Radicals Similar to ClO  Warren Hirsch and Mark Kobrak
An unconventional Lewis structure is proposed to explain the properties of the free radical ClO and a series of its isoelectronic analogues, particularly trends in the spin density of these species.
Hirsch, Warren; Kobrak, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1360.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Free Radicals |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
MO Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
Guitar Strings as Standing Waves: A Demonstration  Michael Davis
This demonstration uses an acoustic guitar to produce three unique harmonic vibrations, each of which is representative of a standing wave and illustrates the concept of quantization.
Davis, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1287.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding: Analysis within the Hückel Model of Electronic Structure  Sture Nordholm, Andreas Bäck, and George B. Bacskay
Hckel molecular orbital theory is shown to be uniquely useful in understanding and interpreting the mechanism of covalent bonding. Using the Hckel model it can be demonstrated that the dynamical character of the molecular orbitals is related simultaneously to the covalent bonding mechanism and to the degree of delocalization of the electron dynamics.
Nordholm, Sture; Bäck, Andreas; Bacskay, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1201.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
News from the Periodic Table: An Introduction to "Periodicity Symbols, Tables, and Models for Higher-Order Valency and Donor–Acceptor Kinships"  Henry A. Bent and Frank Weinhold
Proposes that alternative display topologies such as a 2D "left-step" or "step-pyramid" table or 3D "periodic towers" can supplement or supplant the standard periodic table by better emphasizing higher-order patterns of chemical association and reactivity, rather than the physical resemblances of standard-state elemental substances.
Bent, Henry A.; Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1145.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Spectroscopy
The Periodic Table at a Glance (M. A. Beckett and A. W. G. Platt)  L. L. Pesterfield
The Periodic Table at a Glance is a good choice for the student who needs a quick review of the basics of inorganic chemistry but does not have the time to wade through a standard textbook.
Pesterfield, L. L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1110.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Getting the Weights of Lewis Structures out of Hückel Theory: Hückel–Lewis Configuration Interaction (HL-CI)  Stéphane Humbel
A method to obtain the weights of Lewis structures from Hckel calculations is presented and tested against established ab initio methods.
Humbel, Stéphane. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1056.
Computational Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Resonance Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
Building a Successful Middle School Outreach Effort: Microscopy Camp  R. Lee Penn, Leslie Flynn, and Page Johnson
Microscopy Camp is a middle school outreach program designed to introduce and reinforce concepts regarding the atomic structure of crystals. Students synthesize magnetite nanoparticles and characterize them using light, scanning electron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.
Penn, R. Lee; Flynn, Leslie; Johnson, Page. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 955.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Mustard Gas: Its Pre-World War I History  Ronald J. Duchovic and Joel A. Vilensky
A review of the history of the synthesis of mustard gas by 19th century European chemists highlights the increasing sophistication of the chemical sciences during this time.
Duchovic, Ronald J.; Vilensky, Joel A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 944.
Applications of Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Toxicology
The Weakest Link: Bonding between Helium Atoms  Lawrence L. Lohr and S. M. Blinder
Van der Waals attraction can lead to the formation of weakly-bound, diatomic molecules of helium stable at temperatures in the millikelvin range. Quantum-mechanical computations confirm that the HeHe bond is the weakest known; with an average internuclear distance computed to exceed 50 , He2 is also the largest known diatomic molecule.
Lohr, Lawrence L.; Blinder, S. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 860.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
On the Role of d Orbital Hybridization in the Chemistry Curriculum  John Morrison Galbraith
The use of d-orbital hybridization to describe hypervalent molecules should be removed from the general chemistry curriculum. The case of bonding in sulfur hexaflouride can illustrate that no theory provides all the right answers all the time.
Galbraith, John Morrison. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 783.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
The Concept of Resonance  Donald G. Truhlar
Responds to a recent suggestion that "resonance," as in valence bond theory, should be relabeled "delocalization" by demonstrating that these are different concepts.
Truhlar, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 781.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The Origin of the s, p, d, f Orbital Labels  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the s, p, d, and f orbital labels.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Spectroscopy
A Variational Monte Carlo Approach to Atomic Structure  Stephen L. Davis
A simple version of the variational Monte Carlo method is used to explicate several features of many electron atoms, including electron shielding in the ground state of helium, singlettriplet splitting in the first excited state of helium, the difference in 2s and 2p penetration in lithium, and the trends in ionization energies for Be, Be+, and Be2+.
Davis, Stephen L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 711.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Predicting the Stability of Hypervalent Molecules  Tracy A. Mitchell, Debbie Finocchio, and Jeremy Kua
In this exercise, students use concepts in thermochemistry such as bond energy, ionization potentials, and electron affinities to predict the relative stability of two hypervalent molecules (PF5 and PH5) relative to their respective non-hypervalent counterparts.
Mitchell, Tracy A.; Finocchio, Debbie; Kua, Jeremy. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 629.
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Turning Plastic Into Gold: An Analogy To Demonstrate the Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment  Robert B. Gregory
Describes an in-class demonstration designed to be an analogy to the RutherfordGeigerMarsden gold foil experiment that requires only a laser pointer, two picture frames, and a sheet of plastic.
Gregory, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 626.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Lasers |
Metals
Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content  Susan L. Boyd
Presents ten puzzles to make chemistry more interesting while reinforcing important concepts.
Boyd, Susan L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 619.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Hund's Multiplicity Rule Revisited  Frank Rioux
The purpose of this article is to present a relatively simple quantum mechanical model for Hund's multiplicity rule that is accessible to undergraduate audiences and consistent with conclusions based on high-level quantum mechanical calculations.
Rioux, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 358.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
π Backbonding in Carbonyl Complexes and Carbon–Oxygen Stretching Frequencies: A Molecular Modeling Exercise  Craig D. Montgomery
An exercise in molecular modeling, suitable for a third- or fourth-year course in organometallic or inorganic chemistry, is presented in which the effects of the metal center, the metal charge, and the electron-withdrawing properties of co-ligands upon the degree of p backbonding to carbonyl ligands are demonstrated.
Montgomery, Craig D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 102.
Valence Bond Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
Valency and Bonding: A Natural Bond Orbital Donor–Acceptor Perspective (Frank Weinhold and Clark Landis)  Andrew J. Pounds
This is an important book, worth a look if for no other reason than to witness outstanding scholarship. There are few texts that successfully incorporate so much data into the presentation of ideas.
Pounds, Andrew J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 43.
Valence Bond Theory
Let Us Give Lewis Acid–Base Theory the Priority It Deserves  Alan A. Shaffer
The Lewis concept is simple yet powerful in its scope, and can be used to help beginning students understand reaction mechanisms more fully. However, traditional approaches to acid-base reactions at the introductory level ignores Lewis acid-base theory completely, focusing instead on proton transfer described by the Br?nsted-Lowry concept.
Shaffer, Alan A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1746.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Lewis Structures |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Identifying Students' Misconceptions about Nuclear Chemistry. A Study of Turkish High School Students  Canan Nakiboglu and Berna Bülbül Tekin
A diagnostic multiple-choice test administered to 157 tenth-graders indicate that high school students hold a series of misconceptions about topics related to nuclear stability, half-life, binding energy, practical applications of nuclear chemistry, radioactive decay rate, and basic chemistry concepts that are essential prerequisites for learning nuclear chemistry.
Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bülbül. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1712.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Millikan: Good to the Last (Oil) Drop  Earl F. Pearson
In this analogy, drop-shaped pieces of magnet represent oil drops, steel BBs represent the electrons, and the mass of a BB represents the charge of an electron. The smallest possible difference in mass between any two samples of BBs should be the mass of a single BB.
Pearson, Earl F. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1312A.
Atomic Properties / Structure
More on the Nature of Resonance  Robert C. Kerber
The author continues to find the use of delocalization preferable to resonance.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1291.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
More on the Nature of Resonance  William B. Jensen
Supplements a recent article on the interpretation of resonance theory with three additional observationsone historical and two conceptual.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Valence, Oxidation Number, and Formal Charge: Three Related but Fundamentally Different Concepts  Gerard Parkin
The purpose of this article is to clarify the terms valence, oxidation number, coordination number, formal charge, and number of bonds and illustrate how the valence of an atom in a molecule provides a much more meaningful criterion for establishing the chemical reasonableness of a molecule than does the oxidation number.
Parkin, Gerard. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 791.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Oxidation State |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Demonstrating Void Space in Solids: A Simple Demonstration To Challenge a Powerful Misconception  Mary Whitfield
The concept of bridging analogies is used in a simple demonstration to illustrate the substantial quantity of empty space that remains when solid spheres are packed together. The same demonstration also shows that the percentage of empty space is independent of particle size.
Whitfield, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 749.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Materials Science |
Solids
The Old Quantum Theory for H2+: Some Chemical Implications  Stephen K. Knudson
The "old quantum theory" generates eigenvalues dependent entirely on the properties of classical orbits. Application of these ideas to diatomic molecules with one electron, such as H2+, is less successful than the corresponding application to one-electron atoms. Nonetheless, useful insight can be gleaned both from the successes and from the deficiencies of the application.
Knudson, Stephen K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 464.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
If It's Resonance, What Is Resonating?  Robert C. Kerber
This article reviews the origin of the terminology associated with the use of more than one Lewis-type structure to describe delocalized bonding in molecules and how the original usage has evolved to reduce confusion
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 223.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
The Nature of Hydrogen Bonding  Emeric Schultz
Students use toy connecting blocks and Velcro to investigate weak intermolecular interactions, specifically hydrogen bonds.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 400A.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Balloon—Toy of Many Colors  Kathryn R. Williams
Balloon-related articles previously published in JCE describe gas law experiments and demonstrations, large-scale molecular models, demonstrations of reaction rates and stoichiometry, hydrogen-filled balloon explosions, and miscellaneous laboratory uses.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1448.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
VSEPR Theory
Self-Consistent Field Calculations Spreadsheet  Gary G. Hoffman
A Self-Consistent Field Calculations Spreadsheet can help your students understand the self-consistent field (SCF) procedure, typically presented in an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The spreadsheet helps students easily perform SCF calculations on a two-electron atom and see graphically how the proper solution is obtained. It is also possible for more advanced students to apply this spreadsheet to more ambitious systems.
Hoffman, Gary G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1423.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry
A Model for the Chemical Bond; J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 427-435  Valerio Magnasco
Corrections to "A Model for the Chemical Bond," J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 427-435.
Magnasco, Valerio. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1311.
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Some Observations on Molecular Orbital Theory  James F. Harrison and Daniel B. Lawson
The authors show, according to molecular orbital theory, why molecular orbital energies are not equally spaced above and below their constituent atomic orbital energies. Also, comments are made describing MO theory's ability to predict experimental properties such as bond length, dissociation energy, and the theory's incorrect ordering of the low-lying electronic states of C2.
Harrison, James F.; Lawson, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1205.
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Valence, Covalence, Hypervalence, Oxidation State, and Coordination Number  Derek W. Smith
It is argued that the terms valence, covalence, hypervalence, oxidation state, and coordination number are often confused and misused in the literature. It is recommended that use of the term valence, and its associated terminology, should be restricted to simple molecular main group substances and to some oxoacids and derivatives, but avoided in both main group and transition element coordination chemistry.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1202.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Main-Group Elements |
Oxidation State
Conceptual Considerations in Molecular Science  Donald T. Sawyer
The undergraduate curriculum and associated textbooks include several significant misconceptions.
Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 985.
Catalysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Revisiting the Electric Pickle Demonstration  Michelle M. Rizzo, Tracy A. Halmi, Alan J. Jircitano, Martin G. Kociolek, and Jerry A. Magraw
The electric pickle demonstration has long been used to explore the atomic emission of sodium ions, which emit a brilliant yelloworange glow. The emission from other metal ions including lithium, potassium, strontium, and barium can also be demonstrated by pickling cucumbers with the corresponding chloride salt.
Rizzo, Michelle M.; Halmi, Tracy A.; Jircitano, Alan J.; Kociolek, Martin G.; Magraw, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 545.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals
Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle  Terry L. Meek and Leah D. Garner
The dependence of bond type on two parameters, electronegativity difference (??) and average electronegativity (?av), is examined. It is demonstrated that ionic character is governed by the partial charges of the bonded atoms, and metallic character by the HOMOLUMO band gap.
Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
The Meaning of d-Orbital Labels  Guy Ashkenazi
Orbital labels are the angular part of the wave function, expressed in Cartesian coordinates. The mathematical relation between the labels and the shapes of the orbitals is discussed.
Ashkenazi, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 323.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Quantum Chemistry
Where Should the Nuclei Be Located?  Ying Liu and Yue Liu
The positions of nuclei in orbital representations are discussed. Some misleading representations in the scientific literature are highlighted and more realistic diagrams are presented.
Liu, Ying; Liu, Yue. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 320.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Experiences and Reflections about Teaching Atomic Structure in a Jigsaw Classroom in Lower Secondary School Chemistry Lessons  Ingo Eilks
This article describes and discusses an example of how atomic structure can be taught in lower secondary chemistry using a modified jigsaw-classroom method. The lesson was taught in grades 9 and 10 (age range 1517 years) chemistry in 13 learning groups with a total of 313 students in various grammar, middle, and comprehensive schools in Germany. The written evaluation of the lesson focused on determining the students opinions on the teaching methods that were used.
Eilks, Ingo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 313.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Learning Theories |
Constructivism
Bond Length Dependence on Quantum States as Shown by Spectroscopy  Kieran F. Lim
Undergraduate students often have the misconception that molecules have fixed, unchanging bond lengths. This article discusses how linear-molecule rotational band spacings in infrared spectroscopy can be used as a qualitative, visual demonstration of the elongation of average bond lengths on vibrational excitation. The method does not depend on a detailed mathematical analysis of the spectra. In UVvis spectroscopy, the rotational band spacings give rise to distinctive linear-molecule rotational contours, which easily show whether the average bond length has increased or decreased.
Lim, Kieran F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 145.
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
Structure and Bonding in Group 14 Congeners of Ethene: DFT Calculations in the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Bennett R. Streit and David K. Geiger
A computational chemistry experiment for an advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory is described. DFT calculations are performed to determine the optimized geometries of compounds of the type H2E=EH2. Structural parameters are compared for E=C, Si, and Ge. Guided inquiry into the nature of the bonding and energetics of E=E bond dissociation are pursued by examining the singlet and triplet EH2 fragments.
Streit, Bennett R.; Geiger, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 111.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
The Formula for Ammonia Monohydrate  Stephen J. Hawkes
The reality of NH4OH was argued in J. Chem. Educ. and elsewhere a decade ago. Further evidence is now available. My colleague Darrah Thomas has calculated the geometry and bond lengths of H5NO using Gaussian. The calculation was done using the D95 basis set and the B3LYP method.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1569.
Covalent Bonding
Cis and Trans Isomerization in Cyclic Alkenes: A Topic for Discovery Using the Results of Molecular Modeling  Susan E. Barrows and Thomas H. Eberlein
This article describes an activity in which students are led to discover the fundamental reasons behind the unusual instability of the trans isomers in medium-sized cycloalkenes by using the results of molecular modeling. Notably, students will make the unexpected discovery that twisting about p bonds is perhaps more facile than they had been led to believe.
Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1529.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Concept of Oxidation States in Metal Complexes  Dirk Steinborn
After a brief historical survey, basic considerations are given to assign oxidation numbers of atoms in molecules on the basis of their Lewis structures by splitting shared electrons in covalent bonds heterolytically. Advantages over the frequently used method to assign oxidation numbers by using a set of hierarchical rules are demonstrated for some nonmetal compounds. Assignment of oxidation numbers of metals is systematically worked out for metal complexes with n-, pi-, and s-ligands. Furthermore, it is shown how the concept of oxidation states is embedded in the teaching process of molecular chemistry for early chemistry students.
Steinborn, Dirk. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1148.
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Lewis Structures |
Metals |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs  Michael J. Sanger and Amy J. Phelps
This article describes three new methods for performing simple flame tests using cotton swabs.
Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 969.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Effects of Exchange Energy and Spin-Orbit Coupling on Bond Energies  Derek W. Smith
It is shown that the ground states of atoms having pn configurations are stabilized by exchange energy (n = 2, 3, or 4) and/or spinorbit coupling (n = 1, 2, 4, or 5).
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 886.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Exothermic Bond Breaking: A Persistent Misconception  William C. Galley
Surveys taken the past several years at the onset of an introductory physical chemistry course reveal that the vast majority of students believe that bond breaking is exothermic.
Galley, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 523.
Covalent Bonding |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Model for the Chemical Bond  Valerio Magnasco
A simple model of the chemical bond is developed on the basis of an elementary MO theory requiring solution of at most a 2 ? 2 Hckel secular equation including overlap. The fundamental quantities are the atomic integrals a1 and a2 giving the energies of the isolated atoms or ions, and the bond integral b which depends on the overlap S between the interacting AOs.
Magnasco, Valerio. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 427.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Schrödinger Equation Solutions That Lead to the Solution for the Hydrogen Atom  Paul F. Newhouse and K. C. McGill
This article outlines two particle in a box (PIB) solutions to the Schrdinger equation that increase gradually in complexity and lead to the solution for the H atom. In addition to the PIB solutions, laboratory exercises are cited that can be modeled by the PIB solutions. The two PIB solutions are a particle in a cylindrical box (two-dimensional problem) and a particle in a spherical box (three-dimensional problem).
Newhouse, Paul F.; McGill, K. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 424.
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Teaching Molecular Geometry with the VSEPR Model  Ronald J. Gillespie
The difficulties associated with the usual treatment of the VB and MO theories in connection with molecular geometry in beginning courses are discussed. It is recommended that the VB and MO theories should be presented only after the VSEPR model either in the general chemistry course or in a following course, particularly in the case of the MO theory, which is not really necessary for the first-year course.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 298.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Theoretical Chemistry |
VSEPR Theory |
MO Theory
Orbital Graphing  Mark Ellison

Ellison, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 158.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry
Energies and Wave Functions for Several One-Dimensional Potentials  Ricardo Metz

Metz, Ricardo. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 157.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry
Helping Students Learn Mathematically Intensive Aspects of Chemistry  Theresa Julia Zielinski

Zielinski, Theresa Julia. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment  Atif Koca and Musa Sahin
The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.
Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1314.
Catalysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Spectrum Analysis Discoverer?  H. L. Retcofsky
There is considerable evidence that spectrum analysis actually had its origin in western Pennsylvania. In 1854, Dr. David Alter, a physician from Freeport, Pennsylvania, published his work entitled, On Certain Physical Properties of Light Produced by the Combustion of Different Metals in an Electric Spark Refracted by a Prism.
Retcofsky, H. L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1003.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The KLM-Shell Labels  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader's inquiry, this column traces the origins of the K, L, M labels for the shells of the Bohr atom.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 996.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Noble Gas Configuration—Not the Driving Force but the Rule of the Game in Chemistry  Roland Schmid
Explains the covalent and ionic bonding behavior of main-group elements in terms of electromagnetic forces rather than the supposed "stability" of noble-gas configurations.
Schmid, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 931.
Molecular Modeling |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Fluorescence Lifetime and Quenching of Iodine Vapor  Tony Masiello, Nicolae Vulpanovici, and Joseph W. Nibler
Procedure using the absorption and emission spectra of iodine vapor to deduce vibrational properties of ground and excited electronic states.
Masiello, Tony; Vulpanovici, Nicolae; Nibler, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 914.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers
An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory: The Sunlight-Induced Photosynthesis of (η2-C60)M(CO)5 Complexes (M = Mo, W)   José E. Cortés-Figueroa
Procedure that provides chemical applications of group theory to predict the vCO spectrum of the inorganic moiety of metal carbonyl complexes, and the understanding of the concept of pi-acidity and its relation to the electronic structure of the ligand and the metal.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 799.
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Transition Elements
Writing Electron Dot Structures   Kenneth R. Magnell
Drill with feedback for students learning to write electron dot structures.
Magnell, Kenneth R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 711.
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Resonance Theory |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Molecular Model Game  Stephanie A. Myers
Student teams must draw Lewis structures and build models of various molecules and polyatomic ions; different team members have different responsibilities.
Myers, Stephanie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 423.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Enrichment / Review Materials
ORBITAL  Robert M. Hanson
Software for producing probability-based three-dimensional representations of atomic orbitals of the hydrogen atom and other single-electron systems; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 109.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Computational Chemistry
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry: From Lewis to Electron Densities (Gillespie and Popelier)  Daniel Rabinovich
Overview of the classical and modern concepts used to explain and predict molecular geometries of the nonmetallic elements and their compounds.
Rabinovich, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 31.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
Lewis Structures |
Nonmetals
News from Online: Selected Inorganic Chemistry Resources   Jason Cooke
Recommended online resources for students studying inorganic chemistry.
Cooke, Jason. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 10.
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Organometallics |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Understanding and Interpreting Molecular Electron Density Distributions  C. F. Matta and R. J. Gillespie
A simple introduction to the electron densities of molecules and how they can be analyzed to obtain information on bonding and geometry.
Matta, C. F.; Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
A Three-Dimensional Model for Water  J. L. H. Johnson and S. H. Yalkowsky
Using Molymod spheres and magnets to simulate the structure and properties of water and aqueous systems.
Johnson, J. L. H.; Yalkowsky, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1088.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An Evergreen: The Tetrahedral Bond Angle  Marten J. ten Hoor
Summary and analysis of derivations of the tetrahedral bond angle.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 956.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
How We Teach Molecular Structure to Freshmen  Michael O. Hurst
Examination of how textbooks discuss various aspects of molecular structure; conclusion that much of general chemistry is taught the way it is for historical and not pedagogical reasons.
Hurst, Michael O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 763.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Determination of the Natural Abundances of Krypton and Xenon Isotopes Using Mass Spectrometry: A Demonstration of Isotopes and the Basis of Atomic Mass  David N. Blauch, Merlyn D. Schuh, and Felix A. Carroll

Blauch, David N.; Schuh, Merlyn D.; Carroll, Felix A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 584.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry
Fingerprinting: Commercial Products and Elements  DeeDee Allen and Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo
Activity in which students relate emission spectra to bar codes.
Allen, DeeDee; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 459.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models  Lowe, John P.
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 430)  John P. Lowe

Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 429.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock

Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 429.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 429.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Tetrahedral Geometry and the Dipole Moment of Molecules  Sara N. Mendiara and L. J. Perissinotti
Determination of bond angles and moments of tetrahedral molecules.
Mendiara, Sara N.; Perissinotti, L. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 64.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Covalent Bonding
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  John P. Lowe
Commentary on the suitability of the potential-energy-only (POE) model for explaining successive ionization energies.
Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 30.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Commentary on the suitability of the potential-energy-only (POE) model for explaining successive ionization energies.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Electron Densities, Atomic Charges, and Ionic, Covalent and Polar Bonds  Ronald J. Gillespie
The terms ionic and covalent character are vague, qualitative, and ill-defined. In contrast, the analysis of the electron density by the AIM theory leads to clearly defined quantitative properties such as the charges on the atoms and the electron density at the bond critical point that provide a sound basis for discussing bonding and geometry.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1688.
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
Structure and Bonding (by Jack Barrett)  Michael Laing
Tutorial chemistry text.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1600.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UV-Sensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A-648B)  Jerry A. Bell
Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UV-sensitive beads.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Chemometrics
The Role of Lewis Structures in Teaching Covalent Bonding  S. R. Logan
Difficulties with the Lewis theory of covalent bonding and upgrading it to the Molecular Orbital theory.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1457.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Nonmajor Courses |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Orbitals in Chemistry: A Modern Guide for Students
by Victor M. Gil
  David Hanson
Analysis of atomic and molecular orbitals.
Hanson, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1184.
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
An Investigation of the Value of Using Concept Maps in General Chemistry  Gayle Nicoll, Joseph S. Francisco, and Mary B. Nakhleh
Study of the degree to which students in introductory chemistry classes linked related concepts; comparisons of a class in which concept mapping was used and another in which it was not.
Nicoll, Gayle; Francisco, Joseph S.; Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1111.
Covalent Bonding |
Learning Theories
Lewis Structures in General Chemistry: Agreement between Electron Density Calculations and Lewis Structures  Gordon H. Purser
The internuclear electron densities of a series of X-O bonds (where X = P, S, or Cl) are calculated using quantum mechanics and compared to Lewis structures for which the formal charges have been minimized; a direct relationship is found between the internuclear electron density and the bond order predicted from Lewis structures in which formal charges are minimized.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 981.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Quantum Chemistry
Molecular Modeling in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum  Martin B. Jones
Project to expose all chemistry students at all levels to computer-based molecular modeling.
Jones, Martin B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 867.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
An Idea Whose Time Has Come?
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1718-1722)  David E. Lewis
Unoccupied orbitals as the major arbiters of reactivity have been long ignored in teaching introductory organic chemistry courses.
Lewis, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 727.
Covalent Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
MO Theory
An Idea Whose Time Has Come?
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1718-1722)  William B. Jensen
Past classifications related to the nine-category classification of organic electrophilic-nucleophilic reactions based on the bonding and symmetry characteristics of the reactants' frontier orbitals of the author.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 727.
Covalent Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
MO Theory
An Idea Whose Time Has Come?
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1718-1722)  William B. Jensen
Past classifications related to the nine-category classification of organic electrophilic-nucleophilic reactions based on the bonding and symmetry characteristics of the reactants' frontier orbitals of the author.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 727.
Covalent Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
MO Theory
Light Emission at Electrodes: An Electrochemiluminescence Demonstration  Ed Bolton and Mark M. Richter
Upon application of a 3-volt potential to a platinum electrode immersed in a Ru(bpy)32+-C9H21N solution, an orange glow, readily visible in a semi-darkened room, is produced at the electrode.
Bolton, Ed; Richter, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 641.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry
A Dramatic Flame Test Demonstration  Kristin A. Johnson and Rodney Schreiner
Spraying a methanol / salt solution into the flame of a Meker burner to produce a large, brightly colored flame.
Johnson, Kristin A.; Schreiner, Rodney. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 640.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A Rationalization for the Freshman Rules for the H-Atom Quantum Numbers  Oliver G. Ludwig
The use of explicit expressions for the individual parts of hydrogen atom orbitals to show how the usual freshman rules for the n,l,m quantum numbers follow easily from the mathematics and need not be postulated.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 634.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Logic vs Misconceptions in Undergraduate Organic Textbooks: Radical Stabilities and Bond Dissociation Energies  Andreas A. Zavitsas
Undergraduate textbooks for organic chemistry relate alkyl radical stability to homolytic bond dissociation energy of the corresponding alkane. This practice is misleading, grossly overestimates the stability of the radicals relative to methyl, and leads to values that are not transferable to other molecules. Defining alkyl radical relative stabilization energies in terms of BDE[R-Me] and use of Pauling's electronegativity equation solves the problem.
Zavitsas, Andreas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 417.
Covalent Bonding |
Free Radicals |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics
Investigating the Adiabatic Approximation in Quantum Mechanics through the Analysis of Two Coupled Harmonic Oscillators  Anne B. McCoy
The nature of the adiabatic approximation is investigated. This approximation is at the center of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, commonly employed in the construction of molecular potentials.
McCoy, Anne B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 401.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Quantum Alchemy: Transmutation of Atomic Orbitals  S. M. Blinder
The splitting of the (n,l) degeneracy in many-electron atoms is analyzed in terms of the breakdown of commutativity of the Runge-Lenz vector with the Hamiltonian.
Blinder, S. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 391.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
Fast Ionic Migration of Copper Chromate  Adolf Cortel
Among the many demonstrations of ionic migration in an electric field, the ones showing the migration of colored Cu+2 and CrO4-2 ions are popular. The demonstration described here introduces some modifications to allow a fast displacement of these ions.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 207.
Covalent Bonding |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Chemiluminescence of Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II): A Glowing Experience  Ed Bolton and Mark M. Richter
When Mg powder or turnings are added to a CH3CN-H2O (50:50 v/v) solution mixture containing 1 mM Ru(bpy)32+ and 40 mM S2O82- (CH3CN = acetonitrile, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, S2O82 = peroxydisulfate) at pH 1.2, a bright orange emission results that is easily visible in a darkened room.
Bolton, Ed; Richter, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 47.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry
Applications of a U.S. EPA-Approved Method for Fluoride Determination in an Environmental Chemistry Laboratory: Fluoride Detection in Drinking Water  Gabrielle Rum, Wen-Yee Lee, and Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

