TIGER

Journal Articles: 68 results
A New "Bottom-Up" Framework for Teaching Chemical Bonding  Tami Levy Nahum, Rachel Mamlok-Naaman, Avi Hofstein, and Leeor Kronik
This article presents a general framework for bonding that can be presented at different levels of sophistication depending on the student's level and needs. The pedagogical strategy for teaching this model is a "bottom-up" one, starting with basic principles and ending with specific properties.
Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Kronik, Leeor. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1680.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Materials Science |
MO Theory |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Aromaticity of Pericyclic Reaction Transition States  Henry S. Rzepa
Presents an approach that combines two fundamental concepts in organic chemistry, chirality and aromaticity, into a simple rule for stating selection rules for pericyclic reactions in terms of achiral Hckel-aromatic and chiral Mbius-aromatic transition states.
Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1535.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Lewis Structure Representation of Free Radicals Similar to ClO  Warren Hirsch and Mark Kobrak
An unconventional Lewis structure is proposed to explain the properties of the free radical ClO and a series of its isoelectronic analogues, particularly trends in the spin density of these species.
Hirsch, Warren; Kobrak, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1360.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Free Radicals |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
MO Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
Introducing the Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry to Undergraduate Chemistry Students  Jason K. Pearson
Presents a laboratory exercise in which students use traditional second-year concepts such as the rigid rotor and harmonic oscillator approximations in conjunction with Gaussian 03 to reinforce practical aspects of computational chemistry.
Pearson, Jason K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1323.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Microscale Demonstration of the Paramagnetism of Liquid Oxygen with a Neodymium Magnet  Bruce Mattson
When a neodymium magnet is brought near a suspended glass tube containing a small amount of liquid oxygen, the tube is attracted to the magnet, demonstrating oxygen's paramagnetism. In larger quantities the blue color of liquid oxygen is readily observable.
Mattson, Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1296.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Gases |
Magnetic Properties |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding: Analysis within the Hückel Model of Electronic Structure  Sture Nordholm, Andreas Bäck, and George B. Bacskay
Hckel molecular orbital theory is shown to be uniquely useful in understanding and interpreting the mechanism of covalent bonding. Using the Hckel model it can be demonstrated that the dynamical character of the molecular orbitals is related simultaneously to the covalent bonding mechanism and to the degree of delocalization of the electron dynamics.
Nordholm, Sture; Bäck, Andreas; Bacskay, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1201.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
On the Role of d Orbital Hybridization in the Chemistry Curriculum  John Morrison Galbraith
The use of d-orbital hybridization to describe hypervalent molecules should be removed from the general chemistry curriculum. The case of bonding in sulfur hexaflouride can illustrate that no theory provides all the right answers all the time.
Galbraith, John Morrison. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 783.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students  Alice L. Perez and G. Lamoureux
Sudoku puzzles are used to help the students learn the correspondence between the names of amino acids, their abbreviations, and codes; and the correspondence between the names of functional groups, their structures, and abbreviations.
Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 614.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkylation |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Amino Acids |
MO Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student-Centered Learning |
Alkynes |
Amides
Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity  P. K. Chattaraj, U. Sarkar, and D. R. Roy
Electronic structure principles dictate that aromatic molecules are associated with low energy, polarizability, and electrophilicity but high hardness values, while antiaromatic molecules possess the opposite characteristics. These relationships are demonstrated through B3LYP/6-311G** calculations on benzene and cyclobutadiene.
Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 354.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Quantum Chemistry
Was Markovnikov's Rule an Inspired Guess?  Peter Hughes
A study of 19th century literature shows that neither Markovnikov nor any of his contemporaries carried out the reactions often attributed to himthe addition of hydrogen bromide or hydrogen chloride to propene. Since there is little evidence for Markovnikov's rule in his 1870 article, it is likely that it was more of an inspired guess than a rational conclusion.
Hughes, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1152.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Sequence of Linked Experiments, Suitable for Practical Courses of Inorganic, Organic, Computational Chemistry, and NMR Spectroscopy  Grigoriy A. Sereda
A sequence of investigations associated with the iodochlorination of styrene and 1-hexene is described. The sequence is flexible enough to be used in inorganic, organic, computational, and instrumental courses.
Sereda, Grigoriy A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 931.
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
MO Theory |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Octachem Model: Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Companion  Joaquin Palacios
The Octachem model is an educational physical model designed to guide students in the identification, classification, and naming of the chemical structures of organic compounds. In this article the basic concepts of Octachem model are presented, and the physical model and contents are described.
Palacios, Joaquin. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 890.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Ethers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene   Judith C. Amburgey-Peters and LeRoy W. Haynes
We investigated the reaction of (Z)-1,2-diphenylethene (cis-stilbene) with various brominating reagents and solvents following directions in standard organic chemistry manuals. We were particularly interested in learning which combination of brominating reagent and solvent gave the best yield of (d,l)-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane without the formation of significant amounts of meso-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane, which is essentially the sole product from the reaction of bromine with (E)-1,2-diphenylethene (trans-stilbene). Based on the results from the standard preparatory methods, some permutations of solvent and brominating reagent were tried.
Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1051.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
A Substitute for “Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride”  Joshua M. Daley and Robert G. Landolt
Benzotrifluoride (BTF) is a suitable solvent substitute for carbon tetrachloride in experiments requiring application of bromine (Br2) in free radical or addition reactions with organic substrates. A 1 M solution of Br2 in BTF may be used to distinguish hydrocarbons based on the ease of abstraction of hydrogen atoms in thermally or light-induced free radical substitutions. Efficacy of minimization of solvent use, by aliquot addition to neat samples, has been established.
Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 120.
Alkenes |
Free Radicals |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions
Moving Beyond the Single Center—Ways To Reinforce Molecular Orbital Theory in an Inorganic Course  Marion E. Cass and William E. Hollingsworth
Rather than ending the discussion of molecular orbital (MO) theory in an inorganic chemistry course with molecules such as octahedral ML6 or square planar ML4, we suggest moving beyond the single-atom center to include the MO diagram of ethene (C2H4).
Cass, Marion E.; Hollingsworth, William E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 997.
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
The Singlet States of Molecular Oxygen   Jean-Pierre Puttemans and Georges Jannes
Although the purpose of the article The Visible Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen in the General Chemistry Laboratory is an analysis of the two-moleculesone-photon absorption spectrum of oxygen, it nevertheless assigns arrangements of the electrons in an energy diagram to the two singlet states of molecular oxygen which do not seem to be correct in our opinion.
Puttemans, Jean-Pierre; Jannes, Georges. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 639.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Singlet States of Molecular Oxygen   Jean-Pierre Puttemans and Georges Jannes
Although the purpose of the article The Visible Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen in the General Chemistry Laboratory is an analysis of the two-moleculesone-photon absorption spectrum of oxygen, it nevertheless assigns arrangements of the electrons in an energy diagram to the two singlet states of molecular oxygen which do not seem to be correct in our opinion.
Puttemans, Jean-Pierre; Jannes, Georges. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 639.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Teaching Molecular Geometry with the VSEPR Model  Ronald J. Gillespie
The difficulties associated with the usual treatment of the VB and MO theories in connection with molecular geometry in beginning courses are discussed. It is recommended that the VB and MO theories should be presented only after the VSEPR model either in the general chemistry course or in a following course, particularly in the case of the MO theory, which is not really necessary for the first-year course.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 298.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Theoretical Chemistry |
VSEPR Theory |
MO Theory
Why Chemical Reactions Happen (James Keeler and Peter Wothers)  John Krenos
By concentrating on a limited number of model reactions, this book presents chemistry as a cohesive whole by tying together the fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and quantum chemistry, mainly through the use of molecular orbital interpretations.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 201.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
Laboratory Sequence in Computational Methods for Introductory Chemistry  Jason A. Cody and Dawn C. Wiser
Description of a four-week laboratory sequence that exposes students to instrumentation (FT-NMR, GC) and computational chemistry.
Cody, Jason A.; Wiser, Dawn C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 793.
Chromatography |
Computational Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
How We Teach Molecular Structure to Freshmen  Michael O. Hurst
Examination of how textbooks discuss various aspects of molecular structure; conclusion that much of general chemistry is taught the way it is for historical and not pedagogical reasons.
Hurst, Michael O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 763.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
The Visible Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen in the General Chemistry Laboratory  Frazier Nyasulu, John Macklin, and William Cusworth III
Examination of the spectrum of liquid oxygen and testing several hypotheses to explain the pattern of spectral lines observed.
Nyasulu, Frazier; Macklin, John; Cusworth, William, III. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 356.
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Role of Lewis Structures in Teaching Covalent Bonding  S. R. Logan
Difficulties with the Lewis theory of covalent bonding and upgrading it to the Molecular Orbital theory.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1457.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Nonmajor Courses |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Have Orbitals Really Been Observed? (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1492-1494)  John C. H. Spence, M. O'Keefe, and J. M. Zuo
Clarification of work described in a previous article.
Spence, John C. H.; O'Keefe, M.; Zuo, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 877.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Have Orbitals Really Been Observed?  Eric R. Scerri
Recent reports claiming to have observed textbook d orbitals are analyzed and it is argued that what was observed indirectly, and not for the first time, was actually electron density. It is also suggested that the tendency to use the terms electron density and orbital to mean the same thing will give rise to confusion in chemical education.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1492.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Reply to Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding  Smith, Derek W.
Coulombic vs molecular orbital models for explaining the molecular shapes of ionic molecules.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 445.
Ionic Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding  Sacks, Lawrence J.
Coulombic vs molecular orbital models for explaining the molecular shapes of ionic molecules.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 445.
Ionic Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Lewis Structures Are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure  Gordon H. Purser
This article argues against a close relationship between Lewis dot structures and electron structure obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. Lewis structures are a powerful tool for structure prediction, though they are classical models of bonding and do not predict electronic structure.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1013.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling
Playing with the Soccer Ball-an Experimental Introduction to Fullerene Chemistry  Achim Hildebrand, Uwe Hilgers, Rudiger Blume, Dagmar Wiechoczek,
For the first time a selection of simple experiments with C60 on high-school and university level are presented: the bromination with Winkler's solution, hydroxylation with an alkaline permanganate solution, cycloadditions of dichlorcarbene and cyclopentadiene and the formation of a molecular complex with o-dimethoxybenzene.
Hildebrand, Achim; Hilgers, Uwe; Blume, Rudiger; Wiechoczek, Dagmar. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1066.
Alkenes
Paper Models for Fullerenes C60-C84   John M. Beaton
Photocopyable patterns to construct C60-C84.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 863.
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkenes
Photodegradation of methylene blue: Using solar light and semiconductor (TiO2)  Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F.
An experiment that can be used to introduce or explore concepts such as photochemistry, semiconductors, and kinetics.
Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 861.
Semiconductors |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
MO Theory
Experiments illustrating metal-insulator transitions in solids  Keller, Steven W.; Mallouk, Thomas E.
Experiments and demonstrations to expose undergraduate students to electronic properties of solids.
Keller, Steven W.; Mallouk, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 855.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Semiconductors |
MO Theory |
Materials Science
The Caltech chemistry animation project   Lewis, Nathan S.
Animations are being produced on subjects such as: atomic and molecular orbitals, lattices, VSPER, nucleophilic substitution, stereochemistry, sigma and pi bonding, and many more.
Lewis, Nathan S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 739.
Stereochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
MO Theory |
Crystals / Crystallography
A paper-pattern system for the construction of fullerene molecular models  Beaton, John M.
Paper cut-out models of C60, C70, C80, and C76 with Td and D2 symmetry.
Beaton, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 610.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Group Theory / Symmetry
The nature of the chemical bond-Once more (1).  Edmiston, Clyde.
The original article is a classic case of incorrect conclusions drawn from largely correct facts.
Edmiston, Clyde. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 600.
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
A source of isomer-drawing assignments  Kjonaas, Richard A.
A comprehensive source from which instructors can choose a wide variety of good isomer drawing examples to use as homework assignments and exam questions.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 452.
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Esters |
Alkynes
There are no such things as orbitals-Act two!  Simons, Jack
What is the role of molecular orbital theory in chemistry instruction?
Simons, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 131.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Organic Nomenclature (Lampman, Gary)  Damey, Richard F.
An interactive tutorial / drill for naming organic compounds.
Damey, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A220.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols
Keeping track of directions of atomic orbitals: A useful device in organic chemistry  Talaty, Erach R.
The usefulness of keeping track of the directions of atomic orbitals.
Talaty, Erach R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 655.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
MO theory made visible  Mealli, Carlo; Proserpio, Davide M.
114. The authors present an automated package of programs to perform MO calculations and their graphical illustration.
Mealli, Carlo; Proserpio, Davide M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 399.
MO Theory
Observation of paramagnetic property of oxygen by simple method - A simple experiment for college chemistry and physics courses   Shimada, Hiroshi; Yasuoka, Takashi; Mitsuzawa, Shunmei
The authors devised a demonstration in which a bubble of gaseous oxygen is used to demonstrate the paramagnetic property of oxygen rather than liquid oxygen.
Shimada, Hiroshi; Yasuoka, Takashi; Mitsuzawa, Shunmei J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 63.
MO Theory |
Magnetic Properties
Mnemonic for Z and E nomenclature  Thomas, C. W.
A visual reminder that makes it unnecessary to memorize the German terms.
Thomas, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 44.
Diastereomers |
Alkenes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
No rabbit ears on water. The structure of the water molecule: What should we tell the students?  Laing, Michael
Analysis of the bonding found in water and how it results in the observed geometry of the water molecule.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 124.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Oil shale - Heir to the petroleum kingdom   Schachter, Y.
A discussion of oil shale provides students with real-world problems that require chemical literacy.
Schachter, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 750.
Applications of Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Green Chemistry
Electron-dot structures of O2 and NO: Ignored gems from the work of J. W. Linnett  Levy, Jack B.
The presented treatment makes it easier for students to make predictive models with electron-dot structures.
Levy, Jack B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 404.
Lewis Structures |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Infrared spectrum of methanol: A first-year student experiment  Boehm, Garth; Dwyer, Mark
This paper describes an experiment in infrared spectroscopy designed to complement an alternative course, and the audiovisual system which supports this experiment.
Boehm, Garth; Dwyer, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 809.
MO Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Exchange stabilization and the variation of ionization energy in the pn and dn series  Blake, Antony B.
This article is concerned with two types of ionizations that are of special importance to chemists. The author's main purpose is to clarify current textbook interpretations of the peculiar decrease in ionization energy following completion of a half-filled p or d shell.
Blake, Antony B. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 393.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
Bent-bond models using framework molecular models  Sund, Eldon H.; Suggs, Mark W.
Using tubing to represent double and triple bonds.
Sund, Eldon H.; Suggs, Mark W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 638.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Covalent Bonding
Bent bonds and multiple bonds  Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.
Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of the bent bond model first proposed by Pauling in 1931.
Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 329.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
Ethylene: The organic chemical industry's most important building block  Fernelius, Condrad W.; Wittcoff, Harold; Varnerin, Robert E.
The sources, chemistry, and industrial uses of ethylene.
Fernelius, Condrad W.; Wittcoff, Harold; Varnerin, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 385.
Alkenes |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Polymerization
Hybrid orbitals in general chemistry: A simple vector approach   Wiger, George R.
The author shares a method for presenting the facts about hybrid orbitals without some sort of supporting illustration.
Wiger, George R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 655.
MO Theory
Lecture projectable atomic orbital cross-sections and bonding interactions  Shepherd, Rex E.
Models using small Styrofoam balls and slinky toys improve student understanding of covalent bonds.
Shepherd, Rex E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 317.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
A general chemistry molecular orbital computer project  Campbell, J. H.
The author introduces a computer project that may aid in helping students learn about linear combination of atomic orbitals.
Campbell, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 673.
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry
A simple demonstration of O2 paramagnetism. A macroscopically observable difference between VB and MO approaches to bonding theory  Saban, G. H.; Moran, T. F.
A simple apparatus to demonstrate the paramagnetic behavior of oxygen.
Saban, G. H.; Moran, T. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 217.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Magnetic Properties |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
A simple demonstration model for molecular orbital theory  Druding, Leonard F.
Using two bar magnets and iron filings to demonstrate the formation of molecular bonding and anti-bonding orbitals.
Druding, Leonard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 617.
MO Theory
Should MO theory be taught in freshman chemistry - No!  Schubert, Leo
The author examines several reasons why he feels that the teaching or molecular orbital theory is unwise, perhaps even harmful, for most freshman chemistry courses.
Schubert, Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 626.
MO Theory
The electron-pair repulsion model for molecular geometry  Gmespie, R. J.
Reviews the electron-pair repulsion model for molecular geometry and examines three-centered bonds, cluster compounds, bonding among the transition elements, and exceptions to VSEPR rules.
Gmespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 18.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
VSEPR Theory |
Transition Elements
LTE. Normalization of MO's  Hecht, Charles E.
The author suggests that the cited computer program be modified to normalize molecular orbitals.
Hecht, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 700.
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Fluid-flow simulation of molecular orbitals  Gymer, Roger G.
A simple device, the fluid mapper, is used for the simulation of molecular orbitals.
Gymer, Roger G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 493.
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
Hybrid orbitals in molecular orbital theory  Cohen, Irwin; Del Bene, Janet
Reviews, for the nonspecialist, the basis of hybrid orbitals in terms of molecular orbital theory, to show how the chemical bond is most closely approximated in orbital theory, and to present some new orbital diagrams.
Cohen, Irwin; Del Bene, Janet J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 487.
MO Theory |
Transition Elements
Molecular geometry: Bonded versus nonbonded interactions  Bartell, L. S.
Proposes simplified computational models to facilitate a comparison between the relative roles of bonded and nonbonded interactions in directed valence.
Bartell, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 754.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Atomic orbital molecular models  Martins, George
Atomic orbital molecular models are constructed using molded white expanded polystyrene in the form of spheres and teardrops.
Martins, George J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 658.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Models illustrating types of orbitals and bonding  Baker, Wilbur L.
A short note on a model of ethylene that clarifies the nature of bonding in the molecule.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 606.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Covalent Bonding
Molecular models featuring molecular orbitals  Brumlik, George C.
Molecular models have been constructed that attempt to represent atomic and molecular orbitals as accurately as the current theories of valence and pertinent experimental evidence permit.
Brumlik, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 502.
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure: A demonstration using a "Ziegler" type catalyst  Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max
A simple experiment on the polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure is described using a "Ziegler" type catalyst prepared from amyl lithium and titanium tetrachloride.
Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 344.
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Alkenes
Orbital models  Fowles, Gerald W. A.
Constructing models of atomic and molecular orbitals from papier-mache.
Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 260.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Note on the representation of the electronic structures of acetylene and benzene  Noller, Carl R.
The three dimensional nature of molecular orbitals in acetylene and benzene are illustrated.
Noller, Carl R. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 23.
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory