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Journal Articles: 777 results
Orbital Exponent Optimization in Elementary VB Calculations of the Chemical Bond in the Ground State of Simple Molecular Systems  Valerio Magnasco
Orbital exponent optimization in the elementary ab-initio VB calculation of the ground states of H2+, H2, He2+, and He2 gives a fair description of the exchange-overlap component of the interatomic interaction that is important in the bond region.
Magnasco, Valerio. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1686.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Valence Bond Theory
A New "Bottom-Up" Framework for Teaching Chemical Bonding  Tami Levy Nahum, Rachel Mamlok-Naaman, Avi Hofstein, and Leeor Kronik
This article presents a general framework for bonding that can be presented at different levels of sophistication depending on the student's level and needs. The pedagogical strategy for teaching this model is a "bottom-up" one, starting with basic principles and ending with specific properties.
Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Kronik, Leeor. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1680.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Materials Science |
MO Theory |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Rotating Morse–Pekeris Oscillator Revisited  José Zúñiga, Adolfo Bastida, and Alberto Requena
Examines the MorsePekeris oscillator model for the calculation of the vibrationrotation energy levels of diatomic molecules, demonstrating that it is possible to develop the model through an alternative method that allows correction of the MorsePekeris model through first-order perturbation theory.
Zúñiga, José; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1675.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
[#99] Clip Clues: Discovering Chemical Formulas  Carmen Fies and Diana Mason
Students use deductive reasoning skills as they identify formulas of unknown elements and compounds modeled by paperclips. The activity supports formation of a basic understanding of elements and compounds, including allotropes, oxidation states, and diatomic elements.
Fies, Carmen; Mason, Diana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1648A.
Covalent Bonding |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Student-Centered Learning
Author of "The Flyleaf Periodic Table" Responds  Roy W. Clark
Since publication of our letter about the multiple forms of periodic tables presented in the flyleaf of textbooks I have received many replies. To these readers and any others who were puzzled by our recommendation I offer this explanation.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1493.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table: Facts or Committees?  William B. Jensen
I would like to offer two observations relative to the recent letter of Clark and White on the representation of the f-block elements in the periodic table that relate to some disturbing trends in the attitudes of the chemical community towards the nature and use of the periodic tableattitudes that are implicit, though perhaps not intentionally so, in their letter.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1491.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Response to "The Flyleaf Periodic Table"  Laurence Lavelle
Clark and White wonder why the chemistry education community has not uniformly adopted just one form of the periodic table. Part of the answer is that the majority who are silent on this issue do not want to be attacked by the vocal proponents who insist that lanthanum and actinium must be in the f-block and lutetium and lawrencium must be in the d-block.
Lavelle, Laurence. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1491.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Flyleaf Table: An Alternative  Philip J. Stewart
In their consideration of three ways of treating the f-block elements in the standard periodic table, Clark and White opt to footnote a set 15-elements-wide, including both La and Lu, Ac, and Lr. Their only grounds seem to be that this is what IUPAC chose in 2005, but that decision sounds like an attempt to please everyone, which in the end will please no one.
Stewart, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1490.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
French Mnemonics for the Periodic Table  Gilles Olive and David Riffont
Memorizing chemical names and symbols can be relatively easy with the help of mnemonics. In this letter, we continue the international trend of a previous letter by providing French mnemonics (in the form of sentences) to help young chemists.
Olive, Gilles; Riffont, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1489.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Artistic Periodic Table in Honor of Mendeleev  Antonio Marchal Ingrain
A large periodic table was placed on the main faade of the Sciences Building at the University of Jan (Spain) in November 2007 in honor of Mendeleev on the 100th anniversary of his death and in recognition of the Spanish Year of Science.
Ingrain, Antonio Marchal. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1489.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Lanthanum (La) and Actinium (Ac) Should Remain in the d-block  Laurence Lavelle
This paper discusses the reasons and implications of placing lanthanum and actinium in the f-block and lutetium and lawrencium in the d-block.
Lavelle, Laurence. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1482.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Inner Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Organometallic Chemistry: Development and Study of Catalytic Activity  Caroline R. Pharr and Shannon Stahl
This Today's Science for Tomorrow's Scientists (TSTS) tutorial introduces current scientific research on the development and investigation of new catalysts for the selective oxidation of organic substances by molecular oxygen.
Pharr, Caroline R.; Stahl, Shannon. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1453.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements
Elemental Chem Lab  Antonio Joaquín Franco Mariscal
Three puzzles use the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs.
Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1370.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Birge–Sponer Estimation of the C–H Bond Dissociation Energy in Chloroform Using Infrared, Near-Infrared, and Visible Absorption Spectroscopy  M. L. Myrick, A. E. Greer, A. A. Nieuwland, R. J. Priore, J. Scaffidi, Danielle Andreatta, and Paula Colavita
The fundamental and overtone vibrational absorption spectroscopy of the CH unit in CHCl3 is measured for transitions from the ? = 0 energy level to ? = 1 through ? = 5 energy levels. These data are then used as the basis for a BirgeSponer estimation of the dissociation energy for the CH bond in chloroform.
Myrick, M. L.; Greer, A. E.; Nieuwland, A. A.; Priore, R. J.; Scaffidi, J.; Andreatta, Daniele; Colavita, Paula. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1276.
Covalent Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Forecasting Periodic Trends: A Semester-Long Team Exercise for Nonscience Majors  John Tierney
Teams of students in a course for nonscience majors identify trends among the properties of elements in the periodic table, use Excel to plot and produce best-fit equations to describe relationships among those properties, and apply the resulting formulas to predict and justify the properties of missing elements.
Tierney, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1215.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Nonmetals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Student-Centered Learning
Is Mercury Now a Transition Element?  William B. Jensen
The synthesis of mercury tetrafluoride was recently reported. The purpose of this commentary is not to cast doubts on the experimental evidence, but rather to call attention to two important issues that this purported synthesis will pose for teachers of both general and inorganic chemistry should it ultimately prove to be correct.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1182.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation State |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
The Role of Triads in the Evolution of the Periodic Table: Past and Present  Eric Scerri
This article proposes a variant of the Janet or left-step periodic table as a means of introducing periodicity. It also highlights the importance of elements as "basic" rather than "simple" substances and relocates hydrogen among the halogens to give the triad H, F, Cl.
Scerri, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 585.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Periodic Table Target: A Game That Introduces the Biological Significance of Chemical Element Periodicity  Richard S. Sevcik, Ragan L. McGinty, Linda D. Schultz, and Susan V. Alexander
Periodic Table Target, a game for middle or high school students that is constructed as a class project, familiarizes students with the periodic table, the periodicity of the elements, and their biological significance.
Sevcik, Richard S.; McGinty, Ragan L.; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 516.
Nutrition |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Flyleaf Periodic Table  Roy W. Clark and Gary D. White
The restriction of periodic tables to the flyleafs of textbooks results in the inconsistent vivisection and subscripting of the lanthanoids and actinoids.
Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 497.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Kristen L. Cacciatore, Jose Amado, Jason J. Evans, and Hannah Sevian
Presents a novel first-year chemistry experiment that asks students to replicate procedures described in sample lab reports that lack essential information. This structure is designed to promote students' experimental design and data analysis skills as well as their understanding of the importance and essential qualities of written and verbal communication between scientists.
Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 251.
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
New! JCE Web-Ready Software for All Your Students  
Institutions and individuals can now subscribe to JCE Web Software and access its entire collection of Web-ready titles.
J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 170.
Professional Development |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
On the Relative Merits of Non-Orthogonal and Orthogonal Valence Bond Methods Illustrated on the Hydrogen Molecule  Celestino Angeli, Renzo Cimiraglia, and Jean-Paul Malrieu
This article presents an alternative approach to the introduction of the valence bond in which valence bond structures are based on orthogonal atomic orbitals. This approach has the advantage of attributing a unique nature to valence bond structures and therefore make their didactic presentation clearer.
Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Malrieu, Jean-Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 150.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Valence Bond Theory
Six Pillars of Organic Chemistry  Joseph J. Mullins
This article focuses on a core set of conceptselectronegativity, polar covalent bonding, inductive and steric effects, resonance, and aromaticitythe proper application of which can explain and predict a wide variety of chemical, physical, and biological properties of molecules and conceptually unite important features of general, organic, and biochemistry.
Mullins, Joseph J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 83.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactive Intermediates |
Resonance Theory
The Different Periodic Tables of Dmitrii Mendeleev  Michael Laing
Between 1869 and 1905 the Russian chemist Dmitrii Mendeleev published several tables with different arrangements of the chemical elements. Four of these are compared with periodic tables by Russian scientists from 1934 and 1969.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 63.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The New Periodic Table Live!  
We have brought back everyone's favorite program: Periodic Table Live! It has seen many improvements while retaining its sterling qualities. Perhaps best of all, the current version is available free to everyone from JCE Online and the ChemEd Digital Library.
J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 22.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
If You Seek a Useful Journal, Look About You!  John W. Moore
Because this issue marks the beginning of the JCE's 85th year, it seems appropriate to provide some clues about where to look among the Journal's many resources for rewarding information.
Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 11.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Postage Stamp About the Periodic Table  Gabriel Pinto
Presents a postage stamp issued in Spain in honor of Mendeleev and the modern periodic table that could serve as an opportunity to link chemistry and art.
Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1919.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Multilingual Mnemonics for the Periodic Table  Jaclyn R. Hara, Gordon R. Stanger, Denisse A. Leony, Sandra S. Renteria, Alejandro Carrillo, and Katja Michael
Memorizing the names, symbols, and exact horizontal and vertical positions of the elements in the periodic table can be easily mastered by anyone with the aid of mnemonics.
Hara, Jaclyn R.; Stanger, Gordon R.; Leony, Denisse A.; Renteria, Sandra S.; Carrillo, Alejandro; Michael, Katja. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1918.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Playing on the Periodic Table  Laura E. Slocum
Identifies and summarizes articles in this issue of the Journal that may be of particular interest to high school chemistry teachers.
Slocum, Laura E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1897.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Concept Maps for General Chemistry   Boyd L. Earl
Two concept maps have been developed to represent the organization of the material in a first-semester general chemistry course. By providing these maps to students and referring to them in class, it is hoped that the instructor can assist students in maintaining a grasp of the "big picture" during the progress of the course.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1788.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
New Ideas in Chemistry from Fresh Energy for the Periodic Law (Henry A. Bent)  A. Truman Schwartz
The central thesis of the book is the chemical and pedagogical superiority of the left-step periodic table.
Schwartz, A. Truman. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1431.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Lewis Structure Representation of Free Radicals Similar to ClO  Warren Hirsch and Mark Kobrak
An unconventional Lewis structure is proposed to explain the properties of the free radical ClO and a series of its isoelectronic analogues, particularly trends in the spin density of these species.
Hirsch, Warren; Kobrak, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1360.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Free Radicals |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
MO Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
Mendeleev on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869–1905 (William B. Jensen, ed.)  Theodor Benfey
The periodic properties of the elements is the chemists central organizing principle. Here are 13 of Mendeleevs complete or partial publications that illuminate his developing ideas on periodicity.
Benfey, Theodor. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1279.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Theoretical Chemistry
Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry  Steven Murov
The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry has been designed to provide an overview of most of the reactions needed for the organic chemistry course and should help students develop synthetic routes from one functional group to another.
Murov, Steven. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1224.
Addition Reactions |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding: Analysis within the Hückel Model of Electronic Structure  Sture Nordholm, Andreas Bäck, and George B. Bacskay
Hckel molecular orbital theory is shown to be uniquely useful in understanding and interpreting the mechanism of covalent bonding. Using the Hckel model it can be demonstrated that the dynamical character of the molecular orbitals is related simultaneously to the covalent bonding mechanism and to the degree of delocalization of the electron dynamics.
Nordholm, Sture; Bäck, Andreas; Bacskay, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1201.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
News from the Periodic Table: An Introduction to "Periodicity Symbols, Tables, and Models for Higher-Order Valency and Donor–Acceptor Kinships"  Henry A. Bent and Frank Weinhold
Proposes that alternative display topologies such as a 2D "left-step" or "step-pyramid" table or 3D "periodic towers" can supplement or supplant the standard periodic table by better emphasizing higher-order patterns of chemical association and reactivity, rather than the physical resemblances of standard-state elemental substances.
Bent, Henry A.; Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1145.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Spectroscopy
Mistake of Having Students Be Mendeleev for Just a Day  Brett Criswell
This article discusses several conceptual features underlying a genuine understanding of the periodic table and describes a set of activities focused on promoting such awareness in students using the FERA (focus, explore, reflect, and apply) learning cycle model.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1140.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table at a Glance (M. A. Beckett and A. W. G. Platt)  L. L. Pesterfield
The Periodic Table at a Glance is a good choice for the student who needs a quick review of the basics of inorganic chemistry but does not have the time to wade through a standard textbook.
Pesterfield, L. L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1110.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Weakest Link: Bonding between Helium Atoms  Lawrence L. Lohr and S. M. Blinder
Van der Waals attraction can lead to the formation of weakly-bound, diatomic molecules of helium stable at temperatures in the millikelvin range. Quantum-mechanical computations confirm that the HeHe bond is the weakest known; with an average internuclear distance computed to exceed 50 , He2 is also the largest known diatomic molecule.
Lohr, Lawrence L.; Blinder, S. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 860.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Concept of Resonance  Donald G. Truhlar
Responds to a recent suggestion that "resonance," as in valence bond theory, should be relabeled "delocalization" by demonstrating that these are different concepts.
Truhlar, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 781.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Primo Levi and The Periodic Table: Teaching Chemistry Using a Literary Text  Viktoria Klara Lakatos Osorio, Peter Wilhelm Tiedemann, and Paulo Alves Porto
Describes the use of a problem-solving activity with first-year undergraduate students based on an excerpt from Primo Levi's book The Periodic Table.
Osorio, Viktoria Klara Lakatos; Tiedemann, Peter Wilhelm; Porto, Paulo Alves. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 775.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
The Origin of the s, p, d, f Orbital Labels  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the s, p, d, and f orbital labels.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Spectroscopy
Predicting the Stability of Hypervalent Molecules  Tracy A. Mitchell, Debbie Finocchio, and Jeremy Kua
In this exercise, students use concepts in thermochemistry such as bond energy, ionization potentials, and electron affinities to predict the relative stability of two hypervalent molecules (PF5 and PH5) relative to their respective non-hypervalent counterparts.
Mitchell, Tracy A.; Finocchio, Debbie; Kua, Jeremy. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 629.
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content  Susan L. Boyd
Presents ten puzzles to make chemistry more interesting while reinforcing important concepts.
Boyd, Susan L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 619.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Spoonful of C12H22O11 Makes the Chemistry Go Down: Candy Motivations in the High School Chemistry Classroom  Fanny K. Ennever
Describes sixteen motivations that combine food with measurement, nomenclature, stoichiometry, distillation, the periodic table, polarity, boiling point, rate of solution, catalysis, entropy, acids, redox, and organic compounds.
Ennever, Fanny K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 615.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
"Of Four Scottish Chemists". A Burns Supper-Inspired Poem  Dean J. Campbell
A poem is presented that briefly describes the work of four famous Scottish chemists. The poem could be read at Robert Burns suppers to provide informal chemistry education.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 605.
Colloids |
Gases |
Nanotechnology |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance (Eric R. Scerri)  A. Truman Schwartz
The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance should be of great interest and value to chemists, particularly those who teach about the stuff that makes up us, our world, and our science.
Schwartz, A. Truman. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 598.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Science Teacher: Spring 2007  Steve Long
Several articles on topics that may be of interest to the Journal's readers have recently appeared in The Science Teacher, including the collapsing can demonstration, eye and face safety, periodicity, art and chemistry, liquid crystals, and carbon (fullerene) chemistry.
Long, Steve. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 582.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Learning Theories |
Liquids |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Chemical Element: A Historical Perspective (Greenwood Guides to Great Ideas in Science) by Andrew Ede  Eric R. Scerri
This book has been published as part of a new series that focuses on fundamental scientific concepts such as the gene, the quantum, geological cycles, planetary motion, etc.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 42.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Mnemonic for Representative Element Groups  Timothy Chambers and Jennifer Arab
It is unclear whether memorizing nonsense-words is any simpler than the task it aims to ease.
Chambers, Timothy; Arab, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Mnemonic for Representative Element Groups  Timothy Chambers and Jennifer Arab
It is unclear whether memorizing nonsense-words is any simpler than the task it aims to ease.
Chambers, Timothy; Arab, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Let Us Give Lewis Acid–Base Theory the Priority It Deserves  Alan A. Shaffer
The Lewis concept is simple yet powerful in its scope, and can be used to help beginning students understand reaction mechanisms more fully. However, traditional approaches to acid-base reactions at the introductory level ignores Lewis acid-base theory completely, focusing instead on proton transfer described by the Br?nsted-Lowry concept.
Shaffer, Alan A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1746.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Lewis Structures |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Predicting Inorganic Reaction Products: A Critical Thinking Exercise in General Chemistry  David G. DeWit
Describes a course module designed to afford practice in applying the principles encountered throughout the general chemistry sequence to understanding and predicting chemical reactivity and the products of simple inorganic reactions.
DeWit, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1625.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Dulong and Petit's Law: We Should Not Ignore Its Importance  Mary Laing and Michael Laing
This article describes two student exercises: the determination of the specific heat of a metal and hence its atomic weight and a graphical study of specific heat versus atomic weight for different groups of metals and the confirmation of Dulong and Petit's law.
Laing, Mary; Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1499.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
More on the Nature of Resonance  Robert C. Kerber
The author continues to find the use of delocalization preferable to resonance.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1291.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
More on the Nature of Resonance  William B. Jensen
Supplements a recent article on the interpretation of resonance theory with three additional observationsone historical and two conceptual.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
The Periodic Table: Into the 21st Century (Dennis H. Rouvray and R. Bruce King, eds.)  A. Truman Schwartz
Examines the discovery and development of the periodic law and table, alternative arrangements, periodic patterns, specific families (the lanthanides and the superactinides), the relationship of relativistic effects and quantum physics to elementary periodicity, and efforts to create periodic tables for subatomic particles and benzenoid hydrocarbons.
Schwartz, A. Truman. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 849.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Valence, Oxidation Number, and Formal Charge: Three Related but Fundamentally Different Concepts  Gerard Parkin
The purpose of this article is to clarify the terms valence, oxidation number, coordination number, formal charge, and number of bonds and illustrate how the valence of an atom in a molecule provides a much more meaningful criterion for establishing the chemical reasonableness of a molecule than does the oxidation number.
Parkin, Gerard. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 791.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Oxidation State |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Acrostic Puzzles in the Classroom  Dorothy Swain
Acrostic puzzles are an effective vehicle to expose students to the history and philosophy of science without lecturing.
Swain, Dorothy. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table: Contest and Exhibition  Aurora Silva, M. Fátima Barroso, Olga Freitas, Salomé Teixeira, Simone Morais, and Cristina Delerue-Matos
Describes a contest and exhibition in which the periodic table was the subject. Forty works were submitted, involving 180 participants, and were prepared using painting, sculpture, music, literature, photography, cookery, video, and new technologies.
Silva, Aurora; Barroso, M. Fátima; Freitas, Olga; Teixeira, Salomé; Morais, Simone; Delerue-Matos, Cristina. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 557.
Conferences |
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Probing the Orbital Energy of an Electron in an Atom  James L. Bills
This article answers an appeal for simple theoretical interpretations of atomic properties. A theoretical snapshot of an atom, showing the screened nuclear charge and the electron to be ionized at its radius of zero kinetic energy, enables anyone to approximate its ionization energy.
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 473.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Old Quantum Theory for H2+: Some Chemical Implications  Stephen K. Knudson
The "old quantum theory" generates eigenvalues dependent entirely on the properties of classical orbits. Application of these ideas to diatomic molecules with one electron, such as H2+, is less successful than the corresponding application to one-electron atoms. Nonetheless, useful insight can be gleaned both from the successes and from the deficiencies of the application.
Knudson, Stephen K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 464.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
If It's Resonance, What Is Resonating?  Robert C. Kerber
This article reviews the origin of the terminology associated with the use of more than one Lewis-type structure to describe delocalized bonding in molecules and how the original usage has evolved to reduce confusion
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 223.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
The History of Element 43—Technetium  Roberto Zingales
The author is grateful for additional information that allowed him to correct an earlier mistake.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 213.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The History of Element 43—Technetium  Fathi Habashi
The article From Masurium to Trinacrium: The Troubled Story of Element 43 is the best story so far published about the history of technetium. There is, however, one paragraph on the right column of page 226 that is questionable.
Habashi, Fathi. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 213.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The History of Element 43—Technetium  Fathi Habashi
The article From Masurium to Trinacrium: The Troubled Story of Element 43 is the best story so far published about the history of technetium. There is, however, one paragraph on the right column of page 226 that is questionable.
Habashi, Fathi. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 213.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Nature of Hydrogen Bonding  Emeric Schultz
Students use toy connecting blocks and Velcro to investigate weak intermolecular interactions, specifically hydrogen bonds.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 400A.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Origins of the Symbols A and Z for Atomic Weight and Number  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the symbols A and Z for atomic weight and atomic number.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1764.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Are Some Elements More Equal Than Others?  Ronald L. Rich
Presents a new periodic chart with 18 columns but no interruptions of atomic numbers at Lanthanum or Actinum, and no de-emphasis of elements 57-71 or 89-103 by seeming to make footnotes of them. It shows some elements more than once in order to illuminate multiple relationships in chemical behavior.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Inner Transition Elements |
Main-Group Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Relativistic Effects and the Chemistry of the Heaviest Main-Group Elements  John S. Thayer
The heaviest main-group elements often show markedly different chemical properties than their lighter counterparts. Most of these differences arise from changes in the relative energies of the outer-shell atomic orbitals that can be explained by application of Einstein's theory of special relativity to electrons in atoms.
Thayer, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1721.
Main-Group Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Trends in Ionization Energy of Transition-Metal Elements  Paul S. Matsumoto
Examines why, as the number of protons increase along a row in the periodic table, the first ionization energies of the transition-metal elements are relatively steady, but that for the main-group elements increases.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1660.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Predicting the Atomic Weights of the Trans-Lawrencium Elements: A Novel Application of Dobereiner's Triads  Sami A. Ibrahim
Dobereiner's concept of triads remain useful for predicting the properties of the super-heavy elements (113118) and for providing reasonable estimates of the atomic weights of all 16 trans-lawrencium elements.
Ibrahim, Sami A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1658.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements
Fully Exploiting the Potential of the Periodic Table through Pattern Recognition  Emeric Schultz
This article describes an approach to learning chemical concepts that uses simple rules and pattern recognition to generate the formulas of the oxides and hydrides of selected elements.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1649.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Student-Centered Learning
Properties of the Lanthanide Metals; Correlations and Discontinuities  Michael Laing
The article Characterization and Classification of Lanthanides by Multivariate-Analysis Methods is very interesting, but correlations may miss important discontinuities that offer a valuable guide to chemical properties.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1623.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Inner Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Science Teacher: Fall 2005  Steve Long
Identifies articles of possible interest appearing in The Science Teacher between March and Summer 2005, including topics on alternative assessment, periodic table trends, and teaching the history of chemistry.
Long, Steve. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1609.
Learning Theories |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Model for the Chemical Bond; J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 427-435  Valerio Magnasco
Corrections to "A Model for the Chemical Bond," J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 427-435.
Magnasco, Valerio. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1311.
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
More on Element 43  George B. Kauffman
Some additional comments on a recent article by R. Zingales about the history of element 43.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1310.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Some Footnotes on the History of Masurium  H. J. Wagner
Some additional comments on a recent article by R. Zingales about the history of element 43.
Wagner, H. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1309.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Some Observations on Molecular Orbital Theory  James F. Harrison and Daniel B. Lawson
The authors show, according to molecular orbital theory, why molecular orbital energies are not equally spaced above and below their constituent atomic orbital energies. Also, comments are made describing MO theory's ability to predict experimental properties such as bond length, dissociation energy, and the theory's incorrect ordering of the low-lying electronic states of C2.
Harrison, James F.; Lawson, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1205.
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Valence, Covalence, Hypervalence, Oxidation State, and Coordination Number  Derek W. Smith
It is argued that the terms valence, covalence, hypervalence, oxidation state, and coordination number are often confused and misused in the literature. It is recommended that use of the term valence, and its associated terminology, should be restricted to simple molecular main group substances and to some oxoacids and derivatives, but avoided in both main group and transition element coordination chemistry.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1202.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Main-Group Elements |
Oxidation State
Conceptual Considerations in Molecular Science  Donald T. Sawyer
The undergraduate curriculum and associated textbooks include several significant misconceptions.
Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 985.
Catalysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
More Elementary Riddles  Kevin Cunningham
Four chemical riddles are presented, each highlighting an element (hydrogen, arsenic, selenium, and beryllium) and some of its significant properties. Each riddle is accompanied by a full explanation of its clues and their relationship to characteristics of that element.
Cunningham, Kevin. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 539.
Main-Group Elements |
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties
Designing Element T-shirts: Spelling with the Periodic Table  Julie Palmer and Lisa Brosnick
As an enrichment activity for the periodic table unit, students used element symbols to spell their name or a common word. These element "words" were typed into a template using proper element notation, atomic mass, and atomic number. The resulting templates were then printed on iron-on t-shirt transfer papers using an inkjet printer. Students ironed the transfers onto t-shirts and wore the shirts to school in celebration of National Chemistry Week.
Palmer, Julie; Brosnick, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 517.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Characterization and Classification of Lanthanides by Multivariate-Analysis Methods  Ossi Horovitz and Costel Sârbu
A chemometric study was conducted on a data set consisting of 18 characteristics, mainly physical properties of the 14 lanthanides and lanthanum, including Sc and Y. Classical methods of multivariate analysis, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were applied. The results obtained by using the Statistica software package are presented and discussed concerning the correlations between the properties and those between the elements themselves.
Horovitz, Ossi; Sârbu, Costel. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 473.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Chemometrics |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Physical Properties
Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle  Terry L. Meek and Leah D. Garner
The dependence of bond type on two parameters, electronegativity difference (??) and average electronegativity (?av), is examined. It is demonstrated that ionic character is governed by the partial charges of the bonded atoms, and metallic character by the HOMOLUMO band gap.
Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
Where Should the Nuclei Be Located?  Ying Liu and Yue Liu
The positions of nuclei in orbital representations are discussed. Some misleading representations in the scientific literature are highlighted and more realistic diagrams are presented.
Liu, Ying; Liu, Yue. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 320.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen  Liliana Haim
We present a series of cooking activities to be carried out as a starting point of a chemistry course in the elementary school. This "kitchen course" is intended for students ages 911 who are new to chemistry. The main purpose is to allow students to practice transferrable skills by handling concrete kitchen materials; they learn classification, ordering, unit conversion, and conservation. The kitchen activities also introduce anchors for chemistry-specific skills such as periodic table conformation and manipulation, chemical equation and chemical formula use, relative mass, and element and compound differentiation.
Haim, Liliana. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 228.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
From Masurium to Trinacrium: The Troubled Story of Element 43  Roberto Zingales
The history of this discovery clearly shows the dramatic improvements of chemical analytical techniques and criteria in the first half of 20th century. In 1949 its discoverers proposed to call it technetium, which means produced by technology.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 221.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Bond Length Dependence on Quantum States as Shown by Spectroscopy  Kieran F. Lim
Undergraduate students often have the misconception that molecules have fixed, unchanging bond lengths. This article discusses how linear-molecule rotational band spacings in infrared spectroscopy can be used as a qualitative, visual demonstration of the elongation of average bond lengths on vibrational excitation. The method does not depend on a detailed mathematical analysis of the spectra. In UVvis spectroscopy, the rotational band spacings give rise to distinctive linear-molecule rotational contours, which easily show whether the average bond length has increased or decreased.
Lim, Kieran F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 145.
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
Structure and Bonding in Group 14 Congeners of Ethene: DFT Calculations in the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Bennett R. Streit and David K. Geiger
A computational chemistry experiment for an advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory is described. DFT calculations are performed to determine the optimized geometries of compounds of the type H2E=EH2. Structural parameters are compared for E=C, Si, and Ge. Guided inquiry into the nature of the bonding and energetics of E=E bond dissociation are pursued by examining the singlet and triplet EH2 fragments.
Streit, Bennett R.; Geiger, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 111.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
The Formula for Ammonia Monohydrate  Stephen J. Hawkes
The reality of NH4OH was argued in J. Chem. Educ. and elsewhere a decade ago. Further evidence is now available. My colleague Darrah Thomas has calculated the geometry and bond lengths of H5NO using Gaussian. The calculation was done using the D95 basis set and the B3LYP method.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1569.
Covalent Bonding
Cis and Trans Isomerization in Cyclic Alkenes: A Topic for Discovery Using the Results of Molecular Modeling  Susan E. Barrows and Thomas H. Eberlein
This article describes an activity in which students are led to discover the fundamental reasons behind the unusual instability of the trans isomers in medium-sized cycloalkenes by using the results of molecular modeling. Notably, students will make the unexpected discovery that twisting about p bonds is perhaps more facile than they had been led to believe.
Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1529.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Introducing Molecular Visualization to Primary Schools in California: The STArt! teaching Science Through Art Program  Susana Maria Halpine
The STArt! teaching Science Through Art program was developed to help schools address the new standards. A pilot program at the Coeur d'Alene School was funded by an artist-in-residence grant from the Los Angeles Cultural Affairs Department. The program introduces molecular visualization to students using narrative discussions and handheld models such as balloons and toy cars. STArt! employs a range of learning styles to explore fundamental science concepts, including interdisciplinary art workshops. The approach is remarkably successful: 88% of third-grade students, on average, give a grade-appropriate description of a molecule after a one-hour presentation. Students grasp complex concepts with surprising sophistication and unbridled enthusiasm.
Halpine, Susana Maria. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1431.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Learning Theories |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Bioorganic Chemistry
The Concept of Oxidation States in Metal Complexes  Dirk Steinborn
After a brief historical survey, basic considerations are given to assign oxidation numbers of atoms in molecules on the basis of their Lewis structures by splitting shared electrons in covalent bonds heterolytically. Advantages over the frequently used method to assign oxidation numbers by using a set of hierarchical rules are demonstrated for some nonmetal compounds. Assignment of oxidation numbers of metals is systematically worked out for metal complexes with n-, pi-, and s-ligands. Furthermore, it is shown how the concept of oxidation states is embedded in the teaching process of molecular chemistry for early chemistry students.
Steinborn, Dirk. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1148.
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Lewis Structures |
Metals |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Effects of Exchange Energy and Spin-Orbit Coupling on Bond Energies  Derek W. Smith
It is shown that the ground states of atoms having pn configurations are stabilized by exchange energy (n = 2, 3, or 4) and/or spinorbit coupling (n = 1, 2, 4, or 5).
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 886.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Exothermic Bond Breaking: A Persistent Misconception  William C. Galley
Surveys taken the past several years at the onset of an introductory physical chemistry course reveal that the vast majority of students believe that bond breaking is exothermic.
Galley, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 523.
Covalent Bonding |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Model for the Chemical Bond  Valerio Magnasco
A simple model of the chemical bond is developed on the basis of an elementary MO theory requiring solution of at most a 2 ? 2 Hckel secular equation including overlap. The fundamental quantities are the atomic integrals a1 and a2 giving the energies of the isolated atoms or ions, and the bond integral b which depends on the overlap S between the interacting AOs.
Magnasco, Valerio. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 427.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Microscale Syntheses, Reactions, and 1H NMR Spectroscopic Investigations of Square Planar Macrolyclic Tetraamido-N Co(III) Complexes Relevant to Green Chemistry  Erich S. Uffelman, Jonathan R. Doherty, Carl Schulze, Amy L. Burke, Kristen R. Bonnema, Tanya T. Watson, and Daniel W. Lee, III
These labs and accompanying lab lectures and discussions create a problem-based learning environment that involves Br?nsted acid-base chemistry, steric arguments, redox processes, Le Chatelier's principle, nonaqueous chemistry, solubility product constants, periodic trends, organic reactivity, and spectroscopy.
Uffelman, Erich S.; Doherty, Jonathan R.; Schulze, Carl; Burke, Amy L.; Bonnema, Kristen R.; Watson, Tanya T.; Lee, Daniel W., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 325.
Coordination Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Teaching Molecular Geometry with the VSEPR Model  Ronald J. Gillespie
The difficulties associated with the usual treatment of the VB and MO theories in connection with molecular geometry in beginning courses are discussed. It is recommended that the VB and MO theories should be presented only after the VSEPR model either in the general chemistry course or in a following course, particularly in the case of the MO theory, which is not really necessary for the first-year course.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 298.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Theoretical Chemistry |
VSEPR Theory |
MO Theory
Hydrogen: The Essential Element (John S. Rigden)  A. Truman Schwartz
Topics, which are presented in more or less chronological order, include Prouts hypothesis, the visible spectrum of hydrogen, the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the fine-structure constant, quantum mechanics, isotopes of hydrogen, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron and nuclear spin, quantum electrodynamics, deuterium abundance and cosmology, antimatter, and BoseEinstein condensates.
Schwartz, A. Truman. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 36.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The "Dissing" of Niels Bohr  Andrew R. Peterson
Contributions made by Bohr to the Periodic Law.
Peterson, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 33.
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Discovery Videos: A Safe, Tested, Time-Efficient Way To Incorporate Discovery-Laboratory Experiments into the Classroom  Lyubov Hoffman Laroche, Gary Wulfsberg, and Barbara Young
Using videos to bring discovery-laboratory experiments to classrooms with poor or no lab facilities or equipment, or activities that involve potentially hazardous materials.
Laroche, Lyubov Hoffman; Wulfsberg, Gary; Young, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 962.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Place of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Periodic Table  William B. Jensen
Explanation for why the zinc group belongs with the main group elements; includes several versions of periodic tables.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 952.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Proper Place for Hydrogen in the Periodic Table  Marshall W. Cronyn
Case for hydrogen to be placed above carbon in the periodic table.
Cronyn, Marshall W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 947.
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Ionization Energies of Atoms and Atomic Ions  Peter F. Lang and Barry C. Smith
Explanations for the apparently irregular first and second ionization energies of transition and inner transition elements.
Lang, Peter F.; Smith, Barry C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 938.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Inner Transition Elements
The Noble Gas Configuration—Not the Driving Force but the Rule of the Game in Chemistry  Roland Schmid
Explains the covalent and ionic bonding behavior of main-group elements in terms of electromagnetic forces rather than the supposed "stability" of noble-gas configurations.
Schmid, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 931.
Molecular Modeling |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
The Periodic Table as a Mnemonic Device for Writing Electronic Configurations  Suzanne T. Mabrouk
Method for using the periodic table as a mnemonic device for writing electronic configurations.
Mabrouk, Suzanne T. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 894.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Journal as a Living Textbook  Diana S. Mason
Summary of issues of interest to high school instructors; emphasis on keeping current with changes in chemistry by reading the Journal.
Mason, Diana S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 849.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Turning the (Periodic) Tables  John W. Moore
Summary of the issue; using multiple representations of the periodic table to improve pedagogy.
Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 847.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Learning Theories
An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory: The Sunlight-Induced Photosynthesis of (η2-C60)M(CO)5 Complexes (M = Mo, W)   José E. Cortés-Figueroa
Procedure that provides chemical applications of group theory to predict the vCO spectrum of the inorganic moiety of metal carbonyl complexes, and the understanding of the concept of pi-acidity and its relation to the electronic structure of the ligand and the metal.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 799.
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Transition Elements
Writing Electron Dot Structures   Kenneth R. Magnell
Drill with feedback for students learning to write electron dot structures.
Magnell, Kenneth R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 711.
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Resonance Theory |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Molecular Model Game  Stephanie A. Myers
Student teams must draw Lewis structures and build models of various molecules and polyatomic ions; different team members have different responsibilities.
Myers, Stephanie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 423.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Find the Symbols of Elements Using a Letter Matrix Puzzle  V. D. Kelkar
Letter matrix puzzle using chemical symbols.
Kelkar, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 411.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Elemental ZOO  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle using the symbols of 39 elements to spell the name of 25 animals found in zoos.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 409.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling: II. Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Developments  William B. Jensen
Late 19th and early 20th century developments in the concept of electronegativity; considers relationship between electronegativity and classical valence, the periodic law, thermochemistry, and the electrical theory of matter.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 279.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry: From Lewis to Electron Densities (Gillespie and Popelier)  Daniel Rabinovich
Overview of the classical and modern concepts used to explain and predict molecular geometries of the nonmetallic elements and their compounds.
Rabinovich, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 31.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
Lewis Structures |
Nonmetals
News from Online: Selected Inorganic Chemistry Resources   Jason Cooke
Recommended online resources for students studying inorganic chemistry.
Cooke, Jason. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 10.
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Organometallics |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Periodic Table Live! 3rd Edition: Abstract of Special Issue 17  Nicholas B. Adelman, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, Alton J. Banks, John C. Kotz, William R. Robinson, and Susan Young
CD-ROM containing an interactive journey through the periodic table; includes information about each element, biographies of discoverers, videos of reactions, sources and uses, macro and atomic properties, and crystalline structures.
Adelman, Nicholas B.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Banks, Alton J.; Kotz, John C.; Robinson, William R.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1487.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solid State Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography
Foundations of Chemistry: Special Issue on the Periodic System (editor-in-chief Eric R. Scerri)  Pedro J. Bernal
International journal that aims to provide a forum in which scientists, historians, philosophers, and educators can discuss conceptual and foundational issues related to chemistry.
Bernal, Pedro J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1420.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Understanding and Interpreting Molecular Electron Density Distributions  C. F. Matta and R. J. Gillespie
A simple introduction to the electron densities of molecules and how they can be analyzed to obtain information on bonding and geometry.
Matta, C. F.; Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
A Three-Dimensional Model for Water  J. L. H. Johnson and S. H. Yalkowsky
Using Molymod spheres and magnets to simulate the structure and properties of water and aqueous systems.
Johnson, J. L. H.; Yalkowsky, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1088.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An Evergreen: The Tetrahedral Bond Angle  Marten J. ten Hoor
Summary and analysis of derivations of the tetrahedral bond angle.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 956.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
How We Teach Molecular Structure to Freshmen  Michael O. Hurst
Examination of how textbooks discuss various aspects of molecular structure; conclusion that much of general chemistry is taught the way it is for historical and not pedagogical reasons.
Hurst, Michael O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 763.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Letter Matrix Puzzle on the Symbols of Elements  V. D. Kelkar
A 3x3 letter matrix puzzle based on the symbols of 35 elements.
Kelkar, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 456.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Tetrahedral Geometry and the Dipole Moment of Molecules  Sara N. Mendiara and L. J. Perissinotti
Determination of bond angles and moments of tetrahedral molecules.
Mendiara, Sara N.; Perissinotti, L. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 64.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Covalent Bonding
The Mendeleev-Seaborg Periodic Table: Through Z = 1138 and Beyond  Paul J. Karol
Extending the periodic table to very large atomic numbers and its implications for the organization of the periodic table, consideration of relativistic effects, and the relative stability of massive and supermassive atomic nuclei.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 60.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Astrochemistry
Electron Densities, Atomic Charges, and Ionic, Covalent and Polar Bonds  Ronald J. Gillespie
The terms ionic and covalent character are vague, qualitative, and ill-defined. In contrast, the analysis of the electron density by the AIM theory leads to clearly defined quantitative properties such as the charges on the atoms and the electron density at the bond critical point that provide a sound basis for discussing bonding and geometry.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1688.
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
Semimetallicity?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Analysis of whether semimetals are semiconductors and distinctions between metals, semimetals, and nonmetals.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1686.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nonmetals |
Physical Properties |
Solid State Chemistry |
Conductivity
In Search of a Deep Understanding of the Relative Stabilities of Transition Metal Halides  Steven H. Strauss
Identifying and explaining trends found among the group 5 metal halides.
Strauss, Steven H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1635.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Metals |
Transition Elements
Structure and Bonding (by Jack Barrett)  Michael Laing
Tutorial chemistry text.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1600.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
d- and f-Block Chemistry (by Chris J. Jones)  Les L. Pesterfield
Brief introduction to the chemistry of d- and f-block elements.
Pesterfield, Les L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1468.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Coordination Compounds
The Role of Lewis Structures in Teaching Covalent Bonding  S. R. Logan
Difficulties with the Lewis theory of covalent bonding and upgrading it to the Molecular Orbital theory.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1457.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Nonmajor Courses |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Mole, the Periodic Table, and Quantum Numbers: An Introductory Trio  Mali Yin and Raymond S. Ochs
Suggestions for presenting and developing three key ideas in chemistry: the mole, the periodic table, and quantum numbers.
Yin, Mali; Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1345.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Rediscovery of the Elements: Ytterby Gruva (Ytterby Mine)  James L. Marshall and Virginia R. Marshall
Location of the Ytterby Mine in Sweden, source of names of four rare earth elements.
Marshall, James L.; Marshall, Virginia R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1343.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Orbitals in Chemistry: A Modern Guide for Students
by Victor M. Gil
  David Hanson
Analysis of atomic and molecular orbitals.
Hanson, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1184.
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
An Investigation of the Value of Using Concept Maps in General Chemistry  Gayle Nicoll, Joseph S. Francisco, and Mary B. Nakhleh
Study of the degree to which students in introductory chemistry classes linked related concepts; comparisons of a class in which concept mapping was used and another in which it was not.
Nicoll, Gayle; Francisco, Joseph S.; Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1111.
Covalent Bonding |
Learning Theories
Melting Point, Density, and Reactivity of Metals  Michael Laing
Using melting points and densities to the predict the relative reactivities of metals.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1054.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Lewis Structures in General Chemistry: Agreement between Electron Density Calculations and Lewis Structures  Gordon H. Purser
The internuclear electron densities of a series of X-O bonds (where X = P, S, or Cl) are calculated using quantum mechanics and compared to Lewis structures for which the formal charges have been minimized; a direct relationship is found between the internuclear electron density and the bond order predicted from Lewis structures in which formal charges are minimized.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 981.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Quantum Chemistry
Politics, Chemistry, and the Discovery of Nuclear Fission  Emilie Wiesner and Frank A. Settle Jr.
Work of Lise Meitner, Otto Hahn, and Fritz Strassmann toward the discovery of nuclear fission.
Wiesner, Emilie; Settle, Frank A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 889.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Women in Chemistry
Periodic Patterns (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1053-1056)  Michael Laing
Unique organization of the periodic table.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 877.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Periodic Patterns (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1053-1056)  Michael Laing
Unique organization of the periodic table.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 877.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Electronic Structure Principles and Atomic Shell Structure  P. K. Chattaraj and B. Maiti
Discussion of the relationship between shell structure and stability in atoms on the basis of quantities such as hardness and electronegativity.
Chattaraj, P. K.; Maiti, B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 811.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An Idea Whose Time Has Come?
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1718-1722)  David E. Lewis
Unoccupied orbitals as the major arbiters of reactivity have been long ignored in teaching introductory organic chemistry courses.
Lewis, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 727.
Covalent Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
MO Theory
An Idea Whose Time Has Come?
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1718-1722)  William B. Jensen
Past classifications related to the nine-category classification of organic electrophilic-nucleophilic reactions based on the bonding and symmetry characteristics of the reactants' frontier orbitals of the author.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 727.
Covalent Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
MO Theory
An Idea Whose Time Has Come?
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1718-1722)  William B. Jensen
Past classifications related to the nine-category classification of organic electrophilic-nucleophilic reactions based on the bonding and symmetry characteristics of the reactants' frontier orbitals of the author.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 727.
Covalent Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
MO Theory
Screening Percentages Based on Slater Effective Nuclear Charge as a Versatile Tool for Teaching Periodic Trends  Kimberley A. Waldron, Erin M. Fehringer, Amy E. Streeb, Jennifer E. Trosky, and Joshua J. Pearson
Using charge shielding to identify and explain trends within the periodic table.
Waldron, Kimberley A.; Fehringer, Erin M.; Streeb, Amy E.; Trosky, Jennifer E.; Pearson, Joshua J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 635.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Using History to Teach Scientific Method: The Role of Errors  Carmen J. Giunta
This paper lists five kinds of error with examples of each from the development of chemistry in the 18th and 19th centuries: erroneous theories (phlogiston), seeing a new phenomenon everywhere one seeks it (Lavoisier and the decomposition of water), theories erroneous in detail but nonetheless fruitful (Dalton's atomic theory), rejection of correct theories (Avogadro's hypothesis), and incoherent insights (J. A. R. Newlands' classification of the elements).
Giunta, Carmen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 623.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Stoichiometry
A Chemical Matching Test  Daniel T. Haworth
Matching definitions with well-known elements, terms, and items.
Haworth, Daniel T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 466.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Logic vs Misconceptions in Undergraduate Organic Textbooks: Radical Stabilities and Bond Dissociation Energies  Andreas A. Zavitsas
Undergraduate textbooks for organic chemistry relate alkyl radical stability to homolytic bond dissociation energy of the corresponding alkane. This practice is misleading, grossly overestimates the stability of the radicals relative to methyl, and leads to values that are not transferable to other molecules. Defining alkyl radical relative stabilization energies in terms of BDE[R-Me] and use of Pauling's electronegativity equation solves the problem.
Zavitsas, Andreas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 417.
Covalent Bonding |
Free Radicals |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics
Investigating the Adiabatic Approximation in Quantum Mechanics through the Analysis of Two Coupled Harmonic Oscillators  Anne B. McCoy
The nature of the adiabatic approximation is investigated. This approximation is at the center of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, commonly employed in the construction of molecular potentials.
McCoy, Anne B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 401.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
Fast Ionic Migration of Copper Chromate  Adolf Cortel
Among the many demonstrations of ionic migration in an electric field, the ones showing the migration of colored Cu+2 and CrO4-2 ions are popular. The demonstration described here introduces some modifications to allow a fast displacement of these ions.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 207.
Covalent Bonding |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Bond Strength in Transition Metals  David Tudela
Discussion of periodic trends for bond strength in transition metals.
Tudela, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1410.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantitative Analysis |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Metallic Bonding
More about A Living Periodic Table  James L. Marshall

Marshall, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1119.
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
More about A Living Periodic Table  James L. Marshall
The cover of the August 2000 issue featured mineral samples associated with elements on the left side of the periodic table. Readers may be interested in the following information about the minerals pictured.
Marshall, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1119.
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Learning about Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical Bonds: A Case Study of Multiple-Model Use  William R. Robinson
A report from the journal Science Education focusing on the Harrison and Treagust article Learning about Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical Bonds: A Case Study.
Robinson, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1110.
Learning Theories |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
A Simplified Mathematical Model for Calculating the Lattice Energies of Binary Group I and Group II Ionic Compounds: Using Solver to Estimate the Empirical Constants  Alan Carter
A simplified mathematical model for calculating the Lattice energies of binary Group I and II ionic compounds; using Solver to estimate the empirical constants.
Carter, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1081.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry
Should Gaseous BF3 and SiF4 Be Described as Ionic Compounds?  Arne Haaland, Trygve Helgaker, Kenneth Ruud, and D. J. Shorokhov
Analysis suggesting that representing BF3 and SiF3 as ionic compounds may be misleading.
Haaland, Arne; Helgaker, Trygve; Ruud, Kenneth; Shorokhov, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1076.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Significant Figures, the Periodic Table, and Mass Spectrometry: The Challenge of Large Biomolecules  Nancy Carter Dopke, Paul M. Treichel, and Martha M. Vestling
The number of significant figures required for meaningful mass spectrometric data for biomolecules is considered. Both resolution and calibration issues are addressed.
Dopke, Nancy Carter; Treichel, Paul M., Jr.; Vestling, Martha M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1065.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Proteins / Peptides
Understanding Trends in C-H, N-H, and O-H Bond Dissociation Enthalpies  K. U. Ingold and J. S. Wright
Trends in bond dissociation enthalpies are discussed in terms of a number of concepts useful in advanced organic chemistry courses, including electronegativity, bond length, orbital overlap, unpaired electron delocalization by conjugation and hyperconjugation, and radical stabilization energy.
Ingold, K. U.; Wright, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1062.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Ionization Energies, Parallel Spins, and the Stability of Half-Filled Shells  Peter Cann
Three methods for explaining the decrease in first ionization energies between group V and group VI elements are described and commented upon. The quantum mechanical origin of the unhelpful concept of half-shell stability is explained in terms of exchange energy, for which the alternative term parallel spin avoidance factor is suggested. It is recommended that for pre-university students the simplest explanation, in terms of Coulombic repulsion between two electrons occupying the same orbital, is adopted: it involves fewer difficult concepts than the other explanations and its predictions are no less accurate.
Cann, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1056.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Periodic Patterns  Geoffrey Rayner-Canham
There are more relationships among the elements than those by group or period. This paper provides an overview of the different patterns, including the diagonal relationship, the (n) group and (n + 10) group similarities, the "knight's move" relationship, the early actinoid relationship, and compounds that imitate elements.
Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1053.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
A Living Periodic Table  James L. Marshall
A complete "living" periodic table of samples of all the elements through uranium is described. In many instances a sample of an element is accompanied by a direct commercial application. This periodic table is very helpful in enabling the student to gain a hands-on understanding of the true nature of the elements--as opposed to the more usual compilation of mere abstract data.
Marshall, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 979.
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 4: Abstract of Special Issue 25 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen, Gordon Bain, Kara Bruce, and John W. Moore
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 4 is the fourth in a series of CD-ROMs for Macintosh and Windows computers. Volume 4 contains two main topics, Reactions in Aqueous Solution and Reactions of the Elements.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Bain, Gordon; Bruce, Kara; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 799.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry
The Antibonding Effect  Derek W. Smith
It is shown that the consequence of filling both a bonding molecular orbital (MO) and its antibonding counterpart leads to a total orbital energy greater than that of the separated atoms.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 780.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Theoretical Chemistry
Essential Trends in Inorganic Chemistry (by D. M. P. Mingos)  reviewed by David A. Phillips

Phillips, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 567.
Quantum Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Philosophy of Chemistry--A New Interdisciplinary Field?  Eric R. Scerri
This article discusses recent developments in this new interdisciplinary field, including work on the alleged reduction of chemistry to quantum mechanics, the role of models, naive realism, and the question of molecular structure. It is argued that as chemistry continues to grow in sophistication, these and other conceptual issues become increasingly important to chemical educators at all levels.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 522.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Elementary "Who Am I" Riddles  R. Aldrin Denny, R. Lakshmi, H. Chitra, and Nandini Devi
Elementary riddles that highlight some properties of elements and their compounds and may provide a change of pace in a freshman chemistry lecture or in a quiz.
Denny, R. Aldrin; Lakshmi, R.; Chitra, H.; Devi, Nandini. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 477.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Rolling Periodic Table  Daniel Dreyfuss
A high school science teachers paints the periodic table on his car.
Dreyfuss, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 434.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
News from Online: The Power of the Voice  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Useful online chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 299.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Gases
The Periodic Round Table (by Gary Katz)  reviewed by Glen E. Rodgers
The "table" consists of four sets of two finely finished hardwood discs each with the elemental symbols and their corresponding atomic numbers pleasingly and symmetrically wood-burned into their faces.
Rodgers, Glen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 164.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry  
The Royal Swedish Academy has awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed H. Zewail (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy".
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 14.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding
A Comment on Molecular Geometry   Frank J. Gomba
A method of determining the correct molecular geometry of simple molecules and ions with one central atom is proposed. While the usual method of determining the molecular geometry involves first drawing the Lewis structure, this method can be used without doing so. In fact, the Lewis structure need not be drawn at all. The Lewis structure may be drawn as the final step, with the geometry of the simple molecule or ion already established.
Gomba, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1732.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Organizing Organic Reactions: The Importance of Antibonding Orbitals  David E. Lewis
It is proposed that unoccupied molecular orbitals arbitrate much organic reactivity, and that they provide the basis for a reactivity-based system for organizing organic reactions. Such a system is proposed for organizing organic reactions according to principles of reactivity, and the system is discussed with examples of the frontier orbitals involved.
Lewis, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1718.
Covalent Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
MO Theory
A Guide to the Elements, Rev. Edition (by Albert Stwertka)  reviewed by Daniel Berger
Stwertka's compilation is intended to be a middle-school and high-school reference book.
Berger, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1628.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
In Defense of the Metallic Bond  John J. Gilman
This paper is a rebuttal of the suggestion that the term "metallic bond" be stricken from the chemist's lexicon. The argument of the critics of current usage is that the metallic bond is simply a special case of the covalent bond and that it can be discussed adequately in terms of molecular orbital theory.
Gilman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1330.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Metals |
Solid State Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Conductivity
Raman Spectroscopy of Symmetric Oxyanions  Matthew G. Comstock and Jeffrey A. Gray
An affordable modular Raman spectrometer and its application to a study of symmetric oxyanions in aqueous solution. This experiment and a parallel investigation by computer modeling are intended for use in an undergraduate physical chemistry course.
Comstock, Matthew G.; Gray, Jeffrey A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1272.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
The Quantum Mechanical Explanation of the Periodic System (author's reply)  Scerri, Eric R.
Relationship between the periodic table and quantum mechanics.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1189.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
The Quantum Mechanical Explanation of the Periodic System  Emerson, Kenneth
Relationship between the periodic table and quantum mechanics.
Emerson, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1189.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
Chemical Bonding as a Superposition Phenomenon  Frank Weinhold
The characteristic phenomena of chemistry-covalent and coordinate bonding, resonance delocalization, aromaticity, H-bonding, hyperconjugation-can also be seen as special cases of a central superposition paradigm: the "donor-acceptor" interaction between filled and unfilled orbitals.
Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
In Search of a Deep Understanding of Cu2+/0 and Zn2+/0 E° Values  Steven H. Strauss
This paper presents an example of an interesting way to introduce periodic trends in undergraduate inorganic chemistry courses. The student, guided by the instructor, "investigates" the significantly different M2+/0 E values for two adjacent period 4 elements, copper and zinc, as though the investigation were a research project.
Strauss, Steven H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1095.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Experience of Chemical Education in Russia: How to Attract the Young Generation to Chemistry under Conditions of "Chemophobia"  S. S. Berdonosov, N. E. Kuzmenko, and B. I. Kharisov
Actual problems of chemical education in Russia are discussed from the viewpoint of attracting promising young people to the chemical institutions of the country.
Berdonosov, S. S.; Kuzmenko, N. E.; Kharisov, Boris I. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1086.
Learning Theories |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters  
Better treatment of the inner transition elements.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1064.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Inner Transition Elements
The Use of Molecular Modeling and VSEPR Theory in the Undergraduate Curriculum to Predict the Three-Dimensional Structure of Molecules  Brian W. Pfennig and Richard L. Frock
Despite the simplicity and elegance of the VSEPR model, however, students often have difficulty visualizing the three-dimensional shapes of molecules and learning the more subtle features of the model, such as the bond length and bond angle deviations from ideal geometry that accompany the presence of lone pair or multiple bond domains or that result from differences in the electronegativity of the bonded atoms, partial charges and molecular dipole moments, and site preferences in the trigonal bipyramidal electron geometry.
Pfennig, Brian W.; Frock, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1018.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
Lewis Structures Are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure  Gordon H. Purser
This article argues against a close relationship between Lewis dot structures and electron structure obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. Lewis structures are a powerful tool for structure prediction, though they are classical models of bonding and do not predict electronic structure.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1013.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling
An Improved Interpretation of the Woodward-Hoffmann Rules  Robert T. Patterson
This article provides an interpretation of these rules within the framework of group theory and illustrating what these rules imply about reactivity using potential energy surfaces. As a result of this presentation one can begin to appreciate how the W-H rules are connected not only to transition state theory but also to the concepts of resonance and topology.
Patterson, Robert T. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1002.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
The Best of Chem 13 News  Kathy Thorsen
Chemistry demonstrations, density, and significant figures.
Thorsen, Kathy. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 884.
Physical Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Comparison of Stretching Force Constants in Symmetry Coordinates between Td and C3v Point Groups  Maureen M. Julian
In this paper we consider what happens to the force constants of a silicate moiety (SiO4) when the length of one of its bonds is changed. This situation exists in the molecule O3SiObrSiO3, where Obr is the bridging oxygen atom connecting the two SiO3 moieties.
Julian, Maureen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 679.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Covalent Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
Hydrogen Bonds Involving Transition Metal Centers Acting As Proton Acceptors  Antonio Martín
A short review of the most remarkable results which have recently reported M----H-X hydrogen bonds, along with a systematization of their structural and spectroscopic properties, is provided in this paper. These M----H interactions are substantially different from the "agostic" M----H ones, and their differences are commented on, setting up criteria that permit their clear differentiation in order to avoid some of the misidentifications that occurred in the past.
Tello, Antonio Martín. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 578.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Hydrogen Bonding
Periodic Puns for the Classroom  Paul E. Vorndam
Some puns on the names of the elements are presented.
Vorndam, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 492.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Learning Theories
The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide (by Robert E. Krebs)  reviewed by Jeffrey D. Bracken
This book is an excellent resource for chemical educators at the high school and college levels. The format of the text is consistent and the writing style is clear and concise, making it ideally suited for student use also.
Bracken, Jeffrey D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 475.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Geochemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry
Periodic Table Live! 2nd Edition  Alton J. Banks, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, John C. Kotz, and Susan Young
Description of the JCE CD Periodic Table Live! 2nd Edition.
Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 447.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Pictorial Approach to Molecular Orbital Bonding in Polymers: Non-Mathematical but Honest  Gordon J. Miller and John G. Verkade
The generator orbital (GO) approach is a useful tool for teaching students how to visualize, pictorially, the MO's in a wide assortment of discrete organic, organometallic, metal complex, and cluster molecules possessing a variety of structures. We describe a novel and useful extension of this non-mathematical but honest learning concept to a timely and important class of molecules, namely, polymers. Two examples are treated by our pictorial method: one is s-bonded polyethylene and the other is p-conjugated polyacetylene.
Miller, Gordon J.; Verkade, John G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 428.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry
A Way To Predict the Relative Stabilities of Structural Isomers  John M. Lyon
This paper discusses a method to evaluate the relative stabilities of structural isomers of inorganic and organic compounds. The method uses a simple set of rules that can be applied with only a knowledge of the electron configuration of the atoms and the periodic trends in atomic size.
Lyon, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 364.
Covalent Bonding |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Different Approach to a 3-D Periodic System Including Stable Isotopes  Alexandru T. Balaban
On a Periodic System with the two dimensions represented by Periods and Columns, one may stack each stable nuclide of an element along the third dimension. This "Downtown Area" representation is helpful for interconnecting concepts of: element, isotope or nuclide (stable vs. radioactive), atomic weight, atomic number, mass number.
Balaban, Alexandru T. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 359.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Periodic Tables of Elemental Abundance  Steven I. Dutch
Patterns of element abundance in the sun, chondrite meteorites, and the continental crust of the earth and the moon are portrayed on a periodic table. The abundance of each element is represented by a circle whose radius is proportional to the logarithm of the element's abundance.
Dutch, Steven I. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 356.
Astrochemistry |
Geochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding (the authors reply)  Bacskay, George; Reimers, Jeffrey; Nordholm, Sture.
Delocalization is the key to understanding covalent bonding.
Bacskay, George; Reimers, Jeffrey; Nordholm, Sture. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 319.
Valence Bond Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding  Hoganson, Curtis
Describing H2 by spin-coupled valence-bond theory.
Hoganson, Curtis J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 318.
Valence Bond Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
Especially for High School Teachers  J. Emory Howell
Articles of interest to high school chemistry teachers.
Howell, J. Emory. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 295.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The "Big Dog-Puppy Dog" Analogy for Resonance  Todd P. Silverstein
In this analogy, puppy dogs are restricted to a specific dog run; they represent s-bond electron pairs. Big dogs are allowed to roam freely over several consecutive dog runs; they represent delocalized p-bond electron pairs. By adding a bunny rabbit who is chased by the big dog, the analogy can be expanded to account for delocalized formal charge in a resonance hybrid.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 206.
Covalent Bonding |
Learning Theories |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Why Gold and Copper Are Colored but Silver Is Not  Ariel H. Guerrero, Héctor J. Fasoli, and José Luis Costa
Interpretation of the yellow color of gold based on an adequate external electronic configuration (s1d10/s2d9) and s and d sublevels close enough to allow transition between them to proceed significantly.
Guerrero, Ariel H.; Fasoli, Hctor J.; Costa, Jos Luis. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 200.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Descriptive Chemistry
The Gravity of the Situation  Damon Diemente
This article presents a few calculations demonstrating that gravitational attraction between atoms is many orders of magnitude weaker than the gravitational attraction between Earth and an atom, and that the gravitational attraction between two ions is many orders of magnitude weaker than the electromagnetic attraction between them.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 55.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Cinderella Story Revisited-Again  Kathryn R. Williams and Gardiner H. Myers
The January 1925 issue of the Journal contains a delightful play, The Cinderella of Metals, based on the chemistry of the group IA and IB elements. The play, which was produced by a 4th-grade class in Chicago, follows the Cinderella theme with Copper as the central character. An updated version of the play has been staged by a group of would-be playwrights and actors at the University of Florida.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Myers, Gardiner H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 19.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Natural Selection of the Chemical Elements (by R. J. P. Williams and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva)  George B. Kauffman
A book whose ambitious objective is "to show the relationship of every kind of material around us, living and nonliving, to the properties of the chemical elements of the periodic table." The entire book possesses a strong environmental and interdisciplinary emphasis.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1559.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
How Good Is the Quantum Mechanical Explanation of the Periodic System?  Eric R. Scerri
The use of quantum mechanics, or more specifically, orbitals and electronic configurations in teaching general chemistry is now such a widespread trend that it would be utterly futile to try to reverse it. Moreover, orbitals and configurations have been extremely useful in providing a theoretical framework for the unification of a multitude of chemical facts.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1384.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
From Past Issues: The More Things Change...  
Topics of interest from past issues of the Journal.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1194.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An Alternative Framework for Chemical Bonding  William R. Robinson
Recent, qualitative research in science education has uncovered many nave or incorrect ideas about aspects of science commonly held by students and others at all levels. This article discusses how misconceptions can cluster and compound.
Robinson, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1074.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Covalent and Ionic Molecules: Why Are BeF2 and AlF3 High Melting Point Solids whereas BF3 and SiF4 Are Gases?  Ronald J. Gillespie
Calculated ionic charges show that BF3 and SiF4 are predominately ionic molecules yet in contrast to BeF2 and AlF3 they exist as gases at room temperature and form molecular solids rather than infinite three-dimensional "ionic" solids at low temperature. Whether or not ionic molecules form a three-dimensional infinite ionic lattice or a molecular solid depends more on relative atomic (ionic) sizes than on the nature of the bonding in the isolated molecule.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 923.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solids |
Gases |
Ionic Bonding
A Simple Qualitative Molecular-Orbital/Valence-Bond Description of the Bonding in Main Group "Hypervalent" Molecules  Owen J. Curnow
A multicenter valence-bond/molecular-orbital bonding scheme for main group "hypervalent" molecules is proposed which extends the 3-center-4-electron (3c-4e) bonding model of Rundle and Pimentel to include 4c-6e, 5c-8e, and 6c-10e bonds. This model allows the determination of bond orders and a rationalisation of bond distances.
Curnow, Owen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 910.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Simple Molecular Orbital Treatment of the Barrier to Internal Rotation in the Ethane Molecule  Derek W. Smith
The origin of the barrier to internal rotation in the ethane molecule is explored in terms of elementary molecular orbital (MO) considerations. Emphasis is placed on the antibonding effect, i.e. the result that an antibonding MO is more destabilized than its bonding counterpart is stabilized, relative to the parent atomic orbitals (AOs). It is shown that, in the case of two equivalent AOs, this effect is approximately proportional to the square of the overlap integral.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 907.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Stereochemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Hybridization and Structural Properties: A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  Michael D. Mosher and Sunil Ojha
An advanced physical organic chemistry experiment requiring student use of 1H-NMR and/or 13C-NMR spectra is described. The experiment is used in concert with discussions about hybridization and molecular structure, as it relates the %s character of the hybridized carbon of a C-H bond.
Mosher, Michael D.; Ojha, Sunil. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 888.
Instrumental Methods |
Covalent Bonding |
NMR Spectroscopy
Multiply Bonded Main Group Metals and Metalloids (edited by Robert West and F. Gordon A. Stone)  Paul S. Poskozim
As expected, the book places emphasis on silicon chemistry, with individual chapters devoted to Si=E, (E = Si, disilenes; C, silenes; N, iminosilanes; and P, As, phospha- and arsa-silenes). Other chapters cover double bonds in germanium and tin chemistry, boron-carbon multiple bonds, and multiple bonding involving heavier group 13 elements. Group 15 is represented in a chapter largely devoted to heterobenzenes C5R5E' (E' = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) complexed with iron in ferrocene fashion.
Poskozim, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 698.
Metals |
Covalent Bonding |
Metalloids / Semimetals
In Defense of Quantum Numbers  Robert M. Richman
A recent paper has argued that the derivation of the periodic table using quantum numbers is a topic that should be eliminated from introductory chemistry courses because it is too abstract, mysterious, and esoteric. A rebuttal is offered based on the claim that it would be wrong to omit discussions of the inductive approach of Mendeleev and the deductive approach initiated by Schroedinger, because they compose the consummate example of that interaction of empirical and rational epistemologies that defines how chemists think.
Richman, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 536.
Learning Theories |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
Lavoisier Preempted Gay-Lussac by 20 Years!  Michael Laing
Lavoisier recognized that it takes two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen to form water 20 years before Gay-Lussac studied reactions between different gases.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 177.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Demonstrations on Paramagnetism with an Electronic Balance  Adolf Cortel
The demonstration shows the paramagnetism of common inorganic compounds by measuring the force with which they are attracted by a magnet over the plate of an electronic balance.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 61.
Magnetic Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The Basics of Covalent Bonding  Jeffrey R. Reimers, George B. Bacskay, and Sture Nordholm
Through a study of the hydrogen atom, hydrogen molecule ion, and hydrogen molecule, The Basics of Covalent Bonding explores the basic principles of atomic structure and covalent chemical bonding. The range and diversity of the problems addressed and the extensive set of help-pages make the program a suitable pedagogical aid at both introductory and advanced levels of undergraduate study.
Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Bacskay, George G.; Nordholm, Sture. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1503.
Covalent Bonding
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding  George B. Bacskay, Jeffrey R. Reimers, and Sture Nordholm
In this paper we reexamine the mechanism of covalent bonding, specifically with a view to its teaching, that starts with quantum theory and the interpretation of its predictions, such as electronic delocalization and the concomitant lowering of the electronic energy as bonding occurs. Indeed, delocalization is shown to be the central mechanism of covalent bond formation. These ideas are discussed in detail in the context of the simplest molecules: H2+ and H2.
Bacskay, George G.; Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Nordholm, Sture. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1494.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Electron-Counting Rules for Transition Metal-Nitric Oxide Complexes  Anthony W. Addison
An electron-counting scheme is presented for metal nitrosyls, based generally on the eighteen-electron rule. Square-pyramidal 4d- and 5d-transition metal nitrosyls obey a sixteen-electron rule. The stereochemistry of the coordinated NO may thus be correlated with the overall electron configurations of the complexes.
Addison, Anthony W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1354.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements
Pi-Electron Delocatlization in Organic Molecules with C-N Bonds  Vernon G. S. Box and Hing Wan Yu
Molecular modeling can provide great stimulation to the pedagogical process if students and teachers use this tool to examine the structural aspects of organic molecules whose structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography. An example of this is provided by one of our undergraduate research projects that examined delocalization in p-systems.
Box, Vernon G. S.; Yu, Hing Wan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1293.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
X-ray Crystallography
Letter to the Editor about "Swedish Chemists and Discovery of the Elements" by Volker Thomsen (J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 937)  Claudio Gutierrez
Spain discovered three, not one element.
Gutierrez, Claudio. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1152.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letter to the Editor about "Swedish Chemists and Discovery of the Elements" by Volker Thomsen (J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 937)  Stephen J. Hawkes
Britain discovered 23 elements.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1152.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  William B. Jensen
It is argued that the best translation of the term "chalcogen" is "ore former." It is further suggested that the term chalcogenide should be replaced with the term chalcide in order to maintain a parallelism with the terms halogen and halide.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1063.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
The Periodic Building of the Elements: Can a Periodic Table Be Transformed into a Stereo One?  Fu-cheng He, Xiang-yuan Li
A periodic table of any size can be transformed into a stereo model which is called the Periodic Building of the Elements (PBE). To construct the PBE a submodel of the main group and the transition elements should be made in advance, and then a submodel of the lanthanides and the actinides is made in a simple procedure. The whole model is obtained by simply combining these two submodels together.
He, Fu-cheng; Li, Xiang-yuan . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 792.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
A Guide to the Elements by Albert Stwertka  reviewed by Daniel Berger
A middle-school and high-school reference book.
Berger, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 627.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Periodic Table Live! Abstract of Special Issue 17  Alton J. Banks, Jon L. Holmes, John C. Kotz, Susan Young, Paul F. Schatz, John W. Moore
Periodic Table Live! combines on a single CD-ROM the digital video from the Periodic Table CD (1) with the graphical and descriptive databases of the elements from the Illustrated Periodic Table (2) and Chemistry Navigator (3) to form a unified, easy-to-use, dynamic tour of the periodic table. Also the Chemistry Navigator and Illustrated Periodic Table upgrades.
Banks, Alton J.; Holmes Jon L.; Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan; Schatz, Paul F.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 445.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Three Programs for DOS: Abstract of Volume 10B, Number 1 2. Periodic Table Games  John S. Martin
The Periodic Table Games are intended to expose students to the vocabulary of chemistry: formulas, combination rules, and descriptive chemistry. They may be played by an individual against the computer, or by several competing players.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 346.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Die Chemischen Elemente: Ein Streifzug durch das Periodensystem by Lucien F. Trueb  reviewed by George B. Kauffman
A Ramble through the Periodic System is divided into two parts: Part I, "The Conception of the Elements and the Periodic System" (14 pp), and Part II, "The Elements" (381 pp). The first considers the idea of the elements from Democritus to Lavoisier, the discovery and development of the periodic system, and the origin of the elements, including nucleosynthesis. The second, consisting of 23 chapters, describes each of the elements from hydrogen and its isotopes (16 pp) to the heaviest of the known transactinides (element 112).
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 344.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Activity Series of Metals (2)  Tudela, David
Some mistakes and inaccurate generalizations in the original article.
Tudela, David J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A225.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Activity Series of Metals (1)  Arniz, Francisco J.
Suggested refinements in the original article for those who choose to use it in their classroom.
Arniz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A225.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Kingdom: A Journey into the Land of the Chemical Elements (Atkins, P.W.)  Kauffman, George B.
P. W. Atkins, lecturer in physical chemistry at Oxford University and the author of more than 20 books, introduces the periodic table in a unique and ingenious manner.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A177.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Role of Electrostatic Effects in Organic Chemistry  Kenneth B. Wiberg
Electrostatic effects on the properties of organic compounds are reviewed to demonstrate the importance of electronegativity differences between the atoms forming a bond. Bond dissociation energies are generally found to increase as the electronegativity difference increases, and the bonds have increased ionic character.
Wiberg, Kenneth B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1089.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
NMR Shielding and the Periodic Table  I. P. Gerothanassis and C. G. Kalodimos
The object of this article is to find periodic, structurally significant observables that can be correlated to the nuclear shielding or alternatively to investigate whether chemical shift can be used to intensify the periodic disposition of valence electrons.
Gerothanassis, I. P.; Kalodimos, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 801.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Instrumental Methods
Interactive Computer Visualization in the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum  Victoria M. Bragin
This project explores the use of technological innovations to facilitate learning in introductory chemistry courses by those with a poor academic background, while also challenging those prepared to master the curriculum.
Bragin, Victoria M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 747.
Gases |
Rate Law |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry
Electronic Configuration Pattern Found in Pascal's Triangle  Robert L. Duncan
A simple method for revealing the electronic configuration pattern within Pascal's Triangle is discussed. The origin of this unique pattern may be part of a combinatoric and is suggested a link may be made to quantum mechanics. Based on this triangular array an alternate representation of the Periodic Table is presented.
Duncan, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 742.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
SIRS: Simulations and Interactive Resources, III  Martin, John S.
Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) are designed to support interactive lectures in introductory chemistry. This third issue of SIRs includes five new SIRs as well as updated and final versions of all previously published SIRs.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 722.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Ionization Energies, Electronegativity, Polar Bonds, and Partial Charges  James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie
Ionization energies obtained experimentally from photoelectron spectroscopy provide a convenient and simple method for obtaining electronegativity values that correlate well with the standard methods of Pauling, Allred, and Rochow.
James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 627.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Bonding and Molecular Geometry without Orbitals- The Electron Domain Model  Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog
An alternative to the conventional valence bond approach to bonding and geometry-the electron domain model-is presented. This approach avoids some of the problems with the standard approach and presents fewer difficulties for the student, while still providing a physical basis for the VSEPR model and a link to the valence bond model.
Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 622.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Group Project Format in First-Semester General Chem Lab  Theresa C. Varco-Shea, Jeanne Darlington, and Marilyn Turnbull
Recent changes in the laboratory portion of our general chemistry course have included group projects, writing reports, and oral presentations.
Varco-Shea, Theresa C.; Darlington, Jeanne; Turnbull, Marilyn. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 536.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Why the 4s Orbital Is Occupied before the 3d  Melvyn P. Melrose and Eric R. Scerri
It is demonstrated that the difference between the total energies of two electronic configurations can be expressed as an orbital energy difference, provided that the configurations differ only in the assignment of one electron and that each of the energies of the differentiating orbitals corresponds to an ionization energy in its own configuration.
Melrose Melvyn; Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 498.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Why Don't Water and Oil Mix?  Katia Pravia and David F. Maynard
To develop an understanding of the molecular interactions of polar and nonpolar molecules, we have developed two simple and extremely useful overhead projection demonstrations that help students conceptualize the solubility rules.
Katia Pravia and David F. Maynard. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 497.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Mendeleev and Moseley: The Principal Discoverers of the Periodic Law  George Gorin
It has been asserted that as many as six persons should be regarded as "co-discoverers" of the Periodic Law, but it is also generally acknowledged that their respective contributions were not equal. In 1912-14 Moseley made a very significant experimental and theoretical contribution to the question.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 490.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
CAI for Chemistry  Lesile Glasser, John D. Bradley, George Brink, and Pam van Zyl
These six programs provide an opportunity for interactive practice of general chemistry material.
Glasser, L.; Bradley, J. D.; Brink, G.; van Zyl, P. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 323.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Role of Electron-Density Transfer and Electronegativity in Understanding Chemical Reactivity and Bonding  Russell S. Drago and Ngai M. Wong
The Electrostatic-Covalent-Transfer, ECT, model provides a fit of bond energies for a large data base whose accuracy for the full data set exceeds that of any other reported approach.
Drago, Russell S.; Wong, Ngai M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 123.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Chemical Elements Bingo  Silvia Tejeda and Joaquin Palacios
A game designed to help students understand the periodic table and periodicity.
Tejada, Silvia; Palacios, Joaquin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1115.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Topology: The Ins and Outs of Molecular Structure  Dennis K. Mitchell and Jean-Claude Chambron
Using models of macromolecules to develop and broaden an understanding of bonding and structure; includes many examples of molecules of topological interest.
Mitchell, Dennis K.; Chambron, Jean-Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1059.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Covalent Bonding
A Mnemonic Method for Assigning the Electronic Configurations of Atoms  Nerea Iza and Manuel Gil
An algorithm for determining electronic configurations.
Iza, Nerea; Gil, Manuel. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1025.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Moseley's Work on X-Rays and Atomic Number  C. W. Haigh
Explanation of the relationship between Moseley's work in determining atomic numbers, the spectrum of the hydrogen atom, the Bohr theory, and Slater's rules for screening constants.
Haigh, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1012.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Lewis Structures of Oxygen Compounds of 3p-5p Nonmetals  Darel K. Straub
Procedure for writing Lewis structures of oxygen compounds of 3p-5p nonmetals.
Straub, Darel K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 889.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
Demonstrating a Lack of Reactivity Using a Teflon-Coated Pan  Thomas G. Richmond
Demonstration to illustrate a lack of chemical activity using a Teflon-coated pan.
Richmond, Thomas G.; Krause, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 731.
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding
An Introductory Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment   Kenneth R. Hess, Wendy D. Smith, Marcus W. Thomsen, and Claude H. Yoder
An activity designed to introduce IR spectroscopy as a structure-determining technique to introductory chemistry students.
Hess, Kenneth R.; Smith, Wendy D.; Thomsen, Marcus W.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 655.
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Chemical Bond Studied by IR Spectroscopy in Introductory Chemistry: An Exercise in Cooperative Learning  Janet S. Anderson, David M. Hayes, and T. C. Werner
Activity that enables introductory chemistry students to run their own IR spectra using a FTIR spectrophotometer as part of learning about the dynamical nature of the chemical bond.
Anderson, Janet S.; Hayes, David M.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 653.
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
First-Year Chemistry in the Context of the Periodic Table   Sheila D. Woodgate
Integration of descriptive chemistry into chemistry curricula, particularly inorganic chemistry.
Woodgate, Sheila D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 618.
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State |
Acids / Bases
Common Textbook and Teaching Misrepresentations of Lewis Structures   Laila Suidan, Jay K. Badenhoop, Eric D. Glendening, and Frank Weinhold
Clarifying leading Lewis structures using computational software.
Suidan, Laila; Badenhoop, Jay K.; Glendening, Eric D.; Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 583.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Resonance Analogy Using Cartoon Characters  Starkey, Ronald
Using Charlie Brown and Dennis the Menace as an analogy for resonance hybrids (specifically benzene).
Starkey, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 542.
Covalent Bonding |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis Structures of Boron Compounds Involving Multiple Bonding  Straub, Darel K.
Considers evidence for multiple bonding in boron compounds and supposed exceptions to the octet rule.
Straub, Darel K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 494.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding
Bond Energy Data Summarized  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
A periodic table that summarizes a variety of bond energy information.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 423.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
The Periodic Table CD  Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L.
Description of the Periodic Table CD, containing a database of still images and motion sequences of reactions and uses/applications of each chemical element.
Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 409.
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
A Quantitative van Arkel Diagram  Jensen, William B.
Using van Arkel diagrams to schematically represent relationships between ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 395.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Presenting the Periodic System with Pictures  Bolmgren, Ingmari
Simulating Mendeleev's development of the periodic table by organizing colored cardboard circles.
Bolmgren, Ingmari J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 337.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements
The Periodic Table Video Disk: Second Edition  Banks, Alton J.
A database of visual information about the chemical elements.
Banks, Alton J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 126.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Studying Activity Series of Metals: Using Deep-Learning Strategies  Hoon, Tien-Ghun; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai
Uses a unit of the activity series of metals to demonstrate the teaching of the interrelationships between chemical concepts by linking new information to previously known material.
Hoon, Tien-Ghun; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 51.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Electronegativities of the Noble Gases  Meek, Terry L.
Analysis of various techniques for determining electronegativity values for the noble gases.
Meek, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 17.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Gases
Periodic Trends for the Entropy of Elements  Thoms, Travis
Graphical representation and explanation for periodic trends in the entropy of elements.
Thoms, Travis J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 16.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Thermodynamics |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements
The Illustrated Periodic Table  Kotz, John C.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.
The Illustrated Periodic Table provides means for exploring the properties of chemical elements using a graphics-oriented environment.
Kotz, John C.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1063.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table of Atoms: Arranging the Elements by a Different Set of Rules  Treptow, Richard S.
The periodic table found in this paper is based on the properties of free gaseous atoms rather than atoms in a chemical environment.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1007.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Ropes: A Molecular Polarity Activity   Bindel, Thomas H.; Smiley, Timothy C.
This article describes a concrete example of how electronegativity relates to chemical bonding.
Bindel, Thomas H.; Smiley, Timothy C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 945.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
VSEPR Theory
Chemistry Navigator  Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan
Chemistry Navigator is a hyperbook-database of information in the form of descriptive text, numerical values of properties, full color photos of chemicals and reactions, three dimensional molecular structures, QuickTime animations of structural features, and graphs showing periodic trends, relative elemental abundances, and other properties.
Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 941.
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Simulations and Interactive Resources  Martin, John S.
12 Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) including Periodic Table Displays, Electron Orbits and Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Barometers and Manometers, Vapor Pressure, Ideal Gas Behavior, Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction, Approach to Equilibrium, The Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Titration Curves, Electrochemical Cells, and Rate of Reaction.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 667.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Rate Law
On Using Incomplete Theories as Cataloging Schemes: Aufbau, Abbau, and VSEPR  Tykodi, R. J.
How to restructure as cataloging schemes the aufbau and abbau procedures for obtaining the ground-state electronic structures of atoms and monatomic ions.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 273.
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Visualization of the Abstract in General Chemistry  Paselk, Richard A.
A series of software programs for beginning chemistry, including a series of modules addressing the fundamental phenomena associated with bonding, the microscopic phenomena underlying commonly observed systems, and a reference periodic table.
Paselk, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 225.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Isomers of Benzene  Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H.
Summary of isomers and valence isomers of benzene.
Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 222.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Covalent Bonding
The Lewis Structure: An Expanded Perspective  Reed, James L.
A simple bridge between the molecular orbital and valence bond models.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 98.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Classifying Substances by Electrical Character: An Alternative to Classifying by Bond Type  Nelson, P. G.
An alternative classification of substances based on their electrical properties.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 24.
Conductivity |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Semiconductors
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chlorine reaction: A student experiment at the microscale level   Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T.
This lab offers a way to integrate the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other valuable instrumental methods.
Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
The Periodic Table and the Human Element (Emsley, John)  Kauffman, George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.
Review of videos centered on personal stories told through the elements.
Kauffman, George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A51.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Using Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements To Study Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding: Calculating the Degree of Association, Equilibrium Constant, and Bond Energy for Hydrogen Bonding in Benzyl Alcohol and Phenol  Frohlich, H.
This paper presents simple IR spectroscopy experiments that the author has used for two years in a third-year course, which covers spectroscopy and binding.
Frohlich, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A3.
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Covalent Bonding
Explosion of nitrogen triiodide: A safer and cleaner demonstration  Hambley, Gordon F.; Peters, Robert
A safer and cleaner demonstration where tedious cleanup is avoided.
Hambley, Gordon F.; Peters, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 943.
Covalent Bonding
Estimation of sp3 valence-state electronegativities for elements of groups V-O  Meek, Terry L.
This article demonstrates the effect of d-orbital participation in chemical bonding.
Meek, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 799.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Nonmetals |
MO Theory
Size of the periodic table: Answering a philosophical question about possibilities and limitations  Huizenga, John R.
Why does our universe contain approximately one hundred elements rather than some other amount?
Huizenga, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 730.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
"Qual": From a different viewpoint  Laing, Michael
Author contends that traditional teaching techniques in inorganic chemistry need to be reconsidered.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 666.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds
Presenting the fun side of the periodic table  Carrado, Kathleen A.
Ideas, activities, and a modified periodic table (visually depicting element abundance) are presented as a way to start getting very young children to make connections to chemistry.
Carrado, Kathleen A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 658.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Electronegativity and bond type: I. Tripartate separation  Sproul, Gordon D.
As a unifying concept of bonding, electronegativity has been widely applied but gets only a limited treatment in most general chemistry texts.
Sproul, Gordon D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 531.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrochemistry
Transformation of chemistry experiments into real world contexts   Bayer, Richard; Hudson, Bud; Schneider, Jane
Some background on the importance of using lasers to teach concepts in general chemistry and examples of demonstrations under development.
Bayer, Richard; Hudson, Bud; Schneider, Jane J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 323.
Lasers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Covalent Bonding
Naming the big ones   Nordstrom, Brian H.
Arguments in favor of naming the transuranium elements after chemists.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 260.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Bleaching with Chlorine: Another Tomato Juice Demonstration   Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W.
Bubbling chlorine gas through tomato juice produces dramatic color changes. This paper provides safe instructions for the demonstration.
Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 154.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Why Low Melting Does Not Indicate Covalency in MX4 Compounds: Examining the Importance of Crystal Structure in the Behavior of Solids  Lingafelter, Edward C.
A summary of the importance of relative ionic sizes and coordination numbers in determining the behavior of solids from prior papers by Pauling and Kossel.
Lingafelter, Edward C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 98.
Solids |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Enrichment / Review Materials
JCE: Software, 1993  Moore, John W.
Highlights include multimedia periodic tables and interactive comparisons of coordination compounds. A video laserdisc called ~Demonstrations in Organic Chemistry~ is also profiled.
Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 62.
Coordination Compounds |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Large Lecture Hall Activity-Writing Your Name "in Chemistry"  Eichstadt, Karen
Authors use the periodic table as a source for finding students names, historical figures, and more, spelled out through the elements as a way to lighten up the end of a long day of intense lecture.
Eichstadt, Karen J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 37.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Dimitri Mendeleyev: Father of the Periodic Table (Films for the Humanities and Sciences)  Kauffman, George B.
This videocassette gives a multifaceted portrait of the periodic table's creator, Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A140.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Elements Beyond Uranium (Seaborg, Glenn T.; Loveland, Walter D.)  Nordstrom, Brian H.
Written to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the discovery of transuranium elements, this book covers all of their aspects.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A34.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Argon-potassium atomic weight inversion in the periodic table.  Arnikar, H. J.
An explanation for the Ar-K inversion in terms of the nuclear characteristics of the naturally occurring isotopes of these elements.
Arnikar, H. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 687.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Geochemistry |
Isotopes
The nature of the chemical bond - 1992  Pauling, Linus
Commentary on errors in an earlier article on the nature of the chemical bond.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 519.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The best Aufbau mnemonic: The periodic table  Ludwig, Oliver G.
Using the periodic table exclusively to rationalize electron assignments has the advantage of emphasizing the experimental aspect of the science and avoids giving the impression that chemistry is nothing but a set of mysterious rules.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Elements and Symbols  Pauline, Ronald R.
This program is basically a tutorial/drill and practice program that enables the student to review material on element names and symbols.
Pauline, Ronald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 400.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Avogadro's number: Surprise!   Bindel, Thomas H.
Show the class how one can arrive at the number of atoms in a gram atomic mass (GAM) of an element when given the x-ray crystallographic data and the procedure outlined here.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 305.
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A chemical literature/periodic table exercise for general chemistry.  Schneider, Marilyn J.
This article describes an exercise where students are assigned an element and asked to research recent work on the element.
Schneider, Marilyn J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 232.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Periodic properties in a family of common semiconductors: Experiments with light emitting diodes  Lisensky, George C.; Penn, Rona; Geselbracht, Margret J.; Ellis, Arthur B.
The prevalence of LED's and their low cost make LED's ideal for classroom demonstrations or laboratory experiments showing the connection between periodic trends in physical/chemical properties and a common high tech device.
Lisensky, George C.; Penn, Rona; Geselbracht, Margret J.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 151.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Semiconductors
KC? Discoverer with Knowledgeable Counselor  Cabrol, Daniel; Moore, John W.; Rittenhouse, Rita C.
KC? Discoverer is a program that permits students and faculty to explore a wide range of properties of the elements and is closely coordinated with the periodic table.
Cabrol, Daniel; Moore, John W.; Rittenhouse, Rita C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 40.
Physical Properties |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
MacMendeleev: A program for exploring the periodic table (Clardy, Jon)  Bertrand, Gary L.
A review for a software program that serves as a database for properties of the elements.
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A291.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties
CHEMAID: Introduction to the periodic table (Ventura Educational Systems)  Horgen, Gordon, K.
A review of three separate, but related software programs that permit students to 1) name and correctly spell the names of elements 2) retrieve information about the elements 3) view locations of families on the periodic table.
Horgen, Gordon, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A157.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The elements, their origin, abundance, and distribution (Cox, P.A.)  Pribula, Alan, J.
A review of a book that is rich with data on the elements.
Pribula, Alan, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A112.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The naming of the elements: An exercise in chemical irenics  King, Murray Vernon
Some humorous suggestions for what to do about the discrepancy between certain chemical names and symbols.
King, Murray Vernon J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1026.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A divertimento on the symbols of the elements  Earl, Boyd L.
Ideas for games using the symbols of the elements.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1011.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A procedure for determining formulas for the simple p-block oxoacids  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
Formulae for p-block oxoacids baffle high school and undergraduate students. This paper presents a procedure for developing these formulas based on the concept of total coordination number of the central atom in the molecule or ion.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Collecting and using the chemical elements  Solomon, Sally; Bates, Donald J.
The Royal Society of Chemistry "Periodic Table of Elements" poster succeeds in attracting the attention of people who walk past it. This paper discusses the assembly of the element display, prices, sources, and handling tips for each element and specific suggestions about how to use the elements in classroom situations.
Solomon, Sally; Bates, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 991.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Element names  Trapp, Dave
A program for the Apple IIgs that presents information on the origins of the names for the chemical elements. Names are grouped into ten categories: property, myth, heaven, color, person, ore, geography, systematic, ancient, and constructed.
Trapp, Dave J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 956.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
KC? Discoverer: Exploring the properties of the chemical elements  Liebel, Michael
This software program allows users to explore a large number of properties of the elements. The program can find all elements associated with a certain property, graph numeric properties against other numeric properties, list elements, sort elements, and use the periodic table to select elements.
Liebel, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 956.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
A short qualitative analysis scheme without hazardous wastes  Petty, John T.
A description of laboratory procedures that utilize the important pedagogy of qualitative analysis schemes while being more safe to perform than the traditional procedures.
Petty, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 942.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The preparation of halogen waters   Diemente, Damon
Aqueous solutions of halogens can provide important demonstrations regarding periodicity, however many instructors are understandably hesitant to handle halogens. This author discusses the safe handling of halogens.
Diemente, Damon J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 932.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A taxonomy of relationships among the elements  Rich, Ronald L.
This paper does not attempt to present the taxonomy of elements themselves, but rather a more abstract taxonomy of the relationships of the elements.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 828.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Important elements  Nelson, P. G.
Reducing effects of relativity and subjectivity by considering elements in a variety of contexts and by seeking a rational measure of their relative importance.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 732.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The electronic periodic chart of the elements   Scerri, Eric R.
A good periodic table highlights periodic trends. Some instructors seem to be too hung up on electron configurations.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 712.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Naming elements   Sencen, Joseph
Element 104 should more properly be called hectoquadium rather than unnilquadium.
Sencen, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 711.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An elementary assignment   Van Doren, Janet B.
Adding descriptive chemistry in an engineering course that also requires students to build communication skills.
Van Doren, Janet B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 711.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A simple laboratory experiment illustrating the relative nature of atomic weights  Huff, Randolph B.; Evans, David W.
The concept of atomic weight scale remains a source of confusion for beginning chemistry students. This paper proposes a simple lab experience that could help students better understand this idea.
Huff, Randolph B.; Evans, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 675.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
So, what can I do for extra credit?  White, Miriam R.
Some projects offered by this author to her secondary school students: "interviewing" the discoverer of an element, top 50 chemicals produced in the US, interviewing a working chemist, and independent experiments.
White, Miriam R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 395.
Industrial Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
How to get more from ionization energies in the teaching of atomic structure  Mirone, Paolo
A wealth of experimental data could be exploited more extensively and profitably than what is presently done in the teaching of atomic structure.
Mirone, Paolo J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 132.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemistry, spectroscopy, and the question of reduction  Scerri, Eric R.
Philosophical/ empistemilogical issues in chemistry.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 122.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Why is mercury liquid? Or, why do relativistic effects not get into chemistry textbooks?  Norrby, Lars J.
A fresh constellation of experimental facts, theoretical calculations, and discussion of the chemical bonding in mercury that sheds light on a number of classical issues in inorganic chemistry.
Norrby, Lars J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 110.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Polarity and selectivity of ionic stationary phases used in gas chromatography: Evaluation of commercial detergents containing anionic surfactants as column packings  Furton, Kenneth G.; Mantilla, Adriana
Evaluation of commercial detergents containing anionic surfactants as column packings.
Furton, Kenneth G.; Mantilla, Adriana J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 74.
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Quantitative Analysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
Superoxide dismutase and the Briggs-Rauscher reaction  Franz, David A.
Oxygen-derived species provide chemistry teachers with excellent examples for discussion of molecular-orbital theory, bond order and reactivity, redox potentials, radical reactivity, disproportionation, and enzyme activity.
Franz, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 57.
Enzymes |
Biophysical Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Covalent Bonding
Design of corrosion inhibitors: Use of the hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) theory  Walters, Frederick H.
Using hard and soft acid-base theory to understand corrosion.
Walters, Frederick H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry, Fourth Edition (Mackay, K.M.; Mackay, R.A.)  Boschmann, Erwin
The authors put forth a two-fold strategy; to provide a broad base through a study of the periodic table and to treat selected topics in depth.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A52.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Create your own periodic table  Levine, Ellse Hlif
Students are asked to design a periodic table of any shape according to a property of their choice and describe the periodic law that determines how the elements are organized in their table.
Levine, Ellse Hlif J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1045.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Periodic chart pedagogy  Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.
Questions based upon a hypothetical set of quantum numbers and their relationships; includes answers.
Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 759.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Valence-bond theory and chemical structure  Klein, Douglas J.; Trinajstic, Nenad
History of the development of VB theory, solid-state applications of VB theory, semiempirical VB models, VB theory in textbooks, and criticism of VB theory.
Klein, Douglas J.; Trinajstic, Nenad J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 633.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry
"New" schemes for applying the Aufbau principle  Freeman, Robert D.
Two, essentially identical schemes for remembering how to write electronic configurations are not really new.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 576.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A numerical period table and the f-series chemical elements  Osorio, Hernan von Marttens
A numerical periodic table and its advantages (determining electronic configurations).
Osorio, Hernan von Marttens J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 563.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Applying KC?DISCOVERER in the introductory chemistry laboratory  Furstenau, Ronald P.; Amend, John R.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. KC?DISCOVERER contains a wide variety of physical and chemical properties of the elements.
Furstenau, Ronald P.; Amend, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 500.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Magnetic marbles as teaching aids  Hill, John W.
Magnetic marbles are valuable teaching aids for teachers who have steel chalkboards in their classroom.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 320.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ion Exchange
The periodicity of electron affinity  Myers, R. Thomas
In general, the values of electron affinity for the elements can be understood in terms of their ground state electron configuration, and the screening (effective nuclear charge) exerted on the added electron by the electrons already present in the neutral atom.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A mnemonic for oxy-anions  Hawkes, Steven J.
A mnemonic rule for oxy-anions which utilizes the periodic table.
Hawkes, Steven J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 149.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Videodisc display program  Rose, Martin
The "Videodisc Display Program" is specifically designed to display video sequences from "The Periodic Table Videodisc".
Rose, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 927.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The electronic periodic chart of the elements  von Marttens Osorio, Hernan; Goldschmidt, Alfonso
A scheme for the arrangement of the elements that allows students to understand and write down the electronic configuration of any given element.
von Marttens Osorio, Hernan; Goldschmidt, Alfonso J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 758.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Predicting nuclear stability using the periodic table  Blanck, Harvey F.
Develops several empirical rules to use with the periodic table as an aid to recalling those nuclides that are stable.
Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 757.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Isotopes
"The Periodic Stack"  Farris, Mike
A Hypercard stack that operates on a data base of information about the properties and reactions of the chemical elements.
Farris, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 756.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Using the learning cycle to introduce periodicity  Goh, N. K.; Chia, L. S.
Activities to familiarize 9th grade students with the concept of periodicity.
Goh, N. K.; Chia, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 747.
Learning Theories |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The periodic table - A new arrangement  Laing, Michael
Suggestion for a new arrangement of elements in the periodic table to best indicate the relationships between subgroups.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 746.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An application-oriented periodic table of the elements  Bouma, J.
A survey of various forms of the periodic table since Mendeleev and Meyer.
Bouma, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 741.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Let us make the table periodic  Campbell, J. Arthur
Making the periodic table look periodic.
Campbell, J. Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 739.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Origin of the names of chemical elements  Ringnes, Vivi
Survey of the etymology and the reason scientists coined a specific name for a newly discovered element.
Ringnes, Vivi J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 731.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
The significance of the bond angle in sulfur dioxide  Purser, Gordon H.
Discussion of the bonding in and structure of SO2.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 710.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Grade-12 students' misconceptions of covalent bonding and structure  Peterson, Raymond F.; Treagust, David F.
A multiple-choice pencil-and-paper diagnostic instrument used to measure student understanding of covalent bonding and structure concepts, its results, and implications for instruction.
Peterson, Raymond F.; Treagust, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 459.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nuclear fission and transuranium elements: 50 years ago   Seaborg, Glenn T.
Some five years before the discovery of nuclear fission, as a first-year graduate student at Berkely in 1934, I began to read the papers coming out of Italy and Germany describing the synthesis and identification of several elements thought to be transuranium elements.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 379.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Designing a periodic table: A laboratory approach  Irons, Mary E.
What follows is a laboratory approach to help students gain some insight to the relationship of the elements on the table and also to help students review the scientific method.
Irons, Mary E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 155.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Student-made periodic table  St. John, Betsy; Stevens, Gordon
The student reports on elements are posted on a large array of sheets of insulation board marked with the outline of a standard periodic table. This very large, student-made periodic table is used for class reference throughout the school year.
St. John, Betsy; Stevens, Gordon J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 154.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Periodic law (Curry,E.; Chandler, J.; Mackay, L.)  Lechner, Joseph H.; Gardlund, Sharon L.
Two reviews of a software program which serves as a data base for 20 items of information on the first 103 elements.
Lechner, Joseph H.; Gardlund, Sharon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A333.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Recommended format for the periodic table   Sharma, R. C.
The author comments upon an article which recommended a new format for the periodic table.
Sharma, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1114.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A mnemonic for the symbols of the first 105 chemical elements  Covey, Winton
That's right... a mnemonic for the first 105 symbols of the chemical elements. Not for the faint of heart.
Covey, Winton J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1089.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Write an autobiography of an element  Vanorden, Naola
A clever and creative assignment for students to learn chemistry and sharpen their communication skills.
Vanorden, Naola J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 995.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Estimated thermochemical properties of some noble-gas monoxides and difluorides  Tykodi, R. J.
To illustrate the sort of excitement Mendeleev must have felt has he reached from the known toward the unknown, this author investigates the thermochemical properties of some as- yet- unsynthesized noble gas monoxides and difluorides.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 981.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Thermodynamics |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Gases
Clusters: Link between molecules and solids  Jelski, Daniel A.; George, Thomas F.
In this article, the authors review some of the recent work reported with clusters of atoms, concentrating on the fundamental principles underlying cluster chemistry and physics.
Jelski, Daniel A.; George, Thomas F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 879.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Electronegativity and the acid-base character of binary oxides  Bratsch, Steven G.
An investigation of Smith's acid-base parameters within the framework of the Pauling electronegativity system and modern electronegativity theory.
Bratsch, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 877.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An improved experiment to illustrate the effect of electronegativity on chemical shift   Boggess, Robert K.
The author suggests some modifications to classic experiments that illustrate the effect of electronegativity on chemical shift.
Boggess, Robert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 819.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
NMR Spectroscopy
Periodicity and some graphical insights on the tendency toward empty, half-full, and full subshells  Rich, Ronald L.; Suter, Robert W.
The authors share their treatment of classical thermodynamics and kinetics at the introductory level.
Rich, Ronald L.; Suter, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 702.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Paradigms and plastic facts in the history of valence  Zavaleta, David
This article reviews the history of the development of valence concepts, paying attention to how much preconceived theory has influenced this development.
Zavaleta, David J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 677.
Oxidation State |
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Valence Bond Theory
Molecular orbital theory of bond order and valency  Sannigrahi, A. B.; Kar, Tapas
These authors illustrate how bond order and valency can be "retrieved" from MO calculations and give examples for several simple molecules.
Sannigrahi, A. B.; Kar, Tapas J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 674.
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Oxidation State |
Chemometrics |
Valence Bond Theory
Mythology and elemental etymology: The names of elements 92 through 94   Hill, William D.
A letter furthers the discussion of element etymology.
Hill, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 652.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Delocalization the key concept of covalent bonding  Nordholm, Sture
This paper points out the problems of the current explanation of covalent bonding that have been shown to be misleading.
Nordholm, Sture J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 581.
Covalent Bonding
A colorful demonstration to simulate orbital hybridization  Emerson, David W.
A simple, colorful demonstration involving nothing more than several beakers of colored water can speed up student comprehension of hybrid orbitals at the introductory level.
Emerson, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 454.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The thermochemistry of catenation in silanes versus alkanes  Smith, Derek W.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify (not resolve) the issues behind the questions, "Why are catenated silanes less numerous and apparently less stable than the analogous alkanes?"
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 414.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Thermodynamics
The origin and nature of the electronegativity scale   Pauling, Linus
A recent article discussed, "...the erroneous Pauling derivation of electronegativity..." The Nobel Prize winner wrote this letter to point out that his derivation of the scale was not erroneous.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 375.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Chemometrics
An overhead demonstration of some descriptive chemistry of the halogens and LeChtelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
Colorful demonstrations that illustrate Le Chtelier's principle, solubility rules, and periodic trends.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 264.
Equilibrium |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Principles of electronegativity Part II. Applications  Sanderson, R. T.
This article describes how principles of electronegativity can be applied to explain not only the bonding but also the physical and chemical properties of elements and molecules, their structure, and their energy.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 227.
Electrochemistry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Covalent Bonding
Revised Mulliken electronegativities: II. Applications and limitations  Bratsch, Steven G.
This article is part two in a series. In this wok, some of the more important applications of Mulliken electronegativities to topics in chemical education are discussed, problems with the Mulliken system are identified, and recommendations are made for future research.
Bratsch, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 223.
Electrochemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The three-center, two-electron chemical bond  DeKock, Roger L.; Bosma, Wayne B.
The authors discuss bonds that have three centers and two electrons and show how they explain certain molecular geometries and are rationalized by theory.
DeKock, Roger L.; Bosma, Wayne B. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 194.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Principles of electronegativity Part I. General nature  Sanderson, R. T.
The concept of electronegativity has been modified, expanded, and debated. The concept can be used to help students gain valuable insights and understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between atomic structure and compound properties. This is the first in a series of articles that explores the important concept of electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 112.
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Periodic contractions among the elements: Or, on being the right size  Mason, Joan
Contraction across the row, irregularities in the build up of the periodic table, the second row anomaly relativistic contraction and expansion among the heavier elements, post-transition anomaly, periodicities of physicochemical properties.
Mason, Joan J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 17.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Relative atomic mass scale: A teaching aid  Baumgartner, Erwin; Benitez, Carlos; Cirelli, Alicia Fernandez; Flores, Luz Lastres
Relative atomic mass can be a confusing concept for students and a source of frustration for instructors. These authors propose an idea called a RAM scale.
Baumgartner, Erwin; Benitez, Carlos; Cirelli, Alicia Fernandez; Flores, Luz Lastres J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 16.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemical Elements (Fleisher, Paul)  Harrison, Thomas G.
A computer program designed to help first-year students learn more about the chemical elements.
Harrison, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A25.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Electronegativity: A mnemonic rule  Kapellos, S.; Mavrides, A.
A rule for the electronegativities of the second and third row elements.
Kapellos, S.; Mavrides, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 941.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The chemical bond  DeKock, Roger L.
Overview of the chemical bond; considers ionic bonds, covalent bonds, Lewis electron dot structures, polar molecules and hydrogen bonds, and bonding in solid-state elements.
DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 934.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Solid State Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Reexamining the diagonal relationships  Hanusa, Timothy P.
Li(I) and Mg(II) are better paired with / compared to other ions rather than one another.
Hanusa, Timothy P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 686.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simple postage stamp periodic table  Garrigos, Ll.; Ferrando, F.; Miralles, R.
Using postage stamps as an instructional activity on the periodic table.
Garrigos, Ll.; Ferrando, F.; Miralles, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 682.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Stereoelectronic effects, tau bonds, and Cram's rule  Wintner, Claude E.
Review of stereoelectronic effects and outline of the suggestion that the "bent bond" (tau bond) be used as a model for the double bond.
Wintner, Claude E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 587.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The new format for the periodic table of elements: Concerns of a high school chemistry teacher  Krishnan, C. V.
Change in the format used to designate subgroups of elements in the periodic table will add to the confusion of high school students.
Krishnan, C. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 558.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The arsenic-arsenic double bond revisited  Levinson, Alfred S.
Arsenic-arsenic double bonds are stabilized by bulky substituents.
Levinson, Alfred S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 407.
Covalent Bonding
Periodic table message question  Wieder, Milton J.
This question presents an interesting technique for testing students' grasp of trends in periodicity.
Wieder, Milton J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 320.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Using chemistry's crystal ball  Allen, Bill
An exercise requiring students to identify nine elements, each suggested by a set of four to six clues describing physical and chemical properties of an element.
Allen, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 227.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
No rabbit ears on water. The structure of the water molecule: What should we tell the students?  Laing, Michael
Analysis of the bonding found in water and how it results in the observed geometry of the water molecule.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 124.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Reception of Kasimir Fajans's quanticule theory of the chemical bond: A tragedy of a scientist  Hurwic, Jozef
Because the quantum theory preceded it and its scope was limited, the chemical community never accepted Fajans's quanticule theory of the chemical bond
Hurwic, Jozef J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 122.
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
An upward view of the periodic table: Getting to the bottom of it  Guenther, William B.
Develops the 18-group basis of the periodic table; shows that, while the 1-18 designations can give unambiguous information to students, no printed designations are needed for teaching; and shows how to obtain unique, physical group definitions that avoid the problems of conflicting and changeable chemical interpretations.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 9.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An exhibition on everyday chemistry: Communicating chemistry to the public  Ucko, David A.; Schreiner, Rodney; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.
A recent addition to a large urban museum aids in the efforts to better educate the public about the role of chemistry in their lives.
Ucko, David A.; Schreiner, Rodney; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1081.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Photochemistry |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
Should atoms be X-rated?  Bent, Henry A.
Two cheers for atoms. Three cheers for the elements. Atoms are optional. Elements are essential. Elements without atoms, formulas, and equations are o.k. But atoms, formulas, and equations without elements? No way!
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 878.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Is the theoretical emperor really wearing any clothes?   Sanderson, R. T.
The author asserts that general chemistry material both pushes material of doubtful value and omits material that is useful to many.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 845.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The periodic table as a data base  Goth, George W.
76. Bits and pieces, 31. A software program helps students better understand periodicity.
Goth, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 836.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Study of conformational equilibrium by dipole moment measurements: A source of experiments in physical organic chemistry  Conde, Joao P.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim, J.
The purpose of the experiment described in this paper is to demonstrate the interdependence of the various areas of chemistry.
Conde, Joao P.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 823.
Covalent Bonding |
Stereochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Diastereomers
BASIC programs for calculating overlap integrals  Geanangel, R.; Beneke, J.
75. Bits and pieces, 30. In an effort to become more familiar with the magnitudes of overlap integrals in particular cases and how they are affected by variables such as the form of orbital wave functions and the effective nuclear changes of the atoms involved, these authors have written programs to carry out their calculations.
Geanangel, R.; Beneke, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 801.
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Correlation between chemical bonds and properties in pyrrhotite  Sakkopoulos, S.; Vitoratos, E.; Argyreas, T.
The purpose of this paper is to give a general insight into the priorities of pyrrhotite by considering them in connection to the nature and strength of the chemical bonds in this compound.
Sakkopoulos, S.; Vitoratos, E.; Argyreas, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 665.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
MO Theory
The chemical bond revisited  Baird, N. Colin
In order to understand Ruedenberg's theory of the chemical bond, this author walks us through understanding the energetics of simple atoms.
Baird, N. Colin J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 660.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Mythology and elemental etymology: The names of elements 92 through 94  Glidewell, Christopher
The purpose of this brief note is to amplify the origin of the names for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium.
Glidewell, Christopher J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 659.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The discovery of protactinium  Sime, Ruth Lewin
The drama behind the search for this "missing" element.
Sime, Ruth Lewin J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 653.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Women in Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Features associated with chemical elements (FACES)  Larsen, Russell D.
72. Chemical education is in need of new and better visual representation for correlating and condensing the vast amount of experimental data that has been accumulated for chemical and physical phenomenon. The periodic table in this note represents these properties through various facial features, allowing for an identification of patterns in the table.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 505.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Postage stamp displays teach chemistry   Chenier, Philip J.
The author provides strategies for integrating this hobby with teaching and learning.
Chenier, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 498.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Valence Bond Theory |
Professional Development
Coulombic models in chemical bonding. III: Barrier to internal rotation in ethane  Sacks, Lawrence J.
In this paper, a problem of long standing will be considered: the barrier to internal rotation in ethane.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 487.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
MO Theory |
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Choices   Rochow, Eugene G.
Reflections on chemistry through the lens of personal choices made by well known chemists, and the reminder that if you choose far-out research projects, you may find yourself in the position of being ahead of your time.
Rochow, Eugene G. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 400.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Coulombic models in chemical bonding. II. Dipole moments of binary hydrides  Sacks, Lawrence J.
A discussion of Coulumbic models and their aid in understanding chemical bonding.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 373.
Electrochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Exploring chemistry by computer: KC? Discoverer   Feng, Aw; Moore, John W.
70. Bits and pieces, 28. This program provides students with a computer-searchable handbook of chemical facts for all the elements.
Feng, Aw; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 327.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Age of the elements   Rowe, M. W.
A fascinating article which dates the formation of the elements and reveals an overview of the methodologies to do so.
Rowe, M. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 300.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Astrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Coulombic models in chemical bonding. I. Description and some applications of a Coulombic model  Sacks, Lawrence J.
In this paper the Coulombic model is described and some applications of bonding theory are presented, including the calculation of bond energies of two imprint binary hydrides.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 288.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
VSEPR Theory |
Acids / Bases
Some reflections on the periodic table and its use  Fernelius, W. Conard
After participating in a review of some aspects of the periodic table, the author shares reflections on the periodic table and its use.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 263.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Thermodynamic analysis of ionic compounds: Synthetic applications  Yoder, Claude H.
This paper focuses on an area that reveals trends in heat formation and aqueous solubility.
Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 232.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A further trivia question   Jolly, William L.
Few chemists can answer this question: What COUNTRY was named AFTER an element?
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 186.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table (Levi, Primo)  Rhodes, Gale
Autobiography in which chemistry and the periodic table serve as metaphors.
Rhodes, Gale J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A301.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Molarity (atomic density) of the elements as pure crystals  Pauling, Linus; Herman, Zelek S.
Comparisons of atomic densities as a function of periodicity.
Pauling, Linus; Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1086.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Covalent Bonding
Competition analogy  Felty, Wayne L.
Using football competition as an analogy for bond polarity.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 869.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure
IUPAC table of atomic weights to four significant figures  Greenwood, N. N.; Peiser, H. S.
Masses for the first 103 elements scaled so the mass of 12C is exactly 12.
Greenwood, N. N.; Peiser, H. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 744.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The transuranium elements  Seaborg, Glenn T.
History of the discovery of the transuranium elements.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 463.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Revised atomic form periodic table  Strong, Frederick C., III
A circular periodic table.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 456.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The origins of bonding concepts (the author replies)  Sanderson, R. T.
Refining ideas on electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 362.
Covalent Bonding
The origins of bonding concepts  Pauling, Linus
Errors in the cited article.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 362.
Covalent Bonding
A mnemonic for predicting electronegativity values  Cole, G. Mattney, Jr.
A mnemonic for determining electronegativity values for selected elements.
Cole, G. Mattney, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 230.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Pauling 3-electron bond: A recommendation for the use of the Linnett structure  Harcourt, Richard D.
Recommends the Linnett structure IV for future use when a valence-bond structure for a Pauling 3-electron bond is required.
Harcourt, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 99.
Covalent Bonding
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Polar Covalence (Sanderson, R. T.)  Sturgeon, George D.

Sturgeon, George D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A327.
Covalent Bonding
D. I. Mendeleev and the English chemists  Solov'ev, Yu I.
Summarizes the influence of English chemists on Mendeleev and his work.
Solov'ev, Yu I. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1069.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemical bonding simulation  Pankuch, Brian J.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. A computerized simulation that allows students to build molecules from specific atoms using concepts of VSEPR theory and electronegativity.
Pankuch, Brian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 791.
VSEPR Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Can we see the electrons?  Coppens, Philip
Using X-ray diffraction to produce electron density plots for various structures.
Coppens, Philip J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 761.
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Transition Elements |
X-ray Crystallography
E-Z s,p  Leach, John M.
Easier method for recalling the filling order of orbitals.
Leach, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 652.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The noble gas compounds: What might have been  Zuckerman, J. J.
Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay might have produced noble gas fluorides in the 19th century.
Zuckerman, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 565.
Gases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
On the filling order of orbitals (aufbau order)  Karp, Steward
Two of the suggested mnemonic devices are more trouble than they are worth.
Karp, Steward J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 565.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
G. N. Lewis and the chemical bond  Pauling, Linus
History of the chemical bond concept and the contributions made by G. N. Lewis. From the symposium, "Gilbert Newton Lewis: 1875-1946", Las Vegas, 1982.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 201.
Covalent Bonding
Abegg, Lewis, Langmuir, and the octet rule  Jensen, William B.
History of the development of the octet rule and models of "cubical" atoms. From the symposium, "Gilbert Newton Lewis: 1875-1946", Las Vegas, 1982.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 191.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The amazing periodic table  Finholt, James
A simple activity to help students understand the experimental basis for the periodic table.
Finholt, James J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 190.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Reflections on the electron theory of the chemical bond: 1900-1925  Stranges, Anthony N.
History of the development of the electron theory of the chemical bond. From the symposium, "Gilbert Newton Lewis: 1875-1946", Las Vegas, 1982.
Stranges, Anthony N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 185.
Covalent Bonding
Models to depict hybridization of atomic orbitals  Stubblefield, C. T.
Six models of hybridization: linear, trigonal, tetrahedral, planar, trigonal bipyrimidal, and octahedral.
Stubblefield, C. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 158.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds
Atomic volume and allotropy of the elements  Singman, Charles N.
Presents reliable values of atomic volumes determined through X-ray methods, as well as allotropic forms of the elements under nonstandard temperatures and pressures.
Singman, Charles N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 137.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Transition Elements
Recommended format for the periodic table of the elements  Loening, K. L.
This format provides an unequivocal designation for each subgroup in the 18-column periodic table.
Loening, K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 136.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The bonds of conformity: W. A. Noyes and the initial failure of the Lewis theory in America  Saltzman, Martin D.
Though their theoretical framework proved to be faulty, W. A. Noyes and several of his American contemporaries were among the first chemists to utilize the electron to explain organic structure and reactions.
Saltzman, Martin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 119.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Qualitative analysis, with periodicity, for "real" solutions  Rich, Ronald L.
The Bromide Scheme proposed begins with the solvent extraction of a group of bromo-complexes from a highly acidic solution, with several major and minor advantages.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 53.
Qualitative Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Ice cream: Delicious chemistry   Martino, James
This chemistry lab gives practical illustration of the relation of physical properties to bond type and the solution theory. [Debut of second run of this Feature.]
Martino, James J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1004.
Physical Properties |
Covalent Bonding |
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Food Science
Updated student-use programs for the calculation of mass spectral isotope patterns   Mattson, B. M.; Carberry, Edward
44. Bits and pieces, 16. An updated and improved computer program that quantitatively calculates the theoretical values for the relative intensities of the mass spectrum peaks for compounds containing any of the first 92 elements.
Mattson, B. M.; Carberry, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 736.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
On the occurrence of metallic character in the periodic table of the elements  Edwards, Peter P.; Sienko, M. J.
The authors explore an idea first recognized in 1927 which links atomic size to metallic properties.
Edwards, Peter P.; Sienko, M. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 691.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Inner Transition Elements
Bond angles and hybridization indices in AX2YZ and AX2Y systems  Gilli, Gastone; Bertolasi, Valerio
Solving for bond angles and hybridization indices in AX2YZ and AX2Y systems.
Gilli, Gastone; Bertolasi, Valerio J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 638.
Chemometrics |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Spectroscopically silent fundamental vibrations  Keiter, Richard L.
It is the purpose of this article to to explore the reasons for a pedagogical blind spot when teaching vibrational spectroscopy.
Keiter, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 625.
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Raoult's law: A general chemistry experiment  Steffel, Margaret J.
A paper exercise and laboratory work make Raoult's law more meaningful to students.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 500.
Liquids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Spectroscopy illustrated  Boschmann, Erwin
It is the purpose of the experiment described in this article is to (a) to prepare three metal derivatives of DMSO, and (B) to determine some structural features of these derivatives based on the infrared spectra.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 413.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Electron-dot structures of O2 and NO: Ignored gems from the work of J. W. Linnett  Levy, Jack B.
The presented treatment makes it easier for students to make predictive models with electron-dot structures.
Levy, Jack B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 404.
Lewis Structures |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Descriptive chemistry in high school curriculum   Rajan, Raj G.
The writer of this article shares strategies to bring descriptive chemistry activities into the high school curriculum.
Rajan, Raj G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 217.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemical periodicity  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 961.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemical periodicity  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 961.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Structural parameters of methyl iodide by infrared spectroscopy  McNaught, Ian J.
A study of the rotation-vibration spectrum of methyl chloride permits calculation of band origins of the fundamentals, Coriolis coupling constants of the degenerate modes, rotation constants, and bond lengths and force constants.
McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 879.
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Potential-pH diagrams  Barnum, Dennis W.
Potential-pH diagrams for water and iron and their applications.
Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 809.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Elemental trivia  Feinstein, H. I.
Trivia regarding 24 elements.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 763.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
References on the Afbau principle  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 758.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Why teach the electron configuration of the elements are we do?  Millikan, Roger C.
Out of 106 elements in the table of electron configurations, there are 29 special cases - rules that only work 73% of the time seem hardly worth teaching.
Millikan, Roger C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemical symbols on auto license plates  Mellon, M. G.
Identifying chemical symbols and simple chemical formulas on license plates.
Mellon, M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 669.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The positions of lanthanum (actinium) and lutetium (lawrencium) in the periodic table  Jensen, William B.
The debate as to whether lanthanum and actinium or lutetium and lawrencium should be placed in group IIIB of the periodic table along with scandium and yttrium has along but poorly publicized history.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 634.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Confusion in the periodic table of the elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Powell, W. H.
Documents events leading to the designation of subgroups of elements in the periodic table by the letters A and B and considerations in developing a satisfactory solution to the problem.
Fernelius, W. C.; Powell, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 504.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An arbitrary aspect of science  Lagowski, J. J.
An opportunity to have input to IUPAC regarding the designation of A and B elements.
Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 439.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Administrative Issues
A unified approach to the study of chemical reactions in freshman chemistry  Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D.
An approach that aims to provide students with the background that will enable them to make reasonable predictions as to the likely products of a chemical reaction.
Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 377.
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A needed replacement for the customary description of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Description of and encouragement to use an alternative to the covalent / ionic model for chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 376.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
One-dimensional K2Pt(CN)4BrO 3H20. A structure containing five different types of bonding  Masuo, Steven T.; Miller, Joel S.; Gebert, Elizabeth; Reis, Arthur H., Jr.
Examples of the five types of bonding found in matter and there manifestations in the title compound.
Masuo, Steven T.; Miller, Joel S.; Gebert, Elizabeth; Reis, Arthur H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 361.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding
The Nature of the Chemical Bond, Review 2 (Pauling, Linus)  Morlan, Gordon E.
Classic book on the valence-bond theory of chemical bonding.
Morlan, Gordon E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 261.
Covalent Bonding
The Nature of the Chemical Bond, Review 1 (Pauling, Linus)  Roe, Robert, Jr.
Classic book on the valence-bond theory of chemical bonding.
Roe, Robert, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Covalent Bonding
Group IA elements: Chemical properties (a); Group IA elements: Chemical properties (b)  Dombrink, Kathleen J.
Film loop that demonstrates reactions between alkali metals and halogens.
Dombrink, Kathleen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Metals
A colorful periodic table  Hobe, Paul
Painting a periodic table on a classroom wall.
Hobe, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 243.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Hafnium  Fernelius, W. C.
History of efforts to identify and isolate hafnium.
Fernelius, W. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 242.
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
On naming the elements with atomic number greater than 100  Orna, Mary Virginia, O.S.U.
IUPAC's guidelines for naming newly created, heavy elements.
Orna, Mary Virginia, O.S.U. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 123.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The meaning of the word periodic  Chang, James C.
Challenges the cited author's meaning of the word "periodic".
Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 80.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An annotated Asimov: A resource bibliography for chemistry teachers  Waterman, Edward L.
An annotated bibliography on the works of Isaac Asimov.
Waterman, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 826.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Mendeleev as a speculator   van Spronsen, Jan W.
A brief note about Mendeleev's work.
van Spronsen, Jan W. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 790.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Quantum chemistry via the periodic law  Blinder, S. M.
A pedagogical approach to quantum mechanics is developed in this paper in which chemistry students will find themselves one step ahead-rather than one step behind-their physics counterparts because the author will exploit the periodic structure of the elements as a foundation for the quantum theory of matter.
Blinder, S. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
Building a periodic table  Fowler, Linda S.
The activity described in this paper yielded comments such as, "I've never had so much fun taking a test. That was great" and "That lady must be crazy - that was impossible". Student understanding of periodic trends are authentically challenged and assessed in this problem.
Fowler, Linda S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 634.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Dr. Thomas Midgley: "From the periodic table to production"   Nagel, Miriam C.
A brief overview of the history of anti-knock additives in gasoline.
Nagel, Miriam C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 496.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Applications of Chemistry
Anomalies in the periodic table  Firsching, F. H.
Textbooks do not adequately treat the subject of the apparent anomalies in which the atomic mass sequence of the elements does not follow the atomic number sequence. The authors provide insight into this anomaly.
Firsching, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 478.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
A classroom learning cycle: Using diagrams to classify matter  James, Helen J.; Nelson, Samuel L.
A learning cycle is developed that deals with the classification of matter and is designed to provide students with an understanding in terms of atom, molecule, element, compound, solution, and heterogeneous matter. [Debut]
James, Helen J.; Nelson, Samuel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 476.
Physical Properties |
Learning Theories |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Constructivism
Sulfur   Johnsen, Alice C.
The history, occurrence, production, physical properties, chemical properties, uses, and cost of sulfur.
Johnsen, Alice C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 468.
Industrial Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Water-What's really peculiar?  Sisler, Harry H.
Water is qualitatively similar in its periodic table relationships to NH3 and HF, and in these respects is not highly peculiar.
Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 448.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Elemental concentration   Enyedy, Zoe
This chemistry version of a popular TV game is a student favorite.
Enyedy, Zoe J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 426.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exchange stabilization and the variation of ionization energy in the pn and dn series  Blake, Antony B.
This article is concerned with two types of ionizations that are of special importance to chemists. The author's main purpose is to clarify current textbook interpretations of the peculiar decrease in ionization energy following completion of a half-filled p or d shell.
Blake, Antony B. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 393.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
Demonstrating tetrahedral bonding using soap films  Whitmer, John C.
Tetrahedral bonding in carbon and other similar atoms can be demonstrated effectively with a tetrahedral frame and a soap solution.
Whitmer, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 280.
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
Analytic potential functions for diatomic molecules: some limitations  Winn, John S.
In this paper, particular attention is given to the relationship between molecular constants and the dissociation energy, De.
Winn, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 37.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
Mendeleev's discovery of the periodic law  Trimble, R. F.
A close look at Mendeleev's most important contribution to chemistry.
Trimble, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 28.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Inequality of decision on species instability  Luo, Y. R.
Why doesn't oxygen exist in rings the way that sulfur does? Why doesn't nitrogen form aromatic rings with alternate single and double bonds, or 3 electron bonds?
Luo, Y. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 26.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Tetrahedral bonding in CH4. An alternative explanation  Rees, Thomas
Using the VSEPR theory to conduct a thought experiment regarding the bonding and structure of methane.
Rees, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 899.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
Bonding, structure, and geometry  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 810.
Covalent Bonding
Groups and subgroups in the periodic table of the elements: A proposal of modification in the nomenclature  Araneo, Antonio
A proposal to eliminate the "A" and "B" designations of subgroups and replace them with letters referring directly to the electronic structures of atoms.
Araneo, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Systematic inorganic reaction chemistry: Inorganic reaction types, general methods of synthesis, and the periodic table  Basolo, Fred
It is possible to teach inorganic reactions and syntheses without students having to memorize specific reactions and without the lectures being dull.
Basolo, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 761.
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Balancing equations and nomenclature  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 730.
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Balancing equations and nomenclature  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 730.
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Bent-bond models using framework molecular models  Sund, Eldon H.; Suggs, Mark W.
Using tubing to represent double and triple bonds.
Sund, Eldon H.; Suggs, Mark W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 638.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Covalent Bonding
Dense, denser, densest  Conroy, Lawrence E.
Iridium is more dense than osmium.
Conroy, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 528.
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Crossword puzzle of the elements  Barr, Irene
Crossword puzzle of the elements; solution of page 500 of this issue.
Barr, Irene J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 495.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Symmetry, ionic structures and d orbitals in SF6  Maclagan, Robert G. A. R.
Ab initio calculations suggests that the covalent structure for SF6 is not as important as structures in which the S atom carries a positive charge.
Maclagan, Robert G. A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 428.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Sir William Crookes, Victorium, and the Library of Congress  Elder, Eleanor S.
Victorium, an "element" discovered by William Crookes, was actually a mixture.
Elder, Eleanor S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 421.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Bent bonds and multiple bonds  Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.
Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of the bent bond model first proposed by Pauling in 1931.
Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 329.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
An element a day keeps theory at bay  Potts, Richard A.
Incorporating a brief discussion of the chemistry of a different element into each day's lecture.
Potts, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 290.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
The periodic chart at the tip of your fingers  Pryde, Lucy T.
7. Bits and pieces, 1.
Pryde, Lucy T. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 251.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Permanent classroom periodic tables  Smith, Carolyn J.
Painting a periodic table on a classroom wall.
Smith, Carolyn J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 126.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The valence bond interpretation of molecular geometry  Smith, Derek W.
Shows that the valence bond theory not only provides an attractive means of describing the bonding in a molecule but can also explain its geometry.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 106.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Prospects and retrospects in chemical education  Pauling, Linus
Pauling provides suggestions for what concepts to focus on in an elementary chemistry course.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 38.
Covalent Bonding |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
4s Sometimes is below 3d - the author replies  Pilar, Frank L.
Reply to criticism of original article.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 767.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
4s Sometimes is below 3d  Carlton, Terry S.
Seeks to correct flaws in cited article.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 767.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A low-cost classroom demonstration of the Aufbau Principle  Hanley, James R. III; Hanley, James R., Jr.
Uses golf balls placed in egg cartons to represent the placement of electrons in orbitals.
Hanley, James R. III; Hanley, James R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 747.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Theoretical justification of Madelung's rule  Wong, D. Pan
Provides theoretical and physical meaning to the sequence of filling electron shells of neutral atoms in the periodic table dictated by Madelung's rule.
Wong, D. Pan J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 714.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Physical and chemical properties and bonding of metallic elements  Myers, R. Thomas
137. Common textbook errors concerning the physical and chemical properties, conductivity and bonding of metals.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 712.
Physical Properties |
Metallic Bonding |
Metals |
Covalent Bonding
Electronegativity, bond energy, and chemical reactivity  Myers, R. Thomas
The Pauling electronegativity concept can be used to help rationalize several kinds of chemical reactions.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 711.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Reactions
The bond energy of CH3-H: A physical chemistry experiment  Dorain, Paul B.
Requires a mass spectrometer coupled with a digital voltmeter.
Dorain, Paul B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 622.
Covalent Bonding |
Mass Spectrometry
Empirical formulas  Ryan, Dennis P.
This question forces one to duplicate the line of reasoning used by Dalton in his initial formulation of atomic weights; it tests for the ability to deduce atomic sizes and to calculate empirical formulas.
Ryan, Dennis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 528.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Computer quiz on the periodic table  Wasson, J. S.
An interactive computer (Fortran) program entitled PERIOD.
Wasson, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 527.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A hyperspace periodic table: An orbital-filling exercise for high school students  Waterman, Edward L.
An exercise that helps relate the Afbau process and electron configuration to the periodic table and illustrates why the periodic table has the shape it does.
Waterman, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 470.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Bond free energies  Amador, Alberto
Provides standard free energies for the formation of common single and multiple bonds.
Amador, Alberto J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 453.
Covalent Bonding |
Thermodynamics
Loosely-bound diatomic molecules  Balfour, W. J.
Over the past decade, careful spectroscopic studies have established the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules.
Balfour, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 452.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Electrons, bonding, orbitals, and light: A unified approach to the teaching of structure and bonding in organic chemistry courses  Lenox, Ronald S.
A suggested list of topics and methods for teaching introductory organic students bonding concepts.
Lenox, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 298.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
Quantum mechanics and chemical bonding in inorganic complexes. I. Static concepts of bonding; dynamic concepts of valency  Ballhausen, Carl J.
The historical development of quantum chemistry.
Ballhausen, Carl J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 215.
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Assigning oxidation states to some metal dioxygen complexes of biological interest  Summerville, David A.; Jones, Robert D.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Basolo, Fred
Considers the bonding of dioxygen in metal-dioxygen complexes, paying particular attention to the problems encountered in assigning conventional oxidation numbers to both the metal center and coordinated dioxygen.
Summerville, David A.; Jones, Robert D.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Basolo, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 157.
Oxidation State |
Metals |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Atomic number before Moseley  Van Spronsen, Jan W.
Antonius Johannes van den Broek introduced the idea of atomic number prior to the work of Moseley.
Van Spronsen, Jan W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 106.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Word search puzzle  Claus, Alison S.
This puzzle contains the names of all elements from hydrogen to hahnium (element 105).
Claus, Alison S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 44.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements
Mendeleev's other prediction  Goldwhite, Harold
Mendeleev predicted the properties of four, not three, elements before they were discovered.
Goldwhite, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 35.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Periodic sub-groups   Mazieres, Ch.
Why are the elements of the periodic table still being labeled with A and B? This author suggests it is time to leave that convention behind.
Mazieres, Ch. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 750.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Comparison of ionic and covalent iodine dihalides. An integrated experiment  Woolf, Alfred A.
An experimental procedure and discussion for a comparison of ionic and covalent iodine dihalides.
Woolf, Alfred A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 738.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Magnesocene: Structure and bonding. Covalent or ionic?  Pinkus, A. G.
This paper will present a brief review of the structures and bonding proposed for magnesocene leading up to the most recent work.
Pinkus, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 704.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
High temperature chemistry of rare earth compounds: Dramatic examples of periodicity  Cater, E. David
This paper makes it clear that the energy required to promote a 4f electron to the 5d level has a profound and predictable influence on the systematic of reactions involving conversion of rare earth atoms from combined to free states.
Cater, E. David J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 697.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Inner Transition Elements |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Group electronegativity by NMR  Greever, Joe C.
The purpose of this experiment is to allow the student to observe the correlation between chemical shift and electronegativity.
Greever, Joe C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 538.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Using the Aufbau principle   Whitmer, John C.
This question is written with the belief that general chemistry students should not only attain an understanding of the Aufbau principle enabling them to write down electron configurations, they ought also recognize the correspondence between the quantum numbers and the structures of the periodic table.
Whitmer, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 515.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Lecture projectable atomic orbital cross-sections and bonding interactions  Shepherd, Rex E.
Models using small Styrofoam balls and slinky toys improve student understanding of covalent bonds.
Shepherd, Rex E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 317.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
The structures of metal-cyclopentadienyl derivatives   Maslowsky, Edward, Jr.
Metal derivatives of cyclopentadiene can be classified as either ionic cyclopentadiene or covalent cyclopentadienyl. Although these structural extremes are common, other such structures also have been found; some possess dynamic structural aspects.
Maslowsky, Edward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 276.
Metals |
Organometallics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molar volumes: Microscopic insight from macroscopic data  Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan
The molar volumes of the alkali metal halides; molar volumes of binary hydrogen compounds; molar volumes of the first transition series; molar volumes of the lanthanoids and actinoids; molar volumes of the carbon family; molar volumes of isotopically related species; aquated ions and ions in aqueous solution.
Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 93.
Inner Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Transition Elements |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Isotopes
Lecture notes or facts that are hard to work into a conversation  Smith, Douglas D.
An overview of chemistry news from around the globe.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 49.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Elemental evolution and isotopic composition  Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R.
Reviews elemental abundances and the processes of elemental creation.
Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 742.
Astrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Geochemistry
What is an element?  Kolb, Doris
Reviews the history of the discovery, naming, and representation of the elements; the development of the spectroscope and the periodic table; radioactive elements and isotopes; allotropes; and the synthesis of future elements.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 696.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Isotopes
Weekend courses for high school chemistry teachers  Bundschuh, J. E; El-Awady, A. A.
Describes a program for the continuing education of high school chemistry teachers.
Bundschuh, J. E; El-Awady, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 693.
Professional Development |
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Toxicology
Computer games in chemistry  Smith, Stanley G.; Chabay, Ruth
Describes several chemistry computer games, including one involving organic synthesis.
Smith, Stanley G.; Chabay, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 688.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Synthesis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Emphasis on elements  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Lists major metals and minerals, current metal reserves, and elemental composition of the human body and the oceans. [Debut]
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 551.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Geochemistry |
Metals
Chemistry for electrical engineers  Demetriou, B.; Parsonage, J. R.
Course structure and oral assessment in a chemistry for electrical engineers.
Demetriou, B.; Parsonage, J. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 221.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry
Chemical aspects of Bohr's 1913 theory  Kragh, Helge
The chemical content of Bohr's 1913 theory has generally been neglected in the treatises on the history of chemistry; this paper regards Bohr as a theoretical chemist and discusses the chemical aspects of his atomic theory.
Kragh, Helge J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 208.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
Frank C. Whitmore and the first successful explanation of some intramolecular rearrangements  Saltzman, Martin D.
In 1932 Frank C. Whitmore presented a beautifully succinct and detailed pathway using the octet concept of Lewis to show the common basis of many intramolecular rearrangements discovered during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Saltzman, Martin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 25.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures
Understanding chemistry: Current and possible  Sanderson, R. T.
This paper attempts to present a traditional teaching approach in a concise form, and to allow evaluation of the approach as a whole, in contrast to the piecemeal treatment available up to now.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 675.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Mendeleev's periodic law. A laboratory exercise  Logan, Kent R.
Teachers are encouraged to provide active participation and controlled interaction with selected variables and offer first -hand experience from the physical world.
Logan, Kent R. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 647.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Subclassification of lanthanides and actinides  Ternstrom, Torolf
The author looks carefully at the relationships between various elements of the lanthanide and actinide series.
Ternstrom, Torolf J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 629.
Inner Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties
Topological structure of molecules  Evans, Gordon G.
The writer of this article points out a flaw in a previous article's treatment of the topological structure of covalent molecules.
Evans, Gordon G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 532.
Covalent Bonding
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the role of relaxation energy in understanding chemical shifts  Ellison, Frank O.; White, Michael G.
This article looks at the relaxation process in a strictly theoretical quantity. This is not directly observable, but is a significant component in several theoretical models for calculating, predicting, and understanding core-electron ionization energies in atoms and molecules.
Ellison, Frank O.; White, Michael G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 430.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Chemometrics
A simple oxidation-reduction experiment  Ludeman, Susan Marie; Brandt, Joan A.; Zon, Gerald
The lab featured here is a redox lab, which is simply and economically performed with zinc, lead acetate, and copper sulfate, has been used to demonstrate the principles of electronegativity, ionization, metal plating, stoichiometry and electron transfer.
Ludeman, Susan Marie; Brandt, Joan A.; Zon, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 377.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Stoichiometry
Molecule madness and the balancing game: Examples of classroom games  Schmitt, Helen
Activities are shared here that can be done with models that illuminate the nature of bonding.
Schmitt, Helen J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 172.
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
Bond valence theory: Part I, A new twist to an old description of chemical bonding  Brown, I. D.
The author looks at the challenges faced by chemists trying to define the nature of chemical bonds in a historical and contemporary context.
Brown, I. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 100.
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
What happened to alabamine, virginium, and illinium?  Trimble, R. F.
History of the nomenclature of three elements at one time named after states of the Union.
Trimble, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 585.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The "anomalous" ionization potential of bismuth  Smith, Derek, W.
Draws attention to a less well known anomaly in atomic ionization potentials and offers an explanation, considering particularly the "anomalous" ionization potential of bismuth.
Smith, Derek, W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 576.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The experimental values of atomic electron affinities. Their selection and periodic behavior  Chen, E. C. M.; Wentworth, W. E.
Presents experimental values of atomic electron affinities and discusses their determination.
Chen, E. C. M.; Wentworth, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 486.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The LMO description of multiple bonding and multiple lone pairs  England, Walter
Examines localized molecular orbitals and the description of multiple bonds and lone pairs.
England, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 427.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Demonstrations for high school chemistry  Castka, Joseph F.
A sequence of demonstrations that may serve to initiate and maintain student interest in the development of acid-base theories and bond strength.
Castka, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 394.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Valence angles and hybridization indices in "sp3 hybridized" AX2Y2 systems  Dewar, Michael J. S.; Kollmar, Herbert; Li, Wai Kee
Points out a simple relationship that can be derived for the valence angles and hybridization indices in molecules of the type AX2Y2 when four groups X and Y are linked to a central atom A and when A uses s and p atomic orbitals for bonding.
Dewar, Michael J. S.; Kollmar, Herbert; Li, Wai Kee J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 305.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
Some experiments in atomic structure  Logan, Kent R.
The experiments provided here investigates color and wavelength, evidence of quantization, the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom, teaching guidelines, photographic specifications, and extensions.
Logan, Kent R. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 411.
Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Direct studies of atomic reactions in the undergraduate laboratory. Time resolved atomic absorption spectroscopy  Stock, Malcolm G.; Little, David J.; Donovan, Robert J.
In the experiments described in this article, the recombination is monitored by observing the formation of I2, rather than the decay of I.
Stock, Malcolm G.; Little, David J.; Donovan, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 51.
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Chemical bonds (Gray, Harry B.)  Johnson, Ronald C.

Johnson, Ronald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A592.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Regularities and relations among ionization potentials of nontransition elements  Liebman, Joel F.
Provides several semiempirical procedures for investigating ionization potentials.
Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 831.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A concise Fortran program for molecular atomic coordinates  Nordlander, J. Eric
Availability of a program for calculating interatomic distances, bond angles, and dihedral angles.
Nordlander, J. Eric J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 743.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The Cooper structure - A simple model to illustrate the tetrahedral geometry of sp3 bonding  Walker, Ruth A.
A cut out model illustrating the tetrahedral geometry of sp3 bonding.
Walker, Ruth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 703.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
The origin of the chemical elements, 2  Selbin, Joel
Summarizes the process of nucleosynthesis.
Selbin, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 380.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Astrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Synthesis
Critical temperature of elements and the periodic system  Horvath, A. L.
Presents the critical temperatures of the elements and relates this to their position in the periodic table.
Horvath, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 335.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nonmetals |
Metals |
Physical Properties
The origin of the chemical elements, 1  Selbin, Joel
Summarizes the theory of nucleosynthesis.
Selbin, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 306.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Astrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Spectrophotometric determination of an equilibrium constant  Spencer, J. N.
This experiment is intended to introduce students to a spectral study of the hydrogen bond.
Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 298.
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Covalent Bonding
Report of the High School Subcommittee of the Curriculum Committee  
Presents some preliminary performance objectives for different tracks of high school chemistry.
J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 257.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
A simple demonstration of O2 paramagnetism. A macroscopically observable difference between VB and MO approaches to bonding theory  Saban, G. H.; Moran, T. F.
A simple apparatus to demonstrate the paramagnetic behavior of oxygen.
Saban, G. H.; Moran, T. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 217.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Magnetic Properties |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Strength of chemical bonds  Christian, Jerry D.
Demonstrating the strength of chemical bonds by scaling a molecule up to a macroscopic size.
Christian, Jerry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 176.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
J. J. Thomson and the modern revival of dualism  Saltzman, Martin
Chemists in the nineteenth century were faced with two divergent theories of valence, one recognizing only the polar properties of bonds and the other only the nonpolar.
Saltzman, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 59.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The science of chemistry: periodic properties and chemical behavior (Howald, Reed A.; Manch, Walter A.)  Leonard, Jack E.

Leonard, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A698.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The periodic table. Experiment and theory (Pode, J. S. F.)  Neithamer, Richard W.

Neithamer, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A602.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Rectangular-box model for the polar bond  Melander, Lars
By means of a rectangular-box model it is possible to show qualitatively how the electron behaves in a polar bond.
Melander, Lars J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 686.
Covalent Bonding
The elusive perbromates  Herrell, A. Y.; Gayer, K. H.
Considers theory on the instability of perbromates, the discovery and method of their synthesis, and their properties.
Herrell, A. Y.; Gayer, K. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 583.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Synthesis
Gimmicks for mid-year motivation  Adams, Richard C.
Suggestions include directions for making peanut brittle, examining common, antiquated names for chemical compounds, and periodic puns.
Adams, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 536.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Bond length-bond energy term correlations for bonds in Al2X6 compounds  Wade, K.
Published thermochemical data are used to calculate bond energy terms for the bridging and terminal Al-X bonds of some representative Al2X6 compounds.
Wade, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 502.
Covalent Bonding
Electron configuration diagram  Krupsaw, Marylin; Ng, George
A simpler schematic diagram for remembering the order of filling subshells when constructing electron configurations.
Krupsaw, Marylin; Ng, George J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 433.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Prediction of periodic acid oxidation products  Blackman, David
Presents an even simpler approach than that offered in the cited article.
Blackman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 379.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation State
Solubility of lead bromide in nitrate media. A study of ionic interactions  Cooper, J. N.
Students are asked to determine, as a class, the solubility of lead bromide at a fixed temperature in solutions covering a range of known sodium nitrate concentrations.
Cooper, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 282.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Anomalous properties of elements that follow "long periods" of elements  Huheey, James E.; Huheey, Caroline L.
It is the purpose of this paper to examine the physical nature of the lanthanide contraction and extend the concept to other parts of the periodic table.
Huheey, James E.; Huheey, Caroline L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 227.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Structures of the elements in the PTOT system  Ho, Shih-Ming; Douglas, Bodie E.
Presents a simplified system for representing close-packed structures and applies it to crystalline structures of the elements.
Ho, Shih-Ming; Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 74.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An octagonal prismatic periodic table  Kow, Tang Wah
Presents an octagonal, prismatic periodic table
Kow, Tang Wah J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 59.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Names of groups and elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
A brief history on the naming of elements and element groups.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 730.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The periodic tables  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
How should groups and subgroups be designed? What are the transition elements, inner transition elements, and rare earth elements?
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 594.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Transition Elements |
Inner Transition Elements
DIATH2. A program for demonstrating chemical bonding in hydrogen  Stevenson, Phillip E.
The author has written a computer program which produces such numerical results in a real-time time-sharing environment.
Stevenson, Phillip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 316.
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The periodic system of chemical elements: A history of the first hundred years (van Spronsen, J. W.)  Oesper, Ralph. E.

Oesper, Ralph. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A856.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Mendeleev's law: A demonstration  Emerson, Kenneth
This demonstration simulates Mendeleev's efforts to organize the elements into a periodic table.
Emerson, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A67.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chronology of the discovery of the elements  Goldwhite, Harold; Adams, Richard C.
Briefly describes a chart showing the number of known elements plotted as a function of time.
Goldwhite, Harold; Adams, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 808.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Eka-eka-lead? (the author responds)  Seaborg, Glenn T.
Thanks to the author of the referenced letter.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Eka-eka-lead?  Colmant, Paul Prosper
The author points out the origin of the prefix "eka" used by Mendeleev to designate undiscovered elements.
Colmant, Paul Prosper J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Aufbau principle: A simple model for demonstration  Sagi, Seetarama Raju
This electrical model of the atom used light bulbs to illustrate how the electron density gradually increases around the nucleus with successive additions of electrons to the various orbitals.
Sagi, Seetarama Raju J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 648.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Nuclear overlapping of s electrons  McMillan, J. A.; Halpern, T.
Reviews the basic theory underlying electron configurations and interprets the electronic density at the nucleus of the s orbitals plotted as a function of atomic number.
McMillan, J. A.; Halpern, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 644.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Solubility and the chemistry of the covalent bond: More on DDT - A substituted alkyl halide  Hill, John W.
Discusses applications of the insolubility of DDT in water and its solubility in covalent fatty tissues.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Covalent Bonding |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Periodicity and the lanthanides and actinides  Moeller, Therald
Examines periodic trends among the elements and particularly within the lanthanide and actinide series.
Moeller, Therald J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 417.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation State
The periodic systems of D. I. Mendeleev and problems of nuclear chemistry  Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter
Examines the acquisition and identification of new chemical elements and the structure of the eighth period of the periodic table.
Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 406.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals
An electronegativity spectrum for the periodic table  Guenther, W. B.
This periodic table uses a spectrum of colors coded to electronegativity values and gives equal legitimacy to s, p, d, and f blocks of elements.
Guenther, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 317.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The electron-pair repulsion model for molecular geometry  Gmespie, R. J.
Reviews the electron-pair repulsion model for molecular geometry and examines three-centered bonds, cluster compounds, bonding among the transition elements, and exceptions to VSEPR rules.
Gmespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 18.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
VSEPR Theory |
Transition Elements
Ionic versus covalent bonding  Goldish, Dorothy M.
Ionic sodium chloride dissolves in water but covalent benzyl chloride does not.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A497.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Organometallic Compounds of the Group IV Elements. Volume 1, The Bond to Carbon (MacDiarmid, Alan G.)  O'Brien, Daniel H.

O'Brien, Daniel H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 704.
Organometallics |
Covalent Bonding
Recent improvements in explaining the periodicity of oxygen chemistry  Sanderson, R. T.
By virtue of its abundance, familiarity, and high electronegativity, oxygen provides an excellent example of the periodicity of the chemical elements through their oxides. This paper seeks to explain the many anomalies in this pattern.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 635.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Prospects for further considerable extension of the periodic table  Seaborg, Glenn T.
Considers the prediction of chemical properties and electronic structure of transactinide elements, and the search, synthesis, and predicted nuclear stability of superheavy elements.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 626.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
The noble gases and the periodic table: Telling it like it was  Wolfenden, John H.
It is instructive to discover that many great scientists have reported erroneous observations as well as mistaken interpretations of experimental data.
Wolfenden, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 569.
Gases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A.
(1) Suggestions for presenting the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales. (2) Why are 4s rather than 3d electrons involved in the first and second ionizations of the first row transition elements? - answer by Haight. (3) The basis for the mnemonic ordering of atomic orbitals. (4) What is a liquid-liquid membrane electrode? Is it the same as an ion-selective electrode? - answer by Rechnitz.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 444.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Membranes
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Quagliano, James V.; Danehy, James P.
(1) Why different potential for copper/zinc cells when using nitrates vs. sulfates? Why is neither cell potential as large as predicted by Nerst equation? (2) Do elements in the zinc subgroup belong to the transition series? - answer by Quagliano. (3) How can the 2,4,5-trichloro derivative of phenoxyacetic acid be prepared? - answer by Danehy.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Quagliano, James V.; Danehy, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 227.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
The priority conflict between Mendeleev and Meyer  van Spronsen, Johannes W.
Examines the conflict of priority in discovering the periodic table of elements between Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer.
van Spronsen, Johannes W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 136.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
American forerunners of the periodic law  Kauffman, George B.
American forerunners of the periodic law considered in this article include Oliver Wolcott Gibbs, Josiah Parsons Cooke, Jr., Gustavus Detlef Hinrichs, and Lewis Reeve Gibbes.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 128.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table based on potential-pH diagrams  Campbell, J. A.; Whiteker, R. A.
The usefulness of diagrams presenting aqueous solution equilibria in terms of species present as a function of pH and reduction potential can be considerably enhanced if they are viewed in the form of a periodic table.
Campbell, J. A.; Whiteker, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 90.
pH |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. VI. Ion-packing models of covalent compounds  Bent, Henry A.
The purpose of this paper is to suggest that, suitably interpreted, the ionic model of heteropolar compounds may be applied to homopolar compounds and perhaps metals.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 768.
Covalent Bonding |
Metals |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography
Molecular geometry: Bonded versus nonbonded interactions  Bartell, L. S.
Proposes simplified computational models to facilitate a comparison between the relative roles of bonded and nonbonded interactions in directed valence.
Bartell, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 754.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part II: Underlying theories  Pearson, Ralph G.
Explores possible explanations for and presents applications of the principles of hard and soft acids and bases.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 643.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
A bonding parameter and its application to chemistry  Elson, Jesse
In this study, single bond dissociation energies are combined with the associated bond distances to yield additional information about chemical bonding.
Elson, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 564.
Covalent Bonding |
Physical Properties
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Some recollections of early nuclear age chemistry  Seaborg, Glenn T.
Recounts work on the nuclear fission of uranium and the discovery of transuranium elements.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 278.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Bond energies in the interpretation of descriptive chemistry  Howald, Reed A.
Most of the discrepancy between bond energies and bond dissociation energies is eliminated by the inclusion of pi bonding effects and using bond energies referred to as hypothetical "valence state" atoms in those cases where spin pairing provides substantial stabilization for the free atom.
Howald, Reed A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 163.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
C-H bond strengths: A physical chemistry experiment  Boobyer, Glynne J.; Cox, A. Peter
The reported experiment involves a few relatively easy measurements of infrared bands of liquid chloroform, bromoform, trichloroethylene, and propargyl bromide, from which a number of C-H bond parameters are determined.
Boobyer, Glynne J.; Cox, A. Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 18.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Atomic structure. Radioactivity (continued)   Alyea, Hubert N.
Formation of the complex Cu(NH3)4++ as an example of coordinate covalent bonding and hydrogen bonding as evidenced by viscosity.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A599.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Liquids
Letter to the editor (the author replies)  Luder, W. F.
The author responds to the criticisms leveled at his earlier paper.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 699.
Covalent Bonding
Letter to the editor  Abrash, Henry I.
The author is critical of some of the ideas presented in a previously published paper.
Abrash, Henry I. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 698.
Covalent Bonding
Letter to the editor (the author replies)  Luder, W. F.
Replies to the concerns raised by the cited letter.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letter to the editor  Sementsov, A.
Questions the configuration of benzene supported by the theory discussed in the cited paper.
Sementsov, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letter to the editor  Poskozim, Paul S.
Supports the cited paper with respect to its interpretation of chemical bonding.
Poskozim, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Covalent Bonding
Some simple models for the double quartet approach  Zipp, Arden P.
Pipe cleaners are used to construct simple models for the double quartet or electronic repulsion theory.
Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 494.
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
The use of tables of data in teaching: The students discover laws about ionization potentials  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Students are asked to see what they can discover in a table of ionization potentials of the elements like that presented in most general chemistry textbooks.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 468.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. II. An alternative to resonance hybrids  Luder, W. F.
The author proposes the electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond as an alternative to resonance hybrids.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 269.
Covalent Bonding |
Resonance Theory
The chemical bond (Lagowski, J. J.)  Taylor, Moddie D.

Taylor, Moddie D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 245.
Covalent Bonding
The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. I. New models of atomic structure  Luder, W. F.
Describes the electron repulsion theory of electron configuration and applies it to representative elements.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals
Teaching aromatic substitution: A molecular orbital approach  Meislich, Herbert
This paper presents a way of teaching aromatic substitution using the concepts of alternate polarity and electron delocalization through extended pi-bonding.
Meislich, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 153.
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Models illustrating d orbitals involved in multiple bonding  Barrett, Edward J.
Describes the use of Framework Molecular Orbital Models to illustrate the d orbitals involved in multiple bonding
Barrett, Edward J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 146.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
The chemistry of tetrasulfur tetranitride  Allen, Christopher W.
The chemistry of sulfur-nitrogen compounds has several features of interest and importance: stability of the sulfur-nitrogen bond, tendency to form six- and eight-membered rings, ring contraction, polymerization, and negative ion formation.
Allen, Christopher W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 38.
Covalent Bonding |
Polymerization
A unified theory of bonding for cyclopropanes  Bernett, William A.
Examines various models for bonding in cyclopropanes.
Bernett, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 17.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
The Structure of Small Molecules (Orville-Thomas, W. J.)  Neff, V. D.

Neff, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1094.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Electronegativities and group IVA chemistry  Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall
The teacher of inorganic chemistry should present the representative elements of group IVA and their properties as an intellectual and empirical form of investigation rather than as a mere collection of information.
Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 654.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Odd molecules  Guggenheim, E. A.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a simple explanation for why the dimerization of NO and that of NO2 occur hardly at all, in contrast to that of CN, which is complete.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 474.
Covalent Bonding
Discovery of the noble gases and foundations of the theory of atomic structure  Frey, John E.
Recounts the discovery of the noble gases and foundations of the theory of atomic structure by focussing on radon, helium, and neon.
Frey, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 371.
Nonmetals |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Isotopes
IV - Isoelectronic systems  Bent, Henry A.
A detailed consideration of the principles of isoelectric systems.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 170.
Gases |
Nonmetals |
Covalent Bonding
Periodic correlations (Rich, Ronald)  Frost, Robert E.

Frost, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 168.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Models for the double bond  Walters, Edward A.
Examines several models for the double bond, including the Baeyer model and bent-bond method.
Walters, Edward A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 134.
Covalent Bonding
Electronic structure and chemical bonding (Sebera, Donald K.)  Davenport, Derek A.

Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 56.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Ionic Bonding
Structure of molecules and the chemical bond (Syrkin, Y. K.; Dyatkina, M. E.)  D., J. V.

D., J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A220.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
General chemistry exercise using atomic and molecular orbital models  Walker, Ruth A.
Styrofoam balls and pipecleaners are used to construct models designed to convey an understanding of the three-dimensionality of the electron distribution in the ground state atom and the effect of bonding on this distribution.
Walker, Ruth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 672.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Graphical estimation of thermodynamic properties  Eberhart, J. G.; McDonald, J. E.
Examines Type 1, 2, and 3 thermodynamic correlations.
Eberhart, J. G.; McDonald, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 601.
Thermodynamics |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
III - Bond energies  Benson, Sidney W.
Examines bond dissociation energies , methods for measuring such energies, some representative values of such energies, structural aspects of bond dissociation energies, and bond energies in ionized species.
Benson, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 502.
Covalent Bonding
Experiments on metal amine salts  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Tetrammine monaquo copper(II) sulfate is prepared and studied qualitatively and quantitatively.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 468.
Metals |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Letters  Zuckerman, J. J.
Comments on the controversy concerning which element is top - carbon or hydrogen.
Zuckerman, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 457.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. III. Chemical implications of inner-shell electrons  Bent, Henry A.
While a study of atomic core sizes might seem to hold little promise of offering interesting insights into the main body of chemical theory, it is demonstrated here that from such a study emerges a picture of chemical bonding that encompasses as particular cases covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 302.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Chemical bonding (Companion, Audrey L.)  Johnson, Ronald C.

Johnson, Ronald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 292.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
"The great chain of being'' and the periodic table of the elements  Benfey, O. T.
The purpose of this paper is to explore some implications of an analogy suggested by Arthur O. Lovejoy in his classic work "The Great Chain of Being."
Benfey, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 39.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Physical chemistry of crosslinked polysulfide elastomers  MacKnight, W. J.; Leroi, G. E.; Tobolsky, A. V.
Presents an experiment for measuring equilibrium stress and stress decay at various temperatures in the context of polysulfide elastomer elasticity and crosslink efficiency.
MacKnight, W. J.; Leroi, G. E.; Tobolsky, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 4.
Covalent Bonding
Sulfur bonding (Price, Charles C.; Oae, Shigeru)  Bordwell, F. G.

Bordwell, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A592.
Covalent Bonding
Reaction heats and bond strengths (Mortimer, C. T.)  Lacher, John R.

Lacher, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A130.
Thermodynamics |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
The place of isotopes in the periodic table: The 50th anniversary of the Fajans-Soddy displacement laws  Anders, Oswald U.
The 22nd of May 1964 marked the 50th anniversary of the final act of the dramatic events surrounding the clarification of the place of the radioelements in the periodic table.
Anders, Oswald U. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 522.
Isotopes |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Atomic structure and chemical bonding (Seel, F.; Greenwood, N. N.; Stadler, H. P.)  Murmann, R. Kent

Murmann, R. Kent J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 518.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Pi-bonding in tetrahedral molecules  Urch, D. S.
Examines the nature of bonding, especially pi-bonding, in groups exhibiting E, T2, and T1 symmetry.
Urch, D. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 502.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Covalent Bonding
Rotational and pseudorotational barriers in simple molecules  Miller, Sidney I.
This papers outlines the scope and variety of rotational barriers found in simple molecules.
Miller, Sidney I. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 421.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Collecting the chemical elements  Hammond, C. R.
Describes how to go about making a collection of the chemical elements.
Hammond, C. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 401.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An atomic and molecular orbital models kit  Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin
The models presented here allows one to see the overlap that constitutes covalent bonds.
Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 395.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
A clockwise spiral system of the chemical elements  Griff, H. K.
Presents a spiral periodic table.
Griff, H. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 191.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table  Ternstrom, Torolf
Presents a periodic organization that includes the neutron and neutrino.
Ternstrom, Torolf J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 190.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Illuminated periodic table  Cordes, A. W.
A picture of an illuminated periodic table in use at the University of Arkansas.
Cordes, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 189.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A rational periodic table  Sanderson, R. T.
Presents one author's attempt to bring greater rationality to the organization of the elements.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 187.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Bonding in xenon hexafluoride  Kaufman, Joyce J.
Examines empirical evidence and hypotheses regarding the bonding of xenon hexafluoride.
Kaufman, Joyce J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 183.
Nonmetals |
Covalent Bonding
The chemistry of the noble gases  Hyman, Herbert H.
Summarizes the chemistry of the noble gases and their bond-forming abilities.
Hyman, Herbert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 174.
Gases |
Main-Group Elements |
Covalent Bonding
Electronic structure, properties, and the periodic law (Sisler, Harry H.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 172.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Absorbtion spectra and chemical bonding in complexes (Jorgensen, C. K.)  Carlin, Richard L.

Carlin, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A142.
Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
A classical electrostatic view of chemical forces  Jaffe, H. H.
This paper reviews the different types of forces involved in the formation of chemical compounds, solids and liquids.
Jaffe, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 649.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. II. Uses in Teaching  Bent, Henry A.
Tangent-sphere models can be used to represent highly strained bonds and multicentered bonds, atoms with expanded and contracted octets, inter- and intramolecular interactions, and the effects of electronegative groups, lone pairs, and multiple bonds on molecular geometry, bond properties, and chemical reactivity.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 523.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Chemical bonding and the geometry of molecules (Ryschkewitsch, George E.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 441.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The use of n-center bonds  Carpenter, Gene B.
The quantum mechanical basis of the n-center bond is summarized, some of its qualitative features are deduced, and a variety of illustrative applications are presented.
Carpenter, Gene B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 385.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry
Relationship of exothermicities of compounds to chemical bonding  Siegel, Bernard
The sign and magnitude of the standard heat of formation of a chemical compound is often used incorrectly to characterize its relative stability compared to other compounds.
Siegel, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 308.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Stable gaseous species at high temperatures  Siegel, Bernard
Presents a systematic correlation of the bonding in the gaseous elements with the strengths of their respective bonds.
Siegel, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 304.
Gases |
Carbocations |
Covalent Bonding
The valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory of directed valency  Gillespie, R. J.
Presents the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory of directed valency and its use to determine molecular shapes, bond angles, and bond lengths.
Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 295.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Chemistry of diphosphorus compounds  Huheey, James E.
Examines diphosphorus chemistry, including tri- and tetra- covalent diphosphorus compounds; optical activity in diphosphines; unsaturated diphosphorus compounds, cyclic compounds, and higher phosphines; reactions producing and destroying P-P bonds; and diphosphorus compounds as ligands.
Huheey, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 153.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds
Intrinsic bond energies  Siegel, S.; Siegel, B.
Examines intrinsic bond energies drawn from spectroscopic data and focusses on beryllium hydride as an example.
Siegel, S.; Siegel, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 143.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Non-existent compounds  Dasent, W. E.
The purpose of this review is to examine compounds that do not violate the rules of valence but which are nevertheless characterized by a high degree of instability, and to consider why these structures are unstable or non-existent.
Dasent, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 130.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Letters to the editor  Cockburn, B. L.
Provides a mathematical treatment demonstrating the equivalence of all four C-H bonds in methane.
Cockburn, B. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Snatzke, G.
Provides a mathematical treatment demonstrating the equivalence of all four C-H bonds in methane.
Snatzke, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The cesium ratio, a simple charge density calculation  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Describes the calculation of the cesium ratio and its application in explaining properties of several elements and groups of elements.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 536.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Valence bond theory in coordination chemistry  Pauling, Linus
The author disagrees that the valence bond theory has suffered a rapid fall from favor, and that there has been a consequent rise in esteem of the molecular orbit and crystal field theories.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 461.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Acids, Bases, and the Chemistry of the Covalent Bond (VanderWerf, Calvin A.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 273.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Electronegativity chart  Barrett, Richard L.
This brief note describes an electronegativity wall chart suitable for classroom use.
Barrett, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 251.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A comparison of theories: Molecular orbital, valence bond, and ligand field  Liehr, Andrew D.
Compares the development, nature, and applications of the molecular orbital, valence bond, and ligand field theories.
Liehr, Andrew D. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 135.
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Ionic character, polarity, and electronegativity  Wilmshurst, J. K.
This article attempts to clearly define ionic character and polarity in both the valence bond and molecular orbital approximations; the electronegativity concept is also discussed.
Wilmshurst, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 132.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Demonstrations of simple bonding using magnets  Baker, Wilbur L.
Demonstrates a variety of bonding using iron washers, magnets, and steel balls.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 131.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Periodic classification of the elements  Redfern, J. P., Salmon, J. E.
Presents a periodic organization that takes into account the dual nature of the elements hydrogen, thorium, protactinium, and uranium.
Redfern, J. P., Salmon, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 41.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A qualitative elemental analysis system correlated with the periodic table  Swift, Ernest H.; Schaefer, William P.
This article describes a new system of qualitative analysis developed especially for instructional purposes as a means of teaching descriptive inorganic chemistry and the principles of chemical reactions.
Swift, Ernest H.; Schaefer, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 607.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Qualitative Analysis |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Reactions
Models illustrating types of orbitals and bonding  Baker, Wilbur L.
A short note on a model of ethylene that clarifies the nature of bonding in the molecule.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 606.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Covalent Bonding
Vibrating molecular models: Frequency shifts in strained ring double bonds  Colthup, Norman B.
Describes the study of the general effect of double bond-single bond interaction using vibrating molecular models.
Colthup, Norman B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 394.
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
Principles of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Develops, through 25 statements, the basic principles of chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 382.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The uses and abuses of bond energies  Knox, Bruce E.; Palmer, Howard B.
The author argues that the concepts of bond energy and bond-dissociation energy be presented to undergraduate physical and organic chemistry students in enough detail that some real understanding results.
Knox, Bruce E.; Palmer, Howard B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 292.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Chemical Periodicity (Sanderson, R. T.)  Kirschner, Stanley

Kirschner, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 274.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Theorie Fondamentale du System Periodique des Elements (Dockx, Stanislas)  Trimble, Russel F., Jr.

Trimble, Russel F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 222.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Inorganic infrared spectroscopy  Ferraro, John R.
Focuses on the use of infrared spectroscopy in solving various problems in inorganic chemistry.
Ferraro, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 201.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Organometallics |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
Pi and sigma bonding in organic compounds: An experiment with models  Hoffman, Katherine B.
This exercise is designed to portray the approximate shape of s, p, sp, sp2, and sp3 orbitals and to give a picture of their overlap in bond formation.
Hoffman, Katherine B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 637.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Distribution of atomic s character in molecules and its chemical implications  Bent, Henry A.
Explains the shape of simple molecules using the distribution of atomic s character.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 616.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The law of Dulong and Petit  Fitzgerel, Robert K.; Verhoek, Frank H.
In 1819, Dulong and Petit found that when the atomic weight of an element was multiplied by its specific heat, the number obtained was approximately the same for all elements.
Fitzgerel, Robert K.; Verhoek, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 545.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Some recent developments in the theory of bonding in complex compounds of the transition metals  Sutton, Leslie E.
Examines the ligand field and the molecular orbital theories of complexes, particularly involving transition metals.
Sutton, Leslie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 498.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Bonding in boron compounds and in inorganic polymers  Burg, Anton B.
The element boron is such a close neighbor to carbon in the periodic table that one might expect it to offer an equally extensive and varied chemistry of covalent compounds.
Burg, Anton B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 482.
Covalent Bonding
Letters (the author replies)  Thompson, H. Bradford
The author acknowledges minor errors in an earlier published article.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 438.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Letters  Cohen, Irwin
Points out minor errors in an earlier published article.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 438.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The periodical literature of inorganic chemistry  Trimble, R. F., Jr.
This paper offers an analysis of the periodical literature in inorganic chemistry.
Trimble, R. F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 419.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Near infrared spectra: A neglected field of spectral study  Wheeler, Owen H.
Examines several issues related to infrared spectroscopy, including challenges in instrumentation, spectral interpretation, and analytical applications.
Wheeler, Owen H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 234.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
A complete table of electronegativities  Little, Elbert J., Jr.; Jones, Mark M.
Provides a complete periodic table of electronegativity values.
Little, Elbert J., Jr.; Jones, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 231.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dynamic projector display for atomic orbitals and the covalent bond  Thompson, H. Bradford
An overhead projector is used to display the combination of simple atomic orbitals to form hybrid and molecular orbitals.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 118.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Molecular models: A general chemistry exercise  Pierce, James B.
Students are provided a list of bond angles, covalent radii, and van der Waals radii, and sufficient polystyrene spheres, and then asked to construct models of molecules and ions.
Pierce, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 595.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The prehistory of the periodic system of the elements  van Spronsen, Jan W.
If we wish to study the history of the periodic system, we must first investigate the state of the main scientific laws and theories in existence between 1780 and 1815 and the results of practical chemistry.
van Spronsen, Jan W. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 565.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Inorganic chemistry taught as a requirement for all professional chemists  Sisler, Harry H.
The author argues that inorganic chemistry is an essential part of the training of every professional chemist, identifies several specific, theoretical concepts that inorganic courses develop, and provides an outline of a course in structural inorganic chemistry.
Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 515.
Covalent Bonding |
Stereochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Models for demonstrating electronegativity and "partial charge"  Sanderson, R. T.
Describes a three-dimensional set of atomic models arranged periodically to illustrate trend in electronegativity and the use of molecular models to illustrate important concepts in general chemistry.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 507.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nonmetals
The atomic form periodic table  Strong, Frederick C.
Presents an "atomic form" of the periodic table, which offers some advantages to the standard organization.
Strong, Frederick C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 344.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The contributions of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory  Campaigne, E.
Examines the contribution of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory and his work regarding the nature of bonds in pyrone ring systems.
Campaigne, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 336.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Contributions of Butlerov to the development of structural theory  Leicester, Henry M.
Using the basic theory enunciated by Kekule and Couper in 1958, Alexander Mikhailovich Butlerov was able to establish the principles upon which organic chemistry made its greatest advances.
Leicester, Henry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 328.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The experimental basis of Kekule's valence theory  Hiebert, Erwin N.
It is the object of this paper to discuss the experimental basis of Kekule's valence theory of 1858 as seen in the progressive stages of his own experimental career prior to that time.
Hiebert, Erwin N. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 320.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Kekule-Couper centennial symposium: Introduction  Benfey, O. T.
Though neglected by history, Archibald Scott Couper deserves equal claim with Kekule as an originator of the Structural Theory.
Benfey, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 319.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
A demonstration model illustrating the aufbau principle  Everett, D. H.
Describes the construction of a physical device capable of illustrating the relationship between the relative energies of electron orbitals in many-electron atoms, the electronic structure of atoms, and the periodic table.
Everett, D. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 298.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A quantum mechanical theory of complex ion formation: The electrostatic nature of binding  Kimball, George E.; Loebl, Ernest M.
This paper concerns itself with the current state of the theory of chemical binding of coordination compounds in general and of the complexes formed by the transition metals in particular.
Kimball, George E.; Loebl, Ernest M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 233.
Coordination Compounds |
Transition Elements |
Quantum Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Letters to the editor  Kenney, Malcolm E.
Provides a photograph of a periodic table that displays periodic trends in electronegativity.
Kenney, Malcolm E. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 204.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Foundations of the structural theory  Brown, Herbert C.
The Kekule-Couper Centennial Lecture celebrates the discovery of the tetravalence of carbon and the self-linking of carbon atoms, reached independently by August Kekule and Archibald Scott Couper in 1858.
Brown, Herbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 104.
Covalent Bonding
More mnemonics  Clark, Louis W.
Provides mnemonic devices for memorizing the transition elements in periods four, five, and six.
Clark, Louis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 57.
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The transcalifornium elements  Seaborg, Glenn T.
Examines the chemistry of einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, and possible future synthetic, heavy elements.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 38.
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Astatine and francium  Hyde, Earl K.
Examines the chemistry of astatine and francium.
Hyde, Earl K. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 15.
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Introductory remarks: New elements symposium  Seaborg, Glenn T.
Introduces a symposium on recently synthesized elements.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 2.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
On the origin of characteristic group frequencies in infrared spectra  Dows, David A.
Examines the mechanics and energetics of vibrations in small and large molecules.
Dows, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 629.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
An electron locator  Weis, Norman D.; Meek, John S.
Presents a circular device whose rotation indicates the configuration of electrons within the elements of the periodic table.
Weis, Norman D.; Meek, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 570.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A schematic representation of valence  Sanderson, R. T.
This paper describes a new chart representing the valence structure of atoms; by studying this chart, with the help of a few simple rules, students of elementary chemistry can acquire a useful understanding of chemical combination.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 541.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Nonmetals
Free radical chemistry in solution  Gritter, Roy J.
Considers the general characteristics of free radical reactions in solution, types of free radical reactions, and the effect of structure on bond dissociation energies.
Gritter, Roy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 475.
Free Radicals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Types of graphic representation of the periodic system of chemical elements (Mazurs, Edward G. G.)  Foster, Laurence S.

Foster, Laurence S. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 415.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The metal-carbon bond in metal alkyls: Strength of bonds involving sp hybridization  Mortimer, Colin T.
Reviews the experimental determination of the strength of the metal-carbon bond in metal alkyls and the resulting values.
Mortimer, Colin T. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 381.
Covalent Bonding |
Metals |
Organometallics
Analogues of the ammonium compounds in periodic groups five, six, and seven  Heal, H. G.
Reviews the constitution adn chemical properties of the analogues of the ammonium compounds in periodic groups five, six, and seven, examining particularly the hydronium ion and other oxonium salts.
Heal, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 192.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Structure of synthetic high polymers  McGrew, Frank C.
Reviews the determination of the size, structure, composition, and stereochemistry of synthetic high polymers.
McGrew, Frank C. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 178.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Covalent Bonding |
Stereochemistry
Chemical bonds: A central theme for high school chemistry  Strong, Laurence E.; Wilson, M. Kent
Proposes an outline for a high school chemistry course based on chemical bonds as the central theme.
Strong, Laurence E.; Wilson, M. Kent J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 56.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding
Textbook errors: XV. Miscellanea  Mysels, Karol J.
Textbooks errors considered include the solubility of acetates, the effect of light on reactions, tetrahedral carbon, the production of aluminum, and fumaric acid.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 32.
Photochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
August Kekule and the birth of the structural theory of organic chemistry in 1858  Benfey, O. Theodore
Translation of a speech made by Kekule in 1890 in which he discusses his development of the structural theory and the importance of creativity and imagination in scientific research.
Benfey, O. Theodore J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 21.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Teaching electron configurations  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Time can be saved and confusion avoided by developing a systematic chart of the elements based on the energy levels of atomic orbitals very early in the general college chemistry course.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 504.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Comparative organic chemistry: Carbon and silicon  Wilk, I. J.
Contrasts silicone chemistry with that of regular organic compounds.
Wilk, I. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 463.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
A periodic table and new periodic functions  Szabo, Z. G.; Lakatos, B.
A theoretically correct yet simple periodic system may be obtained by rearranging the long periodic table in such a way that the inert gases are situated in the middle.
Szabo, Z. G.; Lakatos, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 429.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. II. Bond energies  Reinmuth, Otto
Examines bond and dissociation energies, the "constancy" of C-H and C-C dissociation energies, and some common types of organochemical reactions.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 318.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. I. Electronegativity  Reinmuth, Otto
Reviews the concept of electronegativity as a means of helping introductory students understand aspects of organic molecules and their behavior.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 272.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Lone pair electrons  Fowles, Gerald W. A.
The lone pair electrons, whether in simple or hybrid orbitals, have profound effects on the properties of the molecule; these effects may be discussed as bond angles, dipole moments, bond energies and lengths, and coordination and hydrogen bonding.
Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The electron chart  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Presents a periodic wall chart organized according to the increasing energy of valence electrons.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 70.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The fable of the atomic theater  Kerker, Milton
Organizes the elements in a periodic sequence resembling seats in a theater.
Kerker, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 32.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table: The "Aufbauprinzip" as a basis for classification of the elements  Longuet-Higgins, H. C.
This note recommends a presentation of the periodic table designed to show as directly as possible how the place of an element in the table is related to the electronic structure of the atom.
Longuet-Higgins, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 30.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An adjustable periodic chart for lecture purposes  Estok, George K.
This periodic table can be converted from the short to the long and extra-long forms.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 618.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The coordinate bond and the nature of complex inorganic compounds. II. Double-bonding, the promotion of electrons, and the kinetic effects of bond type  Busch, Daryle H.
Examines the occurrence and importance of double-bonds in complex compounds, the promotion of electrons in the course of bonding reactions, and the relationship of covalent character to the kinetics of substitution reactions.
Busch, Daryle H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 498.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
A helical periodic table  Rice, William E.
A three-dimensional representation of the periodic table can provide an additional coordinate to represent the difference between subgroups without disrupting the vertical sequence of elements in a whole group.
Rice, William E. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 492.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new periodic chart with electronegativities  Sanderson, R. T.
This paper describes a new chart that has been designed to portray clearly and vividly patterns in relative atomic radius, electronic configuration, and electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 443.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The coordinate bond and the nature of complex inorganic compounds. I. The formation of single covalent bonds  Busch, Daryle H.
The factors determining the stabilities of complex inorganic compounds are considered in terms of thermochemical cycle; it is pointed out that the stabilities of complexes increase as the percent covalent character in their bonds increases, and weak covalent bonds will occur in any given instance.
Busch, Daryle H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 376.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A physiological basis for the grouping of the elementsJames Blake (1815-93)  Devereux, Sister Mary Ambrose; Donahoe, Hugh B.; Kimura, Kazue K.
Basing his work on the physiological activity of inorganic cations in living organisms, James Blake was able to obtain groupings of elements similar to those later produced by Mendeleev.
Devereux, Sister Mary Ambrose; Donahoe, Hugh B.; Kimura, Kazue K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 340.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Bioinorganic Chemistry
A chart of chemical compounds based on electronegativities  Yeh, Ping-Yuan
This short note presents a chart of chemical compounds based on the relative electronegativities of the elements.
Yeh, Ping-Yuan J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 134.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Mineral sources and extraction methods for the elements: A correlation based on elements' positions in the periodic table  Hulme, Ralph
Identifies and describes groups of elements in the periodic table according to their principal mineral sources and extraction methods.
Hulme, Ralph J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 111.
Geochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals  Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C.
Since the theory of atomic and molecular orbitals has proven to be of such value in interpreting the data of inorganic chemistry, it is hoped that a new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals will be an aid to the further systematizing of chemical knowledge.
Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 69.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The energies of electrons in atoms: An exercise for students in a valence theory course  Jaffe, Hans H.
The purpose of this paper is to point out that the evaluation of the maximum energy differences that still permit bond formation in a molecular orbital can be readily assigned to graduate students as a problem in a first course in valence phenomena.
Jaffe, Hans H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 25.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
A variable periodic system  Scheer, Roderich
This variable periodic system uses small cards to represent each elements and can be arranged to illustrate the short or long forms of the periodic table.
Scheer, Roderich J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 590.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A three-dimensional periodic chart  Sell, Octavia S.
Demonstrates the construction of a three-dimensional periodic table from a conventional Hubbard chart.
Sell, Octavia S. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 524.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Note on the representation of the electronic structures of acetylene and benzene  Noller, Carl R.
The three dimensional nature of molecular orbitals in acetylene and benzene are illustrated.
Noller, Carl R. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 23.
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Regularities among the representative elements: The "paired electron rule"  Condon, F. E.
If the oxidation states characteristic of various groups are correlated in terms of electron subshells, they become reasonable and logical rather than mere facts to be memorized.
Condon, F. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 651.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State
The evolution of valence theory and bond symbolism  Mackle, Henry
Traces the historic evolution of valence theory and bond symbolism, including numerical aspects of chemical bonding, the mechanism of chemical bonding and its origins, chemical bonding in organic compounds, stereochemical aspects of chemical bonding, residual valence of unsaturated compounds, and electronic theories of valence.
Mackle, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 618.
Covalent Bonding
The Lanthanide contraction  Douglas, Bodie E.
The discussions of the nature and magnitude of the lanthanide contraction and its relationship to size changes in the periodic table as a whole are usually misleading to the student.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 598.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A cut-out chart of the periodic system  Clauson, Jennie E.
Colored discs in a cylinder of transparent plastic represent the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. Also provides a chart that can be cut out and turned into a similar cylinder.
Clauson, Jennie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 550.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An unconventional representation of multiple bonds  Gillis, Richard G.; Nelson, Peter F.
There are several advantages to differentiating between sigma and pi electrons in representing multiple bonds.
Gillis, Richard G.; Nelson, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 546.
Covalent Bonding
One more periodic table  Sanderson, R. T.
This periodic table is constructed to highlight electronic differences.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 481.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new space model of the periodic system of elements  Horie, S.
Describes a three-dimensional model of the periodic system of elements.
Horie, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 382.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry. III  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the practical applications of electronegativities and charge distribution.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Acids / Bases
Nature of adhesion  Reinhart, Frank W.
Examines the theory of adhesion and the variety of attractive forces involved.
Reinhart, Frank W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 128.
Surface Science |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Diagrams relating the periodic table to geochemistry  Sokoloff, V. P.
Presents several diagrams relating the periodic table to geochemistry.
Sokoloff, V. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 15.
Geochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters  Bent, Richard L.
Addresses issues raised regarding an earlier paper on isomerism and mesomerism.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 648.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Letters  Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho
Identifies some inconsistencies in an earlier paper on isomerism and mesomerism.
Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 647.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Covalent Bonding
The periodic table of elements  Chaverri, Gil R.
Suggestion for improving the organization of the periodic table for pedagogical purposes.
Chaverri, Gil R. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 632.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemistry of the covalent bond: The first-year course at Brown  Clapp, Leallyn B.
Provides an outline of the first-year chemistry course at Brown University, "The Chemistry of the Covalent Bond."
Clapp, Leallyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 530.
Covalent Bonding
Letters  Bowden, S. T.
The author calls for the standardization of the periodic table.
Bowden, S. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 426.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Demonstration of the intermediate position of cobalt between iron and nickel  Goldstein, Ernst M.
The different oxidizability of ferrous, cobaltous, and nickelous hydroxides, together with increasing color deepness of the oxidation products, can be used to demonstrate that cobalt is intermediate in its properties between iron and nickel.
Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 387.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Properties and the periodic table  Rhoda, Richard N.
Presents a plan for a periodic table that leaves plenty of room for recording the properties of each element.
Rhoda, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 260.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters  Hakala, Reino W.
The author points out a reference to a relationship between atomic weight and atomic number.
Hakala, Reino W. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 44.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table for the lecture room  Fornoff, Frank J.; Post, Glenn I.; Rhoda, Richard N.; Collier, Herman E., Jr.
Presents the design and construction of a periodic table for the lecture room that illustrates a number of periodic relationships.
Fornoff, Frank J.; Post, Glenn I.; Rhoda, Richard N.; Collier, Herman E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 626.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters  Hakala, Reino W.
The author discusses the issue of first authorship, including the first to propose the actinide hypothesis and the first to include the neutron in the periodic table (which he disagrees with).
Hakala, Reino W. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 581.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters  Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho
The author points out earlier work associated with a recent Journal article dealing with the periodic table and the transition elements.
Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 372.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements
The long form of the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, A. I.
The authors comment on the independent publication of a periodic table similar to one they produced earlier.
Glockler, George; Popov, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 358.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A space model of the periodic system of elements  Clauson, Jennie E.
Illustrates a three-dimensional model of the periodic system of elements.
Clauson, Jennie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 250.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A periodic table showing the relative sizes of elements and their ions  Klingenberg, Joseph; Springman, Leroy
Describes a periodic chart representing the relative sizes of atoms and ions that was constructed by a senior undergraduate.
Klingenberg, Joseph; Springman, Leroy J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 81.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The periodic table: The 6d-5f mixed transition group  Coryell, Charles D.
With relatively few modifications, the Bohr-type periodic table presented by Glocker and Popov can be made to reflect more instructively the rather complex relationships obtained in the neighborhood of the 4f or gadolinium transition group and, more importantly, in the 6d-5f sequence extending from actinium through the region of uranium and the synthetic earths to element 103.
Coryell, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 62.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Valence and formulas taught with playing cards  Lionetti, Fabian
Describes the use of playing cards and a game called "Valence" to help students in organic chemistry understand valence, bonding, and molecular structure.
Lionetti, Fabian J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 599.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The lanthanide contraction as a teaching aid  Keller, R N.
This paper presents a modified form of the atomic volume curve that illustrates graphically the lanthanide contraction; a number of chemical consequences of this effect are also discussed.
Keller, R N. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 312.
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters  Basolo, Fred
The author argues that the amount of inorganic chemistry taught in American schools is very limited, and demonstrates this with the inability of his students to correctly complete a blank periodic table.
Basolo, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 285.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Valency and the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I.
Presents a modification of the Bohr-Thomsen-Akhumov periodic table stressing patterns to found among the rare earth elements.
Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 212.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A lecture room periodic table  Dutton, Frederic B.
Describes a large periodic table capable of illuminating individual elements and displaying their electronic configurations.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 110.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters  Swaine, D. J.
The author points out continuing errors regarding the names and symbols of the elements lutetium, samarium, and radon.
Swaine, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 53.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Recent advances in fluorine chemistry  Finger, Glenn. C.
Examines the occurrence of fluorine, its position in the periodic table, fluorine's historic milestones, and recent applications of fluorine chemistry.
Finger, Glenn. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 49.
Periodicity / Periodic Table