Rum, Gabrielle; Lee, Wen-Yee; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1604.
Instrumental Methods |
VSEPR Theory |
Water / Water Chemistry
Learning about Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical Bonds: A Case Study of Multiple-Model Use  William R. Robinson
A report from the journal Science Education focusing on the Harrison and Treagust article Learning about Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical Bonds: A Case Study.
Robinson, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1110.
Learning Theories |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
A Simplified Mathematical Model for Calculating the Lattice Energies of Binary Group I and Group II Ionic Compounds: Using Solver to Estimate the Empirical Constants  Alan Carter
A simplified mathematical model for calculating the Lattice energies of binary Group I and II ionic compounds; using Solver to estimate the empirical constants.
Carter, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1081.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry
Should Gaseous BF3 and SiF4 Be Described as Ionic Compounds?  Arne Haaland, Trygve Helgaker, Kenneth Ruud, and D. J. Shorokhov
Analysis suggesting that representing BF3 and SiF3 as ionic compounds may be misleading.
Haaland, Arne; Helgaker, Trygve; Ruud, Kenneth; Shorokhov, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1076.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Understanding Trends in C-H, N-H, and O-H Bond Dissociation Enthalpies  K. U. Ingold and J. S. Wright
Trends in bond dissociation enthalpies are discussed in terms of a number of concepts useful in advanced organic chemistry courses, including electronegativity, bond length, orbital overlap, unpaired electron delocalization by conjugation and hyperconjugation, and radical stabilization energy.
Ingold, K. U.; Wright, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1062.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Drop in the Ocean  Damon Diemente
Teachers of high-school chemistry customarily use calculations done as in-class exercises or as demonstrations to impress their students with the enormity of Avogadro's number and the concomitant miniscularity of atoms and molecules. This article presents and works out one such calculation.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1010.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Developing an Intuitive Approach to Moles  Dawn M. Wakeley and Hans de Grys
An alternative approach to introducing the mole through discovery-oriented laboratory exercises to help students to develop an intuitive understanding of moles. Once students have discovered for themselves the utility and power of moles, the reason for using moles becomes obvious.
Wakeley, Dawn M.; de Grys, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1007.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
The M&M® Superposition Principle  John B. Miller
A macroscopic physical system for demonstrating the relationships of quantum mechanical operators, eigenfunctions, expectation values, and superposition of delectable wave functions is described. Small candies or similar objects with a variety of values of physical properties serve as surrogates for abstract quantum wave functions.
Miller, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 879.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
News from Online: Learning Communities  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Summary of a variety of online, chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 808.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Orbital Plots Using Gnuplot  Brian G. Moore
Examples are given of how Gnuplot is used in an undergraduate physical chemistry class to view familiar atomic orbitals in new ways or to generate views of orbital functions that the student may have not seen before.
Moore, Brian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 785.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Antibonding Effect  Derek W. Smith
It is shown that the consequence of filling both a bonding molecular orbital (MO) and its antibonding counterpart leads to a total orbital energy greater than that of the separated atoms.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 780.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Theoretical Chemistry
Probability of Locating the Electron in a Hydrogen Atom  Thomas C. W. Mak and Wai-Kee Li
A variety of numerical problems, along with their solutions, regarding the probability of locating the electron in a hydrogen atom are given. These problems range from simple substitution exercises to graduate-level take-home questions. Comments on the physical meaning of some of the results are also provided.
Mak, Thomas C. W.; Li, Wai-Kee. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 490.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Closed-Form Spherical Harmonics: Explicit Polynomial Expression for the Associated Legendre Functions  J. J. C. Mulder
In this communication a polynomial form is given for the associated Legendre function by means of the simultaneous use of sin q and cos q as variables. This means that one now has the complete expression as a function of the polar coordinates r, q, and j, in a form that shows the relation between the number and type of nodes and the degree in q and r, as well as the connection between the three quantum numbers and the three variables, in a direct and transparent way. Any particular solution is simply and directly found by plugging in the values of n, l, and m.
Mulder, J. J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 244.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Theoretical Chemistry
Comments on Kinetic, Potential, and Ionization Energies  John P. Lowe
Despite the importance of kinetic energy changes in ionization processes, it is not necessary to explicitly include them when modeling ionization energies: the virial theorem allows one to use potential-energy-only models. A simple potential-energy-only model calculation of the ionization energies of sulfur illustrates the shell structure of this atom.
Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Using Sol-Gel Chemistry to Synthesize a Material with Properties Suited for Chemical Sensing. Development and Implementation of a Materials Science Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum  J. B. Laughlin, J. L. Sarquis, V. M. Jones, and J. A. Cox
Using sol-gel chemistry to introduce undergraduate chemistry majors to the field of materials chemistry. In this experiment, students vary the synthetic processes necessary for xerogel production. They investigate how different parameters (e.g., temperature and pH) affect the internal porous network during xerogel synthesis.
Laughlin, James B.; Sarquis, Jerry L.; Jones, Veronica M.; Cox, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 77.
Materials Science |
Atomic Properties / Structure
1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry  
The Royal Swedish Academy has awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed H. Zewail (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy".
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 14.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding
A Comment on Molecular Geometry   Frank J. Gomba
A method of determining the correct molecular geometry of simple molecules and ions with one central atom is proposed. While the usual method of determining the molecular geometry involves first drawing the Lewis structure, this method can be used without doing so. In fact, the Lewis structure need not be drawn at all. The Lewis structure may be drawn as the final step, with the geometry of the simple molecule or ion already established.
Gomba, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1732.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Organizing Organic Reactions: The Importance of Antibonding Orbitals  David E. Lewis
It is proposed that unoccupied molecular orbitals arbitrate much organic reactivity, and that they provide the basis for a reactivity-based system for organizing organic reactions. Such a system is proposed for organizing organic reactions according to principles of reactivity, and the system is discussed with examples of the frontier orbitals involved.
Lewis, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1718.
Covalent Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
MO Theory
When Do Arrows Not Have Tips?  Igor Novak
The graphical method of boxes-and-arrows is usually used to describe electronic states and spin-orbit coupling in atoms. This method, as it stands, can only be applied to light atoms (i.e., LS-coupling). We present an analogous method that can be applied to heavy atoms (i.e., the case of jj-coupling).
Novak, Igor. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1380.
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
In Defense of the Metallic Bond  John J. Gilman
This paper is a rebuttal of the suggestion that the term "metallic bond" be stricken from the chemist's lexicon. The argument of the critics of current usage is that the metallic bond is simply a special case of the covalent bond and that it can be discussed adequately in terms of molecular orbital theory.
Gilman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1330.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Metals |
Solid State Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Conductivity
Spectroscopic Selection Rules: The Role of Photon States  Andrew M. Ellis
Selection rules play a central role in spectroscopy. In an introductory undergraduate course it is frequently desirable to give some justification for these rules without recourse to a formal derivation. One way of doing this is to apply conservation arguments. Two of the quantities that must be unchanged by photon absorption or emission are the overall angular momentum and parity of the system.
Ellis, Andrew M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1291.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
A Procedure to Obtain the Effective Nuclear Charge from the Atomic Spectrum of Sodium  O. Sala*, Koiti Araki, and L. K. Noda
This article describes a relatively simple graphical procedure to calculate the effective nuclear charges experienced by the sodium valence electron from its atomic spectrum. A relation of Z* with n for a given l is obtained and the Z* values for all states of the valence electron are found; the energy terms can also be determined. The calculations can be performed by using common spreadsheet software.
Sala, Oswaldo; Araki, Koiti; Noda, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1269.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The Balmer Spectrum of Hydrogen: An Old Experiment with a New Twist  B. R. Ramachandran and Arthur M. Halpern
In this approach, students do not have to make any assumptions about the nature of the emission lines in order to analyze the spectrum; they first perform a three-parameter nonlinear regression and discover that the emission belongs to the Balmer series and that the 656 nm line is the a line. Subsequently they perform a one-parameter nonlinear regression to obtain the value of the Rydberg constant.
Ramachandran, B. R.; Halpern, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1266.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A Framework for Presenting the Modern Atom  James J. Leary and Tadd C. Kippeny
A flow chart is presented that summarizes major empirical and theoretical accomplishments that contributed to the modern view of the atom. A chronology is included to show the time dependence of the various contributions. Suggestions are made about how this chart can be used in a variety of contexts as a framework for discussing science as a process.
Leary, James J.; Kippeny, Tadd C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1217.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemical Bonding as a Superposition Phenomenon  Frank Weinhold
The characteristic phenomena of chemistry-covalent and coordinate bonding, resonance delocalization, aromaticity, H-bonding, hyperconjugation-can also be seen as special cases of a central superposition paradigm: the "donor-acceptor" interaction between filled and unfilled orbitals.
Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
The Use of Molecular Modeling and VSEPR Theory in the Undergraduate Curriculum to Predict the Three-Dimensional Structure of Molecules  Brian W. Pfennig and Richard L. Frock
Despite the simplicity and elegance of the VSEPR model, however, students often have difficulty visualizing the three-dimensional shapes of molecules and learning the more subtle features of the model, such as the bond length and bond angle deviations from ideal geometry that accompany the presence of lone pair or multiple bond domains or that result from differences in the electronegativity of the bonded atoms, partial charges and molecular dipole moments, and site preferences in the trigonal bipyramidal electron geometry.
Pfennig, Brian W.; Frock, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1018.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
Lewis Structures Are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure  Gordon H. Purser
This article argues against a close relationship between Lewis dot structures and electron structure obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. Lewis structures are a powerful tool for structure prediction, though they are classical models of bonding and do not predict electronic structure.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1013.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling
An Improved Interpretation of the Woodward-Hoffmann Rules  Robert T. Patterson
This article provides an interpretation of these rules within the framework of group theory and illustrating what these rules imply about reactivity using potential energy surfaces. As a result of this presentation one can begin to appreciate how the W-H rules are connected not only to transition state theory but also to the concepts of resonance and topology.
Patterson, Robert T. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1002.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Compounding Selection Rules in Quantum Mechanics  K. R. Brownstein and K. S. Capelle
The selection rule for matrix elements, , of a product of operators, ab, can be obtained by compounding the selection rules for the matrix elements and of the individual operators through intermediate states |ns. We point out that a naive application of this technique may lead to misleading results due to nonexistent intermediate "ghost" states.
Brownstein, Kenneth R.; Capelle, K. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 992.
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Flame Tests Using Improvised Alcohol Burners  Veljko Dragojlovic
In this demonstration, an improvised alcohol burner, with a methanol solution of a salt as fuel, produces a long-lasting brightly colored flame.
Dragojlovic, Veljko. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 929.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Soda Bottle Orbital Models  Adcock, Louis H.
Better method for connecting bottles.
Adcock, Louis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 899.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Optimizing Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Sequential Simplex Optimization  Richard J. Stolzberg
Students adjust the level of four variables to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in the flame atomic absorption determination of calcium. They observe that three of the four variables, flame observation height, burner horizontal position, and fuel-to-air ratio, affect S/N. The fourth variable, volume of water in a graduated cylinder, has no effect on S/N.
Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 834.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Comparison of Stretching Force Constants in Symmetry Coordinates between Td and C3v Point Groups  Maureen M. Julian
In this paper we consider what happens to the force constants of a silicate moiety (SiO4) when the length of one of its bonds is changed. This situation exists in the molecule O3SiObrSiO3, where Obr is the bridging oxygen atom connecting the two SiO3 moieties.
Julian, Maureen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 679.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Covalent Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
Letters  
Consideration of kinetic energy in interpreting atomic ionization energies is redundant.
Richman, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 605.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Hydrogen Bonds Involving Transition Metal Centers Acting As Proton Acceptors  Antonio Martín
A short review of the most remarkable results which have recently reported M----H-X hydrogen bonds, along with a systematization of their structural and spectroscopic properties, is provided in this paper. These M----H interactions are substantially different from the "agostic" M----H ones, and their differences are commented on, setting up criteria that permit their clear differentiation in order to avoid some of the misidentifications that occurred in the past.
Tello, Antonio Martín. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 578.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Hydrogen Bonding
Probability and Atomic Radius in the H Atom  William J. McInerny
The problem of defining the radius of inclusion (R) for a given probability for the 1s state of the H atom is discussed in this article. A brief computer program is included for student implementation and extension. Possible improvements and extensions are suggested.
McInerny, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 443.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
A Pictorial Approach to Molecular Orbital Bonding in Polymers: Non-Mathematical but Honest  Gordon J. Miller and John G. Verkade
The generator orbital (GO) approach is a useful tool for teaching students how to visualize, pictorially, the MO's in a wide assortment of discrete organic, organometallic, metal complex, and cluster molecules possessing a variety of structures. We describe a novel and useful extension of this non-mathematical but honest learning concept to a timely and important class of molecules, namely, polymers. Two examples are treated by our pictorial method: one is s-bonded polyethylene and the other is p-conjugated polyacetylene.
Miller, Gordon J.; Verkade, John G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 428.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry
The Ubiquitous Metaphors of Chemistry Teaching  Herbert Beall
The understanding and the confusion resulting from any scientific metaphor thus have to be considered when it is used. For example, a common chemical metaphor for the electron distribution about an atom is a cloud. Some of the entailments of this metaphor are apt, such as the diffuse nature of a cloud. Others, such as the ability of a cloud to evaporate, are not appropriate.
Beall, Herbert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 366.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Way To Predict the Relative Stabilities of Structural Isomers  John M. Lyon
This paper discusses a method to evaluate the relative stabilities of structural isomers of inorganic and organic compounds. The method uses a simple set of rules that can be applied with only a knowledge of the electron configuration of the atoms and the periodic trends in atomic size.
Lyon, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 364.
Covalent Bonding |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding (the authors reply)  Bacskay, George; Reimers, Jeffrey; Nordholm, Sture.
Delocalization is the key to understanding covalent bonding.
Bacskay, George; Reimers, Jeffrey; Nordholm, Sture. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 319.
Valence Bond Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding  Hoganson, Curtis
Describing H2 by spin-coupled valence-bond theory.
Hoganson, Curtis J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 318.
Valence Bond Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
The "Big Dog-Puppy Dog" Analogy for Resonance  Todd P. Silverstein
In this analogy, puppy dogs are restricted to a specific dog run; they represent s-bond electron pairs. Big dogs are allowed to roam freely over several consecutive dog runs; they represent delocalized p-bond electron pairs. By adding a bunny rabbit who is chased by the big dog, the analogy can be expanded to account for delocalized formal charge in a resonance hybrid.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 206.
Covalent Bonding |
Learning Theories |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Electronic States and Configurations: Visualizing the Difference  Igor Novak
A difference in the electron distributions between singlet and triplet states arising from the same electron configuration is visualized graphically using Mathematica. The visualization shows that shell structure is more pronounced in the singlet than in the triplet state; the effective atomic radius is also greater in the former.
Novak, Igor. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 135.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
The Ionization Energy of Helium  Myron J. Kaufman and C. G. Trowbridge
This simple experiment illustrates a number of important principles of atomic structure and spectroscopy. Partial analysis of the visible emission spectrum of helium illustrates how one-electron quantum theory can be applied to a two-electron system.
Kaufman, Myron J.; Trowbridge, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 88.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The Gravity of the Situation  Damon Diemente
This article presents a few calculations demonstrating that gravitational attraction between atoms is many orders of magnitude weaker than the gravitational attraction between Earth and an atom, and that the gravitational attraction between two ions is many orders of magnitude weaker than the electromagnetic attraction between them.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 55.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Animating Reactions: A Low-Cost Activity for Particle Conceptualization at the Secondary Level  Robert W. Milne
This article describes a low-cost activity designed to help students at the secondary level visualize both the kinetic and the stoichiometric nature of chemical reactions at the particle level. Directions are given for constructing animations using the visual medium commonly known as a flip book.
Milne, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 50.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Molecular Modeling
Demonstrations of the Enormity of Avogadro's Number  Damon Diemente
Most high-school students learn of Avogadro's number for the first time when they begin study of the mole concept. It is important to impress students with the enormity of Avogadro's number and the concomitant minuscularity of the atom. The present article describes three such problems.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1565.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Modeling Nuclear Decay: A Point of Integration between Chemistry and Mathematics  Kent J. Crippen and Robert D. Curtright
A four-part activity utilizing a graphing calculator to investigate nuclear stability is described. Knowledge acquired through the activity provides background for answering the societal question of using nuclear materials for energy production.
Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1434.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Rules for Determining the Ground State of a j-j Coupled Atom  Mark L. Campbell
Rules for determining the ground-state term and J state for atoms described by j-j coupling are presented. The rules are straightforward and give the same ground state values of J determined using Hund's rules for L-S coupling.
Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1339.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
An Alternative Framework for Chemical Bonding  William R. Robinson
Recent, qualitative research in science education has uncovered many nave or incorrect ideas about aspects of science commonly held by students and others at all levels. This article discusses how misconceptions can cluster and compound.
Robinson, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1074.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Atomic Emission Spectra Using a UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and an Optical Fiber Guided Light Source  Manuel E. Minas da Piedade and Mário N. Berberan-Santos
The use of an optical fiber guided light source in conjunction with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer to study the emission spectra of atomic hydrogen, sodium and helium in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described. The observed spectra have sufficient detail to allow an accurate calculation of the Rydberg constants and ionization energies of these elements.
Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.; Berberan-Santos, Mário N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1013.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Covalent and Ionic Molecules: Why Are BeF2 and AlF3 High Melting Point Solids whereas BF3 and SiF4 Are Gases?  Ronald J. Gillespie
Calculated ionic charges show that BF3 and SiF4 are predominately ionic molecules yet in contrast to BeF2 and AlF3 they exist as gases at room temperature and form molecular solids rather than infinite three-dimensional "ionic" solids at low temperature. Whether or not ionic molecules form a three-dimensional infinite ionic lattice or a molecular solid depends more on relative atomic (ionic) sizes than on the nature of the bonding in the isolated molecule.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 923.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solids |
Gases |
Ionic Bonding
A Simple Qualitative Molecular-Orbital/Valence-Bond Description of the Bonding in Main Group "Hypervalent" Molecules  Owen J. Curnow
A multicenter valence-bond/molecular-orbital bonding scheme for main group "hypervalent" molecules is proposed which extends the 3-center-4-electron (3c-4e) bonding model of Rundle and Pimentel to include 4c-6e, 5c-8e, and 6c-10e bonds. This model allows the determination of bond orders and a rationalisation of bond distances.
Curnow, Owen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 910.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Simple Molecular Orbital Treatment of the Barrier to Internal Rotation in the Ethane Molecule  Derek W. Smith
The origin of the barrier to internal rotation in the ethane molecule is explored in terms of elementary molecular orbital (MO) considerations. Emphasis is placed on the antibonding effect, i.e. the result that an antibonding MO is more destabilized than its bonding counterpart is stabilized, relative to the parent atomic orbitals (AOs). It is shown that, in the case of two equivalent AOs, this effect is approximately proportional to the square of the overlap integral.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 907.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Stereochemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Hybridization and Structural Properties: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  Michael D. Mosher and Sunil Ojha
An advanced physical organic chemistry experiment requiring student use of 1H-NMR and/or 13C-NMR spectra is described. The experiment is used in concert with discussions about hybridization and molecular structure, as it relates the %s character of the hybridized carbon of a C-H bond.
Mosher, Michael D.; Ojha, Sunil. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 888.
Instrumental Methods |
Covalent Bonding |
NMR Spectroscopy
Percent Composition and Empirical Formula - A New View  George L. Gilbert
A new method of obtaining the empirical formula for a compound from its percent composition is proposed. The method involves the determination of a minimum molar mass for the compound based on the percentage of each element, obtaining the lowest common molar mass and using this data to calculate the integer values used in writing the empirical formula.
Gilbert, George L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 851.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Charge It! An Activity with Electricity  
Students find that rubbing certain objects together can cause them to become electrically charged and examine how such charged objects can influence one another.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 80A.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Using Balls of Different Sports To Model the Variation of Atomic Sizes  Gabriel Pinto
In this article, an analogy is described about the order of magnitude of the variation of atomic sizes that can be used for discussion in introductory chemistry classes. The order of magnitude of this variation, involving microscopic magnitudes, is difficult for students to imagine.
Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 725.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Multiply Bonded Main Group Metals and Metalloids (edited by Robert West and F. Gordon A. Stone)  Paul S. Poskozim
As expected, the book places emphasis on silicon chemistry, with individual chapters devoted to Si=E, (E = Si, disilenes; C, silenes; N, iminosilanes; and P, As, phospha- and arsa-silenes). Other chapters cover double bonds in germanium and tin chemistry, boron-carbon multiple bonds, and multiple bonding involving heavier group 13 elements. Group 15 is represented in a chapter largely devoted to heterobenzenes C5R5E' (E' = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) complexed with iron in ferrocene fashion.
Poskozim, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 698.
Metals |
Covalent Bonding |
Metalloids / Semimetals
Experimental 4s and 3d Energies in Atomic Ground States  James L. Bills
A new definition is given for the effective charge Zf. HF orbital energies e4s and e3d are used in concert with I4s and I3d to answer four questions: Why does the 4s sublevel fill before 3d? Why is ionization easier for 4s than 3d? When 4s23dn has e3d < e4s, why doesn't 4s23dn -> 4s13dn+1? Why are Cr and Cu each 4s13dn+1 instead of 4s23dn?
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Deducing the Shell Model from Ionization Energies and the Use of Models in Introductory Chemistry  Ronald J. Gillespie, Richard S. Moog, and James N. Spencer
A major objection of Rioux and DeKock is the statement in the authors' earlier paper that electron repulsion is responsible for the relative ionization energies of H and He. The commentators work clearly shows that a quantum mechanical treatment of this problem reveals that kinetic energy considerations play a crucial role in these values. However, although their criticism is appropriate in the context of this more sophisticated QM treatment, it does not in any way invalidate the authors original paper, the goal of which was to provide a model, namely the shell model, for the electronic structure of atoms that is consistent with experimental ionization energies.
Gillespie, Ronald J.; Moog, Richard S.; Spencer, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 539.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Crucial Role of Kinetic Energy in Interpreting Ionization Energies  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
The experimental ratio of the ionization energies of H and He is 1.81. The authors show that it is not correct to interpret this ratio using a classical Coulombic potential energy model. Rather a quantum mechanical model is required in which both kinetic and potential energy play a role.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 537.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
News from Online: Photons and Lasers  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Online resources related to light and lasers.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 526.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An Improved Method for Students' Flame Tests in Qualitative Analysis  William D. Bare, Tom Bradley, and Elizabeth Pulliam
A new method for flame tests to be performed by students is presented. The method involves the use of a hot wire to vaporize the sample,which is subsequently drawn into the flame via the burner air vent.
William D. Bare, Tom Bradley, and Elizabeth Pulliam. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 459.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Lavoisier Preempted Gay-Lussac by 20 Years!  Michael Laing
Lavoisier recognized that it takes two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen to form water 20 years before Gay-Lussac studied reactions between different gases.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 177.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
What Is the Geometry at Trigonal Nitrogen?  K. P. Sudlow and A. A. Woolf
The geometry of trigonal nitrogen is discussed from VSEPR, crystallographic, and computational studies. The VSEPR theory is valid unless hydrogen bonding is strong enough or dispersal of nitrogen lone pair density is possible over receptive groups.
Sudlow, K. P.; Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 108.
Learning Theories |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Computational Chemistry |
VSEPR Theory |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Demonstrations on Paramagnetism with an Electronic Balance  Adolf Cortel
The demonstration shows the paramagnetism of common inorganic compounds by measuring the force with which they are attracted by a magnet over the plate of an electronic balance.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 61.
Magnetic Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Flame Tests That Are Portable, Storable, and Easy To Use  George M. McKelvy
How to build a portable, storable, and easy to use flame test apparatus.
McKelvy, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 55.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
The Basics of Covalent Bonding  Jeffrey R. Reimers, George B. Bacskay, and Sture Nordholm
Through a study of the hydrogen atom, hydrogen molecule ion, and hydrogen molecule, The Basics of Covalent Bonding explores the basic principles of atomic structure and covalent chemical bonding. The range and diversity of the problems addressed and the extensive set of help-pages make the program a suitable pedagogical aid at both introductory and advanced levels of undergraduate study.
Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Bacskay, George G.; Nordholm, Sture. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1503.
Covalent Bonding
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding  George B. Bacskay, Jeffrey R. Reimers, and Sture Nordholm
In this paper we reexamine the mechanism of covalent bonding, specifically with a view to its teaching, that starts with quantum theory and the interpretation of its predictions, such as electronic delocalization and the concomitant lowering of the electronic energy as bonding occurs. Indeed, delocalization is shown to be the central mechanism of covalent bond formation. These ideas are discussed in detail in the context of the simplest molecules: H2+ and H2.
Bacskay, George G.; Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Nordholm, Sture. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1494.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
The Disappearing Liquid  H. D. Gesser and Ian Ward
Mixing ethanol and water in a volumetric flask results in a noticeable reduction in the volume of the mixture.
Gesser, H. D.; Ward, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1357.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron-Counting Rules for Transition Metal-Nitric Oxide Complexes  Anthony W. Addison
An electron-counting scheme is presented for metal nitrosyls, based generally on the eighteen-electron rule. Square-pyramidal 4d- and 5d-transition metal nitrosyls obey a sixteen-electron rule. The stereochemistry of the coordinated NO may thus be correlated with the overall electron configurations of the complexes.
Addison, Anthony W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1354.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements
Pi-Electron Delocatlization in Organic Molecules with C-N Bonds  Vernon G. S. Box and Hing Wan Yu
Molecular modeling can provide great stimulation to the pedagogical process if students and teachers use this tool to examine the structural aspects of organic molecules whose structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography. An example of this is provided by one of our undergraduate research projects that examined delocalization in p-systems.
Box, Vernon G. S.; Yu, Hing Wan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1293.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
X-ray Crystallography
Observation of Magnetic Repulsion Acting on Nitrogen Bubble on Water Surface - A Simple Experiment of Studying Diamagnetic Property of Nitrogen  Yukinori Matsuyama, Takashi Yasuoka, Syunmei Mitsuzawa, Tunetaka Sasaki
Observation of the paramagnetic property by a simple experiment showing the attraction of an oxygen bubble on the water surface to a magnet has been reported. In this article, we report the opposite behavior magnetic repulsion observed for a nitrogen bubble by the same method. [Third author's first name misspelled in hard copy and PDF.]
Matsuyama, Yukinori; Yasuoka, Takashi; Mitsuzawa, Syunmei; Sasaki, Tunetaka. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 943.
Learning Theories |
Magnetic Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Determination of DeltaH for Reactions of the Born-Haber Cycle  Richard S. Treptow
Review of the many experimental methods used to determine ?H for the various steps of the cycle for the formation of sodium chloride. Two topics given special attention are the choice of standard state of the electron and the importance of distinguishing lattice enthalpy from lattice energy.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 919.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics
VSEPR Theory Demo  Janice Parker
This article describes a procedure to demonstrate electron pair repulsion (or molecular arrangement) using cow magnets and simple laboratory equipment.
Parker, Janice. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 776.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Onium Compounds  Nicolay V. Tsarevsky, Vera Slaveykova, Stefan Manev, Dobri Lazarov
The onium salts are of significant interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis, while the application of different onium salts is immense.
Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazaroz, Dobri. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 734.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Housing Electrons: Relating Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Electron Configuration  Anthony Garofalo
Four model houses are constructed and divided into levels and rooms within those levels. Each house represents the primary quantum number (n), each floor represents the second quantum number (l) or sublevel, and each room represents the third quantum number (ml) or orbital. Different colored beads are used to represent the electrons with opposite spins, thus introducing the forth quantum number (ms).
Garofalo, Anthony. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 709.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The authors Reply to "Why the 4s Orbital Is Occupied before the 3d"   Melvyn P. Melrose and Eric Scerri
Value of the frozen orbital approximation.
Melrose, Melvyn P.; Scerri, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 616.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Why the 4s Orbital Is Occupied before the 3d  James L. Bills
Epsilon values for Cr and Cu.
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 616.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  R. J. Gillespie, J. N. Spencer, R. S. Moog
Rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Gillespie, R. J.; Spencer, J. N.; Moog, R. S. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  Eric Scerri
Errors and questionable rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Scerri, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Valency  Peter G. Nelson
The concept of valency is refined and developed. Three types of valency are distinguished : primary or classical, coordinate, and nonclassical. The first relates to simple compounds and to the components of multiple ones, the second to coordination compounds, and the third to transition-metal carbonyls and similar species. Each type is defined, evaluated, and applied to the prediction of the atomic composition of compounds.
Nelson, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 465.
Valence Bond Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
From UNIX to PC via X-Windows: Molecular Modeling for the General Chemistry Lab  Donald Pavia and Mark Wicholas
A 3-hour experiment that attempts to illustrate the relationship between molecular geometry as predicted by the VSEPR model and valence bond theory. As a pre-laboratory take-home exercise, students are given a list of 23 species and asked to predict bond angles, geometry, and hybridization.
Pavia, Donald; Wicholas, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 444.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Traveling Electron  Richard Pendarvis
An analogy is drawn between the location of students on vacation and the probability of finding an electron at some point in space. Students participate in developing the analogy by indicating how far from campus they were during a given vacation period.
Pendarvis, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 396.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Spreadsheet Template for Quantum Mechanical Wavepacket Propagation  John C. Hansen, Donald J. Kouri, David K. Hoffman
A spreadsheet template has been developed which can propagate a one-dimensional quantum mechanical wave function through a specified time-step. Repeated propagation results in a sequence of graphs which can be interpreted as "frames" of a movie. The wave function is represented by a set of its values on an evenly spaced grid. The initial state and the potential energy function may be set by the user.
Hansen, John C.; Kouri, Donald J.; Hoffman, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 335.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron Affinities of the Alkaline Earth Metals and the Sign Convention for Electron Affinity  John C. Wheeler
It has been known since 1987, both theoretically and experimentally, that the ion Ca- is stable. It is now certain that Sr-, Ba-, and Ra- are also stable, and accurate values for the electron affinities of Ca-, Sr-, and Ba- have been determined. Recommended values for these electron affinities, in the units commonly employed in introductory texts and with the sign convention used here, are 2.37, 5.03, and 13.95 kJ/mol for Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively.
Wheeler, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 123.
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Role of Electrostatic Effects in Organic Chemistry  Kenneth B. Wiberg
Electrostatic effects on the properties of organic compounds are reviewed to demonstrate the importance of electronegativity differences between the atoms forming a bond. Bond dissociation energies are generally found to increase as the electronegativity difference increases, and the bonds have increased ionic character.
Wiberg, Kenneth B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1089.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Selection Rules For Processes Involving Photon-Molecule Interaction: A Symmetry-Conservation-Based Approach Bypassing Transition Matrix Elements  Mihir Chowdhury
The deduction of selection rule for a photon-induced transition in an atom/molecule is usually a lengthy process , we invoke the principle that the total symmetry of the initial state is preserved in the final state taking both molecular and photon wave functions into consideration.
Chowdhury, Mihir. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 743.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
On the Masses of the Fundamental Particles in the Bound State  R. Subramanium, N. K. Goh, and L. S. Chia
A simple computational approach is presented to show that the masses of the fundamental particles are not only lower in the elements but are also different for the various elements. Only basic concepts relating to an atom such as mass number, atomic number, relative isotopic mass, and Avogadro's Number are required.
R. Subramanium, N. K. Goh, and L. S. Chia. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 663.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Teaching VSEPR: The Plastic Egg Model  James P. Birk and Soraya Abbassian
We describe the construction and use of a set of models based on plastic eggs, which afford advantages over the previously described models.
James P. Birk and Soraya Abbassian. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 636.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Ionization Energies, Electronegativity, Polar Bonds, and Partial Charges  James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie
Ionization energies obtained experimentally from photoelectron spectroscopy provide a convenient and simple method for obtaining electronegativity values that correlate well with the standard methods of Pauling, Allred, and Rochow.
James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 627.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Bonding and Molecular Geometry without Orbitals- The Electron Domain Model  Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog
An alternative to the conventional valence bond approach to bonding and geometry-the electron domain model-is presented. This approach avoids some of the problems with the standard approach and presents fewer difficulties for the student, while still providing a physical basis for the VSEPR model and a link to the valence bond model.
Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 622.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Electron Configurations from Experiment  Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog
Alternative methods of introducing students to atomic energy levels and electron configurations are presented based on experimental evidence rather than quantum mechanics.
Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Why the 4s Orbital Is Occupied before the 3d  Melvyn P. Melrose and Eric R. Scerri
It is demonstrated that the difference between the total energies of two electronic configurations can be expressed as an orbital energy difference, provided that the configurations differ only in the assignment of one electron and that each of the energies of the differentiating orbitals corresponds to an ionization energy in its own configuration.
Melrose Melvyn; Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 498.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Why Don't Water and Oil Mix?  Katia Pravia and David F. Maynard
To develop an understanding of the molecular interactions of polar and nonpolar molecules, we have developed two simple and extremely useful overhead projection demonstrations that help students conceptualize the solubility rules.
Katia Pravia and David F. Maynard. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 497.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Glowing Veggies  Pirketta Scharlin, Audrey A. Cleveland, Rubin Battino, Monica E. Thomas, and Arnold George
In this paper we extend our work to other vegetables and the spectra generated by other elements than the sodium in pickle brines. We also did a study on the effect of concentration and voltage on glow intensity.
Scharlin, Pirketta; Cleveland, Audrey A.; Battino, Rubin; Thomas, Monica E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 457.
Conductivity |
Food Science |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Millikan Oil Drop Analogy  Doris A. Eckey
As an aid to understanding, an analogy is drawn between the manner in which the charge on a single electron is deduced from the total charge on an oil drop, and a rather peculiar pricing system in a surreal candy store.
Eckey, Doris. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 237.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A 3-D Diagram of the Relationships among Atomic Orbitals  Donald M. Graham
A stereo diagram is presented of the relationships among the three quantum numbers required to identify atomic orbitals. This provides students with an immediate visual image of the constraints on the values of the quantum numbers.
Graham, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 210.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Schools Benefit from Clarkson's CAMP  Dana M. Barry
The workshops allow teachers to see individual atoms of samples and they provide teachers with hands-on science activities and the necessary information and training to properly operate the microscope.
Barry, Dana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 209.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Professional Development |
Instrumental Methods
Women's Fields of Chemistry: 1900--1920  M. F. Rayner-Canham and G. W. Rayner-Canham
There were three areas in which women played a very significant role: atomic science, biochemistry, and crystallography. In this paper, we provide suggestions for the appeal of these fields which were all on the fringes of mainstream chemistry.
Rayner-Canham, M. F.; Rayner-Canham, G. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 136.
Women in Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography
The Role of Electron-Density Transfer and Electronegativity in Understanding Chemical Reactivity and Bonding  Russell S. Drago and Ngai M. Wong
The Electrostatic-Covalent-Transfer, ECT, model provides a fit of bond energies for a large data base whose accuracy for the full data set exceeds that of any other reported approach.
Drago, Russell S.; Wong, Ngai M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 123.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The Discovery of Free Radicals  R. M. Acheson
Even though Michael Faraday obtained the first unambiguous experimental evidence for the existence of "Free Radicals", he has never been given any credit for his discovery. This article offers that long overlooked credit.
Acheson, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 32.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals
Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling: Part 1: Origins of the Electronegativity Concept  William B. Jensen
The intent of this paper is to recapture some of the early pre-Pauling history of electronegativity. Here in Part I the origins of electronegativity as a qualitative concept in the period between 1809 and 1813 are discussed.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 11.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Visualizing Five Equivalent d Orbitals  David, Carl W.
Using Mathematica to translate notational orbitals into contour diagrams.
David, Carl W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Wiley Series in Ion Chemistry and Physics. Unimolecular and Bimolecular Ion-Molecule Reaction Dynamics (Ng, Cheuk-Yiu; Baer, Tomas; Powis, Ivan)  
Continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A94.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Wiley Series in Ion Chemistry and Physics: Low Energy Ion-Surface Interactions (Rabalais, J. Wayne; Baer, Tomas; Ng, Cheuk-Yiu; Powis, Ivan)  
Monograph.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A42.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Surface Science
Ladder-Operator Treatment of the Radial Equation for the Hydrogenlike Atom  Donald D. Fitts
A new approach to the solution of the radial equation for the hydrogenlike atom using the ladder-operator method.
Fitts, Donald D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1066.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Chemical Topology: The Ins and Outs of Molecular Structure  Dennis K. Mitchell and Jean-Claude Chambron
Using models of macromolecules to develop and broaden an understanding of bonding and structure; includes many examples of molecules of topological interest.
Mitchell, Dennis K.; Chambron, Jean-Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1059.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Covalent Bonding
A Mnemonic Method for Assigning the Electronic Configurations of Atoms  Nerea Iza and Manuel Gil
An algorithm for determining electronic configurations.
Iza, Nerea; Gil, Manuel. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1025.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Stark Effects on Rigid-Rotor Wavefunctions: A Quantum Description of Dipolar Rotors Trapped in Electric Fields  Giles Henderson and Brad Logsdon
A quantum mechanical description of how the Stark effect influences molecular dipole orientation.
Henderson, Giles; Logsdon, Brad. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1021.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry
Resonant States of a One-Dimensional Piecewise Constant Potential  Gregory I. Gellene
Detailed treatment of shape resonance.
Gellene, Gregory I. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1015.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry
Lewis Structures of Oxygen Compounds of 3p-5p Nonmetals  Darel K. Straub
Procedure for writing Lewis structures of oxygen compounds of 3p-5p nonmetals.
Straub, Darel K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 889.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
Syringe Ammonia Fountain  Jin Li and Ai-Zhi Peng
Energizing various metallic chlorides in watch glasses with methanol to introduce atomic emission spectroscopy.
Li, Jin; Peng, Ai-Zhi; Burgett, P. Clayton. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 828.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Singlet Oxygen at the Laundromat  David Keeports
Method for demonstrating the production of singlet molecular oxygen.
Keeports, David . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 822.
Atomic Properties / Structure
pKw Is Almost Never 14.0: Contribution from the Task Force on the General Chemistry Curriculum  Stephen J. Hawkes
Corrections to the errors made in the ionic equilibrium chapters of introductory chemistry textbooks.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 799.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstrating a Lack of Reactivity Using a Teflon-Coated Pan  Thomas G. Richmond
Demonstration to illustrate a lack of chemical activity using a Teflon-coated pan.
Richmond, Thomas G.; Krause, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 731.
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding
An Introductory Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment   Kenneth R. Hess, Wendy D. Smith, Marcus W. Thomsen, and Claude H. Yoder
An activity designed to introduce IR spectroscopy as a structure-determining technique to introductory chemistry students.
Hess, Kenneth R.; Smith, Wendy D.; Thomsen, Marcus W.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 655.
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Chemical Bond Studied by IR Spectroscopy in Introductory Chemistry: An Exercise in Cooperative Learning  Janet S. Anderson, David M. Hayes, and T. C. Werner
Activity that enables introductory chemistry students to run their own IR spectra using a FTIR spectrophotometer as part of learning about the dynamical nature of the chemical bond.
Anderson, Janet S.; Hayes, David M.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 653.
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Common Textbook and Teaching Misrepresentations of Lewis Structures   Laila Suidan, Jay K. Badenhoop, Eric D. Glendening, and Frank Weinhold
Clarifying leading Lewis structures using computational software.
Suidan, Laila; Badenhoop, Jay K.; Glendening, Eric D.; Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 583.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Resonance Analogy Using Cartoon Characters  Starkey, Ronald
Using Charlie Brown and Dennis the Menace as an analogy for resonance hybrids (specifically benzene).
Starkey, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 542.
Covalent Bonding |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis Structures of Boron Compounds Involving Multiple Bonding  Straub, Darel K.
Considers evidence for multiple bonding in boron compounds and supposed exceptions to the octet rule.
Straub, Darel K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 494.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding
A Gross Way To Teach Relative Mass  Horsch, Elizabeth; Burnett, Diane
Activity to help students understand the mass of an atom, the mass of a mole, and the number of particles in a mole using rice, corn, and beans.
Horsch, Elizabeth; Burnett, Diane J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 435.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Bond Energy Data Summarized  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
A periodic table that summarizes a variety of bond energy information.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 423.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Understanding Electron Spin  Boeyens, Jan C. A.
Explanation and clarification of electron spin.
Boeyens, Jan C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 412.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Three-Dimensional Graphical Visualization of One-Electron Atomic Orbitals  Ramachandran, B.; Kong, P. C.
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Software to produce contour plots of atomic orbitals.
Ramachandran, B.; Kong, P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 406.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Where the Electrons Are  Barth, Roger
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Software for realistic modeling of electronic orbitals using contour plots of probability densities.
Barth, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 401.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Quantitative van Arkel Diagram  Jensen, William B.
Using van Arkel diagrams to schematically represent relationships between ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 395.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Isoelectronic Series: The Stability of Their Members  Sima, Jozef
Explanation for the existence and stability of isoelectronic series members.
Sima, Jozef J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 310.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics |
Quantum Chemistry
The Hydride Ion and Its Loosely Bound Outer Electron  Li, Wai-Kee
The author is giving credit for a conclusion on the electron configuration of the hydrogen atom that was incorrectly referenced to him.
Li, Wai-Kee J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1098.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The VSEPR Tree: A Hands-On Activity for Learning Molecular Geometry  Lechner, Joseph H.
Physical models of differing molecular geometry were formed and hung on a Christmas tree to celebrate the holiday in an introductory college chemistry class.
Lechner, Joseph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1021.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling
Orbital Bartending  Barbaro, John
This analogy is a means for students to better understand the the hybridization of carbon's atomic orbitals.
Barbaro, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1012.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Periodic Table of Atoms: Arranging the Elements by a Different Set of Rules  Treptow, Richard S.
The periodic table found in this paper is based on the properties of free gaseous atoms rather than atoms in a chemical environment.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1007.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Ropes: A Molecular Polarity Activity   Bindel, Thomas H.; Smiley, Timothy C.
This article describes a concrete example of how electronegativity relates to chemical bonding.
Bindel, Thomas H.; Smiley, Timothy C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 945.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
VSEPR Theory
A Student's Travels, Close Dancing, Bathtubs, and the Shopping Mall: More Analogies in Teaching Introductory Chemistry   Rayner-Canham, Geoff
Four analogies are described for use in introductory chemistry classes.
Rayner-Canham, Geoff J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 943.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium
Instability of Large Nuclides with Respect to Decay by alpha-Particle Emission  Logan, S. R.
Criterion for predicting decay by alpha-particle emission and nuclear binding energy as a function of mass number.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 888.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Nuclear Shapes: From the Mundane to the Exotic  Yates, Steven W.
The shape and stability of atomic nuclei.
Yates, Steven W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 837.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Some Analogies for Teaching Atomic Structure at the High School Level  Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Tan, Daniel
Analogies for orbitals, Hund's rule, and the four quantum numbers.
Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Tan, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 733.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Nevil Vincent Sidgwick, 1873-1952: One of the Unsung Truly Greats  Laing, Michael
Students of chemistry usually get to hear of G. N. Lewis and Linus Pauling, but few appreciate the enormous contributions of great men like Sidgwick.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 472.
VSEPR Theory |
Stereochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Organometallics
Transition Metals and the Aufbau Principle  Vanquickenborne, L. G.; Pierloot, K.; Devoghel, D.
Explanation of why the ground state configuration of the neutral transition metals is in most cases 3dn4s2, and why the ground state configuration of the corresponding ions is obtained by preferentially removing the 4s electrons.
Vanquickenborne, L. G.; Pierloot, K.; Devoghel, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 469.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Using the Franck-Hertz Experiment To Illustrate Quantization: Energy States of the Neon Atom by Electron Impact  Kash, Michael M.; Shields, George C.
The Franck-Hertz experiment shows directly that quantized energy levels in an atom are real, not just optical artifacts.
Kash, Michael M.; Shields, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 466.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Simple, Systmatic Method for Determining J levels for jj Coupling  Gauerke, Ensign Steven J., USN; Campbell, Mark L.
A simple, systematic method for determining J levels for jj coupling.
Gauerke, Ensign Steven J., USN; Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 457.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Atomic Spectra-Graph  Surovell, Todd
Displays the emission spectra of over 80 elements; data are encapsulated into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.
Surovell, Todd J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 422.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
On Using Incomplete Theories as Cataloging Schemes: Aufbau, Abbau, and VSEPR  Tykodi, R. J.
How to restructure as cataloging schemes the aufbau and abbau procedures for obtaining the ground-state electronic structures of atoms and monatomic ions.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 273.
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Further Aufbau Nonsense  Scerri, Eric R.
Aufbau mnemonics are counterproductive.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 270.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Visualization of the Abstract in General Chemistry  Paselk, Richard A.
A series of software programs for beginning chemistry, including a series of modules addressing the fundamental phenomena associated with bonding, the microscopic phenomena underlying commonly observed systems, and a reference periodic table.
Paselk, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 225.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Isomers of Benzene  Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H.
Summary of isomers and valence isomers of benzene.
Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 222.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Covalent Bonding
A Simple Expression between Critical Radius Ratio and Coordination Number  Toofan, Jahansooz
Critical radius ratios for common coordination numbers and their derivation.
Toofan, Jahansooz J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 147.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Simple Mathematical Approach to Experimental Ionization Energies of Atoms: A New Method for Estimating the Extent of Shielding  Robertson, Norah E.; Boggioni, Sergio O.; Henriquez, Francisco E.
A simple mathematical approach to experimental ionization energies of atoms using a new method for estimating the extent of shielding.
Robertson, Norah E.; Boggioni, Sergio O.; Henriquez, Francisco E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 101.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Lewis Structure: An Expanded Perspective  Reed, James L.
A simple bridge between the molecular orbital and valence bond models.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 98.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Classifying Substances by Electrical Character: An Alternative to Classifying by Bond Type  Nelson, P. G.
An alternative classification of substances based on their electrical properties.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 24.
Conductivity |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Semiconductors
Using MathCad in physical chemistry   Brizuela, G. P.; Juan, A.
MathCad facilitates students' understanding of molecular vibration.
Brizuela, G. P.; Juan, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A256.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Fluorescence anisotropy measurements in undergraduate teaching   Bigger, Stephen W.; Craig, Robert A.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.; Scheirs, John
A lab using fluorescence measurements to obtain information about molecular energy levels and molecular structure.
Bigger, Stephen W.; Craig, Robert A.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.; Scheirs, John J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A234.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
The VSEPR model of molecular geometry (Gillespie, Ronald J.; Hargittai, Istvan)  Treichel, Paul M.
A review of a text that gives an in-depth view of VSEPR.
Treichel, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A223.
VSEPR Theory
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chlorine reaction: A student experiment at the microscale level   Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T.
This lab offers a way to integrate the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other valuable instrumental methods.
Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Interfacing atomic absorption instruments to a PC for student laboratories   Kokosa, John M.; Dery, Keith M.
Presentation of a simple Basic language program to interface the PE-5000AA (Perkin-Elmer atomic absorption instruments) to a PC.
Kokosa, John M.; Dery, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A185.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Wave functions for hydrogen atomic orbitals using Mathcad  Turner, Dean E.
The writer testifies to the pedagogical value of using Mathcad to understand chemistry.
Turner, Dean E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A185.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Using Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements To Study Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding: Calculating the Degree of Association, Equilibrium Constant, and Bond Energy for Hydrogen Bonding in Benzyl Alcohol and Phenol  Frohlich, H.
This paper presents simple IR spectroscopy experiments that the author has used for two years in a third-year course, which covers spectroscopy and binding.
Frohlich, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A3.
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Covalent Bonding
VSEPR theory and magnetic molecular models   Kauffman, George B.
Letter calling readers' attention to a set of three-dimensional models with magnets that might be of interest.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1041.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling
2-D wave packets and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle  Henderson, Giles
A computer program allows students to verify/discover relationships within the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
Henderson, Giles J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 972.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Slater's rules and electron configurations   Tudela, David
Slater's rules may be useful, but may lead to misconceptions about 4th row elements.
Tudela, David J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 956.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Explosion of nitrogen triiodide: A safer and cleaner demonstration  Hambley, Gordon F.; Peters, Robert
A safer and cleaner demonstration where tedious cleanup is avoided.
Hambley, Gordon F.; Peters, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 943.
Covalent Bonding
Theories of electronic structure in the Pauli-correlated approximation  Harbola, Manoj K.; Sahni, Viraht
The authors extends Slater's ideas to achieve closer approximations for ground state energies.
Harbola, Manoj K.; Sahni, Viraht J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 920.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The variational principle illustrated by simple examples  Bendazzoli, G. L.
The application of the quantum variational principle is worked out in closed analytical form using two examples.
Bendazzoli, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 912.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Octet counting: A connection between "VSEPR" and "tangent sphere" models   Woolf, A. A.
Comments on a paper published in an earlier issue of this Journal (October 1990, page 861.)
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 692.
VSEPR Theory
Pictorial analogies VII: Quantum numbers and orbitals   Fortman, John J.
Quantum number n is related to the size of a house, l is related to the shape of a house, and m is compared to the direction the house is facing. Pictures are included.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 649.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Pictorial analogies VI: Radial and angular wave function plots   Fortman, John J.
The distribution of an electron around a nucleus is likened to a friend who enjoys eating at restaurants ... especially those close to his/her home.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 549.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Calculating the tetrahedral bond angle using spherical polars and the dot product  Glaister, P.
A proof using the methane tetrahedroid bond angle can be obtained by using spherical polar coordinates to calculate the Cartesian coordinates of the hydrogen atoms, then using the dot product of vectors.
Glaister, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 546.
VSEPR Theory |
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Electronegativity and bond type: I. Tripartate separation  Sproul, Gordon D.
As a unifying concept of bonding, electronegativity has been widely applied but gets only a limited treatment in most general chemistry texts.
Sproul, Gordon D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 531.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrochemistry
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-based program that has modules on significant figures, VSEPR structures, stoichiometry, and unit conversions.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 460.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-like program that includes modules on significant figures, conversions, stoichiometry, and VSEPR structures.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 387.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Transformation of chemistry experiments into real world contexts   Bayer, Richard; Hudson, Bud; Schneider, Jane
Some background on the importance of using lasers to teach concepts in general chemistry and examples of demonstrations under development.
Bayer, Richard; Hudson, Bud; Schneider, Jane J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 323.
Lasers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Covalent Bonding
Why Low Melting Does Not Indicate Covalency in MX4 Compounds: Examining the Importance of Crystal Structure in the Behavior of Solids  Lingafelter, Edward C.
A summary of the importance of relative ionic sizes and coordination numbers in determining the behavior of solids from prior papers by Pauling and Kossel.
Lingafelter, Edward C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 98.
Solids |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Line spectra using a CD disc  Brouwer, Henry
Viewing the emission spectrum from a gas discharge tube or element heated in a flame using a CD disk.
Brouwer, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 829.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Rediscovering the wheel: The flame test revisited  Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Driscoll, Jerry A.
Exciting metallic salts in burning methanol to produce colors visible throughout a large lecture hall.
Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 828.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals
The physical basis of Hund's rule: Orbital contraction effects  Shenkuan, Ni
Explanation of the fundamental theoretical foundation of Hund's rule.
Shenkuan, Ni J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 800.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Drawing Lewis structures: A step-by-step approach  Ahmad, Wan-Yaacob; Omar, Siraj
A simple step-by-step approach for deriving Lewis structures for students studying introductory chemistry.
Ahmad, Wan-Yaacob; Omar, Siraj J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 791.
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Electronegativity and atomic charge  Reed, James L.
Because electronegativity is such a fundamental concept, it should be continually developed in sophistication throughout the curriculum; considers the energy function, atomic charges, and chemical reactivities.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 785.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic radii  Squire, William
The work done by radio pioneer R. A. Fessenden is closely related to the discussion of atomic radii appearing in the related article.
Squire, William J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 776.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Comments invited on changes in definition of "atomic weight"  Richardson, D. E.
Invitation to comment on changes in definition of "atomic weight" by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of IUPAC.
Richardson, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 736.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Rutherford: Exploring the scattering of alpha particles.  Rittenhouse, Robert C.
This simulation permits students to design and implement scattering experiments of the sort performed by Rutherford, Geiger, and Marsden.
Rittenhouse, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 637.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The nature of the chemical bond - 1992  Pauling, Linus
Commentary on errors in an earlier article on the nature of the chemical bond.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 519.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The best Aufbau mnemonic: The periodic table  Ludwig, Oliver G.
Using the periodic table exclusively to rationalize electron assignments has the advantage of emphasizing the experimental aspect of the science and avoids giving the impression that chemistry is nothing but a set of mysterious rules.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Alternative Aufbau mnemonics   Bevak, Joseph P.; McDevitt, Eugene J.
Author believes there is a better alternative to Aufabu mnemonics.
Bevak, Joseph P.; McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic spectroscopy with a compact disc   Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
The compact disc used by the music industry provides a convenient and ubiquitous diffraction grating that can be used with a mercury street lamp to explore the electronic structure of atoms through simple atomic spectroscopy observations.
Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 401.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Orbital Transitions  Liebl, Michael
"Orbital Transitions" displays two-dimensional plots of the changing electron probability density function in the hydrogen atom as an electron moves from one orbital to another.
Liebl, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 400.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Experiment in quantization: Atomic line spectra  Shields, George C.; Kash, Michael M.
This experiment offers a simple and visual method for determining the wavelength of spectral lines.
Shields, George C.; Kash, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 329.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
A spectacular demonstration of flame tests   Thomas, Nicholas C.; Brown, Rachel
The authors present an alternate flame test demonstration that utilizes guncotton as the combustible material.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Brown, Rachel J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 326.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simple VSEPR demonstration  Kundell, Frederick A.
To assist students in visualizing the Valence Shell Electron-Pari Repulsion (VSEPR) geometries, the author uses a 2-inch ring and six snap hooks from the hardware store.
Kundell, Frederick A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 277.
VSEPR Theory
An overhead projector demonstration of nuclear beta emission   Fortman, John J.
This demonstration illustrates an analogy for beta emission, with its concurrent conversion of a neutron to a proton.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 162.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Close packing of identical spheres   Ostercamp, Daryl L.
Ordinary marbles can be placed in a wooden rack on the stage of an overhead projector to illustrate the close-pack coordination of 12, the arrangement with 12 nearest neighbor atoms.
Ostercamp, Daryl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 162.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Multiple bonds and the VSEPR model  Gillespie, Ronald J.
The purpose of this paper is to review the application of the VSEPR model to molecules containing multiple bonds and to compare the usefulness and applicability of the model to other models for multiple bonds.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 116.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling
More about the particle-in-a-box system: The confinement of matter and the wave-particle dualism  Volkamer, Klaus; Lerom, Michael W.
Since the particle-in-a-box system (PIB model) is mathematically so simple, it can be used to provide illustrations of many important quantum mechanical concepts without obscuring the principles with mathematical details.
Volkamer, Klaus; Lerom, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 100.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A tutorial on the use of curved arrows in organic chemistry  Turek, William N.
133. Bits and pieces, 47. The use of curved arrows in organic chemistry is an excellent way to illustrate the flow of electrons as reactants form intermediates or products.
Turek, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 45.
Atomic Properties / Structure
On the name for the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12  Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.
The adoption of a name such as Nier-Olander number for No would make clear to all that No and Na are different quantities.
Rocha-Filho, Romeu C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 36.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
Direct solution of Schroedinger equation for vibration via spreadsheet   Knudson, Stephen K.
A look at software that provides direct solution of Schroedinger equation for vibration via spreadsheet.
Knudson, Stephen K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A39.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Finding the bond angle   Apak, Resat; Ter, Izzet
The authors offer an alternative method of "Finding the bond angle in a tetrahedral-shaped molecule".
Apak, Resat; Ter, Izzet J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 970.
VSEPR Theory |
Chemometrics
Adding colors and sparkles to hydrogen balloon explosions   Fortman, John J.
This short paper provides instructions and a table with needed quantities. The author also notes advice and insights into the quality of colors and sparkles produced.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 937.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Simple derivation of the Heller-McConnell equation  Dai, Sheng
Description of a simple derivation of the Heller-McConnell equation by perturbation theory.
Dai, Sheng J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 894.
Chemometrics |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A magnetic illustration of the VSEPR theory   Hervas, Manuel; Silverman, L. Phillip
Using Styrofoam balls, magnetic stir bars, and an overhead projector to demonstrate VSPER theory.
Hervas, Manuel; Silverman, L. Phillip J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 861.
VSEPR Theory
A magnetic two-dimensional analogue of VSEPR   Shaw, C. Frank, III; Shaw, Bryan A.
A demonstration based on the serendipitous discovery that magnets shaped like discs or washers will replicate, in two-dimensions, the repulsion among electron pairs that underlie VSEPR theory.
Shaw, C. Frank, III; Shaw, Bryan A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 861.
VSEPR Theory
The quantum shoe store and electron structure   Bonneau, M.
A funny, clever analogy for electron configuration.
Bonneau, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 837.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Describing electron distribution in the hydrogen molecule: A new approach  Willis, Christopher J.
A treatment of electron distribution in the hydrogen molecule that gives a better picture of the difference between bonding and antibonding and the consequent differences in energy.
Willis, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 743.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry
A simple laboratory experiment illustrating the relative nature of atomic weights  Huff, Randolph B.; Evans, David W.
The concept of atomic weight scale remains a source of confusion for beginning chemistry students. This paper proposes a simple lab experience that could help students better understand this idea.
Huff, Randolph B.; Evans, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 675.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Very large hydrogen atoms in interstellar space  Clark, David B.
The Bohr model for H atoms has a vital connection to quantum mechanics.
Clark, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 454.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Astrochemistry
Aufbau mnemonics   Scerri, Eric R.
Assignment of electron configurations represents an approximation that is inconsistent with quantum mechanics.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 445.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Bright-line spectrum analogy   Samsa, Richard A.
An analogy for bright-line emission using common items, such as sand and an eraser.
Samsa, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 412.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Quantum Chemistry
Aufbau rewritten.  Singh, Ramsharan; Dikshit, S. K.
A handy little chart to help with learning ground-state electron configurations.
Singh, Ramsharan; Dikshit, S. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 396.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The disco analogy   Battino, Rubin
A fantastic idea in helping students visualize the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 285.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
An old new idea   Chauffe, Leroy
Hakala's scheme for applying the Aufbau principle in writing electron configurations for atoms. Please note that the letter cites the wrong article. The correct citation is for Volume 66, number 4, page 319...not page 310.
Chauffe, Leroy J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 270.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Alternative flame test procedures  Barnes, Zexia K.
An alternative to using Nichrome wire where the limited volume of solution delivered makes it difficult to see the color in the flame.
Barnes, Zexia K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 246.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
A new method of deducing atomic spectroscopic terms: The method of number arrangement  Sen, Zhao; Kemin, Zheng; Fenglin, Wu; Yinze, Zhi
A new method that solves the problems of finding the atomic spectroscopic terms of equivalent configuration of multielectrons.
Sen, Zhao; Kemin, Zheng; Fenglin, Wu; Yinze, Zhi J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 205.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Using the perturbed harmonic oscillator to introduce Rayleigh-Schrdinger perturbation theory  Sohlberg, Karl; Shreiner, David
Using the perturbed harmonic oscillator to introduce Rayleigh-Schrdinger perturbation theory.
Sohlberg, Karl; Shreiner, David J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 203.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
On the interpretation of simple closed-shell and split-shell wave functions of atomic two-electron systems  ten Hoor, Marten J.
The phrase "different orbitals for different electrons" versus "different orbitals for the same electrons" which of the two is more pedagogically coherent.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 197.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The correct interpretation of Hund's rule as applied to "uncoupled states" orbital diagrams  Campbell, Mark L.
The application of Hund's rule by general chemistry students is appropriate as long as Hund's rule is interpreted correctly.
Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 134.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
How to get more from ionization energies in the teaching of atomic structure  Mirone, Paolo
A wealth of experimental data could be exploited more extensively and profitably than what is presently done in the teaching of atomic structure.
Mirone, Paolo J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 132.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
There are no such things as orbitals-Act two!  Simons, Jack
What is the role of molecular orbital theory in chemistry instruction?
Simons, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 131.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Computing overlaps between nonorthogonal orbitals  David, Carl W.
Once required to understand where in space orbitals have positive and negative values, students' visual understanding of spatial properties of orbitals will be enhanced.
David, Carl W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 129.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Why is mercury liquid? Or, why do relativistic effects not get into chemistry textbooks?  Norrby, Lars J.
A fresh constellation of experimental facts, theoretical calculations, and discussion of the chemical bonding in mercury that sheds light on a number of classical issues in inorganic chemistry.
Norrby, Lars J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 110.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Polarity and selectivity of ionic stationary phases used in gas chromatography: Evaluation of commercial detergents containing anionic surfactants as column packings  Furton, Kenneth G.; Mantilla, Adriana
Evaluation of commercial detergents containing anionic surfactants as column packings.
Furton, Kenneth G.; Mantilla, Adriana J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 74.
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Quantitative Analysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
Superoxide dismutase and the Briggs-Rauscher reaction  Franz, David A.
Oxygen-derived species provide chemistry teachers with excellent examples for discussion of molecular-orbital theory, bond order and reactivity, redox potentials, radical reactivity, disproportionation, and enzyme activity.
Franz, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 57.
Enzymes |
Biophysical Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Covalent Bonding
MolVib: Visualizing molecular vibrations  Huber, Daniel
A software program that features animations that aid in visualizing molecular vibrations. This program can be used appropriately in several levels of chemistry.
Huber, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 39.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simple Inorganic Substances: A New Approach (Sanderson, R.T.)  Kauffman, Goerge B.
This book stresses the cause-and-effect relationship between the structures of atoms and the properties of their compounds, with an emphasis on providing a thorough understanding of the most familiar and important inorganic compounds.
Kauffman, Goerge B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A26.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry
A visible spectrometer  Martin, James D.
An overhead projector spectrophotometer.
Martin, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1061.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A model for valence shell electron-pair repulsion theory  Prall, Bruce R.
Using magnets as models to demonstrate VSEPR theory.
Prall, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 961.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Hydrogen atom orbitals  Liebl, Michael
Program includes a short discussion of Schroedinger's equation and calculates radial, spherical harmonic, and total wave function solutions for hydrogen orbitals.
Liebl, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 922.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Spherical harmonics in a Cartesian frame  McDermott, Todd; Henderson, Giles
Displaying and comparing angular wave functions in both Cartesian and polar representations.
McDermott, Todd; Henderson, Giles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 915.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Simulation of Rutherford's experiment  Bishop, Carl B.
Apparatus and procedure to simulate Rutherford's classic gold foil experiment.
Bishop, Carl B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 889.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron dormitory: Analogue  Morreale, Charles
Analogous reasoning and relating filling a dormitory with people and an atom with electrons.
Morreale, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 862.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Spectacular classroom demonstration of the flame test for metal ions  Mattson, Bruce M.; Snipp, Robert L.; Michels, Gary D.
Spraying a 1 M solution of a metal salt into the flame of a large Fisher burner.
Mattson, Bruce M.; Snipp, Robert L.; Michels, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 791.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Periodic chart pedagogy  Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.
Questions based upon a hypothetical set of quantum numbers and their relationships; includes answers.
Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 759.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Picturing atomic magnitudes  Nelson, P. G.
Helping students to visualize the sizes of atoms.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 720.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Keeping track of directions of atomic orbitals: A useful device in organic chemistry  Talaty, Erach R.
The usefulness of keeping track of the directions of atomic orbitals.
Talaty, Erach R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 655.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
How do electrons get across nodes? A problem in the interpretation of the quantum theory  Nelson, P. G.
Suggested responses to the question "How do electrons get across nodes?".
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 643.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Valence-bond theory and chemical structure  Klein, Douglas J.; Trinajstic, Nenad
History of the development of VB theory, solid-state applications of VB theory, semiempirical VB models, VB theory in textbooks, and criticism of VB theory.
Klein, Douglas J.; Trinajstic, Nenad J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 633.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry
"New" schemes for applying the Aufbau principle  Freeman, Robert D.
Two, essentially identical schemes for remembering how to write electronic configurations are not really new.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 576.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A new method of estimating atomic charges by electronegativity equilibration  Smith, Derek W.
The estimation of atomic charges in molecules presented offers a satisfactory compromise between the simple electronegativity equalization procedures of Bratsch and Sanderson and the more elaborate method of Jolly and Perry
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 559.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Calculating percent boundary surfaces for hydrogenlike s orbitals - An undergraduate computer assignment  Schwartz, Leslie J.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. This article describes a student programming exercise to calculate percent boundary surfaces for s orbitals.
Schwartz, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 504.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Understanding electron configurations   Rieck, David F.
The author has successfully employed an analogy for understanding electron configurations recommended for use in secondary schools as well as in nonmajor sections of college general chemistry.
Rieck, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 398.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nonmajor Courses
Magnetic marbles as teaching aids  Hill, John W.
Magnetic marbles are valuable teaching aids for teachers who have steel chalkboards in their classroom.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 320.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ion Exchange
The periodicity of electron affinity  Myers, R. Thomas
In general, the values of electron affinity for the elements can be understood in terms of their ground state electron configuration, and the screening (effective nuclear charge) exerted on the added electron by the electrons already present in the neutral atom.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Lattice enthalpies of ionic halides, hydrides, oxides, and sulfides: Second-electron affinities of atomic oxygen and sulfur  Holbrook, Jack B.; Sabry-Grant, Ralph; Smith, Barry C.; Tandel, Thakor V.
These simple empirical relationships which allow lattice enthalpies of ionic compounds to be determined readily from observed internuclear separations are investigated here.
Holbrook, Jack B.; Sabry-Grant, Ralph; Smith, Barry C.; Tandel, Thakor V. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 304.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ionic Bonding
A formula for calculating atomic radii of metals  Ping, Mei; Xiubin, Lei; Yuankai, Wen
In this paper, the authors present a theoretical formula for calculating metallic radii.
Ping, Mei; Xiubin, Lei; Yuankai, Wen J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 218.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals
From "electrum" to positronium  Kragh, Helge
The present paper outlines the early history of the positronium concept, roughly from 1934 to the discovery in 1951.
Kragh, Helge J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 196.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
MO and VB wave functions for He2   Li, Wai-Kee
It is the purpose of this question to point out that, for some systems the molecular orbital and valence bond methods actually have the same wave function.
Li, Wai-Kee J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 131.
MO Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
A student experiment to demonstrate the energy loss and straggling of electrons in matter  de Bruin, M.; Huijgen, F. W. J.
The experiment described has been applied routinely for several years in introductory courses in the application of radiation and isotopes. The results obtained give direct insight into the characteristics of the phenomena associated with the absorption of energetic electrons in matter.
de Bruin, M.; Huijgen, F. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 86.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Visualization of electron clouds in atoms and molecules  Douglas, John E.
110. Visualization of the electron orbital concept continues to challenge and intrigue chemical educators. [October and November 1989 Computer Series both inadvertently called number 107. Numbering restored by skipping 109 and calling January 1990 number 110.]
Douglas, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 42.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching the shapes of the hydrogenlike and hybrid atomic orbitals  Allendoerfer, Robert D.
The purpose of this article to show that, in this age of computer graphics, the "difficult to obtain" argument no longer has merit and to give an example of where the standard treatment gives insufficient attention to detail in describing the nodal surfaces of hybrid orbitals.
Allendoerfer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 37.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Employing vector algebra to obtain the tetrahedral bond angle  Duffey, George H.
Rather than using the law of cosines to calculate the tetrahedral angle, an alternative approach employs simple vector algebra.
Duffey, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 35.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The most useful actinide isotope: Americium-241  Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T.
This paper briefly reviews Americium's discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and its uses with an emphasis on its production and separations chemistry.
Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 15.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Multiport student spectrometer  Bishop, Carl B.
A spectrometer that can be used simultaneously by seven students to observe a single spectrum emitted by an element of compound in a single light tube against a calibrated screen.
Bishop, Carl B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1037.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Molecular models for the do-it-yourselfer  Birk, James P.; Foster, John
Instructions for making molecular models from styrofoam balls and wooden dowels.
Birk, James P.; Foster, John J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1015.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
An entirely fabulous account of the origin of the Pauli exclusion principle  Ruekberg, Ben
A fictitious story relating Pauli's "discovery" of the exclusion principle
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 983.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The spectrum of atomic hydrogen (the authors reply)  
Reference to a previously published work.
J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 790.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The electronic periodic chart of the elements  von Marttens Osorio, Hernan; Goldschmidt, Alfonso
A scheme for the arrangement of the elements that allows students to understand and write down the electronic configuration of any given element.
von Marttens Osorio, Hernan; Goldschmidt, Alfonso J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 758.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The discovery of the electron, proton, and neutron  Peake, Barrie M.
Brief history of the discovery of the electron, proton, and neutron.
Peake, Barrie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 738.
Atomic Properties / Structure
What is an element?  Roundy, Willard H., Jr.
Problems with using outdated definitions of what constitutes an element.
Roundy, Willard H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 729.
Isotopes |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The significance of the bond angle in sulfur dioxide  Purser, Gordon H.
Discussion of the bonding in and structure of SO2.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 710.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The historic atom: From d to q  Smith, Richard
A Styrofoam model of the atom that has been used to show middle and high school students the historical development of the atomic model.
Smith, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 637.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Orbital improvement by overall and local scaling: A simple example  ten Hoor, Marten J.
Improving approximate atomic orbitals through overall and local scaling.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 633.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Transition metal configurations and limitations of the orbital approximation  Scerri, Eric R.
Points out a misconception concerning the "building up" of the transition elements and their first ionization energies that is reinforced by many chemistry texts.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 481.
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Hole formalism and its effect on partial and RS terms  Kiremire, E. M. R.
Hole formalism based on a half-filled shell gives the equivalent relationship of partial terms that can be used to derive RS terms of a given electron configuration.
Kiremire, E. M. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 479.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Grade-12 students' misconceptions of covalent bonding and structure  Peterson, Raymond F.; Treagust, David F.
A multiple-choice pencil-and-paper diagnostic instrument used to measure student understanding of covalent bonding and structure concepts, its results, and implications for instruction.
Peterson, Raymond F.; Treagust, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 459.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The three forms of molecular oxygen  Laing, Michael
Analysis of three different electronic states of the O2 molecule and applications to organic reactions.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 453.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Hund's Rule-Like Behavior among Humans!  Nambi, Parthasarathy
On my Metro bus ride to work every day, I have consistently observed Hund's rule-like behavior among humans.
Nambi, Parthasarathy J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new mnemonic scheme for applying the Aufbau principle  Parsons, Raymond W.
This paper proposes a new mnemonic scheme for arriving at the ground-state electron configuration of a neutral, isolated atom.
Parsons, Raymond W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 319.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Ammonium hydroxide does not exist  Yoke, John
No matter how the s and three p orbitals are hybridized, nitrogen can form a maximum of only four bonds.
Yoke, John J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 310.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The mass spectrum of sulfur  Dudek, Gerald; Dudek, Emily P.
The concepts of isotopic abundance, mass defect, fragmentation, and nuclear binding energies are all illustrated in the readily interpretable spectrum of a nonorganic material.
Dudek, Gerald; Dudek, Emily P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 304.
Mass Spectrometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic calculations with a one-parameter, single integral method  Baretty, Reinaldo; Garcia, Carmelo
The purpose of this article is to present an energy function containing a single integral and one variational parameter.
Baretty, Reinaldo; Garcia, Carmelo J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 45.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
The fourth centenary of the birth of Isaac Beeckman, the first molecular theorist  Kubbinga, H. H.
Beekman assumed four kinds of atoms, corresponding to the classical four elements (earth, water, air, and fire). So each natural substance was supposed to be a compound of all four elements, specific differences arising from differences in proportion.
Kubbinga, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 33.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
"Aufbau on a chessboard" first proposed by Seel   Adelheim, Manfred
A letter recommending augmentation to a mnemonic.
Adelheim, Manfred J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1114.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Bowling balls and beads: A concrete analogy to the Rutherford experiment   Lorenz, Mary V.
Visual suggestions for understanding the design of the Rutherford experiment.
Lorenz, Mary V. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1082.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Follow the bouncing balls to an understanding of molecular structure  Birk, James P.
Common objects are used to help students understand VSEPR.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1055.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling
A new approach for determining electronic configurations of atoms  Darsey, Jerry A.
The "Pascal's Christmas Tree" method for determining the structure of atoms.
Darsey, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1036.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The abundance of nuclides: A lab simulation using pennies  Hendrickson, Eric
The altered composition of pennies provides an opportunity for students to learn about atomic mass calculations.
Hendrickson, Eric J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 986.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
A lesser known one-parameter wave function for the helium sequence and the virial theorem  Li, Wai-Kee
In this note, a one-parameter trial function for the the treatment of the helium atom and helium-like ions is introduced.
Li, Wai-Kee J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 963.
Chemometrics |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Introduction to atomic structure: Demonstrations and labs  Ciparick, Joseph D.
This paper presents a sequence of demonstrations and activities that help offer evidence to students to scaffold an understanding of atomic structure.
Ciparick, Joseph D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 892.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Finding the bond angle in a tetrahedral shaped molecule  Kawa, Christopher J.
The proof that a bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule is 109.5 degrees is more complex than it first appears. This paper walks readers through such a proof.
Kawa, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 884.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Chemometrics
Clusters: Link between molecules and solids  Jelski, Daniel A.; George, Thomas F.
In this article, the authors review some of the recent work reported with clusters of atoms, concentrating on the fundamental principles underlying cluster chemistry and physics.
Jelski, Daniel A.; George, Thomas F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 879.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
A variational calculation based on a two electron atomic model  Martins, Luis J. A.
This paper presents a two-electron model from which a plausible approximate wave function may be built for the helium atom.
Martins, Luis J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 861.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simple mnemonic device for electron configuration  Grenda, Stanley C.
This visual device provides a great alternative to the usual way of remembering orbital order.
Grenda, Stanley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 697.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Paradigms and plastic facts in the history of valence  Zavaleta, David
This article reviews the history of the development of valence concepts, paying attention to how much preconceived theory has influenced this development.
Zavaleta, David J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 677.
Oxidation State |
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Valence Bond Theory
Molecular orbital theory of bond order and valency  Sannigrahi, A. B.; Kar, Tapas
These authors illustrate how bond order and valency can be "retrieved" from MO calculations and give examples for several simple molecules.
Sannigrahi, A. B.; Kar, Tapas J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 674.
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Oxidation State |
Chemometrics |
Valence Bond Theory
Delocalization the key concept of covalent bonding  Nordholm, Sture
This paper points out the problems of the current explanation of covalent bonding that have been shown to be misleading.
Nordholm, Sture J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 581.
Covalent Bonding
A colorful demonstration to simulate orbital hybridization  Emerson, David W.
A simple, colorful demonstration involving nothing more than several beakers of colored water can speed up student comprehension of hybrid orbitals at the introductory level.
Emerson, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 454.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Orbital energy levels in molecular hydrogen: A simple approach  Wills, Christopher J.
In this article, an attempt is made to give a logical presentation of the energetics involved in the formation of molecular hydrogen using concepts that should be familiar to every student beginning the study of molecular orbital theory. Experimental data on ionization energies and bond energies are emphasized throughout.
Wills, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 418.
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Born-Oppenheimer and pseudo-Jahn-Teller effects as considered in the framework of the time-dependent adiabatic approximation: An intuitive approach  Boulil, B.; Henri-Rousseau, O.; Deumie, M.
The purpose of this paper is to show that neglecting the jumping probability in the time-dependent adiabatic approximation is equivalent to ignoring the matrix elements that are neglected in the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation.
Boulil, B.; Henri-Rousseau, O.; Deumie, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 395.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A short stop en route to ionization of molecular hydrogen   Lebman, Thomas A.
This letter calls readers' attention to the fact that the Born-Oppenheimer approximation was ignored in an article called "A Funny thing Happened on the Way to Ionization" appearing in April, 1986 page 408.
Lebman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 376.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Principles of electronegativity Part II. Applications  Sanderson, R. T.
This article describes how principles of electronegativity can be applied to explain not only the bonding but also the physical and chemical properties of elements and molecules, their structure, and their energy.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 227.
Electrochemistry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Covalent Bonding
A novel, simple, and inexpensive model for teaching VSEPR theory.  Kemp, Kenneth C.
The description of this inexpensive model includes materials, construction, and procedure.
Kemp, Kenneth C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 222.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling
The three-center, two-electron chemical bond  DeKock, Roger L.; Bosma, Wayne B.
The authors discuss bonds that have three centers and two electrons and show how they explain certain molecular geometries and are rationalized by theory.
DeKock, Roger L.; Bosma, Wayne B. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 194.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Ionization potentials for isoelectronic series  Agmon, Noam
A close look at the concept of ionization potentials.
Agmon, Noam J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 42.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Quantum Chemistry
Revised Mulliken electronegativities: I. Calculation and conversion to Pauling units  Bratsch, Steven G.
Electronegativity is treated as a global atomic property that is determined by the valence state.
Bratsch, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 34.
Chemometrics |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State
Order out of chaos: Shapes of hydrogen orbitals.  Breneman, G. L.
Looking at the pattern that guides orbital shapes so that the shapes can be understood and explained to students, abandoning the need for blind memorization.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 31.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Orbital plots of the hydrogen atom  Liebl, Michael
89. Bits and pieces, 36. The software described in this article enable a 48K Apple II with a single disk drive to plot the orbitals of the hydrogen atom in one, two, or three dimensions. This visualization of orbitals allows students to understand their importance in understanding chemistry.
Liebl, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 23.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Relative atomic mass scale: A teaching aid  Baumgartner, Erwin; Benitez, Carlos; Cirelli, Alicia Fernandez; Flores, Luz Lastres
Relative atomic mass can be a confusing concept for students and a source of frustration for instructors. These authors propose an idea called a RAM scale.
Baumgartner, Erwin; Benitez, Carlos; Cirelli, Alicia Fernandez; Flores, Luz Lastres J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 16.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Variational energy lowering may increase Hamiltonian dispersion  Blaise, Paul; Henri-Rousseau, Olivier
Illustration of the fact that lowering the energy by variational method is not a proof but only a presumption.
Blaise, Paul; Henri-Rousseau, Olivier J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 9.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle: An application to the shell structure of atoms and orbit descriptions of molecules  Hartcourt, Richard D.
A further novel use of the uncertainty principle to deduce the 2n2 shell occupancy rule for atoms.
Hartcourt, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1070.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A numerical algorithm technique for deriving Russell-Saunders (R-S) terms  Kiremire, E. M. R.
Another simple, versatile, and systematic numerical method of deriving the R-S terms as part of the interpretation of atomic and electronic spectra.
Kiremire, E. M. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 951.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The ground state electronic structure for atoms and monoatomic ions  Tykodi, R. J.
The aufbau (build up) rule for neutral atoms and monatomic anions and the abbau (tear down) rule for monatomic cations.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 943.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Approximation of spherical polyatomic thermochemical radii of general formula MXnz-  Solis Correa, Hugo; Gomez Lara, Jacabo
A method to calculate the approximate thermochemical radii for polyatomic ions of general formula MXnz-.
Solis Correa, Hugo; Gomez Lara, Jacabo J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 942.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity: A mnemonic rule  Kapellos, S.; Mavrides, A.
A rule for the electronegativities of the second and third row elements.
Kapellos, S.; Mavrides, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 941.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The chemical bond  DeKock, Roger L.
Overview of the chemical bond; considers ionic bonds, covalent bonds, Lewis electron dot structures, polar molecules and hydrogen bonds, and bonding in solid-state elements.
DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 934.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Solid State Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Exercises in quantum mechanics  Rioux, Frank
86. Bits and pieces, 35. BASIC program in which a Euler finite difference approximation is used to obtain numerical solutions for a variety of quantum mechanical problems.
Rioux, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 789.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Finding the terms of configurations of equivalent electrons by partitioning total spins  Guofan, Liu; Ellzey, M. L., Jr.
A refinement of the spin factor method for determining the terms for configurations of equivalent electrons.
Guofan, Liu; Ellzey, M. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 771.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Reexamining the diagonal relationships  Hanusa, Timothy P.
Li(I) and Mg(II) are better paired with / compared to other ions rather than one another.
Hanusa, Timothy P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 686.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Stereoelectronic effects, tau bonds, and Cram's rule  Wintner, Claude E.
Review of stereoelectronic effects and outline of the suggestion that the "bent bond" (tau bond) be used as a model for the double bond.
Wintner, Claude E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 587.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Hydrogen atom spectrum using an AA spectrophotometer  Douglas, John; von Nagy Felsobuki, Ellak I.
Using an AA spectrophotometer to measure the Balmer series of the hydrogen atom spectrum.
Douglas, John; von Nagy Felsobuki, Ellak I. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 552.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A novel pictorial approach to teaching molecular motions in polyatomic molecules  Verkade, John G.
A procedure in which the "generator orbital" approach can be utilized to teach students how to generate the vibrational, rotational, and translational modes of molecules in a completely pictorial manner.
Verkade, John G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 411.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The arsenic-arsenic double bond revisited  Levinson, Alfred S.
Arsenic-arsenic double bonds are stabilized by bulky substituents.
Levinson, Alfred S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 407.
Covalent Bonding
Periodic table message question  Wieder, Milton J.
This question presents an interesting technique for testing students' grasp of trends in periodicity.
Wieder, Milton J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 320.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A two-dimensional working model of the neon electron configuration  Bricker, Clark E.
A demonstration that shows a dynamic, two-dimensional working model of the arrangement of the 10 electrons found in the neon core.
Bricker, Clark E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 133.
Atomic Properties / Structure
No rabbit ears on water. The structure of the water molecule: What should we tell the students?  Laing, Michael
Analysis of the bonding found in water and how it results in the observed geometry of the water molecule.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 124.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Reception of Kasimir Fajans's quanticule theory of the chemical bond: A tragedy of a scientist  Hurwic, Jozef
Because the quantum theory preceded it and its scope was limited, the chemical community never accepted Fajans's quanticule theory of the chemical bond
Hurwic, Jozef J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 122.
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Sociology and Pauli's aufbau rules  Hill, Scott T.
A demonstration to preface the discussion of Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule.
Hill, Scott T. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 27.
Atomic Properties / Structure
An upward view of the periodic table: Getting to the bottom of it  Guenther, William B.
Develops the 18-group basis of the periodic table; shows that, while the 1-18 designations can give unambiguous information to students, no printed designations are needed for teaching; and shows how to obtain unique, physical group definitions that avoid the problems of conflicting and changeable chemical interpretations.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 9.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Conservation of mass: Its proper place  Treptow, Richard S.
The author proposes a scheme for introducing relativity and the conservation of mass into the chemistry curriculum.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1052.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
The squeezed-earth problem   Rhodes, Gale
This take-home-exam question promotes a discussion in class and demonstrates the conceptual difficulties in understanding protons and neutrons.
Rhodes, Gale J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 970.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Solid State Chemistry
Calculation of Franck-Condon factors for undergraduate quantum chemistry  Dunbrack, Roland L., Jr.
These authors share an assignment they use in their experimental physical chemistry course that has been successful in showing undergraduates the usefulness of a computer in quantum mechanics and in teaching the concepts of eigenfunction expansions of wavefunctions and the principles of spectroscopy.
Dunbrack, Roland L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 953.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Should atoms be X-rated?  Bent, Henry A.
Two cheers for atoms. Three cheers for the elements. Atoms are optional. Elements are essential. Elements without atoms, formulas, and equations are o.k. But atoms, formulas, and equations without elements? No way!
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 878.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Is the theoretical emperor really wearing any clothes?   Sanderson, R. T.
The author asserts that general chemistry material both pushes material of doubtful value and omits material that is useful to many.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 845.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The periodic table and electron configurations  Strong, Judith A.
This author shares her approach to having students learn electron configurations.
Strong, Judith A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 834.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Study of conformational equilibrium by dipole moment measurements: A source of experiments in physical organic chemistry  Conde, Joao P.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim, J.
The purpose of the experiment described in this paper is to demonstrate the interdependence of the various areas of chemistry.
Conde, Joao P.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 823.
Covalent Bonding |
Stereochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Diastereomers
BASIC programs for calculating overlap integrals  Geanangel, R.; Beneke, J.
75. Bits and pieces, 30. In an effort to become more familiar with the magnitudes of overlap integrals in particular cases and how they are affected by variables such as the form of orbital wave functions and the effective nuclear changes of the atoms involved, these authors have written programs to carry out their calculations.
Geanangel, R.; Beneke, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 801.
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The particle in a box revisited  El-Issa, H. D.
In this article the authors propose to introduce some of the important concepts of quantum chemistry by examining the "particle-in-a-box" model.
El-Issa, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 761.
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Some aspects of the eigenfunction normalization in the problem of the particle moving in free space, revisited  Lopez-Gonzalez, J. J.; Pinar, M.; Fernandez-Gomez, M.; Arenas, J. F.
The authors present a rather detailed approach that could make it easier for the student to understand both the mathematical solution of the problem of the particle moving in free space and its physical meaning.
Lopez-Gonzalez, J. J.; Pinar, M.; Fernandez-Gomez, M.; Arenas, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 759.
Chemometrics |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An investigation of the quality of approximate wave functions  Reed, Lynne H.; Murphy, Arthur R.
Due to the treatment of the subject in many physical chemistry texts, students often get the impression that the values of the parameters that yield the lowest trial energy also give the best overall trial wave functions and this view is incorrect.
Reed, Lynne H.; Murphy, Arthur R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 757.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
C. R. Bury: His contributions to physical chemistry  Davies, Mansel
This paper relates the Lewis-Langmuir atomic structure studies to the Lewis-Calvin work on color and molecular structure and also to the work of a pioneer colloid scientist.
Davies, Mansel J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 741.
Colloids |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Correlation between chemical bonds and properties in pyrrhotite  Sakkopoulos, S.; Vitoratos, E.; Argyreas, T.
The purpose of this paper is to give a general insight into the priorities of pyrrhotite by considering them in connection to the nature and strength of the chemical bonds in this compound.
Sakkopoulos, S.; Vitoratos, E.; Argyreas, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 665.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
MO Theory
The chemical bond revisited  Baird, N. Colin
In order to understand Ruedenberg's theory of the chemical bond, this author walks us through understanding the energetics of simple atoms.
Baird, N. Colin J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 660.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Subatomic pea shooter  Smith, Bruce G.
The author presents readers with a demonstration that is useful in enticing students to learn about atomic structure and theory.
Smith, Bruce G. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 629.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Analysis of the band spectrum of I2 using Apple II  Armanious, M.; Shoja, M.
73. Bits and pieces, 29. This is the second paper in a series on computer programming for the analysis of the band spectrum of a diatomic molecule. This program has been developed for undergraduate physical chemistry students performing a spectroscopic experiment on I2 vapor.
Armanious, M.; Shoja, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 627.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Aufbau on a chessboard  Hovland, Allan K.
A chess or checkerboard offers a convenient frame of reference for a mnemonic to use in writing the electron configuration of the elements.
Hovland, Allan K. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 607.
Atomic Properties / Structure
On the lanthanide and "scandinide" contractions  Lloyd, D. R.
Few general or upper-level inorganic chemistry texts adequately deal with the topic of the lanthanide contractions.
Lloyd, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 502.
Inner Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Postage stamp displays teach chemistry   Chenier, Philip J.
The author provides strategies for integrating this hobby with teaching and learning.
Chenier, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 498.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Valence Bond Theory |
Professional Development
Coulombic models in chemical bonding. III: Barrier to internal rotation in ethane  Sacks, Lawrence J.
In this paper, a problem of long standing will be considered: the barrier to internal rotation in ethane.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 487.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
MO Theory |
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
On the stability of a hydrogen-like atom: The particle in a spherical box revisited  Varandas, Antonio J. C.; Martins, Luis J. A.
This article reexamines the work of a previous paper and shows that the main conclusions from that paper remain valid except for the accidental, reasonably good agreement with the exact solution for the hydrogen atom. In addition, these authors offer an improved treatment of the Mason-Richardson model that essentially recovers the sort of agreement originally reported by those authors.
Varandas, Antonio J. C.; Martins, Luis J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 485.
Chemometrics |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Energy levels in the jj coupling scheme  Rubio, J.; Perez, J. J.
These authors show how to determine "Energy levels in the jj coupling scheme" so they can be compared with the energy levels from the LS scheme to find out which ones give a better match with experimental results.
Rubio, J.; Perez, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 476.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry
The concept of rediagonalization: Ligand-field applications within the parametrical dq model  Brorson, Michael; Jensen, Gunnar S.; Schaffer, Claus E.
This paper contains an analysis and several practical examples to illustrate the concept of rediagnolization, which loosely speaking means shift of basis.
Brorson, Michael; Jensen, Gunnar S.; Schaffer, Claus E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 387.
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Coulombic models in chemical bonding. II. Dipole moments of binary hydrides  Sacks, Lawrence J.
A discussion of Coulumbic models and their aid in understanding chemical bonding.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 373.
Electrochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The significance of arrows in orbital diagrams   Burdman, Clark S.
The author noticed that introductory texts rarely explain electron spin notations. He provides a brief explanation aimed at the student level.
Burdman, Clark S. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 320.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Coulombic models in chemical bonding. I. Description and some applications of a Coulombic model  Sacks, Lawrence J.
In this paper the Coulombic model is described and some applications of bonding theory are presented, including the calculation of bond energies of two imprint binary hydrides.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 288.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
VSEPR Theory |
Acids / Bases
Capillary tube flame test  Boueher, John H.
An interesting alternative for nichrome wire flames tests is to use a capillary tube.
Boueher, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 158.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The modified Poschl-Teller Oscillator  Senn,P.
Anharmonic potential energy surfaces are often needed for a realistic description of molecular dynamics. In some cases the dominant channels of decay are accessible only due to anharmonic terms in the potential energy surface.
Senn,P. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 75.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Is an atom of copper malleable?  Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Silberstein, Judith
It is important to study the mental pictures of the atomic model formed by students at an early stage of their studies, since misunderstanding this model may prevent meaningful learning at later stages.
Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Silberstein, Judith J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 64.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Drawing Lewis structures without anticipating octets  Carroll, James Allen
This note presents a discussion of several examples of appropriate Lewis structures and the fine structural predictions that are possible.
Carroll, James Allen J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 28.
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling
Molarity (atomic density) of the elements as pure crystals  Pauling, Linus; Herman, Zelek S.
Comparisons of atomic densities as a function of periodicity.
Pauling, Linus; Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1086.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Covalent Bonding
Microcomputer use in practical and simulated experiments of gamma rays scattering by outer shell electrons  Cabrol, D.; Mallet, G.; Chauvet, T.
65. Bits and pieces, 26. A computer is used to review Compton scattering, guide students in setting up the experimental apparatus, check the calibration of instruments, produce a simulated spectrum, and extend the investigation through an interactive simulation.
Cabrol, D.; Mallet, G.; Chauvet, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1026.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Why doesn't the electron fall into the nucleus?  Luck, Werner A. P.
Possibility for misunderstandings generated by cited article.
Luck, Werner A. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 914.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Competition analogy  Felty, Wayne L.
Using football competition as an analogy for bond polarity.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 869.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The proton  Moore, Carl E.; Jaselskis, Bruno; von Smolinski, Alfred
Anecdotal material describing the series of events that led to the recognition of the proton as a fundamental particle.
Moore, Carl E.; Jaselskis, Bruno; von Smolinski, Alfred J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 859.
Atomic Properties / Structure
IUPAC table of atomic weights to four significant figures  Greenwood, N. N.; Peiser, H. S.
Masses for the first 103 elements scaled so the mass of 12C is exactly 12.
Greenwood, N. N.; Peiser, H. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 744.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An improved calcium flame test  Pearson, Robert S.
Flame tests using strips of chromatography paper dipped in aqueous solutions of metallic chlorides.
Pearson, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 622.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simple method to determine the geometry of triatomic systems  Thuraisingham, R. A.; Epa, V. C.
A method based on the first-order perturbation theory applied to the extended Huckel method to determine the geometry of triatomic systems.
Thuraisingham, R. A.; Epa, V. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 486.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
MO Theory
Revised atomic form periodic table  Strong, Frederick C., III
A circular periodic table.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 456.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The origins of bonding concepts (the author replies)  Sanderson, R. T.
Refining ideas on electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 362.
Covalent Bonding
The origins of bonding concepts  Pauling, Linus
Errors in the cited article.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 362.
Covalent Bonding
An elementary pulsating-sphere hydrogen atom model  Wadlinger, Robert L.; Lawler, James H.; Brent, Charles R.
A possible physical explanation of the de Broglie electron waves, using the Schrodinger mathematics for the pulsating H-atom sphere.
Wadlinger, Robert L.; Lawler, James H.; Brent, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 294.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A mnemonic for predicting electronegativity values  Cole, G. Mattney, Jr.
A mnemonic for determining electronegativity values for selected elements.
Cole, G. Mattney, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 230.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Molecular geometry  Desseyn, H. O.; Herman, M. A.; Mullens, J.
We should teach our students that many factors influence molecular geometry and that the relative importance of these factors is complicated; considers the VSEPR, Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories.
Desseyn, H. O.; Herman, M. A.; Mullens, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 220.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Orbital shape representations  Kikuchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Keizo
The use of two-dimensional polar plots and three-dimensional contour surfaces to represent atomic orbitals.
Kikuchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Keizo J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Relativistic effects at the freshman level  Banna, M. Salim
Relativistic effects can be used to help explain a variety of physical and chemical properties.
Banna, M. Salim J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 197.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
The Pauling 3-electron bond: A recommendation for the use of the Linnett structure  Harcourt, Richard D.
Recommends the Linnett structure IV for future use when a valence-bond structure for a Pauling 3-electron bond is required.
Harcourt, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 99.
Covalent Bonding
Gram formula weights and fruit salad  Felty, Wayne L.
Effective analogy and explanation of gram formula weights.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 61.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Polar Covalence (Sanderson, R. T.)  Sturgeon, George D.

Sturgeon, George D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A327.
Covalent Bonding
Qualitative identification of potassium ions using didymium glasses  Wood, William F.
Students using the didymium glasses of glass blowers have no trouble determining the presence or absence of potassium in flame tests when their unknown contains sodium.
Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1024.
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Some further comments about the stability of the hydrogen atom  Blaise, Paul; Henri-Rousseau, Olivier; Merad, Negib
The approach that establishes the stability of hydrogen in terms of a compromise between the kinetic energy that is decreasing with an increase of the electron-nucleus distance, and the potential energy, that is increasing, is nothing but a physical comment about the application of the variational method to the scaling factor of the wave function.
Blaise, Paul; Henri-Rousseau, Olivier; Merad, Negib J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 957.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Updating the atomic theory in general chemistry  Whitman, Mark
Presents a descriptive overview of the recent achievements that have furthered the understanding of atomic structure to provide instructors with the background necessary to enhance their classroom presentations.
Whitman, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 952.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
Assembly of a simple, rugged spectroscope suitable for the lecture hall.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The ''anomalous" electron affinity of lead: An example of isoelectronic behavior  Chamizo, Jose Antonio
Relativistic effects can explain the anomalous properties of many heavy metals.
Chamizo, Jose Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 874.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals
Chemical bonding simulation  Pankuch, Brian J.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. A computerized simulation that allows students to build molecules from specific atoms using concepts of VSEPR theory and electronegativity.
Pankuch, Brian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 791.
VSEPR Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Teaching VSEPR theory  McKenna, Anna G.; McKenna, Jack F.
Suggestions for teaching VSEPR theory for coordination numbers 2-6.
McKenna, Anna G.; McKenna, Jack F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 771.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Can we see the electrons?  Coppens, Philip
Using X-ray diffraction to produce electron density plots for various structures.
Coppens, Philip J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 761.
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Transition Elements |
X-ray Crystallography
The smart electron  Adler, Isidore; Yin, Lo I.; Tsang, Tung; Coyle, George
Electron spectroscopy can be used to show that covalency and ionicity are very real phenomena.
Adler, Isidore; Yin, Lo I.; Tsang, Tung; Coyle, George J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
E-Z s,p  Leach, John M.
Easier method for recalling the filling order of orbitals.
Leach, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 652.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Analogies that indicate the size of atoms and molecules and the magnitude of Avogardo's number  Alexander, M. Dale; Ewing, Gordo J.; Abbott, Floyd T.
Three analogies to help students imagine the sizes of atoms, molecules, and Avogadro's number.
Alexander, M. Dale; Ewing, Gordo J.; Abbott, Floyd T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 591.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
On the filling order of orbitals (aufbau order)  Karp, Steward
Two of the suggested mnemonic devices are more trouble than they are worth.
Karp, Steward J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 565.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Projection operators in continuous groups  Jaffe, H. H.; David, Shelle J.
Considers the effects of various operations on the s and p orbitals of an atom lying on the z-axis.
Jaffe, H. H.; David, Shelle J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 503.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Should orbitals be x-rated in beginning chemistry courses?  Bent, Henry A.
Memorizing orbital rules helps students earn credits in science without knowing what science is.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 421.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simple aid for teaching the theory of atomic structure  Chiang, Hung-cheh; Tseng, Ching-Hwei
A simple game to demonstrate the Pauli exclusion principle, Hund's rule, quantum numbers, electronic energy levels, and electron configurations.
Chiang, Hung-cheh; Tseng, Ching-Hwei J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 216.
Atomic Properties / Structure
G. N. Lewis and the chemical bond  Pauling, Linus
History of the chemical bond concept and the contributions made by G. N. Lewis. From the symposium, "Gilbert Newton Lewis: 1875-1946", Las Vegas, 1982.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 201.
Covalent Bonding
Abegg, Lewis, Langmuir, and the octet rule  Jensen, William B.
History of the development of the octet rule and models of "cubical" atoms. From the symposium, "Gilbert Newton Lewis: 1875-1946", Las Vegas, 1982.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 191.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Reflections on the electron theory of the chemical bond: 1900-1925  Stranges, Anthony N.
History of the development of the electron theory of the chemical bond. From the symposium, "Gilbert Newton Lewis: 1875-1946", Las Vegas, 1982.
Stranges, Anthony N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 185.
Covalent Bonding
Models to depict hybridization of atomic orbitals  Stubblefield, C. T.
Six models of hybridization: linear, trigonal, tetrahedral, planar, trigonal bipyrimidal, and octahedral.
Stubblefield, C. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 158.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds
Atomic volume and allotropy of the elements  Singman, Charles N.
Presents reliable values of atomic volumes determined through X-ray methods, as well as allotropic forms of the elements under nonstandard temperatures and pressures.
Singman, Charles N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 137.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Transition Elements
The bonds of conformity: W. A. Noyes and the initial failure of the Lewis theory in America  Saltzman, Martin D.
Though their theoretical framework proved to be faulty, W. A. Noyes and several of his American contemporaries were among the first chemists to utilize the electron to explain organic structure and reactions.
Saltzman, Martin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 119.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The shape and structure of molecules  Herndon, William C.
The book reviewed here summarizes in remarkably few pages simple qualitative ideas of the applications of quantum mechanics to shape and structure of molecules.
Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, A349.
VSEPR Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Electrons and valence: development of the theory, 1900-1925 (Stranges, Anthony N.)  Wright, Marshall S., Jr.
An important addition to the library of any historian of modern chemistry.
Wright, Marshall S., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, A64.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Ice cream: Delicious chemistry   Martino, James
This chemistry lab gives practical illustration of the relation of physical properties to bond type and the solution theory. [Debut of second run of this Feature.]
Martino, James J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1004.
Physical Properties |
Covalent Bonding |
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Food Science
How to teach the postulates of quantum mechanics without enigma  Teixeira-Dias, Jose J. C.
Quantum theory is so contrary to common sense that even our language is inadequate to express microphysical phenomenon. The primary objective of this article is to show that the statistical approach can help students accept the postulates of quantum mechanics in a natural and less enigmatic way and not see quantum theory as the intellectual outbreak of genial minds.
Teixeira-Dias, Jose J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 963.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
The electron-repulsion integral and the independent-particle model for helium  Lee, Soo-Y.
Methods to evaluate the electron-repulsion integral.
Lee, Soo-Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 935.
Chemometrics |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Theodore W. Richards: America's first Nobel Laureate chemist   Kopperl, Sheldon J.
A brief description of the first American chemist to be awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1914.
Kopperl, Sheldon J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 738.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Knowledge and Wonder: The Natural Wonder as Man Knows It (Weiskopf, Victor F.)  Schultz, Mary Jane
A review of a book that emphasizes the interrelationship of chemistry, physics, geology, astronomy, and biology.
Schultz, Mary Jane J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 687.
Astrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Rutherford atom revisited  Brescia, Frank
A detailed treatment of Rutherford's experiment.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 646.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Bond angles and hybridization indices in AX2YZ and AX2Y systems  Gilli, Gastone; Bertolasi, Valerio
Solving for bond angles and hybridization indices in AX2YZ and AX2Y systems.
Gilli, Gastone; Bertolasi, Valerio J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 638.
Chemometrics |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Spectroscopically silent fundamental vibrations  Keiter, Richard L.
It is the purpose of this article to to explore the reasons for a pedagogical blind spot when teaching vibrational spectroscopy.
Keiter, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 625.
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
4s, 3d, what?  Carpenter, A. Kurtz
The author presents a method to help students memorize the order of electron orbitals.
Carpenter, A. Kurtz J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 562.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Simple method for obtaining Russell-Saunders term symbols  Vicente, J.A.
A method is presented here for simplifying the determination of spectroscopic terms obtained from a given electronic configuration by not tabulating all possible microstates.
Vicente, J.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 560.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Raoult's law: A general chemistry experiment  Steffel, Margaret J.
A paper exercise and laboratory work make Raoult's law more meaningful to students.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 500.
Liquids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Spectroscopy illustrated  Boschmann, Erwin
It is the purpose of the experiment described in this article is to (a) to prepare three metal derivatives of DMSO, and (B) to determine some structural features of these derivatives based on the infrared spectra.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 413.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Electron-dot structures of O2 and NO: Ignored gems from the work of J. W. Linnett  Levy, Jack B.
The presented treatment makes it easier for students to make predictive models with electron-dot structures.
Levy, Jack B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 404.
Lewis Structures |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
The particle in the one-dimensional champagne bottle revisited   Castro, Eduardo A.; Fernandez, Francisco M.
While the perturbation theory of the particle in a box is a good illustration of that theory, a serious difficulty arises when one tries to plot the perturbed ground state wavefunction to show those points explicitly.
Castro, Eduardo A.; Fernandez, Francisco M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 378.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
The use of an air-natural gas flame in atomic absorption  Melucci, Robert C.
The experiment reported in this paper demonstrates that students can get excellent results using air-natural gas flame in atomic absorption, and a tremendous advantage in safety is gained for a small sacrifice in the limit of detectability.
Melucci, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 238.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A convenient lecture demonstration of fluorescence   Burrows, Hugh D.
In introducing fluorescence in courses in photochemistry, spectroscopy, or analytical chemistry it is valuable to have a demonstration showing clearly its characteristics, particularly that the emitted light is as longer wavelengths than the absorbed light and that the fluorescence decays very rapidly when the source of excitation is removed.
Burrows, Hugh D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 228.
Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Illustration of quantization and perturbation theory using microcomputers  Kubach, Christian
38. The purpose of this note is to exhibit the notion of quantization and reinforce students' knowledge of the general behavior of wavefunctions and the results of perturbation theory.
Kubach, Christian J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 212.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Numerical solution of the one-dimensional Schrdinger equation   Blukis, Uldis; Howell, J. M.
38. These authors discuss some advantages of the numerical approach to introductory quantum mechanics, present some specifics of using Noumerov's formula, and present some the results.
Blukis, Uldis; Howell, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 207.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Determination of the mass of an imaginary atom  Rabourn, Mike
A brief activity that helps introduce students to stoichiometric concepts.
Rabourn, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 132.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Relativistic effects on chemical properties  McKelvey, Donald R.
This paper discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained on the basis of relativistic effects. In order to do this properly, the author traces the development of the relativistic wave equation, the Dirac equation, and summarizes the major consequences of the Dirac equations.
McKelvey, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 112.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Two-body and three-body atomic recombination reactions  Alvarino, Jose M.; Martinez, E.
In this paper the authors point out how in some circumstances the two-body reaction is the only possibility of association and how the reaction proceeds in a certain case.
Alvarino, Jose M.; Martinez, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 53.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Wave functions in one dimension  Sheehan, William F.
This paper is an account of wave functions in one dimension written at a student level.
Sheehan, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 50.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Automatically finding eigenvalues in one dimension and for a simple chemical bond   Anderson, Robert Hunt
36. Bits and pieces, 13. An introduction to a computer program that can be used to acquaint students with the role of quantum chemistry in explaining the energy of the chemical bond. The program can also provide better understanding of well-behaved functions and the relations between eigenfunctions and the corresponding eigenvalues.
Anderson, Robert Hunt J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 43.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Why doesn't the electron fall into the nucleus?  Mason, Franklin P.; Richardson, Robert W.
This paper presents a simple, yet essentially correct model of the atom that can be used to answer the title question for even beginning students of chemistry.
Mason, Franklin P.; Richardson, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Finding the accurate value for the charge of an electron (the author replies)  Harris, Sidney P.
The author replies to earlier comments.
Harris, Sidney P. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 988.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Finding the accurate value for the charge of an electron  Strong, Frederick C. III
A correction in the calculations presented in the cited article.
Strong, Frederick C. III J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 987.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simulation of Rutherford experiment  Hau, Kit-Tai
An overhead demonstration simulating Rutherford's experiment to detect the atomic nucleus.
Hau, Kit-Tai J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Limits to sensitivity in laser enhanced ionization  Travis, J. C.
Instrumentation, function, and limitations of laser enhanced ionization. From the State-of-the-Art Symposim V, Counting molecules - Approaching the limits of chemical analysis.
Travis, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 909.
Lasers |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Approaching the limit in atomic spectrochemical analysis  Hieftje, Gary M.
Reviews methods for achieving single-atom detection, with an emphasis on spectrometric (emission, absorption, fluorescence) monitoring techniques. From the State-of-the-Art Symposim V, Counting molecules - Approaching the limits of chemical analysis.
Hieftje, Gary M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 900.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Structural parameters of methyl iodide by infrared spectroscopy  McNaught, Ian J.
A study of the rotation-vibration spectrum of methyl chloride permits calculation of band origins of the fundamentals, Coriolis coupling constants of the degenerate modes, rotation constants, and bond lengths and force constants.
McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 879.
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Multiplets in atoms and ions displayed by photoelectron spectroscopy  Suzer, Sefik
Photoelectron spectra (PES) of 2p levels of Ne and Na, and the 4d levels of Ag and Cd are presented for illustrating the multiplet structure due to the coupling of spin and angular momenta of electrons in two open shells.
Suzer, Sefik J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 814.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Linear variation method in one dimension  Rioux, Frank
32. Bits and pieces, 12.
Rioux, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 773.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
References on the Afbau principle  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 758.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Why teach the electron configuration of the elements are we do?  Millikan, Roger C.
Out of 106 elements in the table of electron configurations, there are 29 special cases - rules that only work 73% of the time seem hardly worth teaching.
Millikan, Roger C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A needed replacement for the customary description of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Description of and encouragement to use an alternative to the covalent / ionic model for chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 376.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Presenting the Bohr atom  Haendler, Blanca L.
A more significant consideration of the role of the Bohr theory in the development of quantum mechanics would have many benefits for introductory and advanced chemistry classes.
Haendler, Blanca L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 372.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The negatively-charged nitrogen in ammonium ion and derived concepts of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics  Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F.
The concept of atomic charges is intimately related to those of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics; among the plethora of numbers derived by calculation and experiment lie simple and useful rules for the understanding and prediction of chemical behavior.
Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 367.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure
One-dimensional K2Pt(CN)4BrO 3H20. A structure containing five different types of bonding  Masuo, Steven T.; Miller, Joel S.; Gebert, Elizabeth; Reis, Arthur H., Jr.
Examples of the five types of bonding found in matter and there manifestations in the title compound.
Masuo, Steven T.; Miller, Joel S.; Gebert, Elizabeth; Reis, Arthur H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 361.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding
Developing models: What is the atom really like?  Records, Roger M.
Using physical and computer models to illustrate historical changes in our view of the atom.
Records, Roger M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Illustrating the problem described by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle  Cosser, Ronald C.
A simple overhead projector demonstration illustrating Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.
Cosser, Ronald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 300.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Lyon playfair and numerology  Butler, A. R.
Examples of "chemical numerology."
Butler, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 266.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Nature of the Chemical Bond, Review 2 (Pauling, Linus)  Morlan, Gordon E.
Classic book on the valence-bond theory of chemical bonding.
Morlan, Gordon E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 261.
Covalent Bonding
The Nature of the Chemical Bond, Review 1 (Pauling, Linus)  Roe, Robert, Jr.
Classic book on the valence-bond theory of chemical bonding.
Roe, Robert, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Covalent Bonding
Quantum chemistry  Davenport, Richard P., Capt.
Videocassette on quantum numbers.
Davenport, Richard P., Capt. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Orbital polarization by electron repulsion  Bills, James L.; Snow, Richard L.
Extends the polarization idea of Pritchard to electron repulsion in general, and applies it first to the He atom, and then to the H2 molecule.
Bills, James L.; Snow, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 142.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Finding the number of neutrons when the mass loss exceeds 1 AMU   Chirpich, Thomas P.
This question tests the student's ability to reconcile a formula learned early in freshman chemistry with an apparent conflict arising from a phenomenon described later in nuclear chemistry. The goal is to increase, as well as test, the student's understanding of the concepts involved.
Chirpich, Thomas P. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1014.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
An annotated Asimov: A resource bibliography for chemistry teachers  Waterman, Edward L.
An annotated bibliography on the works of Isaac Asimov.
Waterman, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 826.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
A lecture demonstration model of the quantum mechanical atom   Wiger, George; Dutton, Melvin L.
In an attempt to simulate the quantum mechanical 1s orbital, the authors have constructed a simple apparatus.
Wiger, George; Dutton, Melvin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 801.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Quantum chemistry via the periodic law  Blinder, S. M.
A pedagogical approach to quantum mechanics is developed in this paper in which chemistry students will find themselves one step ahead-rather than one step behind-their physics counterparts because the author will exploit the periodic structure of the elements as a foundation for the quantum theory of matter.
Blinder, S. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
"Plus" and "minus" states of linear molecules  Pilar, Frank L.
It is the intent of the present paper to supply the details needed for giving complete answers to the most common student questions regarding this topic.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 758.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
"Centrifugal" force and the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom  Haendler, Blanca L.
A large number of texts use misleading terminology in dealing with the forces operating in the system discussed in this paper.
Haendler, Blanca L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 719.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The rotational levels and rotational partition function for 16O2  McNaught, Ian J.
The purpose of this note is to correct a common error.
McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 719.
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Roothaan's method in one-dimension  Harriss, Donald K.; Rioux, Frank
In this paper, the authors describe a calculation on a one-dimensional model of the helium atom using Rothaan's analytical procedure.
Harriss, Donald K.; Rioux, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 618.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Radial probability density and normalization in hydrogenic atoms  Lain, Luis; Toree, Alicia; Alvarino, Jose M.
The authors analyze the role of the 4p factor and to show the equivalence of two formulas that are most commonly used in physical chemistry textbooks.
Lain, Luis; Toree, Alicia; Alvarino, Jose M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 617.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Vibrational spectroscopy of CS2: A physical chemistry experiment  Mendelsohn, Richard; Monse, Ernst U.
The authors have developed an experiment out of a perceived need for an experiment in vibrational spectroscopy which goes beyond the usual infrared rotational-vibration spectrum of HCl and which will render a spectra that is sufficiently complex so that many of the features observed in larger molecules may be meaningfully illustrated.
Mendelsohn, Richard; Monse, Ernst U. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 582.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
"The Dancing Wu Li Masters"  Stapleton, George W.
After reading "The Dancing Wu Li Masters", this author became convinced that the right person can explain the most difficult ideas in a clear, refreshing, and logical manner.
Stapleton, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 574.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A physical chemistry experiment in Mossbauer spectroscopy  Armstrong, William H.; Dorflinger, Ernest E.; Anderson, Owen T.; Willeford, Bennett R., Jr.
This article includes relevant theory and a detailed procedure for the physical chemistry experiment in Mossbauer spectroscopy.
Armstrong, William H.; Dorflinger, Ernest E.; Anderson, Owen T.; Willeford, Bennett R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 515.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
A moir pattern analogy to electron motion  Bard, James R.
The optical illusion produced by this pattern may help students better understand the motion of electrons in atoms.
Bard, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Exchange stabilization and the variation of ionization energy in the pn and dn series  Blake, Antony B.
This article is concerned with two types of ionizations that are of special importance to chemists. The author's main purpose is to clarify current textbook interpretations of the peculiar decrease in ionization energy following completion of a half-filled p or d shell.
Blake, Antony B. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 393.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
Resonance fluorescence and resonance Raman spectroscopy of bromine and iodine vapor  Shaw, C. Frank, III.
A theoretical understanding of Resonance Raman spectroscopy and resonance fluorescence spectroscopy are being developed, two competing interpretations of their relationship have been proposed and are summarized briefly.
Shaw, C. Frank, III. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 343.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Quantum Chemistry
Demonstrating tetrahedral bonding using soap films  Whitmer, John C.
Tetrahedral bonding in carbon and other similar atoms can be demonstrated effectively with a tetrahedral frame and a soap solution.
Whitmer, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 280.
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
Electron spin resonance of radiation produced free radicals  Sevilla, Michael D.
This article sketches the theory of electron spin resonance in a simplified form.
Sevilla, Michael D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 106.
Free Radicals |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Analytic potential functions for diatomic molecules: some limitations  Winn, John S.
In this paper, particular attention is given to the relationship between molecular constants and the dissociation energy, De.
Winn, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 37.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
Tetrahedral bonding in CH4. An alternative explanation  Rees, Thomas
Using the VSEPR theory to conduct a thought experiment regarding the bonding and structure of methane.
Rees, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 899.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
Bonding, structure, and geometry  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 810.
Covalent Bonding
Homemade models of the five d-atomic orbitals  Saieed, Alfred E.
Styrofoam shapes are used to represent the d-atomic orbitals.
Saieed, Alfred E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 805.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Groups and subgroups in the periodic table of the elements: A proposal of modification in the nomenclature  Araneo, Antonio
A proposal to eliminate the "A" and "B" designations of subgroups and replace them with letters referring directly to the electronic structures of atoms.
Araneo, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Edward W. Morley, the atomic weight of oxygen, and Prout's hypothesis  Sokal, Michael M.
Morley's atomic weight determinations are best understood as his attempt to determine the validity of Prout's hypothesis.
Sokal, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 711.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A visual aid to demonstrate the VSEPR theory  Meloan, Cliff E.
Using a clear globe and magnets to demonstrate the VSEPR theory.
Meloan, Cliff E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 668.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Atomic structure  Schmuckler, Joseph S.
[Debut]
Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 658.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
How does the electron cross the node?  Johnsen, Russell H.; Lloyd, Winston D.
Confusion arises from the assumption that the electron is a particle, when the model that produces an orbital diagram assumes that the electron behaves as a wave.
Johnsen, Russell H.; Lloyd, Winston D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 651.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Bent-bond models using framework molecular models  Sund, Eldon H.; Suggs, Mark W.
Using tubing to represent double and triple bonds.
Sund, Eldon H.; Suggs, Mark W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 638.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Covalent Bonding
A simple Hartree SCF calculation on a one-dimensional model of the He atom  Harriss, Donald K.; Rioux, Frank
A numerical self-consistent field calculation on a one-dimensional model for the helium atom.
Harriss, Donald K.; Rioux, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 491.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Walnut models of simple molecules  Niac, Gavril; Florea, Cornel
Using natural walnut formations to illustrate the geometry of simple molecules.
Niac, Gavril; Florea, Cornel J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 429.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Natural Products |
VSEPR Theory
Symmetry, ionic structures and d orbitals in SF6  Maclagan, Robert G. A. R.
Ab initio calculations suggests that the covalent structure for SF6 is not as important as structures in which the S atom carries a positive charge.
Maclagan, Robert G. A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 428.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Bent bonds and multiple bonds  Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.
Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of the bent bond model first proposed by Pauling in 1931.
Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 329.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
Molecular Geometry  Mickey, Charles D.
Methods for determining molecular geometry and the application of VSEPR theory to real molecules.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 210.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Spectroscopic cation analysis using metal salt pills  Barnard, Sister Marquita
Making metal salt pills for spectroscopic cation flame analysis using a Carver press.
Barnard, Sister Marquita J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 153.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The valence bond interpretation of molecular geometry  Smith, Derek W.
Shows that the valence bond theory not only provides an attractive means of describing the bonding in a molecule but can also explain its geometry.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 106.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Prospects and retrospects in chemical education  Pauling, Linus
Pauling provides suggestions for what concepts to focus on in an elementary chemistry course.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 38.
Covalent Bonding |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
4s Sometimes is below 3d - the author replies  Pilar, Frank L.
Reply to criticism of original article.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 767.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
4s Sometimes is below 3d  Carlton, Terry S.
Seeks to correct flaws in cited article.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 767.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A low-cost classroom demonstration of the Aufbau Principle  Hanley, James R. III; Hanley, James R., Jr.
Uses golf balls placed in egg cartons to represent the placement of electrons in orbitals.
Hanley, James R. III; Hanley, James R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 747.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Theoretical justification of Madelung's rule  Wong, D. Pan
Provides theoretical and physical meaning to the sequence of filling electron shells of neutral atoms in the periodic table dictated by Madelung's rule.
Wong, D. Pan J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 714.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Physical and chemical properties and bonding of metallic elements  Myers, R. Thomas
137. Common textbook errors concerning the physical and chemical properties, conductivity and bonding of metals.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 712.
Physical Properties |
Metallic Bonding |
Metals |
Covalent Bonding
Electronegativity, bond energy, and chemical reactivity  Myers, R. Thomas
The Pauling electronegativity concept can be used to help rationalize several kinds of chemical reactions.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 711.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Reactions
The bond energy of CH3-H: A physical chemistry experiment  Dorain, Paul B.
Requires a mass spectrometer coupled with a digital voltmeter.
Dorain, Paul B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 622.
Covalent Bonding |
Mass Spectrometry
A simple inexpensive model for student discovery of VSEPR  Halpern, Marc
A simple model made from yarn and four wooden spheres.
Halpern, Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 531.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Empirical formulas  Ryan, Dennis P.
This question forces one to duplicate the line of reasoning used by Dalton in his initial formulation of atomic weights; it tests for the ability to deduce atomic sizes and to calculate empirical formulas.
Ryan, Dennis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 528.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Hybridization and bond angle   Li, Oi-Ching C.; Li, Wai-Kee
Question tests students' ability to form hybrids for a system that has more than one set of equivalent hybrids.
Li, Oi-Ching C.; Li, Wai-Kee J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 528.
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Clarification of the shape for the fx(5z2-r2) angular function  Becker, C. A. L.
Corrects the function describing the shape of the fx(5z2-r2) orbital.
Becker, C. A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 511.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The symmetry of atomic states and atomic orbitals: In crystalline and molecular environments  DeKock, Roger L.; Kromminga, Albion J.; Zwier, Timothy S.
Delineates the five formulas required to calculate the character of a reducible representation in spherical symmetry.
DeKock, Roger L.; Kromminga, Albion J.; Zwier, Timothy S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 510.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Alfred Werner's early views of valence  Kauffman, George B.
Valence is a topic that many of the major figures of chemistry have regarded as one of the most fundamental problems of their science.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 496.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A hyperspace periodic table: An orbital-filling exercise for high school students  Waterman, Edward L.
An exercise that helps relate the Afbau process and electron configuration to the periodic table and illustrates why the periodic table has the shape it does.
Waterman, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 470.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Bond free energies  Amador, Alberto
Provides standard free energies for the formation of common single and multiple bonds.
Amador, Alberto J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 453.
Covalent Bonding |
Thermodynamics
Loosely-bound diatomic molecules  Balfour, W. J.
Over the past decade, careful spectroscopic studies have established the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules.
Balfour, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 452.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Electrons, bonding, orbitals, and light: A unified approach to the teaching of structure and bonding in organic chemistry courses  Lenox, Ronald S.
A suggested list of topics and methods for teaching introductory organic students bonding concepts.
Lenox, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 298.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
Should orbitals be taught in high school?  Morwick, James J.
The arguments against teaching orbitals at the high school level and why they are mistaken.
Morwick, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 262.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Quantum mechanics and chemical bonding in inorganic complexes. I. Static concepts of bonding; dynamic concepts of valency  Ballhausen, Carl J.
The historical development of quantum chemistry.
Ballhausen, Carl J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 215.
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Quantum defects from atomic spectra  Balfour, Walter J.; Dingle, Thomas W.
Graphical method for using measured atomic level energies to determine ionization potential and quantum defects.
Balfour, Walter J.; Dingle, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 200.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron correlation as a rotating polarization  Pritchard, H. O.; Baille, M. Kuriyan P.
The Heitler-London-Rosen calculation for H2 has been repeated with an additional term in the wavefunction that represents the polarization of each atomic orbital by the other electron.
Pritchard, H. O.; Baille, M. Kuriyan P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 171.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Assigning oxidation states to some metal dioxygen complexes of biological interest  Summerville, David A.; Jones, Robert D.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Basolo, Fred
Considers the bonding of dioxygen in metal-dioxygen complexes, paying particular attention to the problems encountered in assigning conventional oxidation numbers to both the metal center and coordinated dioxygen.
Summerville, David A.; Jones, Robert D.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Basolo, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 157.
Oxidation State |
Metals |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Atomic number before Moseley  Van Spronsen, Jan W.
Antonius Johannes van den Broek introduced the idea of atomic number prior to the work of Moseley.
Van Spronsen, Jan W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 106.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Producing flame spectra  Smith, Douglas D.
Adding the desired salt to canned heat.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 48.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Mendeleev's other prediction  Goldwhite, Harold
Mendeleev predicted the properties of four, not three, elements before they were discovered.
Goldwhite, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 35.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Inexpensive space-filling molecular models useful for VSEPR and symmetry studies  Chapman, V. L.
This paper describes models that can be constructed to a scale to suit teachers' needs.
Chapman, V. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 798.
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
Comparison of ionic and covalent iodine dihalides. An integrated experiment  Woolf, Alfred A.
An experimental procedure and discussion for a comparison of ionic and covalent iodine dihalides.
Woolf, Alfred A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 738.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Magnesocene: Structure and bonding. Covalent or ionic?  Pinkus, A. G.
This paper will present a brief review of the structures and bonding proposed for magnesocene leading up to the most recent work.
Pinkus, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 704.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
High temperature chemistry of rare earth compounds: Dramatic examples of periodicity  Cater, E. David
This paper makes it clear that the energy required to promote a 4f electron to the 5d level has a profound and predictable influence on the systematic of reactions involving conversion of rare earth atoms from combined to free states.
Cater, E. David J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 697.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Inner Transition Elements |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Model pseudopotentials as a source of useful problems for quantum chemistry courses  Goodfriend, P. L.
The object of this paper is to present some problems based upon model pseudopotentials and to include some useful formulae and tables of parameters associated with the problems.
Goodfriend, P. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 639.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Binding energy and atomic weight calculations  Bodner, George
Textbooks unintentionally compound the confusion surrounding atomic weights.
Bodner, George J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 598.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Explanation of the permutation of the sigma p and pi levels in homonuclear diatomic molecules  Henri-Rousseau, Oliver; Boulil, Belkacme
The authors propose an explanation using the linear combination of bonding orbitals method, which allows an intuitive understanding of transformation of diagram I into diagram II.
Henri-Rousseau, Oliver; Boulil, Belkacme J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 571.
MO Theory |
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Probability density and maximum radial probability for the 1s orbital: An analogy with population density and distribution in cities  Baker, A. D.
Probability density and maximum radial probability for the 1s orbital: an analogy with population density and distribution in cities
Baker, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 516.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Using the Aufbau principle   Whitmer, John C.
This question is written with the belief that general chemistry students should not only attain an understanding of the Aufbau principle enabling them to write down electron configurations, they ought also recognize the correspondence between the quantum numbers and the structures of the periodic table.
Whitmer, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 515.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
FORTRAN program for plotting dot diagrams of electron density  Jewett, K. A.; Kleier, Daniel A.
A computer program has been written to plot electron density diagrams of atomic and molecular orbitals using a dot density format.
Jewett, K. A.; Kleier, Daniel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 451.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Atomic orbital contours-a new approach to an old problem  Scaife, D. B.
This paper describes a novel approach to the computation of probability contours which has led to the development of a method which can enable a student, equipped with a pocket calculator, to construct a hydrogen p or d orbital as a tutorial exercise with the minimum of effort. The simplicity of the method allows ready translation into short Basic FORTRAN programs.
Scaife, D. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 442.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Application of the frontier molecular orbital theory to the interpretation of the Hammett correlation's  Henri-Rousseau, Olivier; Texier, Fernand
The purpose of this paper is to show how a physical explanation of the Hammett relationship may be proposed in the framework of a frontier orbital method which has provided a basis for explaining several aspects of chemical reactivity.
Henri-Rousseau, Olivier; Texier, Fernand J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 437.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Molecular geometry predictions using simple MO theory. AX systems (n = 2-7)  Baird, N. Colin
In this simplified version of the Mulliken-Walsh theory attention is centered on the valence-shell atomic orbtials of the central atom.
Baird, N. Colin J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 412.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Paradoxes from the uncertainty principle  Harris, Robert A.; Strauss, Herbert L.
The proofs in this article demonstrate paradoxes within the uncertainty principle.
Harris, Robert A.; Strauss, Herbert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 374.
Chemometrics |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The electron game: A novel approach to aid in the teaching of electronic structures of atoms  Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.
The author reports a competitive group activity called "The electron game" that has been used as an aid to teaching the aufbau principle for determining atomic electronic structure to nonscience major chemistry students in an introductory chemistry course.
Wiseman, Frank L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Lecture projectable atomic orbital cross-sections and bonding interactions  Shepherd, Rex E.
Models using small Styrofoam balls and slinky toys improve student understanding of covalent bonds.
Shepherd, Rex E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 317.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
Hydrogen-like atomic orbitals an undergraduate exercise  Baughman, Russell G.
Textbooks and instructors often inadvertently use a plot of angular distribution in illustrating Hydrogen-like atomic orbitals, leading to misconceptions among students.
Baughman, Russell G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 315.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Position orbital calculations of energy levels for p-block atoms  Howald, Reed A.; Mubarak, Ahmed
A table is presented in this paper that can be used to find wavefunctions and energies for the various energy levels found for atoms and ions with incomplete p subshells.
Howald, Reed A.; Mubarak, Ahmed J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 304.
MO Theory |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds
Balloon models for organic molecules  Niac, G.
A balloon model can be used to demonstrate properties of small, organic molecules.
Niac, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 303.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
VSEPR Theory
The structures of metal-cyclopentadienyl derivatives   Maslowsky, Edward, Jr.
Metal derivatives of cyclopentadiene can be classified as either ionic cyclopentadiene or covalent cyclopentadienyl. Although these structural extremes are common, other such structures also have been found; some possess dynamic structural aspects.
Maslowsky, Edward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 276.
Metals |
Organometallics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A beam model of the hydrogen atom  Chapman, V. L.
The model described in this paper is more useful than previous models in introducing hydrogen atom structure and the model is relatively easy to construct.
Chapman, V. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 260.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Elegant neutron activation analysis. An undergraduate experiment  Rengan, Krishnaswamy
An experiment is described here that introduces students to both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the Elegant neutron activation analysis technique. Since the experiment is based on short-lived radio nuclides it must be performed in a laboratory that is adjacent to a nuclear reactor.
Rengan, Krishnaswamy J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 203.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure
4s is always above 3d! Or, how to tell the orbitals from the wavefunctions  Pilar, Frank L.
Upperclassmen in chemistry seem to have "unlearned" quite a bit about quantum mechanics. This author shares a thorough treatment of the topic that can be used to get upperclassman back up to speed.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 2.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Atomic wave functions  Fitzpatrick, Noel; Wilson, Owen
A booklet containing wave functions drawn using a Calcomp plotter is available.
Fitzpatrick, Noel; Wilson, Owen J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 676.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Converting atomic spectral line widths from frequency to wavelength  Lovett, R. J.; Parsons, M. L.
A method that illustrates the conversion from frequency to wavelength in a readily understandable fashion requiring only the visualization of a spectral line shape and some algebra.
Lovett, R. J.; Parsons, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 615.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Novel pictorial approach to teaching MO concepts in polyatomic molecules  Hoffman, D. K.; Ruedenberg, K.; Verkade, J. G.
Methods used in a one-quarter course to familiarize students with the general applicability of delocalized and localized molecular orbitals to polyatomic systems; includes examples of delocalized and localized molecular orbitals of XeF2, C3H3+, CH4, and CO2.
Hoffman, D. K.; Ruedenberg, K.; Verkade, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 590.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
But if atoms are so tiny...  Kolb, Doris
Reviews the atomic theory, the laws of chemical combination, atomic weight scales, Avogadro's hypothesis, the development of the mass spectrograph, the meaning of atomic weight, and the difference between mass and weight in answering the question "If atoms are so small, how can we know how much they weigh?" [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 543.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Mass Spectrometry
Back-of-the-envelope molecular orbital "calculations". Using bond orbitals and group theory  Davidson, Robert B.
Outlines the prediction of orbital symmetries from Lewis structures using bond orbitals and group theory.
Davidson, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 531.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Lewis Structures |
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Rydberg-Schuster law and the analysis of atomic spectra  Love, Ian
Application of the Rydberg-Schuster law to the analysis of the atomic spectrum of lithium.
Love, Ian J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 529.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Frequency distribution curves for 1s electrons  Chapman, V. L.
Demonstrating frequency distribution curves for ls electrons by dropping a dart onto a target on the floor.
Chapman, V. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 499.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Rutherford and the nuclear atom  Herron, J. Dudley
Helping students to understand the correct interpretation of the Rutherford experiment by having them read a quote from his paper describing the results.
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 499.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Simple energetic approach to the geometries of organic intermediates  Koch, T. H.; Andrist, A. H.
An energetic approach to developing an understanding of configurational differences among the more common reactive intermediates of organic chemistry.
Koch, T. H.; Andrist, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 491.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactive Intermediates |
Free Radicals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Huckel calculations using a programmable pocket calculator  Murgich, Juan
Programmable calculators allow the direct calculations of simple pi-molecular orbitals of the Huckel or Mulliken-Wolfsberg-Helmholz type.
Murgich, Juan J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 421.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simplification for obtaining Russell-Saunders term symbols  Castro, E. A.
A method for obtaining Russell-Saunders term symbols that is simplified over that presented in the referenced article.
Castro, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 367.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Molecular geometries and "repulsive ratings"  Arlotto, Roy J.
A procedure to help students rationalize VSEPR theory.
Arlotto, Roy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 306.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
A very inexpensive source of atomic/molecular models  Beck, Charles F., Jr.
Using plastic eggs to represent hybridized atomic orbitals.
Beck, Charles F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 245.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Chemical aspects of Bohr's 1913 theory  Kragh, Helge
The chemical content of Bohr's 1913 theory has generally been neglected in the treatises on the history of chemistry; this paper regards Bohr as a theoretical chemist and discusses the chemical aspects of his atomic theory.
Kragh, Helge J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 208.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
Atomic absorption interferences experiment. An advanced exercise for the undergraduate analytical laboratory  Hosking, J. W.; Snell, N. B.; Sturman, B. T.
Describes one of four 3-hr atomic absorption spectroscopy laboratory sessions that involves a study of the interferences observed in the analysis of calcium.
Hosking, J. W.; Snell, N. B.; Sturman, B. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 128.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Frank C. Whitmore and the first successful explanation of some intramolecular rearrangements  Saltzman, Martin D.
In 1932 Frank C. Whitmore presented a beautifully succinct and detailed pathway using the octet concept of Lewis to show the common basis of many intramolecular rearrangements discovered during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Saltzman, Martin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 25.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures
The probability equals zero problem in quantum mechanics. Or, how does an electron get from first to second to third without touching second?  Ellison, Frank O.; Hollingsworth, C. A.
The authors will carefully reexamine the Born Probability Postulate and suggest an extension which conforms closely with the mathematically established definition of probability.
Ellison, Frank O.; Hollingsworth, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 767.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Before neutrons  Heller, R. A.
This note helps readers appreciate the problems in chemistry that existed when protons and electrons were known, but neutrons were not.
Heller, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 714.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Pulse NMR - An old analytical technique oft neglected by the chemist  Smith, William B.; Proulx, Thomas W.
The background for the pulse NMR experiment will be given in brief form, a description of what type of data may be collected, and specific applications to some analytical problems will be presented along with indication of the scope of the technique.
Smith, William B.; Proulx, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 700.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Understanding chemistry: Current and possible  Sanderson, R. T.
This paper attempts to present a traditional teaching approach in a concise form, and to allow evaluation of the approach as a whole, in contrast to the piecemeal treatment available up to now.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 675.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Negative energies  Brescia, Frank
Few textbooks remove the mystery of a negative energy by stressing the origin of the minus sign when discussing the theory of the H atom. The author attempts to demystify this convention.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 557.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Topological structure of molecules  Evans, Gordon G.
The writer of this article points out a flaw in a previous article's treatment of the topological structure of covalent molecules.
Evans, Gordon G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 532.
Covalent Bonding
Illustration of some consequences of the indistinguishability of electrons. Use of computer-generated dot-density diagrams  Moore, John W.; Davies, William G.
Because of their visual impact, dot-density diagrams are an excellent pedagogical tool for elementary chemistry, but they are also capable of illuminating a number of rather subtle points, some of which shall be considered in the remainder of this paper.
Moore, John W.; Davies, William G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 426.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
A simple geometric model for the Marcus theory of proton transfer  McLennan, Duncan J.
The authors present a simple and non-rigorous derivation of an equation based on the properties of intersecting parabolas.
McLennan, Duncan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 348.
Chemometrics |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Primitive microstates and Russell-Saunders terms for multielectron atoms  Joshi, Bhairav D.
In this note the authors present a numerical scheme for enumerating all primitive microstates and Russel-Suanders terms arising from an equivalent electron configuration.
Joshi, Bhairav D. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 245.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Molecular geometry: As easy as blowing up balloons  Roberts, Royston M.; Traynham, James G.
The authors provide a template for an activity that can easily illustrate properties of molecular geometry.
Roberts, Royston M.; Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 233.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Molecule madness and the balancing game: Examples of classroom games  Schmitt, Helen
Activities are shared here that can be done with models that illuminate the nature of bonding.
Schmitt, Helen J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 172.
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
Bond valence theory: Part I, A new twist to an old description of chemical bonding  Brown, I. D.
The author looks at the challenges faced by chemists trying to define the nature of chemical bonds in a historical and contemporary context.
Brown, I. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 100.
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Tape analogs for long chain molecules  Rodriguez, F.
The physical models described here can aid in visualizing the statistical nature of r2 and also the fluctuations both in molecular volume and in r.
Rodriguez, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 92.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
A teaching aid for the conceptualization of the Franck-Condon principle  Byers, L. R.
An illustration and explanation for the photochemical ionization of H2.
Byers, L. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 790.
Photochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The "anomalous" ionization potential of bismuth  Smith, Derek, W.
Draws attention to a less well known anomaly in atomic ionization potentials and offers an explanation, considering particularly the "anomalous" ionization potential of bismuth.
Smith, Derek, W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 576.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The experimental values of atomic electron affinities. Their selection and periodic behavior  Chen, E. C. M.; Wentworth, W. E.
Presents experimental values of atomic electron affinities and discusses their determination.
Chen, E. C. M.; Wentworth, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 486.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Teaching Moseley's law. A classroom experiment  Lazzarini, E.; Bettoni, M. Mandelli
A classroom experiment designed for first-year students of radiochemistry and atomic physics to test the fundamental Moseley law.
Lazzarini, E.; Bettoni, M. Mandelli J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 454.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The LMO description of multiple bonding and multiple lone pairs  England, Walter
Examines localized molecular orbitals and the description of multiple bonds and lone pairs.
England, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 427.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Demonstrations for high school chemistry  Castka, Joseph F.
A sequence of demonstrations that may serve to initiate and maintain student interest in the development of acid-base theories and bond strength.
Castka, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 394.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Valence angles and hybridization indices in "sp3 hybridized" AX2Y2 systems  Dewar, Michael J. S.; Kollmar, Herbert; Li, Wai Kee
Points out a simple relationship that can be derived for the valence angles and hybridization indices in molecules of the type AX2Y2 when four groups X and Y are linked to a central atom A and when A uses s and p atomic orbitals for bonding.
Dewar, Michael J. S.; Kollmar, Herbert; Li, Wai Kee J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 305.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
Semi-classical linear model of atom  Bills, James L.
Calculating the average distance of the electron from the nucleus.
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 274.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Relative sizes of hydrogenic orbitals and the probability criterion  Mak, Thomas C. W.; Li, Wai-Kee
Several commonly used criteria for the assessment of orbital size are discussed and an attempt is made to correlate them in terms of the probability concept.
Mak, Thomas C. W.; Li, Wai-Kee J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 90.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Methods for obtaining Russell-Saunders term symbols from electronic configurations  Hyde, Kenneth E.
Illustrates and comments on several procedures available for dealing with more complex electron configurations.
Hyde, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 87.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A three-dimensional guide for using the octant rule  Haynes, LeRoy W.
The authors share models that help students visualize the octet rule.
Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 731.
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
Another method for obtaining electron dot structures   Kybett, Brian D.
An equation helps students better understand bonding.
Kybett, Brian D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 556.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A rationale for the shape of simple Huckel orbitals  McBride, J. Michael
The mathematical details of of of orbitals are often difficult for beginning students. This article provides a description that may help beginning students.
McBride, J. Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 471.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An analogy for teaching hybrid atomic orbitals   Pierce, J. B.
The writer of this letter recognizes a recently published approach to teaching hybrid atomic orbitals .
Pierce, J. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 426.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Linear Bohr-Sommerfeld electron paths  Dankel, Thad, Jr.; Levy, Jack B.
In this paper, the authors present a linear Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom and show that the allowed energy levels are exactly those of Bohr.
Dankel, Thad, Jr.; Levy, Jack B. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 398.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Theory of isotropic shifts in the nmr of paramagnetic materials: Part I  Drago, Russell S.; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Richman, Robert M.; Perry, W. D.
This article shows the isotropic shift includes nuclear resonance shifts arising from two different interactions: the "Fermi hyperfine contact" or "scalar" interaction and the electron-nuclear "dipolar" or "pseudocontact" interaction.
Drago, Russell S.; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Richman, Robert M.; Perry, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 371.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A defense of the valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model  Gillespie, R. J.
The author argues that qualitative theories which enable people to understand and predict the geometry of molecules are useful and intellectually more satisfying than a set of entirely empirical rules.
Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 367.
VSEPR Theory
A pedagogic approach to configuration interaction  Coffey, Patrick; Jug, Karl
Methods that transcend the Hartree-Fock method and account for electronic correlation are not so easily explicable in terms of physical models. Using H2 as an example, the authors examine configuration interaction, one of the simplest and most widely used methods, and present what they hope is a useful pedagogic approach.
Coffey, Patrick; Jug, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 252.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Line spectrum demonstration for the large lecture hall  Driscoll, Jerry A.
The undergraduate's learning experience with quantum mechanics and Bohr's theory can be greatly enhanced by the presentation of a line spectrum demonstration, but these are often hard to see in large lecture halls. The authors present a physical arrangement of an apparatus that can be easily assembled to allow for easier student viewing in a lecture-hall situation.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 97.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Direct studies of atomic reactions in the undergraduate laboratory. Time resolved atomic absorption spectroscopy  Stock, Malcolm G.; Little, David J.; Donovan, Robert J.
In the experiments described in this article, the recombination is monitored by observing the formation of I2, rather than the decay of I.
Stock, Malcolm G.; Little, David J.; Donovan, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 51.
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The reception of J. H. van't Hoff's theory of the asymmetric carbon atom  Snelders, H. A. M.
The author recounts the reception of J. H. van't Hoff's theory of the asymmetric carbon atom.
Snelders, H. A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 2.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemical bonds (Gray, Harry B.)  Johnson, Ronald C.

Johnson, Ronald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A592.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A microstate-generating computer program  Phillips, David A.
A Basic program has been written that generates the microstates (LS coupling) for any partially filled s, p, d or f subshell.
Phillips, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 863.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Regularities and relations among ionization potentials of nontransition elements  Liebman, Joel F.
Provides several semiempirical procedures for investigating ionization potentials.
Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 831.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Rutherford scattering experiment: CAI in the laboratory  Garbarino, John R.; Wartell, M. A.
Briefly describes a computer generated Rutherford scattering experiment.
Garbarino, John R.; Wartell, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 792.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A concise Fortran program for molecular atomic coordinates  Nordlander, J. Eric
Availability of a program for calculating interatomic distances, bond angles, and dihedral angles.
Nordlander, J. Eric J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 743.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The Cooper structure - A simple model to illustrate the tetrahedral geometry of sp3 bonding  Walker, Ruth A.
A cut out model illustrating the tetrahedral geometry of sp3 bonding.
Walker, Ruth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 703.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
A magnetic analogy for demonstrating some VSEPR principles  Schobert, Harold H.
Bar magnets and iron filings are used to simulate atomic nuclei and illustrate the difference in the degree of localization of electron density of bonding and non-bonding pairs.
Schobert, Harold H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 651.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The stability of the hydrogen atom  Rioux, Frank
The Kimball-Neumark-Kleiss model of the atom is conceptually correct, requires only simple mathematics, and clearly explains the stability of the hydrogen atom.
Rioux, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron affinity. The zeroth ionization potential  Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C.
It is the purpose of this article to present the merits of adopting the terminology zeroth ionization potential to describe the energy change that occurs when a gaseous anion loses an electron.
Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 487.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Charge and mass of the electron. An introductory experiment  Thompson, C. C.
Procedure for the electrolytic determination of the charge and mass of the electron requiring only the use of a balance and the careful recording of data.
Thompson, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 435.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Metals
Calculation of Morse wave functions with programmable desktop calculators  Brabson, G. Dana
Summarizes the Morse wave functions and indicates how to program them into a programmable desktop calculator.
Brabson, G. Dana J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 397.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
d orbitals in main group elements  Brill, T. B.
An exposition on some of the reasons there are questions regarding the involvement of d orbitals in bonding among the main group elements and several alternative explanations for using d orbitals in this respect.
Brill, T. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 392.
Main-Group Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Factors involved in the stereochemistry of AX6E systems of the heavy main group elements  Wynne, Kenneth J.
Despite the prediction of the VSEPR theory, many AX6E molecules exhibit octahedral symmetry.
Wynne, Kenneth J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 328.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Coordination Compounds |
VSEPR Theory
Spectrophotometric determination of an equilibrium constant  Spencer, J. N.
This experiment is intended to introduce students to a spectral study of the hydrogen bond.
Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 298.
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Covalent Bonding
Report of the High School Subcommittee of the Curriculum Committee  
Presents some preliminary performance objectives for different tracks of high school chemistry.
J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 257.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
A criticism of the valence shell electron pair repulsion model as a teaching device  Drago, Russell S.
The factors that influence the geometry of molecules are much more complicated than the VSEPR model would lead one to believe.
Drago, Russell S. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 244.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A simple demonstration of O2 paramagnetism. A macroscopically observable difference between VB and MO approaches to bonding theory  Saban, G. H.; Moran, T. F.
A simple apparatus to demonstrate the paramagnetic behavior of oxygen.
Saban, G. H.; Moran, T. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 217.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Magnetic Properties |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Calculations of atomic cartesian coordinates of a molecule - COORD/1130  Rhee, Jay J.; Blocher, Dan
Calculations of atomic cartesian coordinates of a molecular system can be carried out with the computer program described.
Rhee, Jay J.; Blocher, Dan J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 213.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Strength of chemical bonds  Christian, Jerry D.
Demonstrating the strength of chemical bonds by scaling a molecule up to a macroscopic size.
Christian, Jerry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 176.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
A computer program for producing hydrogen atom electron density plots in three dimensions  Parrett, Frederick W.; Peterson, Evalds
A computer program for producing hydrogen atom electron density plots in three dimensions.
Parrett, Frederick W.; Peterson, Evalds J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 122.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simple method for generating sets of orthonormal hybrid atomic orbitals  Hsu, Chao-Yang; Orchin, Milton
Presents procedures for generating equivalent hybrid orbitals.
Hsu, Chao-Yang; Orchin, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 114.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry
J. J. Thomson and the modern revival of dualism  Saltzman, Martin
Chemists in the nineteenth century were faced with two divergent theories of valence, one recognizing only the polar properties of bonds and the other only the nonpolar.
Saltzman, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 59.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Analytical methods for atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Perkin-Elmer Corp.)  Williams, Theodore R.

Williams, Theodore R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A250.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Atomic absorption spectroscopy (Reynolds, R. J.)  Grifo, A. P., Jr.

Grifo, A. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A48.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Werner, Kekule, and the demise of the doctrine of constant valency  Kauffman, George B.
Contrasts the opposing views of Alfred Werner and August Kekule on the doctrine of constant valency.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 813.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Valence Bond Theory
Did I say that?  A nonplused high school teacher
Erroneous student answers illustrate the difficulty in communicating abstract ideas.
A nonplused high school teacher J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 774.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Rectangular-box model for the polar bond  Melander, Lars
By means of a rectangular-box model it is possible to show qualitatively how the electron behaves in a polar bond.
Melander, Lars J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 686.
Covalent Bonding
Compound nuclear reactions  Loveland, Walter D.
This article reviews developments in the "compound nuclear model" of nuclear reactions.
Loveland, Walter D. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 529.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Bond length-bond energy term correlations for bonds in Al2X6 compounds  Wade, K.
Published thermochemical data are used to calculate bond energy terms for the bridging and terminal Al-X bonds of some representative Al2X6 compounds.
Wade, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 502.
Covalent Bonding
Electron configuration diagram  Krupsaw, Marylin; Ng, George
A simpler schematic diagram for remembering the order of filling subshells when constructing electron configurations.
Krupsaw, Marylin; Ng, George J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 433.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Oxidation number for fluorine (the author responds)  Stonestreet, Richard H.
Responds to criticisms made in the cited letter.
Stonestreet, Richard H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 300.
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Oxidation number for fluorine (3)  Smith, L. Oliver
The cited note makes a misleading suggestion.
Smith, L. Oliver J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 300.
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Oxidation number for fluorine (2)  Woolf, A. A.
The cited note makes a misleading suggestion.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 299.
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Oxidation number for fluorine (1)  Geanangel, Russell
The cited note makes a misleading suggestion.
Geanangel, Russell J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 299.
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Oxidation number for fluorine (1)  Geanangel, Russell
The cited note makes a misleading suggestion.
Geanangel, Russell J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 299.
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Visualization of the atomic absorption of mercury vapor by use of a fluorescent screen  Argauer, Robert J.; White, Charles E.
Presents a demonstration to visualize the presence of metallic mercury vapor.
Argauer, Robert J.; White, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 27.
Toxicology |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure
John Dalton and the Atom (Greenaway, Frank)  Oesper, Ralph E.

Oesper, Ralph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, A784.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Resorcinol formaldehyde polymers  Sears, Jerry A.

Sears, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, A499.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Let's get the nonscience majors into the lab!  Griffin, Roger W., Jr.
The author shares his experiences with a successful laboratory course for nonmajors. Experiments which have been carried out include: geometry of molecules, measurements and errors, separation and purification, spectroscopy, chromatography, colored natural products, and dyes.
Griffin, Roger W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 685.
Nonmajor Courses |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
VSEPR Theory |
Spectroscopy
Simplified molecular orbitals for organic molecules  Herndon, William C.; Silber, Ernesto
In this paper, the authors hope to demonstrate the usefulness of the initial node-based wave functions, here renamed simplified molecular orbitals.
Herndon, William C.; Silber, Ernesto J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 502.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
DIATH2. A program for demonstrating chemical bonding in hydrogen  Stevenson, Phillip E.
The author has written a computer program which produces such numerical results in a real-time time-sharing environment.
Stevenson, Phillip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 316.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Contour functions for the particle in a 3-D box  Schreiber, H. D.; Spencer, J. N.
The author describes the construction of a probability contour function for a particle in the three dimensional box.
Schreiber, H. D.; Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 185.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic and molecular orbital theory (Offenhartz, Peter O'D.)  Pan, Yuh Kang

Pan, Yuh Kang J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A860.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry
Physical chemistry: An advanced treatise. Volume 3, Electronic structure of atoms and molecules (Henderson, Douglas)  Davis, Jeff C., Jr.

Davis, Jeff C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A306.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Transparent 3-D models of electron probability distributions  McClellan, A. L.
The authors describe transparent, three-dimensional models in which regions of high electron probability seem to float in space, without definite boundaries and with the "internal" variations of probability density clearly visible.
McClellan, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A new way of presenting atomic orbitals  Linnett, J. W.; Bordass, W. T.
Uses three-dimensional contour diagrams to plot and illustrate electron distributions and atomic orbitals.
Linnett, J. W.; Bordass, W. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 672.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron correlation in atoms and molecules  Banyard, K. E.
Considers the independent-particle model, allowances for electron correlation, and correlation and electron distribution in atoms and molecules.
Banyard, K. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 668.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Aufbau principle: A simple model for demonstration  Sagi, Seetarama Raju
This electrical model of the atom used light bulbs to illustrate how the electron density gradually increases around the nucleus with successive additions of electrons to the various orbitals.
Sagi, Seetarama Raju J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 648.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Nuclear overlapping of s electrons  McMillan, J. A.; Halpern, T.
Reviews the basic theory underlying electron configurations and interprets the electronic density at the nucleus of the s orbitals plotted as a function of atomic number.
McMillan, J. A.; Halpern, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 644.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Forces and quantum field theory  Brescia, Frank
This article seeks to explain the nature of forces between nucleons in terms of the quantum field theory for the general reader using a simple analogy.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 642.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Solubility and the chemistry of the covalent bond: More on DDT - A substituted alkyl halide  Hill, John W.
Discusses applications of the insolubility of DDT in water and its solubility in covalent fatty tissues.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Covalent Bonding |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nuclear concepts as part of the undergraduate chemistry curriculum  Caretto, A. A., Jr.; Sugihara, T. T.
It is proposed that there are distinct advantages to a freshman curriculum that introduces nuclear concepts simultaneously with the discussion of analogous atomic and molecular concepts.
Caretto, A. A., Jr.; Sugihara, T. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 569.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
What's an atom?  Johnson, Edgar N.
A poem on the nature and properties of atoms.
Johnson, Edgar N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 500.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Role of f electrons in chemical binding  Johnson, O.
Data presented suggests that f electrons, by their ineffective screening of the nuclear charge, exert an indirect effect on the binding strength of actions.
Johnson, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 431.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Transition Elements
The mole again!  Haack, N. H.
Discusses the definition of the mole.
Haack, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 324.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An electronegativity spectrum for the periodic table  Guenther, W. B.
This periodic table uses a spectrum of colors coded to electronegativity values and gives equal legitimacy to s, p, d, and f blocks of elements.
Guenther, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 317.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Calculation of atomic energy levels: A student exercise in theoretical chemistry  Alderdice, David S.; Watts, Ronald S.
This paper describes an exercise that serves as an example in introducing the mathematical, numerical, and computer methods essential to most calculation using wavefunctions.
Alderdice, David S.; Watts, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 123.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Choppin, Gregory R.; Young, J. P.
(1) Is there more to nuclear stability than only the neutron to proton ration? - answer by Choppin. (2) What are the products generated by the electrolysis of molten potassium nitrate with stainless steel electrodes? - answer by Young.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Choppin, Gregory R.; Young, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 73.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry
The electron-pair repulsion model for molecular geometry  Gmespie, R. J.
Reviews the electron-pair repulsion model for molecular geometry and examines three-centered bonds, cluster compounds, bonding among the transition elements, and exceptions to VSEPR rules.
Gmespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 18.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
VSEPR Theory |
Transition Elements
Five equivalent d orbitals  Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance
Examines the possibility of selecting five equivalent d orbitals from a subshell.
Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 15.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Ionic versus covalent bonding  Goldish, Dorothy M.
Ionic sodium chloride dissolves in water but covalent benzyl chloride does not.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A497.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Organometallic Compounds of the Group IV Elements. Volume 1, The Bond to Carbon (MacDiarmid, Alan G.)  O'Brien, Daniel H.

O'Brien, Daniel H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 704.
Organometallics |
Covalent Bonding
High school courses  Briggs, A. G.
The author points out that students may be more accepting of chemistry content (such as the size of the atom) if they are allowed to experiment for themselves.
Briggs, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 700.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Contour diagrams for relativistic orbitals  Szabo, Attila
The purpose of this article is to amplify an earlier JCE article regarding taking pictorial representations of atomic orbitals too literally.
Szabo, Attila J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 678.
Atomic Properties / Structure
On the discovery of the electron  Morrow, B. A.
Thomson's experiment resolved the controversy concerning the corpuscular or wave nature of cathode rays, while Millikan's experiment resolved the controversy concerning the continuous or discrete nature of electrical phenomena.
Morrow, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 584.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The graphical representation of hydrogen-like wave functions  Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta
Clarifies concepts and graphs related to the representation of hydrogen-like wave functions.
Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 428.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Simplified molecular orbital approach to inorganic stereochemistry  Gavin, R. M., Jr.
The purpose of this paper is to outline the simplest of the Huckel-type molecular orbital models for inorganic molecules and to explore the information on molecular geometry implicit in this model.
Gavin, R. M., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 413.
MO Theory |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Prediction of molecular polarity by V.S.E.P.R. theory  Daugherty, N. A.
Suggestion for predicting molecular polarity using VSEPR theory.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 283.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Improving potassium flame tests  Strong, Frederick C., III
Describes ways for optimizing the classical flame test for potassium.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 178.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Comments by the textbook errors editor  Eberhardt, W. H.
Common mistakes regarding the sizes of the noble gas atoms.
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 792.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The correct sizes of the noble gas atoms  Huheey, James E.
Corrects common mistakes regarding the sizes of the noble gas atoms.
Huheey, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 791.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases
Increased-valence theory of valence  Harcourt, R. D.
Describes several "increased valence" formulas for molecular systems with one or more sets of pour electrons distributed among three atomic orbitals of three atoms.
Harcourt, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 779.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Valence Bond Theory
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. VI. Ion-packing models of covalent compounds  Bent, Henry A.
The purpose of this paper is to suggest that, suitably interpreted, the ionic model of heteropolar compounds may be applied to homopolar compounds and perhaps metals.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 768.
Covalent Bonding |
Metals |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography
Simple computer programming in the physical chemistry course  Slezak, J. A.
A short note on a simple program for the calculation of 1s and 2s Slater atomic orbital functions for the ground state of carbon for student use.
Slezak, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 767.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Molecular geometry: Bonded versus nonbonded interactions  Bartell, L. S.
Proposes simplified computational models to facilitate a comparison between the relative roles of bonded and nonbonded interactions in directed valence.
Bartell, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 754.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part II: Underlying theories  Pearson, Ralph G.
Explores possible explanations for and presents applications of the principles of hard and soft acids and bases.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 643.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
Some correlations between Pauling radii and self-consistent field wave functions  Goldberg, Stephen Z.
Presents possible correlations between Pauling radii and self-consistent field wave functions
Goldberg, Stephen Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 638.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Cross conjugation  Phelan, Nelson F.; Orchin, Milton
Although qualitative conclusions may be obtained by judicious use of simple resonance theory, even in simple systems the electron distribution and extent of conjugation between the nonconjugated centers in cross conjugation is most effectively illustrated by molecular orbital descriptions.
Phelan, Nelson F.; Orchin, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 633.
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory |
Resonance Theory
Stereo plots of hydrogen-like electron densities  Cromer, Don T.
Presents a series of stereo plots of computer-generated, hydrogen-like electron densities.
Cromer, Don T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 626.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A bonding parameter and its application to chemistry  Elson, Jesse
In this study, single bond dissociation energies are combined with the associated bond distances to yield additional information about chemical bonding.
Elson, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 564.
Covalent Bonding |
Physical Properties
Relativistic quantum chemistry: The electrons and the nodes  Powell, Richard E.
Addresses a common question, "How do electrons get across the nodes?"
Powell, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 558.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Anticipating valences  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
Comments on an earlier published article.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 351.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemical queries. Especially for high school teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Hutton, William; Shurvell, H. F.; Dessel, Norman
(1) How may one identify an element by its quantum numbers? (2) Besides water, what substances as a solid float in their liquid? - answer by Hutton. (3) Where are energies of activation available? - answer by Shurvell. (4) How is the mass or radius of oil determined in Millikan's oil drop apparatus? - answer by Dessel.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Hutton, William; Shurvell, H. F.; Dessel, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 252.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Bond energies in the interpretation of descriptive chemistry  Howald, Reed A.
Most of the discrepancy between bond energies and bond dissociation energies is eliminated by the inclusion of pi bonding effects and using bond energies referred to as hypothetical "valence state" atoms in those cases where spin pairing provides substantial stabilization for the free atom.
Howald, Reed A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 163.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
A model for illustrating d orbitals  Baker, Wilbur L.
This model illustrates the directional properties of the d orbitals.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 135.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Rutherford elastic scattering "experiment"  Duggan, Jerome L.; Yegge, John F.
Presents data allowing the reader to experience (vicariously) Rutherford's scattering experiment.
Duggan, Jerome L.; Yegge, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 85.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic orbitals and classical motion  Ogryzlo, E. A.
It is the object of this paper to describe the classical motion which is compatible with the exact distribution functions for atomic orbitals.
Ogryzlo, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 80.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The five equivalent d orbitals  Powell, Richard E.
Several textbooks assert that there is no way of choosing the five d orbitals so they have the same shape but differ only in their orientation.
Powell, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 45.
Atomic Properties / Structure
C-H bond strengths: A physical chemistry experiment  Boobyer, Glynne J.; Cox, A. Peter
The reported experiment involves a few relatively easy measurements of infrared bands of liquid chloroform, bromoform, trichloroethylene, and propargyl bromide, from which a number of C-H bond parameters are determined.
Boobyer, Glynne J.; Cox, A. Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 18.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Atomic structure. Radioactivity (continued)   Alyea, Hubert N.
Formation of the complex Cu(NH3)4++ as an example of coordinate covalent bonding and hydrogen bonding as evidenced by viscosity.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A599.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Liquids
Atomic Structure. Radioactivity. B. Nuclear Phenomena: Radioactivity  Surina, Albert A.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstration include the use of an electroscope and Geiger counter in measuring radioactivity and the formation of fog in an evacuated bottle.
Surina, Albert A.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A545.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
The world of the atom. Volumes 1 and 2 (Boorse, Henry A.; Motz, Lloyd; eds.)  Lagowski, J. J.

Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A154.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Valence and the structure of atoms and molecules (Lewis, G. N.)  Van Doren, Janet B.

Van Doren, Janet B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A82.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letter to the editor (the author replies)  Luder, W. F.
The author responds to the criticisms leveled at his earlier paper.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 699.
Covalent Bonding
Letter to the editor  Abrash, Henry I.
The author is critical of some of the ideas presented in a previously published paper.
Abrash, Henry I. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 698.
Covalent Bonding
Anticipating "valences" from electron configurations  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Describes a procedure for predicting "valences" from electron configurations that works well for most metals.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 689.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Transition Elements
Models for nuclear structure of spherical nuclei  Gordon, Glen E.; Coryell, Charles D.
Examines three forms of the basic nuclear shell model: one which assumes no configuration mixing, the "effective-interaction" method that includes some mixing, and the "superconductor model" of extreme configuration mixing.
Gordon, Glen E.; Coryell, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 636.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letter to the editor (the author replies)  Luder, W. F.
Replies to the concerns raised by the cited letter.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letter to the editor  Sementsov, A.
Questions the configuration of benzene supported by the theory discussed in the cited paper.
Sementsov, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letter to the editor  Poskozim, Paul S.
Supports the cited paper with respect to its interpretation of chemical bonding.
Poskozim, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Covalent Bonding
Computer programs for the calculation of overlap integrals  Offenhartz, Peter O'Donnell
Describes three programs developed for the calculation of the overlap of atomic orbitals.
Offenhartz, Peter O'Donnell J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 604.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Some simple models for the double quartet approach  Zipp, Arden P.
Pipe cleaners are used to construct simple models for the double quartet or electronic repulsion theory.
Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 494.
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
The use of tables of data in teaching: The students discover laws about ionization potentials  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Students are asked to see what they can discover in a table of ionization potentials of the elements like that presented in most general chemistry textbooks.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 468.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Student exercises in wave function calculations  Osterheld, R. Keith
Describes eleven student exercises in wave function calculations.
Osterheld, R. Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 286.
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. II. An alternative to resonance hybrids  Luder, W. F.
The author proposes the electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond as an alternative to resonance hybrids.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 269.
Covalent Bonding |
Resonance Theory
The chemical bond (Lagowski, J. J.)  Taylor, Moddie D.

Taylor, Moddie D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 245.
Covalent Bonding
The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. I. New models of atomic structure  Luder, W. F.
Describes the electron repulsion theory of electron configuration and applies it to representative elements.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals
Teaching aromatic substitution: A molecular orbital approach  Meislich, Herbert
This paper presents a way of teaching aromatic substitution using the concepts of alternate polarity and electron delocalization through extended pi-bonding.
Meislich, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 153.
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Models illustrating d orbitals involved in multiple bonding  Barrett, Edward J.
Describes the use of Framework Molecular Orbital Models to illustrate the d orbitals involved in multiple bonding
Barrett, Edward J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 146.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
Valence theory (Murrell, J. N.; Kettle, S. F. A.; Tedder, J. M.)  Meislich, Herbert

Meislich, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 118.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Some aspects of d-orbital participation in phosphorus and silicon chemistry  Bissey, Jack Edwin
Investigates several aspects of d-orbital participation in phosphorus and silicon chemistry.
Bissey, Jack Edwin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 95.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The chemistry of tetrasulfur tetranitride  Allen, Christopher W.
The chemistry of sulfur-nitrogen compounds has several features of interest and importance: stability of the sulfur-nitrogen bond, tendency to form six- and eight-membered rings, ring contraction, polymerization, and negative ion formation.
Allen, Christopher W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 38.
Covalent Bonding |
Polymerization
A unified theory of bonding for cyclopropanes  Bernett, William A.
Examines various models for bonding in cyclopropanes.
Bernett, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 17.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
Flame spectroscopy. Parts 1-3 (Mavrodineanu, Radu; Boiteux, Henri)  West, Allen C.

West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A176.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Structure of Small Molecules (Orville-Thomas, W. J.)  Neff, V. D.

Neff, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1094.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Instrumentation for atomic absorptionPart two  Kahn, Herbert L.
Considers sources of atomic absorption, single-element hollow cathodes, manufacturers and lamp life, vapor discharge lamps, multi-element lamps, high brightness lamps, monochromators and detectors, and flame emission operation.
Kahn, Herbert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A103.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativities and group IVA chemistry  Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall
The teacher of inorganic chemistry should present the representative elements of group IVA and their properties as an intellectual and empirical form of investigation rather than as a mere collection of information.
Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 654.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The spectrum of atomic hydrogen: A mass scale freshman laboratory experiment  Companion, A. L.; Schug, K.
Student-built spectroscopes are used to measure the Balmer series for hydrogen.
Companion, A. L.; Schug, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 591.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Odd molecules  Guggenheim, E. A.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a simple explanation for why the dimerization of NO and that of NO2 occur hardly at all, in contrast to that of CN, which is complete.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 474.
Covalent Bonding
Fusion reactions under the microscope  Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe
An electrically heated wire is used to identify a variety of cations and anions according to colors observed under a microscope.
Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 421.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Cardboard orbital domain models  Kapauan, A. F.
Describes the construction of orbital domain models from cardboard.
Kapauan, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 412.
Atomic Properties / Structure
V - Atomic orbitals  Berry, R. Stephen
Examines atomic orders of magnitude and the Bohr atom, matter waves, one- and many-electron systems, and the correlation problem.
Berry, R. Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 283.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The spectrum of atomic hydrogen: A freshman laboratory experiment  Hollenberg, J. Leland
This experiment allows more precise measurements of the wavelengths of the emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen with a spectrophotometer than those previously published.
Hollenberg, J. Leland J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 216.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic orbitals: Limitations and variations  Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas
The three most widely used methods of arriving at a set of atomic orbitals afford respective hydrogen-like orbitals, self-consistent field orbitals, and various analytical approximations such as the Slater or Morse orbitals, all of which may differ greatly in shape and size from each other.
Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
IV - Isoelectronic systems  Bent, Henry A.
A detailed consideration of the principles of isoelectric systems.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 170.
Gases |
Nonmetals |
Covalent Bonding
Models for the double bond  Walters, Edward A.
Examines several models for the double bond, including the Baeyer model and bent-bond method.
Walters, Edward A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 134.
Covalent Bonding
Electronic structure and chemical bonding (Sebera, Donald K.)  Davenport, Derek A.

Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 56.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Ionic Bonding
Structure of molecules and the chemical bond (Syrkin, Y. K.; Dyatkina, M. E.)  D., J. V.

D., J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A220.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
General chemistry exercise using atomic and molecular orbital models  Walker, Ruth A.
Styrofoam balls and pipecleaners are used to construct models designed to convey an understanding of the three-dimensionality of the electron distribution in the ground state atom and the effect of bonding on this distribution.
Walker, Ruth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 672.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
III - Bond energies  Benson, Sidney W.
Examines bond dissociation energies , methods for measuring such energies, some representative values of such energies, structural aspects of bond dissociation energies, and bond energies in ionized species.
Benson, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 502.
Covalent Bonding
Experiments on metal amine salts  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Tetrammine monaquo copper(II) sulfate is prepared and studied qualitatively and quantitatively.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 468.
Metals |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Letters  Cohen, Irwin
The discussion of shapes of atoms by Johnson and Rettew illustrates a common and readily understandable misunderstanding.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 397.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Mendeleev's chemical ether, electrons, and the atomic theory  Kargon, Robert
Examines Mendeleev's concerns regarding the discovery of the electron and the immutability of elements - both of which Mendeleev saw as sturdy supports of chemical theory.
Kargon, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 388.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. III. Chemical implications of inner-shell electrons  Bent, Henry A.
While a study of atomic core sizes might seem to hold little promise of offering interesting insights into the main body of chemical theory, it is demonstrated here that from such a study emerges a picture of chemical bonding that encompasses as particular cases covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 302.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Chemical bonding (Companion, Audrey L.)  Johnson, Ronald C.

Johnson, Ronald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 292.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
The nuclear properties of the heavy elements. Volumes 1-3 (Hyde, Earl K.; Perlman, Isadore; Seaborg, Glenn T.)  Clark, Herbert M.

Clark, Herbert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 233.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
The structure of atoms (Lagowski, J. J.)  Cohen, Irwin

Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 178.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The energies of the electronic configuration of transition metals  Hochstrasser, Robin M.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a precise yet non-mathematical definition of an electronic configuration and to discuss its physical structure in terms of the vector model of the atom; and to show how the energies of configurations are estimated from experimental spectroscopy.
Hochstrasser, Robin M. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 154.
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
On the shapes of f orbitals  Ogryzlo, E. A.
Contour plots are a more appropriate representation of an f orbital than polar plots.
Ogryzlo, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 150.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Simplified d orbital models assist in teaching coordination concepts  Nicholson, Douglas G.
Presents a three-dimensional model, containing representatives of all lobes of the five d orbitals, prepared for each of the tetrahedral, square planar, and octahedral coordination configurations.
Nicholson, Douglas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 148.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds
Shapes of atoms  Johnson, Ronald C.; Rettew, R. R.
Examines the shapes of various atoms as a function of occupied orbitals.
Johnson, Ronald C.; Rettew, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 145.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Domain representations of orbitals  Adamson, Arthur W.
Presents orbital domains and physical models to represent them as a more accurate way of visualizing atoms.
Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 140.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Behavior of electrons in atoms: Structure, spectra, and photochemistry of atoms (Hochstrasser, Robin M.)  Gregory, N. W.

Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 62.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Physical chemistry of crosslinked polysulfide elastomers  MacKnight, W. J.; Leroi, G. E.; Tobolsky, A. V.
Presents an experiment for measuring equilibrium stress and stress decay at various temperatures in the context of polysulfide elastomer elasticity and crosslink efficiency.
MacKnight, W. J.; Leroi, G. E.; Tobolsky, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 4.
Covalent Bonding
Sulfur bonding (Price, Charles C.; Oae, Shigeru)  Bordwell, F. G.

Bordwell, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A592.
Covalent Bonding
Reaction heats and bond strengths (Mortimer, C. T.)  Lacher, John R.

Lacher, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A130.
Thermodynamics |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Emission spectroscopy. Part two  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H.
Examines commercial monochromators.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A5.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Atomic orbital molecular models  Martins, George
Atomic orbital molecular models are constructed using molded white expanded polystyrene in the form of spheres and teardrops.
Martins, George J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 658.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Precise atomic and molecular models  Adler, Alan D.; Steele, William J.
Presents designs for skeletal or lattice and space-filling models
Adler, Alan D.; Steele, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 656.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Letters  Gates, Henry S.
Brings the reader's attention to work done by Petit and Dulong in revising a large number of atomic weights in order to bring all of their reported atomic heat capacities into agreement with the hypothesis that atomic heat capacity is the same for all elements.
Gates, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 575.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Atomic structure and chemical bonding (Seel, F.; Greenwood, N. N.; Stadler, H. P.)  Murmann, R. Kent

Murmann, R. Kent J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 518.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Pi-bonding in tetrahedral molecules  Urch, D. S.
Examines the nature of bonding, especially pi-bonding, in groups exhibiting E, T2, and T1 symmetry.
Urch, D. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 502.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Covalent Bonding
Rotational and pseudorotational barriers in simple molecules  Miller, Sidney I.
This papers outlines the scope and variety of rotational barriers found in simple molecules.
Miller, Sidney I. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 421.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
An atomic and molecular orbital models kit  Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin
The models presented here allows one to see the overlap that constitutes covalent bonds.
Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 395.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Geometry of the f orbitals  Becker, Clifford
Presents physical models of the f orbitals.
Becker, Clifford J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 358.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The shapes of the f orbitals  Friedman, H. G., Jr.; Choppin, G. R.; Feuerbacher, D. G.
Presents pictures of the f orbitals and discusses their ligand field splitting.
Friedman, H. G., Jr.; Choppin, G. R.; Feuerbacher, D. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 354.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Atomic and molecular models made from vinyl covered wire  Larson, G. Olof.
This paper presents a series of scalar models made from vinyl covered wire.
Larson, G. Olof. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 219.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Bonding in xenon hexafluoride  Kaufman, Joyce J.
Examines empirical evidence and hypotheses regarding the bonding of xenon hexafluoride.
Kaufman, Joyce J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 183.
Nonmetals |
Covalent Bonding
The chemistry of the noble gases  Hyman, Herbert H.
Summarizes the chemistry of the noble gases and their bond-forming abilities.
Hyman, Herbert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 174.
Gases |
Main-Group Elements |
Covalent Bonding
Electronic structure, properties, and the periodic law (Sisler, Harry H.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 172.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simple model of the d orbitals  Douglas, Bodie E.
Presents a simple model of the d orbitals constructed from plastic sponges.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Absorbtion spectra and chemical bonding in complexes (Jorgensen, C. K.)  Carlin, Richard L.

Carlin, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A142.
Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
The wave mechanics of electrons in metals (Raimes, Stanley)  Goland, Allen N.

Goland, Allen N. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A60.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Quantum Chemistry
Atomic-absorbtion spectrophotometry (Elwell, W. T.; Gidley, J. A. F.)  De Vries, Thomas

De Vries, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A54.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
A classical electrostatic view of chemical forces  Jaffe, H. H.
This paper reviews the different types of forces involved in the formation of chemical compounds, solids and liquids.
Jaffe, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 649.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. II. Uses in Teaching  Bent, Henry A.
Tangent-sphere models can be used to represent highly strained bonds and multicentered bonds, atoms with expanded and contracted octets, inter- and intramolecular interactions, and the effects of electronegative groups, lone pairs, and multiple bonds on molecular geometry, bond properties, and chemical reactivity.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 523.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Chemical bonding and the geometry of molecules (Ryschkewitsch, George E.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 441.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The use of n-center bonds  Carpenter, Gene B.
The quantum mechanical basis of the n-center bond is summarized, some of its qualitative features are deduced, and a variety of illustrative applications are presented.
Carpenter, Gene B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 385.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry
Relationship of exothermicities of compounds to chemical bonding  Siegel, Bernard
The sign and magnitude of the standard heat of formation of a chemical compound is often used incorrectly to characterize its relative stability compared to other compounds.
Siegel, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 308.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Stable gaseous species at high temperatures  Siegel, Bernard
Presents a systematic correlation of the bonding in the gaseous elements with the strengths of their respective bonds.
Siegel, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 304.
Gases |
Carbocations |
Covalent Bonding
The valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory of directed valency  Gillespie, R. J.
Presents the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory of directed valency and its use to determine molecular shapes, bond angles, and bond lengths.
Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 295.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals  Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B.
Describes the determination of and illustrates contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals.
Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 256.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Orbitals in atoms and molecules (Jorgensen, Klixbull)  Carlin, Richard L.

Carlin, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 231.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chemistry of diphosphorus compounds  Huheey, James E.
Examines diphosphorus chemistry, including tri- and tetra- covalent diphosphorus compounds; optical activity in diphosphines; unsaturated diphosphorus compounds, cyclic compounds, and higher phosphines; reactions producing and destroying P-P bonds; and diphosphorus compounds as ligands.
Huheey, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 153.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds
Intrinsic bond energies  Siegel, S.; Siegel, B.
Examines intrinsic bond energies drawn from spectroscopic data and focusses on beryllium hydride as an example.
Siegel, S.; Siegel, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 143.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Non-existent compounds  Dasent, W. E.
The purpose of this review is to examine compounds that do not violate the rules of valence but which are nevertheless characterized by a high degree of instability, and to consider why these structures are unstable or non-existent.
Dasent, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 130.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Letters to the editor  Cockburn, B. L.
Provides a mathematical treatment demonstrating the equivalence of all four C-H bonds in methane.
Cockburn, B. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Snatzke, G.
Provides a mathematical treatment demonstrating the equivalence of all four C-H bonds in methane.
Snatzke, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Atomic spectra (Kuhn, H. G.)  Strickler, S. J.

Strickler, S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A918.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic spectra: A physical chemistry experiment  Stafford, Fred E.; Wortman, James H.
In this experiment, the student measures the features of a simple spectrum, that of sodium. An empirical relation is deduced for the frequencies of the lines and the position of unobserved lines is predicted.
Stafford, Fred E.; Wortman, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 630.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemical cliches  Davis, John B.
The supposed high stability of the rare gas configuration is incorrect.
Davis, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 565.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Bohr atomic model: Niels Bohr  Garrett, Alfred B.
Describes Bohr's development of an atomic model capable of explaining the spectrum of hydrogen.
Garrett, Alfred B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 534.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Valence bond theory in coordination chemistry  Pauling, Linus
The author disagrees that the valence bond theory has suffered a rapid fall from favor, and that there has been a consequent rise in esteem of the molecular orbit and crystal field theories.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 461.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Energy level diagrams and extranuclear building of the elements  Keller, R. N.
Simplified diagrams showing the approximate order of electronic energy levels in atoms and mnemonic devices to aid in predicting electronic configurations for atoms are often misleading with respect to the actual energy of binding of the electrons in atoms and ions of the transition elements.
Keller, R. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 289.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The nuclear atom: Sir Ernest Rutherford  Garrett, Alfred B.
Introduces the Flash of Genius series and describes the discovery of the atomic nucleus by Ernest Rutherford. [Debut]
Garrett, Alfred B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 287.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Acids, Bases, and the Chemistry of the Covalent Bond (VanderWerf, Calvin A.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 273.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Electronegativity chart  Barrett, Richard L.
This brief note describes an electronegativity wall chart suitable for classroom use.
Barrett, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 251.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Representation of electrons in orbitals  Joseph, Lionel
A picture of a physical model representing electrons in orbitals.
Joseph, Lionel J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 216.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A comparison of theories: Molecular orbital, valence bond, and ligand field  Liehr, Andrew D.
Compares the development, nature, and applications of the molecular orbital, valence bond, and ligand field theories.
Liehr, Andrew D. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 135.
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Ionic character, polarity, and electronegativity  Wilmshurst, J. K.
This article attempts to clearly define ionic character and polarity in both the valence bond and molecular orbital approximations; the electronegativity concept is also discussed.
Wilmshurst, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 132.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Demonstrations of simple bonding using magnets  Baker, Wilbur L.
Demonstrates a variety of bonding using iron washers, magnets, and steel balls.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 131.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Three-dimensional models of atomic orbitals  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.
Using balloons to illustrate three-dimensional models of atomic orbitals.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Cloud chamber, molecular film, and atomic weight of silver  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
Observing the traces of elementary particles in a cloud chamber, estimating the size of a molecule using a soap film, and quantitatively determining the atomic weight of silver.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 18.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Models illustrating types of orbitals and bonding  Baker, Wilbur L.
A short note on a model of ethylene that clarifies the nature of bonding in the molecule.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 606.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Covalent Bonding
The science study series. Volumes 12 and 18  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 588.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Molecular models featuring molecular orbitals  Brumlik, George C.
Molecular models have been constructed that attempt to represent atomic and molecular orbitals as accurately as the current theories of valence and pertinent experimental evidence permit.
Brumlik, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 502.
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Paddle-wheel Crookes tube  Campbell, J. A.
The effect in the Crookes paddle-wheel tube is the same as in the light radiometer and should be interpreted in the same way.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Book of the Atom (de Vries, Leonard)  

J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Vibrating molecular models: Frequency shifts in strained ring double bonds  Colthup, Norman B.
Describes the study of the general effect of double bond-single bond interaction using vibrating molecular models.
Colthup, Norman B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 394.
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
Principles of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Develops, through 25 statements, the basic principles of chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 382.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The uses and abuses of bond energies  Knox, Bruce E.; Palmer, Howard B.
The author argues that the concepts of bond energy and bond-dissociation energy be presented to undergraduate physical and organic chemistry students in enough detail that some real understanding results.
Knox, Bruce E.; Palmer, Howard B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 292.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Inorganic infrared spectroscopy  Ferraro, John R.
Focuses on the use of infrared spectroscopy in solving various problems in inorganic chemistry.
Ferraro, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 201.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Organometallics |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William K.
The editor addresses questions regarding the sizes of subatomic particles.
Kieffer, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 105.
Atomic Properties / Structure
There are electrons in atoms!  Sementsov, A.
The author suggests a demonstration of the Zeeman effect to give students real and convincing proof that atoms contain electrons.
Sementsov, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 22.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The shape of the 2p and related orbitals  Cohen, Irwin
Some texts mistake graphs of the angular variation of the 2p and related wave functions for actual geometric descriptions of these orbitals.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 20.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dictionary of Atomic Terminology (Lettenmeyer, Lore, ed.)  Overman, Ralph T.

Overman, Ralph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A440.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Pi and sigma bonding in organic compounds: An experiment with models  Hoffman, Katherine B.
This exercise is designed to portray the approximate shape of s, p, sp, sp2, and sp3 orbitals and to give a picture of their overlap in bond formation.
Hoffman, Katherine B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 637.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Distribution of atomic s character in molecules and its chemical implications  Bent, Henry A.
Explains the shape of simple molecules using the distribution of atomic s character.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 616.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The structure of the nucleus  Flowers, B. H.
Describes the liquid drop, shell, and optical models of the atomic nucleus.
Flowers, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 610.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The law of Dulong and Petit  Fitzgerel, Robert K.; Verhoek, Frank H.
In 1819, Dulong and Petit found that when the atomic weight of an element was multiplied by its specific heat, the number obtained was approximately the same for all elements.
Fitzgerel, Robert K.; Verhoek, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 545.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Atomic weight of silver redetermined  
Reports a new atomic weight for silver as determined by the National Bureau of Standards.
J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 531.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Some recent developments in the theory of bonding in complex compounds of the transition metals  Sutton, Leslie E.
Examines the ligand field and the molecular orbital theories of complexes, particularly involving transition metals.
Sutton, Leslie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 498.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Bonding in boron compounds and in inorganic polymers  Burg, Anton B.
The element boron is such a close neighbor to carbon in the periodic table that one might expect it to offer an equally extensive and varied chemistry of covalent compounds.
Burg, Anton B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 482.
Covalent Bonding
Letters (the author replies)  Thompson, H. Bradford
The author acknowledges minor errors in an earlier published article.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 438.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Letters  Cohen, Irwin
Points out minor errors in an earlier published article.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 438.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Atomic models in teaching chemistry  Sanderson, R. T.
Contains directions for constructing and using atomic models for instructional purposes.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atoms, fire, waves, or what?  Johnson, E. N.
Traces the development of conceptual models of the atom from the ancient Greeks through the wave-models of de Broglie and Heisenberg.
Johnson, E. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 267.
Atomic Properties / Structure
An aid to teaching electronic configurations of atoms  Sanderson, R. T.
This simple shelving device uses styrofoam balls to represent electrons and effectively illustrates electron configurations.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 262.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Valence: A laboratory exercise for general chemistry  Sanderson, R. T.
In this exercise, each student carefully examines each of a set of thirteen different atomic models with different valence configurations, writing down certain pertinent observations and independently-reasoned conclusions about them.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 261.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Near infrared spectra: A neglected field of spectral study  Wheeler, Owen H.
Examines several issues related to infrared spectroscopy, including challenges in instrumentation, spectral interpretation, and analytical applications.
Wheeler, Owen H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 234.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
A complete table of electronegativities  Little, Elbert J., Jr.; Jones, Mark M.
Provides a complete periodic table of electronegativity values.
Little, Elbert J., Jr.; Jones, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 231.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dynamic projector display for atomic orbitals and the covalent bond  Thompson, H. Bradford
An overhead projector is used to display the combination of simple atomic orbitals to form hybrid and molecular orbitals.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 118.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Philosophical antecedents of the modern atom  Gorman, Mel
The purpose of this paper is to present a brief survey of Greek atomism, its rise, recession, and revival.
Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 100.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Molecular models: A general chemistry exercise  Pierce, James B.
Students are provided a list of bond angles, covalent radii, and van der Waals radii, and sufficient polystyrene spheres, and then asked to construct models of molecules and ions.
Pierce, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 595.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Inorganic chemistry taught as a requirement for all professional chemists  Sisler, Harry H.
The author argues that inorganic chemistry is an essential part of the training of every professional chemist, identifies several specific, theoretical concepts that inorganic courses develop, and provides an outline of a course in structural inorganic chemistry.
Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 515.
Covalent Bonding |
Stereochemistry |
Acids / Bases
The contributions of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory  Campaigne, E.
Examines the contribution of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory and his work regarding the nature of bonds in pyrone ring systems.
Campaigne, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 336.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Contributions of Butlerov to the development of structural theory  Leicester, Henry M.
Using the basic theory enunciated by Kekule and Couper in 1958, Alexander Mikhailovich Butlerov was able to establish the principles upon which organic chemistry made its greatest advances.
Leicester, Henry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 328.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The experimental basis of Kekule's valence theory  Hiebert, Erwin N.
It is the object of this paper to discuss the experimental basis of Kekule's valence theory of 1858 as seen in the progressive stages of his own experimental career prior to that time.
Hiebert, Erwin N. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 320.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Kekule-Couper centennial symposium: Introduction  Benfey, O. T.
Though neglected by history, Archibald Scott Couper deserves equal claim with Kekule as an originator of the Structural Theory.
Benfey, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 319.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Graphical representation of electron configurations  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Describes a simple symbolism for electron configurations using circles for orbitals and arrows for electrons.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 299.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A demonstration model illustrating the aufbau principle  Everett, D. H.
Describes the construction of a physical device capable of illustrating the relationship between the relative energies of electron orbitals in many-electron atoms, the electronic structure of atoms, and the periodic table.
Everett, D. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 298.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Faint (heart, mind) ne'er won fair chemistry student  Olsen, Ralph
A humorous application of molar calculations and other basic concepts in the form of a short chemistry quiz.
Olsen, Ralph J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 285.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A quantum mechanical theory of complex ion formation: The electrostatic nature of binding  Kimball, George E.; Loebl, Ernest M.
This paper concerns itself with the current state of the theory of chemical binding of coordination compounds in general and of the complexes formed by the transition metals in particular.
Kimball, George E.; Loebl, Ernest M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 233.
Coordination Compounds |
Transition Elements |
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Letters to the editor  Kenney, Malcolm E.
Provides a photograph of a periodic table that displays periodic trends in electronegativity.
Kenney, Malcolm E. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 204.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Foundations of the structural theory  Brown, Herbert C.
The Kekule-Couper Centennial Lecture celebrates the discovery of the tetravalence of carbon and the self-linking of carbon atoms, reached independently by August Kekule and Archibald Scott Couper in 1858.
Brown, Herbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 104.
Covalent Bonding
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discusses efforts to establish a unified scale of atomic weight.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 103.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
The nineteenth century atom: Undivided or indivisible?  Scott, John Howe
Did the chemists of the nineteenth century have reasons for believing atoms of the elements to be compound? Yes, although the evidence was perhaps not conclusive, it was strong, and is worth considering.
Scott, John Howe J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 64.
Atomic Properties / Structure
On the origin of characteristic group frequencies in infrared spectra  Dows, David A.
Examines the mechanics and energetics of vibrations in small and large molecules.
Dows, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 629.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The case of the eligible emers  Buhsmer, Charles P., Jr.
A fanciful short story regarding the absorption of photons by an ion (emers signifies electromagnetic radiation).
Buhsmer, Charles P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 574.
Atomic Properties / Structure
An electron locator  Weis, Norman D.; Meek, John S.
Presents a circular device whose rotation indicates the configuration of electrons within the elements of the periodic table.
Weis, Norman D.; Meek, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 570.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Atomistic notions in young children and young cultures  Horne, R. A.
The author compares the development of ideas regarding atomism in children with the hypotheses of ancient Greek philosophers.
Horne, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 560.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
An atomic orbital board for student study  Cook, William B.
This short note describes a small cork board that helps students to work out atomic and ion configurations.
Cook, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 540.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Free radical chemistry in solution  Gritter, Roy J.
Considers the general characteristics of free radical reactions in solution, types of free radical reactions, and the effect of structure on bond dissociation energies.
Gritter, Roy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 475.
Free Radicals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The metal-carbon bond in metal alkyls: Strength of bonds involving sp hybridization  Mortimer, Colin T.
Reviews the experimental determination of the strength of the metal-carbon bond in metal alkyls and the resulting values.
Mortimer, Colin T. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 381.
Covalent Bonding |
Metals |
Organometallics
Structure of synthetic high polymers  McGrew, Frank C.
Reviews the determination of the size, structure, composition, and stereochemistry of synthetic high polymers.
McGrew, Frank C. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 178.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Covalent Bonding |
Stereochemistry
Chemical bonds: A central theme for high school chemistry  Strong, Laurence E.; Wilson, M. Kent
Proposes an outline for a high school chemistry course based on chemical bonds as the central theme.
Strong, Laurence E.; Wilson, M. Kent J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 56.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding
Textbook errors: XV. Miscellanea  Mysels, Karol J.
Textbooks errors considered include the solubility of acetates, the effect of light on reactions, tetrahedral carbon, the production of aluminum, and fumaric acid.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 32.
Photochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
August Kekule and the birth of the structural theory of organic chemistry in 1858  Benfey, O. Theodore
Translation of a speech made by Kekule in 1890 in which he discusses his development of the structural theory and the importance of creativity and imagination in scientific research.
Benfey, O. Theodore J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 21.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Teaching electron configurations  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Time can be saved and confusion avoided by developing a systematic chart of the elements based on the energy levels of atomic orbitals very early in the general college chemistry course.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 504.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Comparative organic chemistry: Carbon and silicon  Wilk, I. J.
Contrasts silicone chemistry with that of regular organic compounds.
Wilk, I. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 463.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. II. Bond energies  Reinmuth, Otto
Examines bond and dissociation energies, the "constancy" of C-H and C-C dissociation energies, and some common types of organochemical reactions.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 318.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. I. Electronegativity  Reinmuth, Otto
Reviews the concept of electronegativity as a means of helping introductory students understand aspects of organic molecules and their behavior.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 272.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
An electronic distinction between metals and nonmetals  Sanderson, R. T.
Presents a simple empirical rule for the fundamental properties that determine whether an element is metallic, metalloid, or nonmetallic.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 229.
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metalloids / Semimetals
Atomic and molecular orbital models  Lambert, Frank L.
Describes the design and use of atomic and molecular orbital models made from styrofoam.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 217.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Lone pair electrons  Fowles, Gerald W. A.
The lone pair electrons, whether in simple or hybrid orbitals, have profound effects on the properties of the molecule; these effects may be discussed as bond angles, dipole moments, bond energies and lengths, and coordination and hydrogen bonding.
Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The electron chart  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Presents a periodic wall chart organized according to the increasing energy of valence electrons.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 70.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The fable of the atomic theater  Kerker, Milton
Organizes the elements in a periodic sequence resembling seats in a theater.
Kerker, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 32.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table: The "Aufbauprinzip" as a basis for classification of the elements  Longuet-Higgins, H. C.
This note recommends a presentation of the periodic table designed to show as directly as possible how the place of an element in the table is related to the electronic structure of the atom.
Longuet-Higgins, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 30.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An adjustable periodic chart for lecture purposes  Estok, George K.
This periodic table can be converted from the short to the long and extra-long forms.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 618.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic models for a beginning course in college chemistry  Dodson, Vance H.
Describes a simple, three-dimensional models illustrating the fundamental parts of the atom.
Dodson, Vance H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 529.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The coordinate bond and the nature of complex inorganic compounds. II. Double-bonding, the promotion of electrons, and the kinetic effects of bond type  Busch, Daryle H.
Examines the occurrence and importance of double-bonds in complex compounds, the promotion of electrons in the course of bonding reactions, and the relationship of covalent character to the kinetics of substitution reactions.
Busch, Daryle H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 498.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
A helical periodic table  Rice, William E.
A three-dimensional representation of the periodic table can provide an additional coordinate to represent the difference between subgroups without disrupting the vertical sequence of elements in a whole group.
Rice, William E. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 492.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Fineman, Morton A.
Commentary on an article entitled "The Concept of Electronegativity" appearing in Chemical Reviews.
Fineman, Morton A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 478.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Foster, Laurence S.
Thanks a reader for pointing out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Foster, Laurence S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Mayper, Stuart A.
Points out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Mayper, Stuart A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new periodic chart with electronegativities  Sanderson, R. T.
This paper describes a new chart that has been designed to portray clearly and vividly patterns in relative atomic radius, electronic configuration, and electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 443.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The coordinate bond and the nature of complex inorganic compounds. I. The formation of single covalent bonds  Busch, Daryle H.
The factors determining the stabilities of complex inorganic compounds are considered in terms of thermochemical cycle; it is pointed out that the stabilities of complexes increase as the percent covalent character in their bonds increases, and weak covalent bonds will occur in any given instance.
Busch, Daryle H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 376.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronic configurations and atomic term symbols  Gregory, N. W.
It is valuable for senior or first-year graduate student to correlate assigned electronic configurations with spectroscopic evidence in the form of term symbols for ground states of various atoms or monatomic ions.
Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 144.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A chart of chemical compounds based on electronegativities  Yeh, Ping-Yuan
This short note presents a chart of chemical compounds based on the relative electronegativities of the elements.
Yeh, Ping-Yuan J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 134.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
A new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals  Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C.
Since the theory of atomic and molecular orbitals has proven to be of such value in interpreting the data of inorganic chemistry, it is hoped that a new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals will be an aid to the further systematizing of chemical knowledge.
Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 69.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The energies of electrons in atoms: An exercise for students in a valence theory course  Jaffe, Hans H.
The purpose of this paper is to point out that the evaluation of the maximum energy differences that still permit bond formation in a molecular orbital can be readily assigned to graduate students as a problem in a first course in valence phenomena.
Jaffe, Hans H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 25.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic-weight variations in nature  Boggs, James E.
Atoms of the same element may have different masses (due to isotopic differences) depending on their source.
Boggs, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 400.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Orbital models  Fowles, Gerald W. A.
Constructing models of atomic and molecular orbitals from papier-mache.
Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 260.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry: A revision of atomic charge data  Sanderson, R. T.
Presents a table containing data for the estimation of charges on combined atoms.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 140.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A jig for making atomic models  Decker, Beulah F.; Asp, E. T.
Presents a simple hand-operated instrument for boring holes in cork balls at positions of interatomic bonds and examples of models constructed using this device.
Decker, Beulah F.; Asp, E. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 75.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Note on the representation of the electronic structures of acetylene and benzene  Noller, Carl R.
The three dimensional nature of molecular orbitals in acetylene and benzene are illustrated.
Noller, Carl R. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 23.
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
The lecture demonstration of atomic spectra  Wendlandt, Wesley W.
Suggests the use of railway or highway flares of different colors to demonstrate the atomic spectra of strontium, barium, or sodium.
Wendlandt, Wesley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 9.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Regularities among the representative elements: The "paired electron rule"  Condon, F. E.
If the oxidation states characteristic of various groups are correlated in terms of electron subshells, they become reasonable and logical rather than mere facts to be memorized.
Condon, F. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 651.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State
The evolution of valence theory and bond symbolism  Mackle, Henry
Traces the historic evolution of valence theory and bond symbolism, including numerical aspects of chemical bonding, the mechanism of chemical bonding and its origins, chemical bonding in organic compounds, stereochemical aspects of chemical bonding, residual valence of unsaturated compounds, and electronic theories of valence.
Mackle, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 618.
Covalent Bonding
The Lanthanide contraction  Douglas, Bodie E.
The discussions of the nature and magnitude of the lanthanide contraction and its relationship to size changes in the periodic table as a whole are usually misleading to the student.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 598.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A cut-out chart of the periodic system  Clauson, Jennie E.
Colored discs in a cylinder of transparent plastic represent the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. Also provides a chart that can be cut out and turned into a similar cylinder.
Clauson, Jennie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 550.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An unconventional representation of multiple bonds  Gillis, Richard G.; Nelson, Peter F.
There are several advantages to differentiating between sigma and pi electrons in representing multiple bonds.
Gillis, Richard G.; Nelson, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 546.
Covalent Bonding
One more periodic table  Sanderson, R. T.
This periodic table is constructed to highlight electronic differences.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 481.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry. III  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the practical applications of electronegativities and charge distribution.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Acids / Bases
BerzeliusPioneer atomic weight chemist  MacNevin, William Marshall
Examines the many methods employed by Berzelius in determining atomic weights.
MacNevin, William Marshall J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 207.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Nature of adhesion  Reinhart, Frank W.
Examines the theory of adhesion and the variety of attractive forces involved.
Reinhart, Frank W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 128.
Surface Science |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Letters to the editor  Mukherjee, Tapan K.
Identifies a thirteenth century Indian reference to flame tests.
Mukherjee, Tapan K. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 48.
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The beginnings of the doctrine of chemical affinity  Walden, Paul
Examines the origin and chemical contributions of Geber's texts, particularly with respect to chemical affinity.
Walden, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 27.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry: (II)  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of electronegativity to ions and the estimation of the partial charge on combined atoms.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 2.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  Bent, Richard L.
Addresses issues raised regarding an earlier paper on isomerism and mesomerism.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 648.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Letters  Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho
Identifies some inconsistencies in an earlier paper on isomerism and mesomerism.
Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 647.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Chemistry of the covalent bond: The first-year course at Brown  Clapp, Leallyn B.
Provides an outline of the first-year chemistry course at Brown University, "The Chemistry of the Covalent Bond."
Clapp, Leallyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 530.
Covalent Bonding
Atomic structure and the photoelectric effect  Brockett, Clyde P.
The ubiquitous and inexpensive 110-volt, 2-watt neon glow lamp appears to have been overlooked as a device well suited to a brief but telling demonstration of a few key principles of atomic structure that underlie the study of electrovalence and comparative chemistry.
Brockett, Clyde P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 498.
Atomic Properties / Structure
An introduction to the electron theory of metals  Lefever, Robert A.
This discussion is intended to provide a general background for the understanding of metal physics as well as a basis for more advanced study.
Lefever, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 486.
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  Bowden, S. T.
The author calls for the standardization of the periodic table.
Bowden, S. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 426.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  Nair, C. N.
A mathematical derivation demonstrating that masses of different elements equal to their atomic weights must contain the same number of atoms.
Nair, C. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V.
The author suggests that valence electrons be called "valentrons."
Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Hakala, Reino W.
The author points out a reference to a relationship between atomic weight and atomic number.
Hakala, Reino W. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 44.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry  Sanderson, R. T.
This is the first of a series of short papers intended to demonstrate the application of a broadened concept of electronegativity toward explaining chemistry.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 539.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho
The author points out earlier work associated with a recent Journal article dealing with the periodic table and the transition elements.
Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 372.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements
Proton waves  Bradley, R. S.
It is the purpose of this note to draw attention to certain features of the wave-mechanical interpretation of atomic structure that appear to have a certain novelty.
Bradley, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 359.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The long form of the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, A. I.
The authors comment on the independent publication of a periodic table similar to one they produced earlier.
Glockler, George; Popov, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 358.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A history of the neutron  Lavrakas, Vasilis
Describes some of the individuals and the work they did leading to the discovery of the neutron.
Lavrakas, Vasilis J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 281.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A space model of the periodic system of elements  Clauson, Jennie E.
Illustrates a three-dimensional model of the periodic system of elements.
Clauson, Jennie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 250.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A periodic table showing the relative sizes of elements and their ions  Klingenberg, Joseph; Springman, Leroy
Describes a periodic chart representing the relative sizes of atoms and ions that was constructed by a senior undergraduate.
Klingenberg, Joseph; Springman, Leroy J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 81.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The periodic table: The 6d-5f mixed transition group  Coryell, Charles D.
With relatively few modifications, the Bohr-type periodic table presented by Glocker and Popov can be made to reflect more instructively the rather complex relationships obtained in the neighborhood of the 4f or gadolinium transition group and, more importantly, in the 6d-5f sequence extending from actinium through the region of uranium and the synthetic earths to element 103.
Coryell, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 62.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Valence and formulas taught with playing cards  Lionetti, Fabian
Describes the use of playing cards and a game called "Valence" to help students in organic chemistry understand valence, bonding, and molecular structure.
Lionetti, Fabian J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 599.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A new pattern in science  Le Corbeiller, P.
The author argues that, because our universe is made up of atoms, our knowledge of some aspects of science can be complete on a certain level.
Le Corbeiller, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 553.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An atomic structure model  Herron, Fred Y.
Presents the design of a physical model intended to illustrate the manner in which the electronic configurations of the various elements may be produced by adding electrons to a hydrogen atom.
Herron, Fred Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 473.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic structure models for clay minerals  Perkins, Alfred T.
Describes the use of ceramic clay to produce atomic structure models for clay minerals.
Perkins, Alfred T. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 388.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A novel introduction to atomic structure  Garratt, A. J.
Describes an Exhibition of Science at South Kensington, London. The entrance to the "Dome of Discovery" consists of a sequenced display of graphite consisting of increasing magnifications down to the nuclear scale.
Garratt, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 322.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Valency and the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I.
Presents a modification of the Bohr-Thomsen-Akhumov periodic table stressing patterns to found among the rare earth elements.
Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 212.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure