TIGER

Journal Articles: 162 results
Ionic Blocks  Richard S. Sevcik, Rex Gamble, Elizabet Martinez, Linda D. Schultz, and Susan V. Alexander
"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery.
Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1631.
Ionic Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Stoichiometry
A Dramatic Classroom Demonstration of Limiting Reagent Using the Vinegar and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Reaction  Romklao Artdej and Tienthong Thongpanchang
This demonstration, appropriate for high school chemistry level and recommended for a large classroom presentation, is designed to illustrate the concept of limiting reagent via a series of experiments in which increasing amounts of sodium bicarbonate are added to a fixed amount of vinegar is fixed until the volume of carbon dioxide generated remains constant.
Artdej, Romklao; Thongpanchang, Tienthong. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1382.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Oven versus Bunsen Burner When Heating Copper(II) Chloride Dihydrate  Michael C. Wirtz
In "greening up" the classical stoichiometry experiment where students determine the formula of copper(II) chloride dihydrate, it is critical that teachers and instructors use a 110°C oven rather than a Bunsen burner. Copper(II) chloride dihydrate decomposes at temperatures above 300°C, releasing chlorine gas.
Wirtz, Michael C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1345.
Laboratory Management |
Stoichiometry
Determination of the Formula of a Hydrate: A Greener Alternative  Marc A. Klingshirn, Allison F. Wyatt, Robert M. Hanson, and Gary O. Spessard
This article describes how the principles of green chemistry were applied to a first-semester, general chemistry courses, specifically in relation to the determination of the formula of a copper hydrate salt that changes color when dehydrated and is easily rehydrated with steam.
Klingshirn, Marc A.; Wyatt, Allison F.; Hanson, Robert M.; Spessard, Gary O. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 819.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Green Chemistry |
Solids |
Stoichiometry
Using Pooled Data and Data Visualization To Introduce Statistical Concepts in the General Chemistry Laboratory   Robert J. Olsen
This article describes how data pooling and visualization can be employed in the first-semester general chemistry laboratory to introduce core statistical concepts such as central tendency and dispersion of a data set.
Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 544.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Netorials  Rebecca Ottosen, John Todd, Rachel Bain, Mike Miller, Liana Lamont, Mithra Biekmohamadi, and David B. Shaw
Netorials is a collection of about 30 online tutorials on general chemistry topics designed as a supplement for high school or college introductory courses. Each Netorial contains several pages of interactive instruction that includes animated mouse-overs, questions for students to answer, and manipulable molecular structures.
Ottosen, Rebecca; Todd, John; Bain, Rachel; Miller, Mike; Lamont. Liana; Biekmohamadi, Mithra; Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 463.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions |
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry
Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Kristen L. Cacciatore, Jose Amado, Jason J. Evans, and Hannah Sevian
Presents a novel first-year chemistry experiment that asks students to replicate procedures described in sample lab reports that lack essential information. This structure is designed to promote students' experimental design and data analysis skills as well as their understanding of the importance and essential qualities of written and verbal communication between scientists.
Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 251.
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class  Jeffrey J. Keaffaber, Ramiro Palma, and Kathryn R. Williams
Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. This article uses a hypothetical tank to house ocean sunfish as a model to show students the calculations and other considerations that are needed when designing a marine aquarium.
Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Using the Relationship between Vehicle Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions To Illustrate Chemical Principles  Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo and Gabriel Pinto
This instructional resource utilizes consumer product information by which students compare theoretical stoichiometric calculations to CO2 car emissions and fuel consumption data. Representing graphically the emission of CO2 versus consumption of fuel provides a tangible way of connecting concepts studied in chemistry classes to everyday life.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 218.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Concept Maps for General Chemistry   Boyd L. Earl
Two concept maps have been developed to represent the organization of the material in a first-semester general chemistry course. By providing these maps to students and referring to them in class, it is hoped that the instructor can assist students in maintaining a grasp of the "big picture" during the progress of the course.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1788.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content  Susan L. Boyd
Presents ten puzzles to make chemistry more interesting while reinforcing important concepts.
Boyd, Susan L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 619.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Let's All Visit Mole City!  Addison Ault
Additional commentary on a previously published article, "Mole City: A Stoichiometric Analogy."
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 596.
Stoichiometry
Let's All Visit Mole City!  Mark W. Armstrong
Brief commentary on a previously published article, "Mole City: A Stoichiometric Analogy."
Armstrong, Mark W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 596.
Stoichiometry
Thermochemical Analysis of Neutralization Reactions: An Introductory Discovery Experiment  Kenneth V. Mills and Louise W. Guilmette
Describes a guided-inquiry laboratory pedagogy in which students discover chemical concepts in the lab and the instructor uses their pooled data to guide the lecture portion of the course. This method is illustrated by an experiment that reinforces students' understanding of stoichiometry and allows them to discover neutralization reactions and thermochemistry.
Mills, Kenneth V.; Guilmette, Louise W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 326.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Acids / Bases
High School Chemistry Content Background of Introductory College Chemistry Students and Its Association with College Chemistry Grades  Robert H. Tai, R. Bruce Ward, and Philip M. Sadler
Do students who focus on some content areas in high school chemistry have an advantage over others in college chemistry? This manuscript seeks to answer this question through the use of a survey of 3521 introductory college chemistry students. The results indicate that studying stoichiometry in high school was most strongly predictive of college chemistry success.
Tai, Robert H.; Ward, R. Bruce; Sadler, Philip M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1703.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Stoichiometry |
Student / Career Counseling
Job's Analysis of the Range of the "Dalton Syringe Rocket"  Natalie Barto, Brandon Henrie, and Ed Vitz
An apparatus for safely igniting fuel gas/oxygen mixtures in a syringe and measuring the distance that the syringe is propelled is presented. The distance (range) is analyzed by the method of continuous variation (Job's Method) to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Barto, Natalie; Henrie, Brandon; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1505.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Stoichiometry
Teaching Lab Report Writing through Inquiry: A Green Chemistry Stoichiometry Experiment for General Chemistry  Kristen L. Cacciatore and Hannah Sevian
Presents an experiment with four key features: students utilize stoichiometry, learn and apply principles of green chemistry, engage in authentic scientific inquiry, and discover why each part of a scientific lab report is necessary.
Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1039.
Quantitative Analysis |
Green Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Interactive Demonstrations for Mole Ratios and Limiting Reagents  Crystal Wood and Bryan Breyfogle
The objective of this study was to develop interactive lecture demonstrations based on conceptual-change learning theory. Experimental instruction was designed for an introductory chemistry course for nonmajors to address misconceptions related to mole ratios and limiting reagents
Wood, Crystal; Breyfogle, Bryan. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 741.
Learning Theories |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Student-Centered Learning
Linking Laboratory Experiences to the Real World: The Extraction of Octylphenoxyacetic Acid from Water  Jorge E. Loyo-Rosales, Alba Torrents, Georgina C. Rosales-Rivera, and Clifford P. Rice
A known quantity of the sodium salt of octylphenoxyacetic acid is dissolved in water, transformed to the acid (insoluble) form, and extracted using dichloromethane. These changes can be followed visually owing to conspicuous changes in solution turbidity.
Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Torrents, Alba; Rosales-Rivera, Georgina C.; Rice, Clifford P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 248.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Stoichiometry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Simple and Easy-To-Learn Chart of the Main Classes of Inorganic Compounds and Their Acid–Base Reactions  Grigoriy Sereda
Presents a two-dimensional chart for the classification of the main classes of inorganic compounds with respect to their acidic and basic properties that makes it possible to predict reaction products and determine the coefficients in chemical equations of acidbase reactions.
Sereda, Grigoriy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1645.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines  Gabriel Pinto
Calcium supplements provide an excellent context in which to review most of the core content of general chemistry, namely, stoichiometry, concentration units, hydration of salts, inorganic and organic salts, physiological importance of elements, resonance in ions, geometry of polyatomic ions, and isomerism.
Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1509.
Stoichiometry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry
Assessing the Effect of Web-Based Learning Tools on Student Understanding of Stoichiometry Using Knowledge Space Theory  Ramesh D. Arasasingham, Mare Taagepera, Frank Potter, Ingrid Martorell, and Stacy Lonjers
This paper reports a comparative study using knowledge space theory (KST) to assess the impact of a Web-based instructional software program on students' understanding of the concept of stoichiometry. The software program called Mastering Chemistry Web (MCWeb) allows students to practice problems that emphasize the development of molecular-level conceptualization and visualization, analytical reasoning, and proportional reasoning, as well as learning to recognize and relate different representations in chemistry. The experimental design compared students in two sections taught by the same instructor. One section used the MCWeb instructional software as homework (MCWeb group) while the other section used text-based homework (non-MCWeb group, control).
Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; Taagepera, Mare; Potter, Frank; Martorell, Ingrid; Lonjers, Stacy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1251.
Stoichiometry |
Student-Centered Learning
Mass Relationships in a Chemical Reaction: Incorporating Additional Graphing Exercises into the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
The purpose of this article is to increase student involvement with graph construction specifically in the context of introductory laboratory activities that involve mass relationships between reacting substances and products. In this regard, five massmass plots derived from a synthesis of a binary compound from its elements are presented as well as a set of questions to focus learners on the significance of each plot. The benefit of providing learners with these types of graphing activities include the use of higher-order cognitive processes as well as the elucidation of fundamental chemical knowledge such as the law of the conservation of mass, the law of constant composition, limiting and excess reactants, and empirical formula.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1219.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis
Cross-Proportions: A Conceptual Method for Developing Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills  Elzbieta Cook and Robert L. Cook
This paper focuses attention on the cross-proportion (C-P) method of mathematical problem solving, which was once widely used in chemical calculations. We propose that this method regain currency as an alternative to the dimensional analysis (DA) method, particularly in lower-level chemistry courses. In recent years, the DA method has emerged as the only problem solving mechanism offered to high-school and general chemistry students in contemporary textbooks, replacing more conceptual methods, C-P included.
Cook, Elzbieta; Cook, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1187.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Student-Centered Learning
Amino Acid Complementarity: A Biochemical Exemplar of Stoichiometry for General and Health Sciences Chemistry  Ed Vitz
Calculations demonstrating amino acid complementarity are presented as an interesting application of stoichiometry. Food proteins are said to have complementary amino acids when the proteins combine to provide amino acids in the proper stoichiometric ratios to synthesize human protein. Implications for vegetarian diet, efficiency of food production, and diet adaptations in various cultures are explored briefly.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1013.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Stoichiometry |
Food Science
Analysis of OxiClean: An Interesting Comparison of Percarbonate Stain Removers  Jeffrey D. Bracken and David Tietz
Several different brands of oxygen-based multipurpose stain removers consist of simple mixtures of sodium percarbonate and sodium carbonate. A small sample of each brand of stain remover is decomposed and then analyzed. The observed difference in mass allows students to accurately determine the percentages of each component of the stain remover. A back-titration experiment and a precipitation reaction are performed to confirm the complete decomposition of the original mixture.
Bracken, Jeffrey D.; Tietz, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 762.
Stoichiometry |
Consumer Chemistry
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Evaluating Students' Conceptual Understanding of Balanced Equations and Stoichiometric Ratios Using a Particulate Drawing  Michael J. Sanger
A total of 156 students were asked to provide free-response balanced chemical equations for a classic multiple-choice particulate-drawing question first used by Nurrenbern and Pickering. The balanced equations and the number of students providing each equation are reported in this study. The most common student errors included a confusion between the concepts of subscripts and coefficients and including unreacted chemical species in the equation.
Sanger, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 131.
Stoichiometry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Empirical Formulas and the Solid State: A Proposal  William B. Jensen
This brief article calls attention to the failure of most introductory textbooks to point out explicitly the fact that nonmolecular solids do not have molecular formulas and suggests some practical remedies for improving textbook coverage of this subject. The inadequacies of the terms "empirical formula" and "molecular formula" are also discussed, and the terms "relative compositional formula" and "absolute compositional formula" are proposed as more appropriate alternatives.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1772.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Using Knowledge Space Theory To Assess Student Understanding of Stoichiometry  Ramesh D. Arasasingham, Mare Taagepera, Frank Potter, and Stacy Lonjers
Using the concept of stoichiometry we examined the ability of beginning college chemistry students to make connections among the molecular, symbolic, and graphical representations of chemical phenomena, as well as to conceptualize, visualize, and solve numerical problems. Students took a test designed to follow conceptual development; we then analyzed student responses and the connectivities of their responses, or the cognitive organization of the material or thinking patterns, applying knowledge space theory (KST). The results reveal that the students' logical frameworks of conceptual understanding were very weak and lacked an integrated understanding of some of the fundamental aspects of chemical reactivity.
Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; Taagepera, Mare; Potter, Frank; Lonjers, Stacy. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1517.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Constructivism
The Origin of the Mole Concept  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader query, the column traces the origins of the mole concept in chemistry.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1409.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Caveman Chemistry: 28 Projects, from the Creation of Fire to the Production of Plastics (Kevin M. Dunn)  Michael S. Matthews
In Caveman Chemistry, Kevin Dunn presents a historically oriented hands-on introduction to chemistry and chemical technology that is tremendously entertaining.
Matthews, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 490.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Natural Products |
Nonmajor Courses
Well Wishes. A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  Mary M. Walczak and Juliette M. Lantz
This paper describes the use of a case study to teach introductory chemistry students the chemical principles of solution concentration (especially ppm) and dilution, aqueous redox reactions, and stoichiometric conversions between different solution species.
Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 218.
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
The Decomposition of Zinc Carbonate: Using Stoichiometry To Choose between Chemical Formulas  Stephen DeMeo
To determine which formula corresponds to a bottle labeled "zinc carbonate", students perform qualitative tests on three of zinc carbonate's decomposition products: zinc oxide, carbon dioxide, and water. Next students make quantitative measurements to find molar ratios and compare them with the coefficients of the balanced chemical equations. This allows the correct formula of zinc carbonate to be deduced.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 119.
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Quantitative Analysis
The Origin of Stoichiometry Problems  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader query, the column discusses the question of when quantitative stoichiometry problems first began to appear in introductory textbooks, and especially the role of the American chemist, Josiah Parsons Cooke, in this process.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1248.
Stoichiometry
Learning Stoichiometry with Hamburger Sandwiches  Liliana Haim, Eduardo Cortón, Santiago Kocmur, and Lydia Galagovsky
Simple and understandable activities involving the manufacturing of hamburgers can be used as an analogy for stoichiometric concepts and calculations.
Haim, Liliana; Cortón, Eduardo; Kocmur, Santiago; Galagovsky, Lydia. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1021.
Stoichiometry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemistry Problem-Solving: Symbol, Macro, Micro, and Process Aspects  William R. Robinson
This article summarizes a paper by Yehudit J. Dori and Mira Hameiri, "Multidimensional Analysis System for Quantitative Chemistry Problems: Symbol, Macro, Micro, and Process Aspects", which describes the Multidimensional Analysis System (MAS), an approach to constructing, classifying, and analyzing introductory stoichiometry problems.
Robinson, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 978.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Stoichiometry
Applying the Reaction Table Method for Chemical Reaction Problems (Stoichiometry and Equilibrium)  Steven F. Watkins
A systematic approach to chemical reaction calculations (stoichiometry calculations) - the "Reaction Table Method" (similar to the equilibrium table method).
Watkins, Steven F. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 658.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Stoichiometry of the Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid  Venkat Chebolu and Barbara C. Storandt
Using a pressure sensor to measure the production of hydrogen by a reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.
Chebolu, Venkat; Storandt, Barbara C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 305.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Reactions
Use of Chloroisocyanuarates for Disinfection of Water: Application of Miscellaneous General Chemistry Topics  Gabriel Pinto and Brian Rohrig
Using the chlorination of water (using sodium dichloroisocyanurate and trichloroisocyanuric acid) to develop general chemistry concepts; includes question for students and answers.
Pinto, Gabriel; Rohrig, Brian. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 41.
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Determination of the Empirical Formula of a Copper Oxide Salt Using Two Different Methods  Michael J. Sanger and Kimberly Geer
Converting copper oxide into copper metal using two different methods: reduction of copper oxide to copper metal using methane gas, and reduction of copper oxide to copper metal using aluminum in aqueous solution; the results are used to determine the empirical formula of copper oxide.
Sanger, Michael J.; Geer, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 994.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Alka-Seltzer Fizzing—Determination of Percent by Mass of NaHCO3 in Alka-Seltzer Tablets. An Undergraduate General Chemistry Experiment  Yueh-Huey Chen and Jing-Fun Yaung
Lab activity that introduces the concept of a limiting reactant by incrementally increasing the amount of vinegar added to an Alka Seltzer tablet.
Chen, Yueh-Huey; Yaung, Jing-Fun. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 848.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Using Limiting-Excess Stoichiometry to Introduce Equilibrium Calculations: A Discrepant Event Laboratory Activity Involving Precipitation Reactions  Stephen DeMeo
Students are introduced to the concept of equilibrium as they investigate two precipitation reactions, predict which reactant is present in excess, and find that there are two excess reactants.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 474.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis
Problem Analysis: Lesson Scripts and Their Potential Applications  Maria Oliver-Hoyo
Development and use of lesson scripts to give students more informative feedback when performing calculations in an interactive, computerized tutorial.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1425.
Stoichiometry |
Learning Theories
How to Say How Much: Amounts and Stoichiometry  Addison Ault
Pictorial representation of the ways by which chemists describe an amount of material, and a systematic way to create a visual representation or "map" for solving stoichiometry problems.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1347.
Stoichiometry
Making Assumptions Explicit: How the Law of Conservation of Matter Can Explain Empirical Formula Problems  Stephen DeMeo
How the law of conservation of mass provides a theoretical foundation for empirical formula problems that introductory students encounter.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1050.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Paradoxes, Puzzles, and Pitfalls of Incomplete Combustion Demonstrations  Ed Vitz
Paper is burned in a closed container containing sufficient oxygen to consume all the paper. Paradoxically, the flame expires while half of the paper remains. This demonstrates that thermodynamics or stoichiometry is insufficient to explain everyday chemical processes, and that kinetics is often necessary. The gases in the container are analyzed by GC before and after combustion, and the results are examined in detail.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1011.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry
The Use of Extent of Reaction in Introductory Courses  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of the extent of reaction as an alternative to the traditional approach to stoichiometry in first-year chemistry. The method focuses attention on the reaction as a whole rather than on pairs of reagents as in the traditional approach. The balanced equation is used as the unit of change.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 52.
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
More on Double Replacement  Kauffman, G. B.
Reference to directions for writing double replacement reactions.
Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1340.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Preparation and Properties of an Aqueous Ferrofluid  Patricia Enzel, Nicholas B. Adelman, Katie J. Beckman, Dean J. Campbell, Arthur B. Ellis, and George C. Lisensky
This paper describes a simple synthesis of an aqueous-based ferrofluid that may be used in an introductory science or engineering laboratory. This paper also describes a method for repelling both oil- and water-based ferrofluid from solid surfaces that would otherwise be stained by the fluid. Finally, a demonstration of the interaction between ferrofluid and magnetic fields, in which ferrofluid is induced to leap upward by a stack of magnets, is described.
Enzel, Patricia; Adelman, Nicholas B.; Beckman, Katie J.; Campbell, Dean J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 943.
Materials Science |
Magnetic Properties |
Nanotechnology |
Stoichiometry |
Colloids
Pressure and Stoichiometry  Charles E. Roser and Catherine L. McCluskey
This experiment determines the stoichiometry of the reaction of a carbonate or hydrogen carbonate and HCl by measuring the pressure of the CO2 produced using a Vernier pressure sensor, TI CBL interface, and a TI-82/83 graphing calculator. Various amounts of the carbonate are reacted with a constant amount of HCl.
Roser, Charles E.; McCluskey, Catherine L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 638.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure  M. Dale Alexander
The ammonia smoke fountain demonstration utilizes a modification of the apparatus used in the standard ammonia fountain. The modification allows for the introduction of hydrogen chloride gas into a flask of ammonia rather than water. The flow rate of hydrogen chloride gas into the flask in the smoke fountain is not constant, but periodic; that is, the smoke puffs from the end of the tube. This unexpected behavior elicits an interesting thermodynamic explanation.
Alexander, M. Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 210.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Amounts Tables as a Diagnostic Tool for Flawed Stoichiometric Reasoning  John Olmsted III
Amounts tables can be used to organize the data and reasoning involved in limiting-reagent problems. In this context, amounts tables can provide useful diagnostic information about students' abilities to reason stoichiometrically.
Olmsted, John A., III. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 52.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry
CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay)  Scott White and George Bodner
CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations.
White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Cut-Out Molecular Models  Silva, Ana Luisa; Fernandes, Carla; Wasterlain, Olivier; Costa, Sandra; Mendes, Ana Maria.
Suggestions for improvement to the original demonstration.
Silva, Ana Luisa; Fernandes, Carla; Wasterlain, Olivier; Costa, Sandra; Mendes, Ana Maria. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 28.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
A Cyclist's Guide to Ionic Concentration  Arthur M. Last
A simple analogy to help students understand ionic concentration is presented.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1433.
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
The Best of Chem 13 News  Kathy Thorsen
A variety of suggestions for instructional activities in introductory chemistry from Chem 13 News.
Thorsen, Kathy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1368.
Microscale Lab |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
News from Online: Using the Web for Your Courses  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Useful online resources for chemistry and education.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1073.
Stoichiometry
How Big Is the Balloon? Stoichiometry Using Baking Soda and Vinegar  
Students discover the concept of stoichiometry and limiting reactants in two ways: first by adding vinegar to a small quantity of baking soda until bubbles stop, and second by mixing a constant quantity of baking soda with increasing volumes of vinegar and collecting the carbon dioxide produced in balloons.
J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1328A.
Stoichiometry
Constructing Chemical Concepts through a Study of Metals and Metal Ions: Guided Inquiry Experiments for General Chemistry  Ram S. Lamba, Shiva Sharma, and Baird W. Lloyd
A set of inquiry-based experiments designed to help students develop an understanding of basic chemical concepts within the framework of studying the properties and reactivity of metals and metal ions.
Lamba, Ram S.; Sharma, Shiva; Lloyd, Baird W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1095.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
CheMentor Software System by H. A. Peoples  reviewed by Brian P. Reid
CheMentor is a series of software packages for introductory-level chemistry, which includes Practice Items (I), Stoichiometry (I), Calculating Chemical Formulae, and the CheMentor Toolkit.
Reid, Brian P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1047.
Stoichiometry
Stoogiometry: A Cognitive Approach to Teaching Stoichiometry  Carla R. Krieger
Moe's Mall is a locational device designed to be used by learners as a simple algorithm for solving mole-based exercises efficiently and accurately. The mall functions as a map for setting up solutions to mole-based exercises using dimensional analysis. It clears the cognitive decks of students' easily overburdened short-term memory space, allowing them to focus on the versatility of the mole, rather than stepwise solutions to meaningless exercises.
Krieger, Carla R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 306.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Small-Scale Experiments Involving Gas Evolution  Brouwer, H.
Apparatus for measuring very small volume changes of gases and several experimental procedures involving the evolution of gases.
Brouwer, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A100.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab
Redox Challenges: Good Times for Puzzle Fanatics  Roland Stout
Three difficult to balance redox equations.
Stout, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1125.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Stoichiometry of the Neutralization of Citric Acid: An Introductory Laboratory  Susan E. Hayes
Experiment to introduce stoichiometry to pre-college students; includes sample data and analysis.
Hayes, Susan E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1029.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry
Those Baffling Subscripts  Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney
Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems.
Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
REACT: Exploring Practical Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Calculations  Ramette, Richard W.
Description of REACT software to balance complicated equations; determine thermodynamic data for all reactants and products; calculate changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for a reaction; and find equilibrium conditions for the a reaction.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 240.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
A Concrete Analogy for Combustion Analysis Problems  Reingold, I. David
Exercise for helping students understand stoichiometry by considering a Sherlock Holmes case.
Reingold, I. David J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 222.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Pictorial Analogies XII: Stoichiometric Calculations  Fortman, John J.
Pictorial analogies for comparing different amounts in terms of number, volume, and mass; excess reagents; and stoichiometric approximations.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 571.
Stoichiometry
Experiments for modern introductory chemistry: Limiting reagent, stoichiometry, and the mole  Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H.
Description of an experiment based on electronic absorption spectroscopy for general chemistry students that gives accurate results, conveys the excitement of discovery in experimental science, and illustrates key concepts.
Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 671.
Stoichiometry |
Spectroscopy
Unknown identification by simple stoichiometry  McCullough, Thomas
A simple experiment in which the student can determine the identity of a soluble carbonate salt using one straightforward reaction and gravimetric analysis.
McCullough, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 592.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Using the electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 1. Colorimetry and thermometry experiments  Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III
The multimeter could be a very useful instrument for the chemistry laboratory bench. In this paper, the versatility of the multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory is demonstrated.
Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 514.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-based program that has modules on significant figures, VSEPR structures, stoichiometry, and unit conversions.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 460.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-like program that includes modules on significant figures, conversions, stoichiometry, and VSEPR structures.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 387.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Combustion of hydrocarbons: A stoichiometry demonstration   Alexander, M. Dale
A simple demonstration that makes the introduction of stoichiometry more interesting and relevant to students.
Alexander, M. Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 327.
Stoichiometry
Gas chamber stoichiometry   Hunter, Norman W.; Wilkins, Curtis C.; Pearson, Earl F.
Most students know that HCN is used in gas chambers, they may not know however that HCN is produced in the burning of carpets, draperies, clothing and other textiles made of polyacrylonitrile.
Hunter, Norman W.; Wilkins, Curtis C.; Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 389.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry
The old Nassau demonstration: Educational and entertaining variations  Fortman, John J.
The Old Nassau reaction can be used to illustrate the effects of concentration and temperature on rates in a fun way.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 236.
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law
Chem 1 concept builder (Lower, Steve with Instructional Software)  Hair, Sally R.
A review of a software package designed for tutorial and drill.
Hair, Sally R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A19.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A poster exhibit on stoichiometry for National Chemistry Week  Pacer, Richard A.
An idea for a visually intriguing poster that will invite attention.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 549.
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A straightforward derivation of stoichiometric mass relationships  Gorin, George
An alternative to the factor label method for solving stoichiometric mass relationship problems.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 762.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Name for the basic physical quantity n, symbol for relative mass  Nelson, P. G.
Recommendations for naming the basic physical quantity n, symbol for relative mass.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 628.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Concept learning versus problem solving: Revisited  Sawrey, Barbara A.
A student's ability to solve a numerical problem does not guarantee conceptual understanding of the molecular basis of the problem.
Sawrey, Barbara A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 253.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Problem solving and requisite knowledge of chemistry  Lythcott, Jean
It is possible for students to produce right answers to chemistry problems without really understanding much of the chemistry involved.
Lythcott, Jean J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 248.
Stoichiometry |
Learning Theories
Copper dissolution in nitric acid   Stairs, Robert A.
Previous correspondence on the stoichiometry of the dissolution of copper in nitric acid is confused as a result of the attempt to write a single equation.
Stairs, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 184.
Stoichiometry
Principles of Stoichiometry (Gold, Marvin)  Montagnino, Frank
The program is primarily a tutorial supported by nonrandom generated problems which require user input.
Montagnino, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A42.
Stoichiometry
A stoichiometric journey  Molle, Brian
A story to help students overcome some of the difficulties they encounter in stoichiometry calculations.
Molle, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 561.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A question of basic chemical literacy?   Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R.
The ability to read and write clearly in chemical-equation terms is not as well developed as it should be. The purpose of this "Provocative Opinion" is to draw attention to this problem, and to suggest specific remedies for its solution.
Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 217.
Stoichiometry
Teaching stoichiometry: A two cycle approach   Poole, Richard L.
It is the intent of this article to describe and illustrate a tandem approach for the teaching of stoichiometry that the author developed.
Poole, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 57.
Stoichiometry
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Teaching stoichiometry   Figueira, Alvaro Rocha
Students have a hard time with stoichiometry because it is often presented in a manner that is divorced from content and application.
Figueira, Alvaro Rocha J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1060.
Applications of Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry to the rescue (a calculation challenge)   Ramette, Richard W.
Presentation of a question that would be suitable for a take-home exam or a problem set in a general or analytical chemistry course.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 800.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
A simple quantitative synthesis: Sodium chloride from sodium carbonate  Gold, Marvin
A stoichiometry experiment that fulfills the following: satisfactory precision, no need for a fume hood, is interesting and instructive, and the products can be discarded in the sink.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 731.
Stoichiometry
The interconversion of electrical and chemical energy: The electrolysis of water and the hydrogen oxygen fuel cell  Roffia, Sergio; Conciallini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen
The authors discuss some common drawbacks to typical electrolysis demonstrations and present an apparatus that overcomes these drawbacks.
Roffia, Sergio; Conciallini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 272.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stoichiometry |
Electrochemistry
A multi-topic problem for general chemistry   Burness, James H.
A 'marathon' problem which requires specific knowledge in several areas while requiring that the student recognize how these areas are related.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 145.
Stoichiometry |
Transport Properties |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Crystals / Crystallography
Reaction stoichiometry and suitable "coordinate systems"  Tykodi, R. J.
Methods for dealing with problems involving reactions stoichiometry: unitize and scale up, factor-label procedure, de Donder ratios, and titration relations.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 958.
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Hard ways and easy ways  Schwartz, Lowell M.
Two examples of common general chemistry calculations and different approaches ("hard" and "easy") to solving them.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 698.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Concept learning versus problem solving: Is there a difference?  Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles
Chemistry teachers have assumed implicitly that being able to solve problems is equivalent to understanding molecular concepts; this study examines whether this widespread assumption is justified.
Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 508.
Stoichiometry
A simple, safe, and inexpensive laboratory exercise in the guided inquiry format  de Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A.
Introductory laboratory exercise that illustrates stoichiometry, limiting reagents, and proportionality by reacting calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide.
de Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 452.
Stoichiometry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Reactions
Election results and reactions yields  Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.
Reactions do not always proceed to products as expected from the stoichiometry; sometimes only a fraction of the reagents undergo reaction, while at other times, side products are formed due to competing reactions.
Rocha-Filho, Romeu C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 248.
Stoichiometry
The chemistry tutor (Rinehart, F.P.)  Watkins, Stanley R.; Krugh, William D.
Two reviews of a two-disk package that is designed to help students master the essential skills of equation balancing, stoichiometric,and limiting reagents calculations.
Watkins, Stanley R.; Krugh, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A206.
Stoichiometry
Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemistry: Acids and Bases ( Frazin, J. and partners)  Bendall, Victor I.; Roe, Robert, Jr.
Two reviews of a software package that contains drill and practice programs that are suitable for beginning students of chemistry.
Bendall, Victor I.; Roe, Robert, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A204.
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases
S'mores: A demonstration of stoichiometric relationships   Cain, Linda
S'mores are a good analogy for students struggling to learn stoichiometry.
Cain, Linda J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1048.
Stoichiometry
Teaching stoichiometry   Steiner, Richard P.
This author targets some of the reasons behind why it is so difficult for beginning chemistry students to understand stoichiometry. He reveals that if taught correctly and effectively, a 7-year old can grasp the concepts of stoichiometry.
Steiner, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1048.
Stoichiometry
What can we do about Sue: A case study of competence  Herron, J. Dudley; Greenbowe, Thomas J.
A case study of a "successful" student who is representative of other successful students that are not prepared to solve novel problems.
Herron, J. Dudley; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 528.
Stoichiometry |
Learning Theories
On writing equations  Campbell, J.A.
The author presents a very direct approach to writing complicated equations without using a matrix approach.
Campbell, J.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 63.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
New stoichiometry for copper dissolution in nitric acid  El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A.
NO2 does not appear to be a primary product in the oxidation of copper metal by nitric acid.
El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 761.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A pictorial framework to aid conceptualization of reaction stoichiometry  Cameron, David L.
Approach to teaching stoichiometry that promotes students' understanding of a reaction as a coherent process.
Cameron, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 510.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
How should equation balancing be taught?  Porter, Spencer K.
Suggestions for balancing chemical equations.
Porter, Spencer K. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 507.
Stoichiometry
Why teach the gas laws?  Davenport, Derek A.
Justification for teaching the gas laws.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 505.
Gases |
Stoichiometry
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A recipe for teaching stoichiometry  Umland, Jean B.
Comparing stoichiometry calculations to the methods required for fractioning or multiplying a baking recipe.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1036.
Stoichiometry
Analogies that indicate the size of atoms and molecules and the magnitude of Avogardo's number  Alexander, M. Dale; Ewing, Gordo J.; Abbott, Floyd T.
Three analogies to help students imagine the sizes of atoms, molecules, and Avogadro's number.
Alexander, M. Dale; Ewing, Gordo J.; Abbott, Floyd T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 591.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
Coffee, coins, and limiting reagents  McMinn, Dennis
Analogy regarding stoichiometry and limiting reagents.
McMinn, Dennis J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 591.
Stoichiometry
Simplest formula for copper iodide  Suchow, Lawrence
We should no longer try to "prove" the Law of Definite Proportions with non-molecular inorganic solids, especially those that contain elements which exhibit multiple oxidation states.
Suchow, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 566.
Oxidation State |
Metals |
Stoichiometry
A bloody nose, the hairdresser's salon, flies in an elevator, and dancing couples: The use of analogies in teaching introductory chemistry  Last, Arthur M.
The use of analogies can play an important role in assisting students in understanding some of the more difficult and/or abstract concepts in introductory chemistry. In addition, analogies can provide an amusing interlude during a lecture and can sometimes help a lecturer to interact with his students. The four analogies presented in this article represent some of the analogies students have found helpful and amusing in recent years.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 748.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics
A simultaneous analysis problem for advanced general chemistry laboratories  Leary, James J.; Gallaher, T. N.
The goal of this experiment is to determine the percentage Mg3N2 and the percentage Mg formed when magnesium metal is ignited in a crucible using a Bunsen burner.
Leary, James J.; Gallaher, T. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 673.
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
A visual analogy for metallic deposition  Hartwig, Dcio R.; Filho, Romeu C. Rocha
Metallic deposition stoichiometry problems are difficult for students to visualize. A clever visual tool is explained in this article.
Hartwig, Dcio R.; Filho, Romeu C. Rocha J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 591.
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Stoichiometry
Simplest formula of copper iodide: a stoichiometry experiment  MacDonald, D. J.
It is difficult to find a chemistry experiment that convincingly demonstrates stoichiometric relationships. The experiment in this article is elegant and pedagogically effective.
MacDonald, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 147.
Stoichiometry
Balancing complex chemical equations using a hand-held calculator   Alberty, Robert A.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. This article is primarily concerned the question: If certain specified chemical species are involved in a reaction, what are the stoichiometric coefficients?
Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 102.
Stoichiometry
Investigation of secondary school students' understanding of the mole concept in Italy  Cervellati, R.; Montuschi, A.; Perugini, D.; Grimellini-Tomasini, N.; Balandi, B. Pecori
Results of a small-scale investigation to ascertain the knowledge of chemistry among students entering first-year university courses in science.
Cervellati, R.; Montuschi, A.; Perugini, D.; Grimellini-Tomasini, N.; Balandi, B. Pecori J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 852.
Stoichiometry
Some tungsten oxidation-reduction chemistry: A paint pot titration  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
Mild reducing agents reduce WO3 to a nonstoichiometric blue oxide, "mineral blue," whose approximate formula is WO2.2-3.0.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 693.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Chemical wastes and the law of conservation of matter   Hill, John W.
This note discusses the conservation of matter as a starting point for understanding the problems of chemical waste.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 996.
Stoichiometry |
Toxicology
An experimental introduction to stoichiometry   Webb, Michael J.
A procedure for an experiment with the purpose: To show via experiment that the quantities of materials used in chemical reactions are related to balanced chemical equations.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 192.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A chemistry lesson at Three Mile Island  Mammano, Nicholas J.
Teaching principles of general chemistry through references made to the nuclear incident at Three Mile Island.
Mammano, Nicholas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 286.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
An application of Gagne's principles of instructional design: Teaching the limiting-reactant problem  Ozsogomonyan, Ardas
The results of a study of the development and validation of effective individualized instructional materials to teach some major concepts of stoichiometry to underprepared students.
Ozsogomonyan, Ardas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 799.
Stoichiometry
The barium hydroxide ammonium thiocyanate reaction: A titrimetric continuous variations experiment  Harris, Arlo D.
Experiment that uses acid-base titrimetry to study the stoichiometry of a novel solid state reaction.
Harris, Arlo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 477.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Solid State Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
More on balancing redox equations  Kolb, Doris
Balancing atypical redox equations.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 181.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Evolution of an experiment (from moles/I2 to gaseous CaCl2)  Dauphinee, G. A.
An experiment originally designed to illustrate a simple problem in solution stoichiometry has produced a stimulus to student recognition of some applications of descriptive chemistry.
Dauphinee, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 116.
Stoichiometry |
Descriptive Chemistry
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
Different experiment on chemical composition  Wells, Norman; Boschmann, Erwin
The synthesis of antimony iodide.
Wells, Norman; Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 586.
Stoichiometry
A logic diagram for teaching stoichiometry  Tyndall, John R.
Presents a diagram that the author found helpful in teaching the fundamentals of stoichiometry.
Tyndall, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 492.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
The reactions of ferroin complexes. A color-to-colorless freshman kinetic experiment  Edwards, John O.; Edwards, Kathleen; Palma, Jorge
A group of related reactions that can be easily followed with a colorimeter which show that the mechanism by which a reaction takes place may not be at all obvious from the stoichiometry.
Edwards, John O.; Edwards, Kathleen; Palma, Jorge J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 408.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An experiment for introductory college chemistry. How to establish a chemistry equation  Masaguer, J. R.; Coto, M. Victoria; Casas, J. S.
The stoichiometry of the reaction between potassium chromate and barium chloride in an aqueous state is determined by using the height of of the precipitate formed when different amounts of both solutions are mixed in a graduated cylinder.
Masaguer, J. R.; Coto, M. Victoria; Casas, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 387.
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The failings of the law of definite proportions  Suchow, Lawrence
Inorganic solids often violate the law of definite proportions.
Suchow, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 367.
Stoichiometry |
Solids |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Mysterious stoichiometry  Bowman, L. H.; Shull, C. M.
The student's task in this experiment is to determine the composition of a compound of chromium produced in an electrolytic cell.
Bowman, L. H.; Shull, C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 186.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The extent of reaction as a unifying basis for stoichiometry in elementary chemistry  Garst, John F.
The author uses a more approachable symbol for "moles rxn per liter". The author outlines this approach with some examples.
Garst, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 194.
Stoichiometry |
Gases
The law of definite proportions. An experiment for introductory chemistry  Wilhelm, Dale L.
Using the synthesis of copper iodide to demonstrate the law of definite proportions has advantages over other compounds.
Wilhelm, Dale L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 436.
Stoichiometry |
Synthesis
The mole and Avogadro's number. A forced fusion of ideas for teaching purposes  Hawthorne, Robert M., Jr.
History of Avogadro's number and the mole and their increasing association with one another.
Hawthorne, Robert M., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 282.
Stoichiometry
Grading the copper sulfide experiment  Novick, Seymour
The author recommends a more liberal analysis in grading the copper sulfide experiment.
Novick, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Balancing equations (the author responds)  Young, Jay A.
Recognizes the referenced letter.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry
Balancing equations  Missen, R. W.
The author provides an alternative answer to the question in the referenced article.
Missen, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Strong, Laurence E.
(1) What evidence, understandable and acceptable to students, do most teachers cite to describe the transfer of charge from one electrode to another in the direct current electrolysis of an electrolyte solution? (2) What is a compound? - answer by Strong. (3) What is a molecule? - answer by Strong.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Strong, Laurence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 523.
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The oxidation of hydrazine by basic iodine solutions: A stoichiometric study  Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W.
This experiment relies on an oxidation-reduction reaction for which a variety of products is energetically possible.
Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 872.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The stoichiometry of silver chromate and basic copper chromate: Investigations for the freshman laboratory  Kalbus, L. H.; Petrucci, R. H.
This project begins with a continuous variation study of the formation of silver chromate and then turns to copper chromate and with this substance the results are unexpected, from beginning to end.
Kalbus, L. H.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 776.
Stoichiometry |
Quantitative Analysis
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A simple vacuum apparatus for lecture experiments  Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H.
Describes a simple vacuum apparatus and examples of its use in lecture situations.
Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 742.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Transport Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
From stoichiometry and rate law to mechanism  Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John
Examines the rules used by chemists as guidelines in developing mechanisms from stoichiometric and rate law observations.
Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 381.
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Reactive Intermediates
Letter to the editor  Bacon, E. K.
Examines values collected when using the production of copper sulfide to demonstrate the law of constant proportions.
Bacon, E. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 620.
Stoichiometry |
Synthesis
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Stoichiometry: Atomic weights, molecular formulas, microcosmic magnitudes (Nash, Leornard K.)  Maybury, P. Calvin

Maybury, P. Calvin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 429.
Stoichiometry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Molecular Recognition
The stoichiometry of copper sulfide formed in an introductory laboratory exercise  Dingledy, David; Barnard, Walther M.
The preparation of copper sulfide is used as an introductory chemistry laboratory exercise to demonstrate the law of constant proportions.
Dingledy, David; Barnard, Walther M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 242.
Stoichiometry |
Synthesis
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction: An elementary chemistry experiment  Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W.
Students are asked to decide which of a number of nitrogen containing species is a reasonable product of the reaction between the hydroxylammonium ion and iron (III) on the basis of the experimentally determined stoichiometry of the reaction.
Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 109.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Stoichiometry of the reaction of bromine with phenols  Lockwood, Karl L.
The purpose of this investigation is to establish the stoichiometry for the reaction of a number of phenols with bromine, and to demonstrate the rapid and quantitative nature of the reaction of bromine with enols.
Lockwood, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 482.
Stoichiometry |
Phenols
Experimental approach to stoichiometry. In first-year chemistry at Northwestern  King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton
Presents five experiments in which students are given a minimal set of directions and a simply stated objective.
King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 464.
Stoichiometry |
Coordination Compounds |
Undergraduate Research |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Crystals, minerals and chemistry  McConnell, Duncan; Verhoek, Frank H.
Considers stoichiometry and isomorphism, isomorphic substitutions, coupled substitution, the substitution of anions, and oxygen atoms per unit cell.
McConnell, Duncan; Verhoek, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 512.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Geochemistry |
Stoichiometry
Some experiments on the stoichiometry of reactions  Tietzie, H. R.
Students establish the stoichiometry of several reactions through volumetric analysis.
Tietzie, H. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 344.
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry experiments. Part 2. General chemistry experiments  Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N.
Presents a variety of experiments that make use of hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry.
Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry
The "reaction equivalent" in stoichiometric problems  Dorf, Harold
Presents a simplified method for solving all stoichiometric problems based on chemical equations.
Dorf, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 298.
Stoichiometry
Redox revisited  Lockwood, Karl L.
Examines issues regarding instruction in oxidation-reduction chemistry.
Lockwood, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 326.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Stoichiometry
Recent history of the notion of a chemical species  Bulloff, Jack J.
Quantum and nuclear chemistry have challenged the doctrine that chemical elements are homogeneous entities while studies of the structure and stoichiometry of solids invite a change in our ideas of definite proportions in chemical combinations.
Bulloff, Jack J. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 78.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Stoichiometry |
Solids
On accenting observations in chemistry  Campbell, J. A.
A chemical equations is, for many a student, such a complete abstraction that he would be hard put to describe the actual observations that would be made in a process for which he was supplied the complete equation.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 634.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols