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Journal Articles: 999 results
The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer  B. T. Arneson, S. R. Long, K. K. Stewart, and J. J. Lagowski
Presents details for adapting a diode array UVvis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubesfuge tubesas cuvettes. The fuge tubes also can serve as reaction vessels, which permits the ready study of chemical systems involving heterogeneous phases by eliminating the need for tedious separations.
Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1663.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Investigating the Stability of Benzoyl Peroxide in Over-the-Counter Acne Medications  Marina Canepa Kittredge, Kevin W. Kittredge, Melissa S. Sokol, Arlyne M. Sarquis, and Laura M. Sennet
Students use peroxide strips to investigate the stability of the benzoyl peroxide found in an over-the-counter acne medication when added to various solutions of water, ethanol, polyethylene glycol, and isopropyl myristate.
Canepa Kittredge, Marina; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1655.
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Nonmajor Courses |
Solutions / Solvents
Sustainability Education and the ACS Committee on Environmental Improvement  Laura E. Pence
The Education subcommittee of the Committee on Environmental Improvement is working on several complementary sustainability projects including informing chemistry departments about energy efficient fume hood management and working with textbook authors to incorporate sustainability throughout their educational materials.
Pence, Laura E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1608.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Revising the ACS Guidelines for Chemistry Programs in Two-Year Colleges: Exploring Changes and Opportunities  John V. Clevenger, Margaret S. Richards, and Jodi L. Wesemann
A draft of the next edition of the ACS Guidelines for Chemistry Programs in Two-Year Colleges contains guidelines designed to maximize the potential of students, faculty, and programs in two-year colleges; reflect changes in pedagogy, technology, and accountability; facilitate student transfer; and provide a more useful resource for strengthening programs.
Clevenger, John V.; Richards, Margaret S.; Wesemann, Jodi L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1602.
Administrative Issues |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Nonmajor Courses |
Professional Development |
Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research
Elemental Chem Lab  Antonio Joaquín Franco Mariscal
Three puzzles use the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs.
Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1370.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Soap-Making Suggestion  Ben Ruekberg
The reaction mixture of soap-making procedures tends to clog the filter paper in a Bchner funnel. A plastic scrubbing sheet such as Scotch-Brite is coarse enough to allow rapid filtration but fine enough to hold curdy soap.
Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1345.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter  Emma Kavanagh, Sam Mindel, Giles Robertson, and D. E. Peter Hughes
Describes the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element, that has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute.
Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1129.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Make a Match  Erika K. Jacobsen
Suggests using this month's JCE Classroom Activity in conjunction with the laboratory exercise that follows it.
Jacobsen, Erica K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1090.
Calibration |
Carbohydrates |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis
Measuring the Density of a Sugar Solution  Karen I. Peterson
This experiment addresses the concept of equipment calibration for reducing systematic error. Students prepare and measure the densities of sucrose solutions with simple glassware that has been calibrated using the density of water. By careful work, students can determine the density to within 0.5%. allowing accuracy to be a major component of the final grade.
Peterson, Karen I. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1089.
Calibration |
Carbohydrates |
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
A Hand-Held Ammonia Fountain  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
A plastic juice bottle, filled with ammonia gas generated by combining aqueous ammonia and sodium hydroxide, provides a convenient demonstration of the ammonia fountain and gas solubility.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1063.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Revising the ACS Guidelines for Chemistry Programs in Two-Year Colleges: Shaping the Next Edition  John V. Clevenger and Jodi L. Wesemann
Much has changed since the second edition of the ACS Guidelines for Chemistry Programs in Two-Year Colleges was prepared in 1997. The roles that two-year college programs can and do play in providing access to and success in higher education are receiving more attention.
Clevenger, John V.; Wesemann, Jodi L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 770.
Administrative Issues |
Applications of Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Nonmajor Courses |
Professional Development |
Student / Career Counseling |
Undergraduate Research |
Student-Centered Learning
A Simple Laboratory Experiment To Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter  Carlos E. Perles and Pedro L. O. Volpe
A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter.
Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 686.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stereochemistry
Using Hydrogen Balloons To Display Metal Ion Spectra  James H. Maynard
Describes a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products.
Maynard, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 519.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
Pennies and Eggs: Initiation into Inquiry Learning for Preservice Elementary Education Teachers  Donald J. Wink and Jeong Hye Hwang-Choe
Describes two labs incorporating the Science Writing Heuristic in a course for preservice students in elementary education. The first lab is a discovery activity involving the change in composition and mass of pennies in 1982; the second uses flotation methods to separate hard-boiled and uncooked eggs.
Wink, Donald J.; Hwang-Choe, Jeong Hye. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 396.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Investigating Students' Ability To Transfer Ideas Learned from Molecular Animations of the Dissolution Process  Resa M. Kelly and Loretta L. Jones
This study examines what features of the particulate nature of matter learned from viewing two animations of sodium chloride dissolution students would transfer to their descriptions of the participation of aqueous sodium chloride in a chemical reaction.
Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 303.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Constructivism
A Simple Experiment in the Separation of a Solid-Phase Mixture and Infrared Spectroscopy for Introductory Chemistry  Paul S. Szalay
In this guided-inquiry experiment, a two-component solid mixture of caffeine and ibuprofen is separated through a series of solution extractions and precipitations. The components are then analyzed using IR spectrophotometry to determine how effectively they were separated.
Szalay, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
A Lab Experience To Illustrate the Physicochemical Principles of Detergency  J. A. Poce-Fatou, M. Bethencourt-Núñez, C. Moreno, F. J. Moreno-Dorado, and J. J. Pinto-Ganfornina
This article presents a lab to study the role of a surfactant and builder in laundry detergent efficiency as determined through measurements of the diffuse reflectances of polyester samples impregnated with linseed oil.
Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Bethencourt-Núñez, M.; Moreno, C.; Moreno-Dorado, F. J.; Pinto-Ganfornina, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 266.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Micelles |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics
Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Kristen L. Cacciatore, Jose Amado, Jason J. Evans, and Hannah Sevian
Presents a novel first-year chemistry experiment that asks students to replicate procedures described in sample lab reports that lack essential information. This structure is designed to promote students' experimental design and data analysis skills as well as their understanding of the importance and essential qualities of written and verbal communication between scientists.
Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 251.
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Scientific–Chemical Viewpoints Regarding Smoking: A Science Laboratory for All  Ron Blonder
This article describes a lab that examines the acidity of cigarette smoke as well as solid particles and vapor phase substances found therein, and simulates the effects of smoking on the lungs. The aim of this activity is to expose adolescents to the scientific aspects of smoking and the relevance of chemistry in everyday life.
Blonder, Ron. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 248.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Applications of Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
Tin(II) Chloride Dihydrate  Jay A. Young
Proper handling and safety tips for tin(II) chloride dihydrate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 194.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Tin(II) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Proper handling and safety tips for tin(II) oxide are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 193.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing  Set Seng, Masakazu Kita, and Reiko Sugihara
This article describes a high school classroom activity in which an acrylic fabric is used as the extraction medium in the analysis of detergent concentration rather than more harmful organic solvents. An handmade reflection photometer, assembled with inexpensive materials such as LED, PVC tube, and CdS sensor, is used to determine the detergent concentration.
Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1803.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
How Many Atomic Layers of Zinc Are in a Galvanized Iron Coating?   Shui-Ping Yang
This article describes a guided inquiry and problem solving experiment in which students use a novel gasometric assembly to determine the thickness and number of atomic layers of zinc coating on galvanized iron wires and nails.
Yang, Shui-Ping. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1792.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Rate Law
Creating Customized, Relevant, and Engaging Laboratory Safety Videos  Michael L. Matson, Jeffrey P. Fitzgerald, and Shirley Lin
A customized safety video has been created for the laboratory component of a general chemistry course incorporating information specific to laboratory experiments and equipment, as well as policies unique to the institution. Clips from popular film and television series were used to capture and sustain the attention of the audience while reinforcing relevant safety directives.
Matson, Michael L.; Fitzgerald, Jeffrey P.; Lin, Shirley. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1727.
Administrative Issues |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses |
Laboratory Management
Using Technology and Other Assistive Strategies To Aid Students with Disabilities in Performing Chemistry Lab Tasks  Mary Bethé Neely
This paper describes a project undertaken as an interdisciplinary effort among four science departments, two disabilities services offices, and special education personnel to investigate the use and success of assistive technology devices and other equipment modifications to transform science labs into environments where students with disabilities can function independently.
Neely, Mary Bethé. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1697.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses |
Minorities in Chemistry
A Qualitative Experiment To Analyze Microbial Activity in Topsoil Using Paper and a Handmade Reflection Photometer   Julius Kofi Agbeko and Masakazu Kita
This article describes a novel method to qualitatively determine the extent of microbial activity in topsoil using blank paper containing high amounts of starch and a simple, handmade, cadmium sulfidelight emitting diode (CdSLED) reflection photometer.
Agbeko, Julius Kofi; Kita, Masakazu. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1689.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Carbon Dioxide Fountain  Seong-Joo Kang and Eun-Hee Ryu
This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain that, unlike the traditional ammonia fountain, is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available.
Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Lactic Acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of lactic acid are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1420.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Fluorescence Spectroscopy in a Shoebox  M. Farooq Wahab
Concepts related to fluorescence spectroscopy are demonstrated with a simple fluorometer that examines highlighter ink using a flashlight or the sun as a light source, a bowl of water with a mirror as the dispersing element, colored cellophane as filters, and the human eye as a detector. In addition, a spectrofluorometer is constructed using gratings made from a DVD or CD.
Wahab, M. Farooq. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1308.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Building a Low-Cost, Six-Electrode Instrument To Measure Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Gold Nanoparticles  Ralph W. Gerber and Maria Oliver-Hoyo
The multimeter testing apparatus described is an inexpensive and easy to construct analogdigital meter that can be used for quantitative measurements of self-assembled gold monolayers.
Gerber, Ralph W.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1177.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Electrochemistry
Determining the Pressure inside an Unopened Carbonated Beverage  Hans de Grys
Determining the pressure of carbon dioxide inside a sealed soft drink can represents a challenging student exercise. Several methods are discussed for solving the problem, including applying the ideal gas law, gas collection via water displacement, and Henry's law.
de Grys, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1117.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Physical Meaning of the Mathematical Formalism Present in Limiting Chemical Equations; Or, How Dilute Is Dilute?  C. Contreras-Ortega, N. Bustamante, J. L. Guevara, C. Portillo, and V. Kesternich
Proposes general mathematical formulations to offer students a better understanding of the real scope of scientific expressions dealing with limiting physical conditions, such as those concerning dilute and concentrated solutions and low and high temperatures and pressures.
Contreras-Ortega, C.; Bustamante, N.; Guevara, J. L.; Portillo, C.; Kesternich, V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 788.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Small-Scale and Low-Cost Electrodes for "Standard" Reduction Potential Measurements  Per-Odd Eggen, Lise Kvittingen, and Truls Grønneberg
This article describes how to construct three simple and inexpensive, microchemistry electrodes: hydrogen, chlorine, and copper.
Eggen, Per-Odd; Grønneberg, Truls; Kvittingen, Lise. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 671.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Student-Centered Learning
A Simple and Inexpensive Salt Bridge for Demonstrations Involving a Galvanic Cell  Charles A. Liberko
A saturated sponge is a quick, economical, and reliable way to allow ions to transfer between the two half cells in a galvanic cell.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 597.
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures To Determine the Vapor Pressure of a Volatile Liquid  Fred R. Hilgeman, Gary Bertrand, and Brent Wilson
This experiment, designed for a general chemistry laboratory, illustrates the use of Dalton's law of partial pressures to determine the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid.
Hilgeman, Fred R.; Bertrand, Gary; Wilson, Brent. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 469.
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Flame Emission Spectrometry in General Chemistry Labs: Solubility Product (Ksp) of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate  Frazier W. Nyasulu, William Cusworth III, David Lindquist, and John Mackin
In this general chemistry laboratory, flame emission spectrometry is used to determine the potassium ion concentration in saturated solutions of potassium hydrogen phthalate. From these data the solubility products, the Gibbs free energies of solution, the standard enthalpy of solution, and the standard entropy of solution are calculated.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Cusworth, William, III; Lindquist, David; Mackin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 456.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A Novel W-Tube for Microscale Experiments in Chemistry  H. O. Gupta
A simple W-tube is described to test for the presence or absence of a certain gas quickly and economically at the microscale level.
Gupta, H. O. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 321.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gases
A Dam for Cup Sinks To Keep Chemical Spills from the Drain  Frederick C. Sauls and Janine M. Alexis
A dam of gasket material around the sink can resolve the difficulty of chemical spills in the hood.
Sauls, Frederick C.; Alexis, Janine M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 232.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Effectiveness of a MORE Laboratory Module in Prompting Students To Revise Their Molecular-Level Ideas about Solutions  Lydia T. Tien, Melonie A. Teichert, and Dawn Rickey
This study investigates the effectiveness of a ModelObserveReflectExplain (MORE) laboratory module in prompting three different populations of general chemistry students to revise their molecular-level ideas regarding chemical compounds dissolved in water.
Tien, Lydia T.; Teichert, Melonie A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 175.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression  Ronald P. D'Amelia, Thomas Franks, and William F. Nirode
The work described herein uses differential scanning calorimetry to determine the molar mass of three unknowns (nonvolatile organic hydrocarbons) by freezing point depression.
D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1537.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Concentration Scales for Sugar Solutions  David W. Ball
Examines several special scales used to indicate the concentration of sugar solutions and their application to industry.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Food Science |
Solutions / Solvents
A Better Method for Filling Pasteur Pipet Chromatography Columns  Ben Ruekberg
A test tube can be used to improve the quality and ease of preparing and loading a Pasteur pipet chromatography column.
Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1200.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Synthesis of Copper(II) Carboxylates Revisited  Kevin Kushner, Robert E. Spangler, Ralph A. Salazar, Jr., and J. J. Lagowski
Describes an electrochemical synthesis of copper(II) carboxylates for use in the general chemistry laboratory course for chemistry majors.
Kushner, Kevin; Spangler, Robert E.; Salazar, Ralph A., Jr.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1042.
Carboxylic Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
Transition Elements |
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis
A Simple Method for Rapidly Obtaining Absorption Spectra with a Spectronic-20D+ Spectrophotometer  Jonathan E. Thompson
This article describes how simple modifications to the Spectronic 20D+ and interfacing this instrument to a popular data acquisition system allows for a significant decrease in the time necessary for collection of an absorption spectrum from 400 to 650 nm.
Thompson, Jonathan E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 913.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Demonstration of Absorbance Using Digital Color Image Analysis and Colored Solutions  Shane K. Kohl, James D. Landmark, and Douglas F. Stickle
This article describes a simple experiment in which the principle of absorbance may be demonstrated using digital color image analysis.
Kohl, Shane K.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Incorporation of Microwave Synthesis into the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Alan R. Katritzky, Chunming Cai, Meghan D. Collins, Eric F. V. Scriven, Sandeep K. Singh, and E. Keller Barnhardt
Describes a simple way to effectively implement microwave synthesis into the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum.
Katritzky, Alan R.; Cai, Chunming; Collins, Meghan D.; Scriven, Eric F. V.;Singh, Sandeep K.; Barnhardt, E. Keller. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 634.
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Synthesis
What Happens When Chemical Compounds Are Added to Water? An Introduction to the Model–Observe–Reflect–Explain (MORE) Thinking Frame  Adam C. Mattox, Barbara A. Reisner, and Dawn Rickey
This article describes a laboratory designed to help students understand how different compounds behave when dissolved in water, and introduces the modelobservereflectexplain (MORE) thinking frame, an instructional tool that encourages students to connect macroscopic observations with their understanding of the behavior of particles at the molecular level.
Mattox, Adam C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 622.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
From Justus von Liebig to Charles W. Eliot: The Establishment of Laboratory Work in U.S. High Schools and Colleges  Keith Sheppard and Gail Horowitz
This article describes the role that Justus von Liebig had in popularizing the laboratory method, how he indirectly influenced educational reformer and Harvard president, Charles W. Eliot, and how Eliot brought about widespread dissemination and adoption of the laboratory method in schools and colleges.
Sheppard, Keith; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 566.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Distance Learning: A Viable Alternative to the Conventional Lecture–Lab Format in General Chemistry  Ruby S. Casanova, Jennifer L. Civelli, Doris R. Kimbrough, Barbara P. Heath, and James H. Reeves
Student performance in two first-semester general chemistry courses are compared to determine whether a distance learning model can provide a comparable learning opportunity to the conventional lecturelaboratory format.
Casanova, Ruby S.; Civelli, Jennifer L.; Kimbrough, Doris R.; Heath, Barbara P.; Reeves, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 501.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Student-Centered Learning
An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV–Visible Spectrophotometer  Jonathan P. Blitz, Daniel J. Sheeran, and Thomas L. Becker
Describes the application of a multichannel array spectrometer equipped with a fiber optic probe for the acquisition of emission spectra as a means of performing flame tests for qualitative analysis in the general chemistry laboratory.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 277.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility provides an animated, visual interpretation of the different solubilities of related salts based on simple entropy changes associated with dissolution: configurational disorder and thermal disorder.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 173.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Computational Chemistry
A New Java Animation in Peer-Reviewed JCE WebWare  William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
Just added to JCE WebWare, Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility uses a Java applet and Web browser to present an animated illustration of differences in the solubility of salts due to differences in the entropy of solvation.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 173.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Using Computer Simulations To Teach Salt Solubility. The Role of Entropy in Solubility Equilibrium  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Pairs of salts are discussed to illustrate the interpretation of their different behavior in water in terms of the fundamental concept of entropy. The ability of computer simulations to help improve students' understanding of these chemistry concepts is also examined.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 170.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Barium Nitrate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of barium nitrate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 34.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
JCE Chemical Laboratory Information Profiles (CLIPs) on CD-ROM. Abstract of JCE CLIPs 2005  Jon L. Holmes
All 106, one-page Chemical Laboratory Information Profiles, published from April 2001 through July 2005, have been collected as PDF files on a single CD-ROM, JCE CLIPs.
Holmes, Jon L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1744.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ammonium Thiocyanate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of ammonium thiocyanate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1619.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ammonium Chloride  Jay A. Young
The hazards of ammonium chloride are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1618.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ammonium Dichromate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of ammonium dichromate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1617.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon, M. T. Moran-Moran, Alejandro Alatorre-Ordaz, Bruce Mattson, and Scot Eskestrand
Ozone, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is produced electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it, to observe its action in simulated environmental applications, and to measure its rate of production.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mayen-Mondragon, Rodrigo; Moran-Moran, M. T.; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Mattson, Bruce; Eskestrand, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1546.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Sherlock Holmes and the Case of the Raven and the Ambassador's Wife: An Inquiry-Based Murder Mystery  Nathaniel Grove and Stacey Lowery Bretz
In the accompanying investigation, students help Sherlock Holmes solve the poisoning death of Holly Bernard-Schneider, the wife of the German ambassador to England. Hints are placed throughout the story to help students in their choice of experiments. These experiments include flame tests, qualitative analysis, molar mass determination using freezing point depression, and identification of crystal shapes. Though intended for use as a culminating activity, the unit can be easily modified to be used as separate modules throughout the course of the year.
Grove, Nathaniel; Bretz, Stacey Lowery. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1532.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Toys in the Classroom  Jerry L. Sarquis and Arlyne. M. (Mickey) Sarquis
The chemical principles behind Shrinky Dinks, Happy Birds, and Hand Boilers are described and suggestions for hands-on activities for students are given.
Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne. M. (Mickey). J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1450.
Solutions / Solvents
Balloon—Toy of Many Colors  Kathryn R. Williams
Balloon-related articles previously published in JCE describe gas law experiments and demonstrations, large-scale molecular models, demonstrations of reaction rates and stoichiometry, hydrogen-filled balloon explosions, and miscellaneous laboratory uses.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1448.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
VSEPR Theory
Improving Conceptions in Analytical Chemistry: ci Vi = cf Vf  Margarita Rodríguez-López and Arnaldo Carrasquillo Jr.
A common misconception related to analytical chemistry, which may be generalized as the failure to recognize and to account analytically for changes in substance density, is discussed. A cautionary example is made through the use of mass-based units of composition during volumetric dilution. The correct application of the volumetric dilution equation ci Vi = cf Vf is discussed. A quantitative description of the systematic error introduced by incorrect use of the volumetric dilution equation is also specified.
Rodríguez-López, Margarita; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1327.
Industrial Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air  Dan Xiao, Lianzhi Lin, Hongyan Yuan, Martin M. F. Choi, and Winghong Chan
This article describes the use of a passive sampler for detecting and collecting nitrogen dioxide, NO2, in ambient air. This device is based on microporous PTFE membranes that allow air samples to diffuse through and subsequently react with an absorbing reagent solution. The absorbance value of this reagent is proportional to the NO2 concentration in ambient air. It has been successfully applied to determine the NO2 concentrations in various sampling sites.
Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1231.
Calibration |
Membranes |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Coordination Compounds |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses |
Quantitative Analysis
Some Insights Regarding a Popular Introductory Gas Law Experiment  Ed DePierro and Fred Garafalo
This paper alerts readers to a potential source of error in one approach to the Dumas method as it is often practiced in introductory chemistry laboratories. The room-temperature vapor pressures of volatile compounds that might be considered as unknowns for the experiment lead to determined molar masses that are too low. The greater the vapor pressure of the compound, the lower the determined molar mass will be, when compared to the accepted value.
DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1194.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Investigating the Photoelectric Effect Using LEDs and a Modular Spectroscope  Lucia Diaz and Charles A. Smith
With a modular spectroscope, students can monitor the effect of adjusting individually the position and orientation of the light source, grating, and slits. Investigating the position of the individual components dramatically illustrates the advantages of using long monochromators in conjunction with narrow slit widths in maximum-resolution spectroscopy. Once students fully understand the operation of the modular spectroscope, they calibrate it using a light source with a known spectrum. A circuit board containing colored light-emitting diodes (i.e., LEDs) is then used to measure a value for Plancks constant through a photoelectric-effect-type equation.
Diaz, Lucia; Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 906.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
A LED Microtiter Plate Reader  James Gordon and Sandra Tye
An inexpensive photometric detector system was designed for use with a 96-well microtiter plate. The absorbance of solutions in the wells was measured by using a light-emitting diode as the light source and a Vernier LabPro data-collection interface with a light sensor as the detector. The feasibility of the system was demonstrated with a linear absorbance versus concentration calibration curve constructed from solutions of yellow food coloring.
Gordon, James; Tye, Sandra. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 903.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Teaching pH Measurements with a Student-Assembled Combination Quinhydrone Electrode  Fritz Scholz, Tim Steinhardt, Heike Kahlert, Jens R. Pörksen, and Jürgen Behnert
A combination pH electrode that can be assembled by the student is described. It consists of a glass holder and two sensors in the form of rubber stoppers that contain quinhydrone and graphite. The combination electrode is suitable to teach potentiometric measurements, pH measurements, and the interplay of acidbase and redox equilibria. The electrode meets highest safety standards and overcomes the troubles associated with the use of the conventional quinhydrone electrode.
Scholz, Fritz; Steinhardt, Tim; Kahlert, Heike; Pörksen, Jens R.; Behnert, Jürgen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 782.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Weighing Paper Substitute  Ben Ruekberg
Patty paper sheets are suggested as a low-cost replacement for weighing paper.
Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 620.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The Match Game: A Discovery of the Laboratory Equipment Used in General Chemistry  Stacey L. Greengold
A game that is simple to prepare and execute is described in this article. The Match Game allows students to learn the names and uses of common laboratory equipment that they will encounter during their year in high school chemistry. After the activity, a student-based discussion is led by the teacher, which includes the proper and safe usage of all equipment presented.
Greengold, Stacey L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 547.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Cadmium  Jay A. Young
The hazards of cadmium are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 521.
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Lithium  Jay A. Young
The hazards of lithium are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 520.
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Heat and Temperature Conductivity of Baths. Author Reply  Erik Joling
I appreciate the suggestions made by Bruno Lunelli to improve the usefulness of the microscale heater we described. However, for use in secondary schools sand works fine. In spite of the better properties I would not recommend the use of silicone oil with relatively inexperienced 16-year-old pupils since it can be a bit messy. But that is an argument of classroom management, not of chemistry.
Joling, Erik. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Microscale Lab
Heat and Temperature Conductivity of Baths  Bruno Lunelli
Joling et al. described a convenient microscale heater in their article, A Low-Cost and Timesaving Microscale Heater. Having had the same problem several years ago, initially I adopted substantially the same solution they proposed. But soon it became apparent that the generic sand bath did not provide a satisfactory thermal contact in terms of both heat transfer and temperature uniformity and control.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 380.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Microscale Lab
Copper(II) Nitrate Trihydrate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of copper(II) nitrate trihydrate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 375.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph   Natasa Gros and Margareta Vrtacnik
A small-scale low-cost portable gas chromatograph (the total cost of the instrument is approximately $65) was developed that is suitable for hands-on learning and teaching of the basic concepts of chromatography. The portability and miniaturization were ensured by the application of a small propane/butane cylinder to supply the carrier gas and by the use of optic fibers for light transmission to the electronic unit with a photoresistor as a sensor. The instrument proved that the measurements are sufficiently detailed and reliable for the basic chromatographic concepts to be introduced through a hands-on approach.
Gros, Natasa ; Vrtacnik, Margareta. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 291.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
Mercury Thermometer Replacements in Chemistry Laboratories   Barbara L. Foster
Every undergraduate student in a chemistry laboratory must use a thermometer at some point during his or her chemistry laboratory experience. The mercury-in-glass thermometers that are typically used in chemistry laboratories are easily broken. The resulting spilled mercury can easily become trapped under the laboratory benches and in the flooring material in the laboratory, exposing students and laboratory personnel to hazardous levels of mercury.
Foster, Barbara L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 269.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Reaction to "The Concept of Ionic Strength Eighty Years after Its Introduction in Chemistry"  Leslie Glasser
Sastre de Vicente has recently published an excellent paper on the concept of ionic strength, detailing its empirical origin, its independent appearance in the theories of Debye and Hckel, its applications in solution chemistry and, most importantly, its interpretation as reflecting the extent to which a potential difference induces a charge density difference.
Glasser, Leslie. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 212.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hydrogen Sulfide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of hydrogen sulfide are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 202.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Greener Approach for Measuring Colligative Properties  Sean M. McCarthy and Scott W. Gordon-Wylie
As a first step towards the greening of instructional laboratories, we present a new greener version of a laboratory procedure designed to measure colligative properties. The greener procedure substitutes the nontoxic, noncarcinogenic compounds stearic, myristic, lauric, and palmitic acids for the less benign aromatic compounds p-dichlorobenzene, benzil, biphenyl, naphthalene, and nitrotoluene. Achieving educational goals without the concomitant generation of chlorinated and aromatic wastes is shown here to be both possible and practical.
McCarthy, Sean M.; Gordon-Wylie, Scott W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 116.
Green Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Fatty Acids
Catechol  Jay A. Young
The hazards of catechol are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 31.
Alcohols |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Laser-Pointer-Based Spectrometer for Endpoint Detection of EDTA Titrations  Christopher E. Dahm, James W. Hall, and Brian E. Mattioni
A simple laser-pointer-based spectrometer has been developed for endpoint detection of EDTA titrations of magnesium and calcium. This spectrometer was built to decrease the uncertainty in determining the endpoint of titrations performed with a Calmagite indicator. With a photoresistor as the detector, and with the aid of a voltage-divider circuit, the quantity of light being absorbed can be followed with a simple pHvoltmeter. Students determine the endpoint by graphing the data and applying simple mathematics. BeerLambert studies with the spectrometer also show excellent agreement for a given set of solutions.
Dahm, Christopher E.; Hall, James W.; Mattioni, Brian E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1787.
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Gravimetric Titrations: In Support of Weight Titration Techniques  Richard W. Ramette
I write in support of the recommendations of Stephen Hawkes on gravimetric titrations. Weight titration techniques are, in my opinion, by far the best way to bring volumetric analysis into the 20th (let alone 21st) century.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1715.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Gravimetric Titrations: Save Time, Expense, and Error by Using Weight Burets  Stephen J. Hawkes
Two papers have shown the superiority of a cheap plastic squeeze bottle used as a weight buret over an expensive volumetric buret. These papers were published at a time, now past, when precise weighing was inconvenient.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1715.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Iron(III) Chloride  Jay A. Young
The hazards of iron(III) chloride are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1710.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Lead(II) Nitrate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of lead(II) nitrate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1709.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Lead(II) Chromate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of lead(II) chromate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1708.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Effect of Ionic Strength on the Solubility of an Electrolyte  Joan D. Willey
The theory of activity versus concentration is important in industrial, environmental, and biochemistry. The increase in solubility of an electrolyte in a solution of a second electrolyte with no common ions compared with pure water is not an easy concept to grasp because it seems to be counterintuitive. The simple experiment described here illustrates this principle visually and dramatically. Students attempt to dissolve CaSO42H2O (gypsum) in pure water and in 0.25 M NaCl.
Willey, Joan D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Measuring Viscoelastic Deformation with an Optical Mouse  T. W. Ng
A simple demonstration of viscoelasticity can be carried out by attaching a weight to a polymer film and watching it extend over time. For accurate and quantifiable data on the deformation, an electronic displacement sensor should be incorporated. Most of such sensors are expensive. Here, an optical mouse was demonstrated to provide accurate data at low cost. The experiment was also devised in a manner to allow students to learn about viscoelastic deformation experientially.
Ng, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1628.
Consumer Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Materials Science
Potassium Aluminum Sulfate 12 Hydrate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of potassium aluminum sulfate 12 hydrate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1563.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Tin  Jay A. Young
The hazards of tin are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1562.
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"  Frederick Sweet
Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. The device can be used for enclosing small vials or bottles and also jars that are too large to be placed in conventional glass or plastic desiccators. This shrink-wrapping device is proposed for producing "vacuum desiccators" in large undergraduate chemistry laboratories or in graduate and research laboratories.
Sweet, Frederick. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1500.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Alternative Thermochemical Container   Robert G. Silberman
Dean Campbell suggests a clever, readily available, and simple alternative to the calorimeters described in my article. I tried his suggestion and egg cartons work well with the appropriate scale up of materials. The only advantage I see to the calorimeter I described is somewhat greater durability and need for smaller amounts of chemicals.
Silberman, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1421.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An Alternative Thermochemical Container  Dean J. Campbell
I was intrigued with the JCE Classroom Activity: #59 "Some Like It Hot, Some Like It Cold." I think that a polystyrene foam egg carton (or even multiple nested cartons) would be an adequate container for mixing the solutions and performing thermochemical measurements.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1421.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Carbon Tetrachloride  Jay A. Young
The hazards of carbon tetrachloride are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1416.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Dichloromethane  Jay A. Young
The hazards of dichloromethane are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1415.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ethyl Alcohol  Jay A. Young
The hazards of ethyl alcohol are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1414.
Laboratory Management |
Alcohols |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20  Jonathan E. Thompson and Jason Ting
A simple, inexpensive, water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. The cuvette and associated flow system can easily be constructed from materials commonly found in an undergraduate chemistry laboratory. As a demonstration of the cuvette's utility, we used the cuvette for the determination of the activation energy for the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion. However, the cuvette may prove useful in a variety of applications in which a sample must be thermostated within a spectrophotometer.
Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1341.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy
Construction of a Small-Scale and Low-Cost Gas Apparatus  Lise Kvittingen and Richard Verley
This article describes how to construct an apparatus for gas production from disposable polyethene pipets and polypropene microcentrifuge tubes. Heat is used to form the plastics into appropriate shapes. A stand from floral wire is also presented. The assembly has an open interface and is possible to modify. This construction suits various grades and curricula and can easily be integrated into different topics.
Kvittingen, Lise; Verley, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1339.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Gases
A Small-Scale and Low-Cost Apparatus for the Electrolysis of Water  Per-Odd Eggen and Lise Kvittingen
This article describes how to construct two simple, inexpensive, and illustrative apparatuses using disposable polyethene pipets and floral wire for electrolysis of water. These apparatuses suit various grades and curricula.
Eggen, Per-Odd; Kvittingen, Lise. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1337.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Mercury(II) Chloride  Jay A. Young
The hazards of mercury(II) chloride are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1260.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Silver Nitrate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of silver nitrate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1259.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Titanium(IV) Oxide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of titanium(IV) oxide are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1115.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Lead Dioxide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of lead dioxide are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1114.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Yellow Phosphorus  Jay A. Young
The hazards of yellow phosphorus are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 946.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Red Phosphorus  Jay A. Young
The hazards of red phosphorus are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 945.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple, No-Cost Rack for Holding Small Tubes in a Constant Temperature Bath  Kathryn R. Williams
A floating support for small tubes is made by boring holes into a thin piece of styrofoam packing material.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 846.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Deionized Water Watchdog  Gregory J. Edens
A solution is presented for the problem of filling a storage carboy with deionized water without the need for annoying reminders to close the faucet valve.
Edens, Gregory J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 841.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Naphthalene  Jay A. Young
The hazards of naphthalene are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 795.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner  Kurt R. Mathews, James D. Landmark, and Douglas F. Stickle
Here we describe a procedure to produce a standard curve for quantification of starch concentration using colorimetry.
Mathews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 702.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Convenient Storage Rack for Graduated Cylinders  Brian Love
The design of a storage rack for graduated cylinders is described. The rack offers the advantage of being able to store large quantities of graduated cylinders in a small space, while at the same time organizing them according to size.
Love, Brian. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 701.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
N,N-Dimethylformamide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of N,N-dimethylformamide are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 632.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chloroacetic acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of chloroacetic acid are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 631.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Methyl Ethyl Ketone  Jay A. Young
The hazards of methyl ethyl ketone are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 630.
Laboratory Management |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calcium  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for calcium.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 479.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Silver  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for silver.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 478.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Modular Laser Apparatus for Polarimetry, Nephelometry, and Fluorimetry in General Chemistry  Scott A. Darveau, Jessica Mueller, April Vaverka, Cheri Barta, Anthony Fitch, Jessica Jurzenski, and Yvonne Gindt
We present an apparatus suitable for multiple uses in the general chemistry laboratory including polarimetry, fluorescence, and nephelometry. The open design of the instrument also decreases the chance that students will contract the "black-box syndrome" that seems to develop when using instruments that only provide the final data in an experiment without showing how the measurements are obtained.
Darveau, Scott A.; Mueller, Jessica; Vaverka, April; Barta, Cheri; Fitch, Anthony; Jurzenski, Jessica; Gindt, Yvonne. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 401.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Water / Water Chemistry
Aluminum Chloride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum chloride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 331.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Iodide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium iodide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 330.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Well Wishes. A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  Mary M. Walczak and Juliette M. Lantz
This paper describes the use of a case study to teach introductory chemistry students the chemical principles of solution concentration (especially ppm) and dilution, aqueous redox reactions, and stoichiometric conversions between different solution species.
Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 218.
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 187.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chlorine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for chlorine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 186.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Low-Voltage Conductivity Device. Editor's Note about Using Conductivity Devices in Nonaqueous Solutions  Ed Vitz and Melissa Kistler
A conductivity demonstration device is described which operates on 12V and yet will illuminate a bulb brightly enough for use in a lecture hall, even when used with solutions of low conductivity.
Vitz, Ed; Kistler, Melissa. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 63.
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Dipoles  Samuel H. Yalkowsky and Jennifer L. H. Johnson
Reply to comments on original article.
Yalkowsky, Samuel H.; Johnson, Jennifer L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Chemical Bonds  Roy W. Clark
Concerns over students confusing electrical and magnetic fields.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Lead Acetate Trihydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for lead acetate trihydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1374.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Mercury(II) Nitrate Monohydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for mercury(I) nitrate monohydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Students' Understanding of Solution Chemistry Concepts  Tacettin Pinarbasi and Nurtaç Canpolat
This study examines undergraduates' understanding of some concepts in solution chemistry such as unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions; physical properties of solutions; and gas solubility. We suggest that the results can be utilized in research that develops teaching strategies to overcome students' misunderstanding.
Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Canpolat, Nurtaç . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1328.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Palm-Based Data Acquisition Solutions for the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Susan Hudgins, Yu Qin, Eric Bakker, and Curtis Shannon
Handheld computers provide a compact and cost-effective means to log data in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Handheld computers have the ability to record multiple forms of data, be programmed for specific projects, and later have data transferred to a personal computer for manipulation and analysis.
Hudgins, Susan; Qin, Yu; Bakker, Eric; Shannon, Curtis. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1303.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Sodium Dichromate Dihydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium dichromate dihydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1251.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydrogen carbonate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1250.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Manual Microscale Column Chromatography Pressurization Apparatus  Bruce W. Baldwin
Pressurization of a Pasteur pipet for microscale chromatography is simplified by connecting a 20- or 30-mL syringe to the pipet using a length of Tygon tubing. This simple system allows the student to easily dry-pack a column using common chromatography packing materials.
Baldwin, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1182.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Nitrogen, Liquid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for liquid nitrogen.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1133.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Hydrogen Peroxide, 3%  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for 3% hydrogen peroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1132.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Cyanide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium cyanide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 998.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Cyanide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium cyanide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 997.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Purple or Colorless—Which Way Up? An Entertaining Solubility Demonstration  Trevor M. Kitson
Discrepant demonstration involving immiscible mixture of water colored with potassium permanganate and hexane.
Kitson, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 892.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Potassium Dichromate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium dichromate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 874.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potassium Permanganate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium permanganate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Acrylonitrile  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acrylonitrile.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 737.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Diethyl Phthalate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for diethyl phthalate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 736.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Carbon Disulfide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for carbon disulfide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 735.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Antimony(III) Chloride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for antimony(III) chloride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 611.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Cobalt(II) Chloride Hexahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 610.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Isopropyl Ether  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for isopropyl ether.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 609.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Method for Determination of Solubility in the First-Year Laboratory  Heather D. Harle, Julia A. Ingram, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
Efficient means of determining the solubility of a solute using a Buchner-type funnel for filtration and an analytical balance to measure mass changes.
Harle, Heather D.; Ingram, Julia A.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 560.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Laboratory Management |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis
Canola Oil  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for canola oil.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 481.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Citric Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for citric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 480.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Solvent Extraction Using Safe and Commonly Available Materials To Demonstrate the Difference in Solubility of Two Mixed Solutes  Dante Gilbert L. de Leon and Armando M. Guidote Jr.
Solvent extraction using safe and commonly available materials to demonstrate the difference in solubility of two mixed solutes.
de Leon, Dante Gilbert L.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 436.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Graphite  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for graphite.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 379.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calcium Carbide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for calcium carbide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 378.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Stoichiometry of the Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid  Venkat Chebolu and Barbara C. Storandt
Using a pressure sensor to measure the production of hydrogen by a reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.
Chebolu, Venkat; Storandt, Barbara C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 305.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Reactions
Using Ice-Cooled Condensers in Chemistry Laboratory  Sally Solomon, Bryan Brook, Susan Rutkowsky, and Joseph Bennet
Using ice-cooled condensers in the chemistry laboratory; includes two simple experimental applications.
Solomon, Sally; Brook, Bryan; Rutkowsky, Susan; Bennet, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 299.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Chromium(VI) Oxide, CrO3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for chromium(VI) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 259.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Aluminum Oxide, Al2O3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 258.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Copper(I) Oxide, Cu2O  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for copper(I) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 257.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Novel Microscale Gas Generator  Jinhua Wang, Zaisheng Lu, and Changcun Zhao
Design of a microscale gas generator.
Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Zaisheng; Zhao, Changcun. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 181.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Iron(II) Sulfate Heptahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 141.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Zirconium(IV) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for zirconium(IV) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 140.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mole, Mole per Liter, and Molar: A Primer on SI and Related Units for Chemistry Students  George Gorin
A brief historical overview of the SI system, the concept of the mole and the definition of mole unit, the status of the liter in the metric and SI systems, and the meaning of molar and molarity.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 103.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Enrichment / Review Materials
CLIP: Glycerol  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for glycerol.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 25.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
CLIP: Ammonia, aqueous  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for ammonia.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 24.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Principal Species and pH in Acid–Base Solutions  Robert M. Hanson
Web page that allows one to determine the concentrations of principal species in a variety of solutions or mixtures of solutions; also allows a virtual titration.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1486.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Sodium Nitrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium nitrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1414.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Nitric Acid (approx. 70%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for nitric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1413.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 6
Abstract of Special Issue 30, a CD-ROM of Laboratory Techniques
  Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, John F. Zimmerman, and Lois M. Browne
Summary of Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 6 focussing on laboratory techniques; includes manipulating and transferring samples, measuring, separating and purifying, safety, and quantitative techniques in volumetric analysis.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Zimmerman, John F.; Browne, Lois M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
A Low-Cost and Timesaving Microscale Heater  Erik Joling, Martin J. Goedhart, Bregje van den Berg, and Trienke M. van der Spek
A low-cost, fast acting, microscale heater using a soldering iron to replace expensive hot plates.
Joling, Erik; Goedhart, Martin J.; van den Berg, Bregje; van der Spek, Trienke M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1109.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Management
A Three-Dimensional Model for Water  J. L. H. Johnson and S. H. Yalkowsky
Using Molymod spheres and magnets to simulate the structure and properties of water and aqueous systems.
Johnson, J. L. H.; Yalkowsky, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1088.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Another Hazard  Marcio C. S. de Mattos and David E. Nicodem
Minimizing risks to distilling ether.
de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1070.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Another Hazard  Jean B. Umland
Risks to distilling ether.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1070.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Color Changes in Indicator Solutions  Addison Ault
Risks to distilling ether.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1070.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Film Canister Colorimeter  James Gordon, Alan James, Stephanie Harman, and Kristen Weiss
Constructing a low-cost, low-tech colorimeter that illustrates all of a colorimeter's elementary components and a fundamental application of spectroscopy (determining the unknown concentration of a solution).
Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1005.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Simple Measurement of Magnetic Susceptibility with a Small Permanent Magnet and a Top-Loading Electronic Balance  Yoshinori Itami and Kozo Sone
Measuring magnetic susceptibility of solid transition metal salts using a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-handle device.
Itami, Yoshinori; Sone, Kozo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1002.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Magnetic Properties |
Transition Elements |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals
Application of Datalogger in Observing Photosynthesis  Martin M. F. Choi, Pui Shan Wong, and Tak Pong Yiu
Using a datalogger and dissolved-oxygen sensor to monitor the liberation of dissolved oxygen in the photosynthesis of seaweed.
Choi, Martin M. F.; Wong, Pui Shan; Yiu, Tak Pong. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 980.
Plant Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Precision in Microscale Titration  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, and Zvi Szafran
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Precision in Microscale Titration  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Precision in Microscale Titration  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  Orfeo Zerbinati
Materials and methods for construction of a direct methanol fuel cell.
Zerbinati, Orfeo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Tethering Bottle Caps  Ben Ruekberg
Method to prevent mixing reagent bottle caps.
Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 499.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts  Emilio Rodríguez and Miguel Angel Vicente
A 10-hour integrated experiment that covers all the inorganic chemistry topics in first-year chemistry and chemical engineering courses.
Rodríguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 486.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents
Weigh This Way  Judith M. Bonicamp
Weighing samples by using the tare function on an electronic balance.
Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Magnetic Stirring with the Stirring Bar Length Exceeding the Vessel Diameter  Kirk W. Payne, James M. Lucas, and Edmund J. Eisenbraun
Suggestions for effectively using magnetic stirring bars in test tubes.
Payne, Kirk W.; Lucas, James M.; Eisenbraun, Edmund J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 217.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Magnetic Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Cigarette Smoke Analysis Using an Inexpensive Gas-Phase IR Cell  N. Garizi, A. Macias, T. Furch, R. Fan, P. Wagenknecht, and K. A. Singmaster
A PVC gas cell used to collect and analyze cigarette smoke and car exhaust through IR spectroscopy.
Garizi, N.; Macias, A.; Furch, T.; Fan, R.; Wagenknecht, P.; Singmaster, K. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1665.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis
The Use of an Inexpensive Laser Pointer to Perform Qualitative and Semiquantitative Laser Refractometry  Amarílis de Vicente Finageiv Neder, Edgardo García, and Leonardo N. Viana
A simple, low-cost refractometry experiment designed for inexperienced students or use as a demonstration to estimate the refractive index of various liquids.
Neder, Amarílis de Vicente Finageiv; García, Edgardo; Viana, Leonardo N. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1481.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Liquids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties
A Liquid Prism for Refractive Index Studies  Michael D. Edmiston
Easy fabrication of a hollow glass prism and application involving measuring the sugar content of soft drinks.
Edmiston, Michael D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1479.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Using Computer-Based Visualization Strategies to Improve Students' Understanding of Molecular Polarity and Miscibility  Michael J. Sanger and Steven M. Badger II
Study of how the use of visualization strategies associated with dynamic computer animations and electron density plots affect students' conceptual understanding of molecular polarity and miscibility.
Sanger, Michael J.; Badger, Steven M., II. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1412.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
The Purification of Water by Freeze-Thaw or Zone Melting  James Oughton, Silas Xu, and Rubin Battino
Quantitative investigation of the purification of slat water solutions through the process of partial freezing.
Oughton, James; Xu, Silas; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1373.
Conductivity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Experiencing and Visualizing the First Law of Thermodynamics: An In-Class Workshop  Pamela Mills, William V. Sweeney, and Waldemar Cieniewicz
A handheld device that illustrates the concepts of heat, work, energy transfer, and thermodynamic path.
Mills, Pamela; Sweeney, William V.; Cieniewicz, Waldemar. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1360.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Thin-Layer Electrophoresis  Tom Lyons Fisher, Tara Leslie Fitzsimmons, and I. David Reingold
Thin-layer electrophoresis apparatus.
Fisher, Tom Lyons; Fitzsimmons, Tara Leslie; Reingold, I. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1241.
Amino Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The Influence of Modern Instrumentation on the Analytical and General Chemistry Curriculum at Bates College  Thomas J. Wenzel
Incorporation of modern instrumentation into analytical and general chemistry curricula.
Wenzel, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1164.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter: A Versatile Instrument for Studying Processes in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology  Lars Wadsö, Allan L. Smith, Hamid Shirazi, S. Rose Mulligan, and Thomas Hofelich
A simple but sensitive isothermal heat-conduction calorimeter and five experiments for students to illustrate its use (heat capacity of solids, acid-base titration, enthalpy of vaporization of solvents, cement hydration, and insect metabolism).
Wadsö, Lars; Smith, Allan L.; Shirazi, Hamid; Mulligan, S. Rose; Hofelich, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1080.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide  Sze-Shun Wong, Natasha D. Popovich, and Shelley J. Coldiron
Design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter.
Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 798.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Small-Scale Filtration Using a Modified Plastic Syringe  Mikael Begtrup
A simple procedure is described for manual, small-scale pressure filtration performed in a modified plastic syringe.
Begtrup, Mikael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 543.
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Floating Plastics: An Initial Chemistry Laboratory Experience  Enrique A. Hughes, Helena M. Ceretti, and Anita Zalts
Students prepare a series of solutions with gradually increasing densities. Then they are given plastic samples of known and unknown composition and they estimate the densities of the samples by observing in which solutions they float and in which they sink; these densities are used to identify the plastics.
Hughes, Enrique A.; Ceretti, Helena M.; Zalts, Anita. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 522.
Nonmajor Courses |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Application of Light Emitting Diodes to Chemical Analysis: Determination of Copper in Water  Juan D. Mozo, Manuel Galán, and Emilio Roldán
In this paper a photometer based on a light emitting diode is described. The light source is a 5-mm LED, which can be replaced in order to select the emission wavelength. A fiber optic is used to conduct light from the LED to the sample, and an inexpensive solid-state light-to-voltage optical sensor is used as a detector. Using a yellow LED (peak emission = 595 nm), copper(II) in the mg/L range can be accurately analyzed.
Mozo, Juan D.; Galán, Manuel; Roldán, Emilio. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 355.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Undergraduate Research
An Alternative to Mercury Thermometers  Alexander Nezlin
This brief laboratory safety note describes a simple and inexpensive way to protect a metallic thermometer probe, thus allowing employment of digital thermometers and or digital temperature controllers in aggressive media.
Nezlin, Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 342.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Ultramicro-Boiling-Point Determination--A Modification  Henry Brouwer
The determination of microscale boiling points in a melting-point tube may be simplified by replacing the micro-bell bubbler with an ultrathin capillary tube bubbler.
Brouwer, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1480.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A Ten-Dollar Stirring Device for the Microscale Laboratory  Jeffrey John Willemsen
An easy-to-build, inexpensive stirring device, powered by compressed air and assembled from parts that are readily available, is described.
Willemsen, Jeffrey John. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Crystallization from a Supersaturated Solution of Sodium Acetate  Jamil Ahmad
An overhead projector demonstration is described, in which sodium acetate trihydrate crystallizes out from a supersaturated solution that has been poured on a transparency. When seeded with a crystal of the salt, crystallization starts, and its progress can be followed on the screen.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1446.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
SolEq: Solution Equilibria, Principles and Applications, Release 1
by SolEq Project Team: L. D. Pettit, K. J. Powell, and R. W. Ramette

  Marina C. Koether
29 tutorials with simulation, calculations, and graphs, on solution equilibria.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1414.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

In Praise of Latex Gloves  Francisco J. Arnáiz
Latex gloves, and in general flexible gloves, are inexpensive ubiquitous items whose utility in chemistry labs goes far beyond their primary mission. Here we mention some typical situations in which latex gloves can aid in overcoming difficulties that might arise in common labs.
Arnáiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1354.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Teflon Tape--The Leaky Buret Remedy  Brett C. Boshco and John J. Griffin
As a remedy for buret leaks caused by an improper tip-to-stopcock fit, Teflon tape should be wrapped tightly around the glass tip before its insertion into the stopcock. This tape will fill voids as the glass tip is pushed up while twisting into the stopcock, providing the seal needed where silicone grease failed.
Boshco, Brett C.; Griffin, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1342.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Turbulent Motion in Ethyl Acetate-Water System  Jamil Ahmad
4 mL of ethyl acetate is added to 10 mL of water in a Petri dish. Within a minute or so, an image of turbulent motion appears on the screen, at first at a few centers that eventually organize themselves in a line. The image of the line of turbulence is quite striking and resembles a moving front of dancing flames.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1182.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Surface Science
Laboratory Design, Construction and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product
by the Committee on Design, Construction, and Renovation of Laboratory Facilities

  Jeffrey Kovac
Addresses all the major issues in any laboratory construction project, human, process, and technical, and provides a thorough overview of the entire process.
Kovac, Jeffrey D. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1126.
Administrative Issues |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management

A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and R. M. Pike
This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 625.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility
Fire, Water, and Soot--A Cautionary Tale  Stanley H. Pine
A fire in an organic chemistry laboratory caused serious damage to a large part of the Chemistry and Biochemistry area. The fire is believed to have been caused by a buildup of flammable vapors that were ignited by a drying oven. Hot weather, poor air circulation, and ductless fume hoods may have contributed to conditions favorable to initiating the fire.
Pine, Stanley H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 547.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An Inexpensive Convenient Press for KBr and CsI Pellets in Infrared Studies  Chris Kalberg and Paul J. Ogren
Directions are provided for the fabrication of an inexpensive IR salt pellet press that may be used easily and quickly by beginning chemistry students.
Kalberg, Chris; Ogren, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 391.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experimentation and Group Discussion as a Means of Determining Solubility Rules  Karen E. Stevens
An experimental method is presented that leads to the development of solubility rules. A set of experiments is performed as a class demonstration and then discussed in groups. As a result, a classification of all the ionic species present can be made in terms of their solubility.
Stevens, Karen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 327.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
An Inexpensive Commercially Available Analog-to-Digital Converter  Gary W. Breton
The use of an inexpensive analog-to-digital converter for interfacing gas chromatographs to computers in a teaching laboratory environment is described. Raw data may be read, processed, and printed from software supplied with the converter to afford chromatograms of acceptable quality.
Breton, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 262.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography
Calculator-Based Instrumentation: The Design of a Digital Interface Based on I2C Technology  A. B. Hickman, W. G. Delinger, and Robin S. Helburn
In this work, we describe the interfacing of a digital temperature sensor to a Texas Instruments TI-85 calculator to make a portable instrument. The design of the interface is based on an integrated circuit that uses the inter-integrated circuit (I2C) protocol.
Hickman, A. B.; Delinger, W. G.; Helburn, Robin S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 255.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive Pipet or Buret Jar and Washer  Henry Brouwer
Instructions are given for constructing a pipet or buret jar and automatic washer using readily available materials from a plumbing supply store.
Brouwer, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 254.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Inexpensive Digital Monitoring of Signals from a Spectronic-20 Spectrophotometer  John R. Amend, Matthew E. Morgan, and Alex Whitla
Obsolete analog-readout vacuum-tube and solid-state Spectronic-20 family spectrophotometers can be found in most college and university chemistry laboratories. While optically these are good single-beam instruments, their electronics package does not permit attachment of recorders or digital displays. This article describes a simple modification that costs less than $10.00 for parts and will permit direct digital readout of the Spectronic-20 signal with a digital voltmeter or a laboratory interface and a computer.
Amend, John R.; Morgan, Matthew E.; Whitla, Alex. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 252.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Introductory Laboratory Exercise on Solution Preparation: A Rewarding Experience  M. Rachel Wang
This exercise provides beginning students a firsthand experience in solution preparation. The format of the student handout promotes active learning in the laboratory by having text and questions interspersed among laboratory procedures. Students are motivated to prepare solutions for the fascinating Briggs-Rauscher oscillation reaction and the exercise involves a variety of situations commonly encountered in solution preparation.
Wang, M. Rachel. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 249.
Solutions / Solvents
An Alternative Procedure for the Glucose Oxidase Assay of Glucose as Applied to the Lactase Activity Assay  T. Corbin Mullis, Jeffery T. Winge, and S. Todd Deal
The glucose oxidase assay of glucose has been modified to eliminate the use of micropipets. The modification involves the use of disposable Pasteur pipets and a specified number of drops of each reagent. This simplified technique gives accurate and reproducible results.
Mullis, T. Corbin; Winge, Jeffery T.; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1711.
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
CD Spectroscope  Whitten, Lanny
Variation on design of the CD spectroscope.
Whitten, Lanny J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1624.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment: Abstract of Issue 9907  N. Papadopoulos, A. T. Pitta, N. Markopoulos, M. Limniou, M. A. N. D. A. Lemos, F. Lemos, and F. G. Freire
Viscosity Measurement includes three virtual experiments: an Ostwald viscometer simulator, a falling-ball viscometer simulator, and a balance simulator for a simple determination of the density of a liquid. Each virtual experiment includes a corresponding theoretical section. Support from the program is sufficient to enable the students to carry out a virtual experiment sensibly and on their own.
Papadopoulos, Nikos; Pitta, A. T.; Markopoulos, N.; Limniou, M.; Lemos, M. A. N. D. A.; Lemos, F. M.; Freire, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1600.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
The Solubility of Ionic Solids and Molecular Liquids  C. Baer and Sheila M. Adamus
The solubilities of three ionic salts (NaCl, PbCl2, and KAl(SO4)2.12H2O) in water are measured at four temperatures. The concept of recrystallization is introduced as students cool a high-temperature solution and observe crystal formation. Spreadsheet calculations are performed with the group data, which are then graphed, and students observe the wide variance in solubility behavior for the three salts.
Baer, Carl; Adamus, Sheila M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1540.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents
Phosphate Buffers and Telephone Poles - A Useful Analogy with Limitations  Edwin S. Gould
A visual aid is presented to help general chemistry students establish the major phosphorus species in buffer solutions made from partial neutralizations of phosphoric acid and to estimate concentrations.
Gould, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1511.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles  Doris R. Kimbrough
Presented here is the application of Henry's law to the noise associated with "cracking" knuckles. Gases dissolved in the synovial fluid in joints rapidly come out of solution as the joint is stretched and pressure is decreased. This "cavitation" produces a characteristic noise.
Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1509.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
A Simple Supplementary Offset Device for Data Acquisition Systems  Thomas Kappes and Peter C. Hauser
The device described in this article offers in a simple way the possibility of extending the offset range and can be combined with any data acquisition system. The signal offset is obtained by adding a manually adjustable voltage to the raw signal.
Kappes, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1429.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Authentic Research within the Grasp of High School Students  Annis Hapkiewicz
There are research questions to be explored that are within the experience of students. The research problem that is described arose when a colleague posed a question: "Will an ice cube melt faster in salt water or tap water?" The learning process describe could be duplicated in any chemistry classroom, and it can also serve as a framework for exploring other problems as they arise from everyday observations.
Hapkiewicz, Annis. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1212.
Solutions / Solvents
An Apparatus for Temperature Displays  George Papageorgiou and John Xenos
In this article, a new simple and low-cost apparatus is introduced that provides the possibility to display temperature measurements in any lecture hall. The apparatus provides analog displays. Its construction requires only simple and inexpensive materials.
Papageorgiou, George; Xenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1094.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ammonia Can Crush  Ed Vitz
When a 12-oz aluminum soft drink can filled with ammonia or hydrogen chloride gas is inverted and dipped into water, the rapidly dissolving gas evacuates the can and the can is crushed before water can be drawn into it. This demonstrates, among other things, the remarkable strength of hydrogen bonds.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 932.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Hydrogen Bonding
A Practical Guide for the Preparation of Specimens for X-ray Fluorescence and X-ray Diffraction Analysis (by V. E. Buhrke, R. Jenkins, and D. K. Smith)  Reuben Rudman
Although its principal thrust is geared towards the analytical chemist in an X-ray diffraction (XRD) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF) service laboratory, this text will be of use primarily as a reference source in all milieus dealing with undergraduate research projects and advanced laboratory courses in physical and analytical chemistry. It contains dozens of suggestions for preparing randomly oriented small samples of nearly anything.
Rudman, Reuben. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 762.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Solution Conductivity Apparatus  Daniel T. Haworth, Mark R. Bartelt, and Michael J. Kenney
A solution conductivity apparatus is described that can be used to measure the relative conductivity of various solutions. The apparatus can be used as either a hand-held model employing a 10-element LED display or a lecture-hall demonstration model employing a 10-incandescent-lamp array.
Haworth, Daniel T.; Bartelt, Mark R.; Kenney, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Laboratory Companion: A Practical Guide to Materials, Equipment, and Technique (by G. S. Coyne)  Elizabeth A. Runquist
This book contains a unique collection of hard-to-obtain, valuable information on the use, maintenance, and calibration of common laboratory equipment. In addition, the book provides guidelines for purchasing common laboratory equipment.
Runquist, Elizabeth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 614.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Using Large Glass Cylinders To Demonstrate Chemical Reactions  Wobbe de Vos
This article describes a simple laboratory experiment that aims at pedagogic as well as aesthetic aspects of chemical reactions. Experiments of this type have a high educational potential as students have the opportunity to observe the actual formation of a precipitate instead of just being able to see the result. The experiment is also suitable for demonstrating some of the fascinating beauty of chemical reactions to the general public.
de Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 528.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions
Design for a Miniature Portable Fume Hood  Ronald A. Bailey and Samuel C. Wait Jr.
This paper describes the design of a folding bench-top hood that is readily moved and can be stored in a standard laboratory cabinet. In its folded form it takes up little space.
Bailey, Ronald A.; Wait, Samuel C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 228.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Student Construction of a Gel-Filled Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode for Use in a Potentiometric Titration  James M. Thomas
Instructions for the preparation of a Ag/AgCl "reference"-type electrode that uses a gel-type matrix are given. In addition, construction steps are provided for a very sturdy Pt-nichrome "inert" electrode, which can be used many times. Together, these two electrodes, along with a multivoltmeter, have been used successfully to determine the percent of iron in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 and in Fe2O2 unknowns purchased commercially.
Thomas, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 97.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Lab Safety "Scavenger Hunt"  Terry L. Helser
An active "scavenger hunt" can effectively augment the obligatory lecture on lab safety that students rarely heed or remember when it counts. Each team of students is given a diagram of the room with a list of equipment to find. Winners are rewarded for accurately and completely labeled diagrams.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 68.
Nonmajor Courses |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Effects of Salts and Nonelectrolytes on the Solubility of Potassium Bitartrate: An Introductory Chemistry Discovery Experiment  Charles J. Marzzacco
An introductory chemistry discovery experiment on the effect of the presence of various solutes on the solubility of potassium bitartrate (KHT) is presented. Aqueous solutions of KCl, NaCl, MgSO4 and glucose with concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 0.10 M are saturated with KHT. The solubility of the KHT in these various solutions is determined by titration with standardized NaOH solution.
Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1628.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
A Precise Method for Determining the CO2 Content of Carbonate Materials  Donald L. Pile, Alana S. Benjamin, Klaus S. Lackner, Christopher H. Wendt, and Darryl P. Butt
The design and use of a buret apparatus for CO2 gas capture and mass determination are described. The derivation of a comprehensive equation to determine the CO2 mass and percent carbonation of the material is outlined. Experimental factors such as temperature and pressure, including elevation effects, and apparatus parameters are discussed and incorporated into one general equation.
Pile, Donald L.; Benjamin, Alana S.; Lackner, Klaus S.; Wendt, Christopher H.; Butt, Darryl P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1610.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis
A Cyclist's Guide to Ionic Concentration  Arthur M. Last
A simple analogy to help students understand ionic concentration is presented.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1433.
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Using Plastiline in the Laboratory  Francisco J. Arnáiz
This is an invitation for a more widespread use of plastiline (an artist's material that is widely used for sculpture) in chemistry laboratories.
Arn$#225;iz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1418.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Hands-On Practical Chemistry for All--Why and How?  John D. Bradley, S. Durbach, B. Bell, J. Mungarulire, and H. Kimel
A system based on microscale chemistry kits for individual students. These reusable kits comprise a number of components specially designed around a Comboplate made of optically clear plastic. The kits are supplied in individual zip-lock bags with a variety of configurations to suit different grades and curricula.
Bradley, John D.; Durbach, S.; Bell, B.; Mungarulire, J.; Kimel, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1406.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles  Patrick Kavanah and Arden P. Zipp
The construction and use of a new device to study gases is described. The device, which is made from a plastic soda bottle and an automobile tire valve, can be used to demonstrate that air has mass, find the mass of the "evacuated" device, determine the molar mass of air and other gases, investigate the pressure-volume relationship, and build a cloud chamber.
Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1405.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood  John Fredericks
An inexpensive transparent fume hood can be constructed from a clear-plastic two-liter soft drink bottle that is cut just above the base. A length of vacuum tubing is secured to the opening of the bottle using black electrical tape. The tubing is then connected to a water aspirator.
Fredericks, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1299.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Solubility equilibria are best taught qualitatively in introductory chemistry, leaving the calculations to higher level courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1179.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Automatic Titrators in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams
In 1995 the University of Florida received an NSF-ILI grant to purchase six automatic titrators, which have now been successfully integrated into the analytical and physical chemistry teaching laboratories. After they have mastered fundamental techniques, students in the introductory analytical laboratory gain experience with automated analyses in three experiments: the iodimetric analysis of ascorbic acid, the determination of polymer molecular weight, and the analysis of chloride by ion selective electrode.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1133.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Solid-State Water Flow Fault Safety Switch for the Chemical Laboratory  Jonas Gruber, Rosamaria Wu Chia Li, and Isaac Gruber
A low cost solid-state water flow fault switch with a thermal sensing device is described that cuts the electric power of the heating element, normally employed in distillation and reflux devices, whenever their cooling water streams are impaired. This to prevent any possible escape of distillate vapours which may be toxic or flammable.
Gruber, Jonas; Li, Rosamaria Wu Chia; Gruber, Isaac. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1132.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An Inexpensive Detector for Gas Chromatography  Allan L. Smith, Edward J. Thorne, and Wolfgang Nadler
We have developed a low-cost (parts cost approximately $70) detector that can be used in a freshman level class to demonstrate the fundamental principles of gas chromatography (GC). The detector box can be used in a modification of experiments available in the literature which do not enable a quantitative method of analysis. We have used it with success in a freshman class of approximately 450 students in an experiment to separate chlorinated hydrocarbons via GC.
Smith, Allan L.; Thorne, Edward J.; Nadler, Wolfgang. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1129.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
There Seems To Be Uncertainty about the Use of Significant Figures in Reporting Uncertainties of Results  Julio F. Caballero and Delphia F. Harris
A cursory review of two journals indicates that uncertainties in experimental results are not consistently reported in the literature with the correct number of significant figures. The problem seems more frequent in computer generated results in both chemical education and research articles. Examples of published values with uncertainty inappropriately reported are included along with the appropriate rounding.
Caballero, Julio F.; Harris, Delphia F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 996.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
A Three-Cent Reusable Craig Tube  Thomas J. Russo
A rugged three-cent reusable Craig tube is easily made from a cotton swab and disposable pipet tip. The tube costs three cents or less and can be reused.
Russo, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 880.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab
MeasureNet: Electronic Measurement Network for the Freshman Chemistry Laboratory  Estel D. Sprague, Robert Voorhees, Paul McKenzie, John J. Alexander, and Peter Padolik
All of the students in our freshman chemistry laboratory program now have routine access to a range of high-quality electronic measurements. This has been accomplished by means of a newly-designed network system, based on network technology developed by the automotive industry.
Sprague, Estel D.; Voorhees, Robert; McKenzie, Paul; Alexander, John J.; Padolik, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 859.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Management
The Thermometer as a Simple Instrument  George F. Atkinson
The liquid-in-glass thermometer is used as a simple example of designing a measurement instrument which requires no previous knowledge of topics like electricity or optics.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 849.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Vapor Pressure Lowering by Nonvolatile Solutes  Gavin D. Peckham
This short article highlights a fundamental error that is entrenched in introductory chemistry textbooks. It is true that the addition of a nonvolatile solute causes a lowering in the vapor pressure of a solution. The error lies in attributing this vapor pressure lowering to the "blocking" of surface sites by nonvolatile particles. This is a totally fallacious argument for a number of reasons and the true explanation is to be found in the entropy changes that occur as a nonvolatile solute is added to a solution.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 787.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Teaching Computer Concepts to Undergraduate Chemists  Ronald S. Haines
A curriculum for introducing chemistry students to the use of computer hardware and software in chemistry is described. The aim of the curriculum is to give students confidence when dealing with computers by emphasizing underlying concepts which are common to many computer applications.
Haines, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 785.
Learning Theories |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Delivery of Uniform and Countable Drops  David F. Koster
A simple method that overcomes many of the problems when using a Beral pipet is to place the bulb of the pipet in a clamp (a 3-finger microclamp works well, but most any clamp will do). By slowly tightening the screws of the clamp one can deliver uniform and easily countable drops.
Koster, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 637.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Management
Overhead Projector Voltmeter Aids  Michael R. Hall and Rubin Battino
This paper describes two simple inexpensive devices that allow use of an overhead projector voltmeter to accurately read voltages and temperatures in the range 0-30C.
Hall, Michael R.; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 577.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Modified Microburet for Microscale Titration  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and Ronald M. Pike
A modified microburet can be constructed inexpensively from readily available laboratory materials. These materials include a 2 mL graduated pipet, a 5 or 10 mL plastic syringe body, a small piece of latex tubing, and a small size automatic delivery pipet tip. The modified microburet is easy to use, and gives accurate results.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 371.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Should Advanced Instruments Be Used in Introductory Courses?  Jack K. Steehler
Author argues whether or not to use advanced instruments in general/introductory chemistry courses.
Steehler, Jack K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 274.
Learning Theories |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Re-blue-ing Blue Litmus Paper  Margaret J. Steffel
The addition one drop of 15 M ammonia solution to a vial containing the blue litmus paper changes the color back to the proper blue color.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 183.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Dyes / Pigments
The Real Reason Why Oil and Water Don't Mix  Todd P. Silverstein
Authors should remove from their textbooks the incorrect enthalpic/hydrogen-bond explanation for the hydrophobic effect. Because aspects of the correct entropic/clathrate "cage" explanation lie beyond the scope of introductory or organic chemistry courses, it may be wisest to omit any detailed physical explanation of the "like dissolves like" phenomenon.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 116.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The Source of the Cloud Produced upon Adding Dry Ice to Water  Manu Kohli, Rudy L. Luck, and Veka Ohtamaa
Explains why a cloud is produced by adding dry ice to water.
Kohli, Manu; Luck, Rudy L.; Ohtamaa, Veka. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 60.
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Demonstrating Heat Changes on the Overhead Projector with a Projecting Thermometer  Chinhyu Hur, Sally Solomon, and Christy Wetzel
Heat changes can be observed by using a culture dish and a thermometer that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector.
Hur, Chinhyu; Solomon, Sally; Wetzel, Christy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 51.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Disappearing Liquid  H. D. Gesser and Ian Ward
Mixing ethanol and water in a volumetric flask results in a noticeable reduction in the volume of the mixture.
Gesser, H. D.; Ward, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1357.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Simple and Inexpensive 8-Bit Analog to Digital Converter for the PCs Parallel Port  Orfeo Zerbinati
A simple and inexpensive 8-bit analog to digital (ADC) converter based on the ADC0804 integrated circuit, for replacing stripchart recorders by measuring analog voltages through the Centronics port (printer or parallel output) of an IBM-compatible personal computer, is proposed.
Zerbinati, Orfeo. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1241.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Eliminating Mercury Thermometers from the Lab  T. Stephen Everett
Replacing Hg thermometers with cooking thermometers.
Everett, T. Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1204.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The reply: Ionization Constants  S. Roo, L. Vermeire, and C. Gorller-Walrand
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Roo, S.; Vermeire, L.; Gorller-Walrand, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Ionization Constants  Morris Bader
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Getting Close with the Instructional Scanning Tunneling Microscope  Carl Steven Rapp
This state-of-the-art instrumentation is making it possible for students to actually view atoms in their own classroom. What is truly amazing, however, is that the ISTM can be set up and atomic resolution images obtained in about an hour.
Rapp, Carl Steven. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1087.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Low-Cost Constant Temperature Heating Block  Charles G. Shevlin, Ward Coppersmith, Christopher Fish, Stanley Vlock, William Vellema
A simple constant temperature heat block was constructed from readily available materials. The configuration of the heating block can be constructed to meet the needs of any laboratory.
Shevlin, Charles G.; Coppersmith, Ward; Fish, Christopher; Vlock, Stanley; Vellema, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 958.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement  Mark Muyskens
Application of an integrated-circuit (IC) temperature sensor which is easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, easily computer-interfacable and has good precision is described. The design, based on the National Semiconductor LM35 IC chip, avoids some of the difficulties associated with conventional sensors (thermocouples, thermistors, and platinum resistance thermometers) and a previously described IC sensor.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 850.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Removing Silicone Grease from Glassware  Thomas H. Lowry
A recent note described the use of 5% aqueous hydrofluoric acid for removing silicone grease residues from round-bottom flasks. A safer and more convenient alternative is a saturated solution of sodium hydroxide in ethanol.
Lowry, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 841.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
Experiments of Modern Chemistry: Simultaneous Recording of Multiple Cooling Curves  Ronald A. Bailey, Sudhen B. Desai, Norbert F. Hepfinger, Henry B. Hollinger, Peter S. Locke, Kenneth J. Miller, James J. Deacutis, Donald R. VanSteele
An apparatus for simultaneous recording of six heating/cooling curves of metallic mixtures is described. Data are recorded using computer data acquisition and temperature-time data displayed and printed out for evaluation.
Bailey, Ronald A.; Desai, Sudhen B.; Hepfinger, Norbert F.; Hollinger, Henry B.; Locke, Peter S.; Miller, Kenneth J.; Deacutis, James J.; VanSteele, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 732.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Chemistry for the Visually Impaired  Judy L. Ratliff
Methods used to try to provide a valuable experience for visually impaired students in a general education or an introductory chemistry class are discussed. Modifications that can be made cheaply and with little time commitment which will allow visually impaired students to participate productively in the laboratory are examined.
Ratliff, Judy L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 710.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses |
Minorities in Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Stable Solutions for the Iodine Clock Reaction  George B. Kauffman and Charles R. Hall
Advanced preparation of solutions for the iodine clock reaction.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 616.
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents
The Nature and State of General Chemistry Laboratory Courses Offered by Colleges and Universities in the United States  Michael R. Abraham, Mark S. Craolice, A. Palmer Graves, Abdulwali H. Aldhamash, Joann G. Kihega, Julieta G. Palma Gal, Valsamma Varghese
How is general chemistry laboratory taught and managed? What varieties of practices are being used? To investigate these questions, the chemical education group at the University of Oklahoma conducted a survey on the nature and state of general chemistry laboratory courses offered in the United States.
Abraham, Michael R.; Craolice, Mark S.; Graves, A. Palmer; Aldhamash, Abdulwali H.; Kihega, Joann G.; Gil, Julieta G. Palma; Varghese, Valsamma. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 591.
Learning Theories |
Administrative Issues |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
TA Training / Orientation
A Low-Cost and High-Performance Conductivity Meter  Rogerio T. da Rocha, Ivano G. R. Gutz, and Claudimir L. do Lago
A two-electrode conductivimeter is described, which keep good performance in spite of its low cost.
da Rocha, Rogerio T. ; Gutz, Ivano G.R. ; do Lago, Claudimir L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Quantitative Conductance Apparatus  Danny Burns and Don Lewis
Circuitry, electrode configuration and calibration procedures are described for a conductance device. An alternative construction of the circuit is given allowing computer capture of the instrument response.
Burns, Danny; Lewis, Don. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 570.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Apparatus for Fast Dilution  V. P. Boiko
An apparatus for fast dilution permitting unlimited dilution of the solution in the same vessel is described. This was achieved by using a siphon to remove part of the solution from the dilution vessel.
Boiko, V. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 439.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
A Simple Audio Conductivity Device  Gregory Berenato and David F. Maynard
Many instruments either lack the sensitivity needed to measure small differences in conductivity or require expensive meters. To solve these problems, the authors have built a simple audio conductivity device that is very sensitive to current flow.
Berenato, Gregory; Maynard, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 415.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conductivity
A U-Tube Experiment To Discover the Curve in Boyle's Law  Thomas G. Richmond and Amy Parr
A discovery-style experiment is described to enable introductory chemistry students to determine the pressure versus volume behavior of a gas over a wide pressure range to "discover" Boyle's Law.
Richmond, Thomas G.; Parr, Amy. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 414.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chemistry "en Miniature"  Herbert W. Roesky
"Chemistry en Miniature" is a new approach to carrying out chemical experiments. For the demonstration of the experiments we are using a video camera projector system. The demonstration is transmitted via a color- and data projector onto a large screen, so that it is easy for students to follow every step of the reaction sequence.
Roesky, Herbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 399.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Safe and Efficient Evaporation of a Solvent from Solution  Andrew R. Mahon
By inverting an ordinary 200-mL vacuum flask and pulling a steady current of air from the vacuum apparatus through it, any type of small container can be placed under it, allowing the solvent to be evaporated in a steady, mistake-free manner .
Mahon, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 246.
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The Use of PTFE Membranes for the Construction of Semimicroscale Gas Reactors  Schallies, Michale; Schnelle, Hans-Otto; Kunze, Klaus
The membranes are employed to separate reaction compartments, where gas-evolving reactions take place, from solutions of reagents needed for qualitative or quantitative determinations of the gases. The PTFE membranes allow free flow of gases while they prevent the passage of water.
Schallies, Michale; Schnelle, Hans-Otto; Kunze, Klaus J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A128.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Microwave Microscale Organic Experiments  John W. Elder and Kathleen M. Holtz
This article describes an inexpensive apparatus to perform sonochemical reactions, in small scale, using common lab glassware.
Elder, John W.; Holtz, Kathleen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A104.
Microscale Lab |
Magnetic Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Synthesis
Micropath Distillation Apparatus  N. K. Hazra and D. Mal
A shortpath distillation apparatus in its inverted position can be used for microscale distillation of a liquid sample. This article describes the process.
Hazra, N. K.; Mal, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A103.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Easy Filling of Capillaries in an Inert Atmosphere  Francisco J. Arnáiz
The procedure described in this article offers a simpler way to charge capillaries or tubes in an inert atmosphere using inexpensive materials.
Arnaiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A102.
Microscale Lab |
Solids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Four Programs for Windows: Abstract of Volume 4D, Number 2: PSL Photometer  Steven D. Gammon
The majority of freshman chemistry laboratory programs include experiments that employ visible spectroscopy to teach Beer's law and derive related concentration information. These experiments are often done with a Baush and Lomb Spectronic 20 or Spectronic 21. We have developed an alternative instrument and software that offers significant advantages over the above spectrometers.
Gammon, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1077.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
Thin-Layer Chromatography: Four Simple Activities for Undergraduate Students  Jamil Anwar, Saeed Ahmad Nagra, Mehnaz Nagi
To simplify the conventional thin-layer chromatography, four TLC exercises are described which are easy to perform in a high school or college laboratory.
Anwar, Jamil; Nagra, Saeed Ahmad; Nagi, Mehnaz. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 977.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Modified Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept  Jin Li, Le-Sui Dai, Li-Shu You
This paper describes a modified method that can be used to present both exothermic and endothermic cases.
Li, Jin; Dai, Le-Sui; You, Li-Shu. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 948.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A Manageable Measurement Method for Sodium  Mario Branca and Steven Loiselle
The use of sodium in chemical research is hampered by its reactivity in moist air, which leads to difficult handling and measurement methods. We describe a simple method using disposable microcapillary pipettes for small quantity applications.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 857.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Oxygen from Hydrogen Peroxide: An Experimental Modification  James H. Burness
This paper describes a simple modification to the generation of oxygen gas experiment which eliminates the need for a pencil coated with petroleum jelly and dry yeast. This elimination not only prevents falling pieces of yeast from prematurely starting the reaction, but at the same time makes the reaction faster and simplifies cleanup.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 851.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Microscale Lab
On-Line Surfactant Monitoring by Foam Generation  Patrick D. Soran, Everett E. Neal, Barbara Smith, and Ken I. Mullen
The device continuously monitors the concentration of surfactants on-line, in real time, and is particularly suited for process monitoring or process control.
Soran, Patrick D.; Neal, Everett E.; Smith, Barbara; Mullen, Ken I. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 819.
Metals |
Surface Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Improved Container for Solutions of Yellow Phosphorous  Stephen W. Wright
This short article suggests the use of the Sure/Pac cylinder system as an alternative to glass stoppered bottles for the storage of solutions of yellow phosphorous in carbon dioxide.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 818.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Making an Inexpensive Tesla Coil from a Car Coil  Michael R. Hall and Rubin Battino
Directions are given for making an inexpensive tesla coil from a car coil, along with the suggested uses for the tesla coil.
Hall, Michael R.; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 817.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple and Low-Cost Air Sampler  Sashi Saxena Ratna and Pramrod Upadhyay
In this article, an air sampler kit is presented that can be assembled from locally available household materials. The reliability of the sampler kit is also established.
Ratna, Shashi Saxena; Upadhyay, Pramod. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 787.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Low-Cost Lateral Displacement Refractometer for Liquids: A Take-Home Student Experiment   V. Anantha Narayanan and Radha Narayanan
This article describes an experiment that uses a low-cost lateral displacement refractometer. The refractometer can be used in the home or laboratory by science students.
Narayanan, V. Anantha; Narayanan, Radha. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 784.
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Teaching Dilutions  Lloyd J. McElroy
Teaching the concepts of dilutions is facilitated by using the graphic presentations depicted in this article along with the conventional formulas.
McElroy, Lloyd J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 765.
Solutions / Solvents
Myths about pH and pH meters  Sharma, Brahama D.
The pH meter does not measure the pH, it measures the E of the cell against a standard.
Sharma, Brahama D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 598.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
All Positive Ions Give Acid Solutions in Water  Stephen J. Hawkes
The acidity of aqueous solutions of positive ions is never zero although many texts say incorrectly that most metals of Groups I and II and some others are not acidic.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH
Disposable Syringe Used as a Grease Applicator  Saqib Ali and M. Danish
This article describes the use of a disposable syringe as a grease applicator. It is possible to grease ground glasses and quickfit joints directly from the tube but then one tube can be used only by one person.
Ali, Saqib; Danish, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 475.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Laser Pointer and the Tyndall Effect  Eugene Thomas
Laser pointers provide a convenient way to demonstrate the Tyndall effect to beginning students.
Thomas, Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 470.
Lasers |
Solutions / Solvents
The Incredible "Glowing" Pickle and Onion and Potato and...  Rubin Battino and Peter M. Weimer
There are many demonstrations about electrical conductivity that are illuminating, but the incredible glowing pickle is the most dramatic and eye-catching. In this paper we describe how to achieve the same effect with an onion, a potato, a head of cabbage, and a grapefruit, as well as a simple and safe device to hold these foods.
Weimer, Peter M.; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 456.
Food Science |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Teaching of Precipitation Equilibrium: A New Approach  Ana M. V. S. V. Cavaleiro
In this paper we present a simplified integrated approach to the calculation of the solubility in water of a salt, and the pH of the saturated solution, taking into account the acid-base reactions of the anion.
Cavaleiro, Ana M. V. S. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 423.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
Salts are Mostly Not Ionized  Stephen J. Hawkes
The popular assumption that all salts are totally ionized in aqueous solution is false. Moreover, it is approximated only by alkali metal salts and by salts of alkaline earth metals with high atomic numbers.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 421.
Ionic Bonding |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
A Compact Steam Distillation Apparatus  Imran Ali
A very compact steam distillation apparatus is designed and reported in this paper.
Ali, Imran. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 285.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Luminescence Decay and Flash Photolysis Experiments Using an Inexpensive, Laser-Based Apparatus  Benjamin A. DeGraff and David A. Horner
A low cost, easily assembled apparatus has been developed that allows a number of the most exciting laser-based experiments to be performed for less than eight thousand dollars. Also, presented are a number of experiments which can be done using the apparatus and suggestions for a number of additional ones.
DeGraff, Benjamin A.; Horner, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 279.
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Evaluating Student Understanding of Solution Chemistry through Microscopic Representations  Kimberly Jo Smith and Patricia A. Metz
Misconceptions regarding acids and bases, acid strength, dissociation, diatomic elements, bonding, and aqueous solutions can interfere with subsequent learning and can persist beyond the undergraduate level These chemical concepts readily lend themselves to microscopic representations. Teaching strategies using these visual aids could explain the concept before applying the mathematics.
Smith, Kimberly Jo; Metz, Patricia A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 233.
Solutions / Solvents |
Learning Theories
A Paper Vernier Scale for Various Laboratory Equipments  B. S. Lark
Fabrication and use of a paper vernier scale for a buret is described in this article. Use of this vernier scale makes the reading of the level lying between the graduation marks up to 0.01 mL and thus increases the efficiency of the use of a buret and other similar stem calibrated instruments.
Lark, B. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 177.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Using Quality Circles in General Chemistry  Kogut, Leonard S.
A second semester class in General Chemistry used a student Quality Circle to suggest methods to improve instruction in chemical equilibrium in solution.
Kogut, Leonard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 146.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Bigger and Brighter Flame Tests  David K. Dalby
This article describes a flame test method that provides a way to set up quickly, clean up, and produce a large and very intense flame that can easily be seen in a 300-seat lecture auditorium. In addition to simple color observations, each audience member can easily see individual bands of color for each element.
Dalby, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 80.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
TLC Developing Chamber for Screening Column Chromatography Fractions  Samuel G. Levine
We describe here a novel TLC (thin layer chromatography) development chamber that greatly enhances the efficiency of this task.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 77.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Grants in Chemistry  
Listing of the 1995 awards in chemistry under the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI) of the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE).
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A214.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Small-Scale Potentiometry and Silver One-Pot Reactions  David W. Brooks, Dianne Epp, and Helen B. Brooks
Apparatus and method for construction and application of a silver reference electrode in silver one-pot reactions.
Brooks, David W.; Epp, Dianne; Brooks, Helen B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A162.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Potentiometry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Microscale Lab
Small-Scale Experiments Involving Gas Evolution  Brouwer, H.
Apparatus for measuring very small volume changes of gases and several experimental procedures involving the evolution of gases.
Brouwer, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A100.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab
Interfacing an Old UV-VIS Spectrophotometer to a PC Computer  Guinon, J. L.; Garcia-Jareno, J.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V.
Instructions for interfacing an old UV-VIS spectrophotometer to a PC computer.
Guinon, J. L.; Garcia-Jareno, J.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A81.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Small Scale Electrophoresis  Brooks, Helen B.; Brooks, David W.
Simple electrophoresis apparatus for separating food coloring in plastic pipet using five 9-V batteries.
Brooks, Helen B.; Brooks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A28.
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Biotechnology |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Laboratory Improvement with Fun  D. Lorenzo and P. Moyna
Supporting round-bottomed glassware with wine corks.
Lorenzo, D.; Moyna, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1146.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Construction of a Spatula to Fit One-Dram, Screw-Cap Vials  J. M. Lucas and E. J. Eisenbraun
Construction of a spatula to fit one-dram, screw-cap vials.
Lucas, J. M.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1143.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A Convenient Way to Generate Hydrogen Chloride: In the Freshman Lab  Francisco J. Arnáiz
A convenient way to generate hydrogen chloride.
Arnáiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1139.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
From Christmas Ornament to Glass Electrode  Rogério T. da Rocha, Ivano G. R. Gutz, and Claudimir L. do Lago
Instructions and use of a homemade glass electrode for pH measurements/titrations.
Da Rocha, Rogerio T.; Gutz, Ivano G. R.; do Lago, Claudimir L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1135.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
pH
Useful Plastic Items Available   Marie Sherman
Items discarded by hospitals that can be used in chemistry laboratories.
Sherman, Marie. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1028.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Crystallization of Supersaturated Sodium Acetate and the Temperature Dependence of the Autoionization Constant of Water  Joseph A. Pergler, Ronald O. Ragsdale, and Thomas G. Richmond
A procedure to qualitatively demonstrate the variation of the autoionization constant of water with temperature.
Pergler, Joseph A.; Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1027.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
What Does It Mean?: Reflections on Concentration, Activity, and Electrode Potential  Pietro Lanza
Explanation of electrode potential and the mechanism of the electrode process for determining concentration.
Lanza, Pietro. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry
What's Present? Qualitative Analysis Problems in General Chemistry  Sidney Toby
Open-book, research-oriented, sample questions regarding qualitative analysis.
Toby, Sidney. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1008.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Descriptive Chemistry
Ammonia Fountain and Density Gradient Column   Miroslav Proksa
Demonstration combining the ammonia fountain with an acid-base indicator density column.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 931.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
The Use of Erythrosin B in Undergraduate Spectrophotometry Experiments   L. James Stock III
Substitution of a nontoxic food color for an originally used toxic chromium(VI) salt in a general chemistry, spectrophotometry experiment.
Stock, L. James, III. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 926.
Toxicology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
A New Low-Cost Apparatus for Electrolysis of Water   Chieko Suzuki
Low-cost alternative to the Hofmann apparatus for the electrolysis of water.
Suzuki, Chieko. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 912.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Multiple Burning Heaps of Color-- An Elegant Variation of a Flame Test  Eugene T. Smith
Making the ammonia fountain demonstration faster and more reliable using a common syringe.
Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 828.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The "Collisions Cube" Molecular Dynamics Simulator  John J. Nash and Paul E. Smith
Design and applications for a large, three-dimensional atomic/molecular motion/dynamics simulator using forced-air blowers and ping-pong balls.
Nash, John J.; Smith, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 805.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
A Cheap, Semiquantitative Hand-Held Conductivity Tester  Susan K. S. Zawacky
Plans for a inexpensive, semiquantitative, hand-held conductivity tester.
Zawacky, Susan K. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 728.
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Osmotic Pressure and Electrochemical Potential--A Parallel   Rainer Bausch
Comparison of osmotic pressure and electrochemical potential.
Bausch, Rainer. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Membranes |
Transport Properties
The Tube-in-Tube Solution for Gas Generation  Arnaiz, Francisco J.
Simple apparatus using a magnetic stir bar for adding a liquid reactant to a solid when the volume of the gas produced by the reaction must be determined.
Arnaiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 572.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Obtaining a Spectrum Easily: Using a Single-Beam Spectrophotometer  Mattson, Miranda E.; Mattson, William A.
Using a single-beam spectrophotometer (e.g. Spec 20) to obtain a spectrum.
Mattson, Miranda E.; Mattson, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 569.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods
Continuous Liquid-Sample Introduction for Bunsen Burner Atomic Emission Spectrometry  Smith, Gregory D.; Sanford, Caryn L.; Jones, Bradley T.
Description of a laboratory-constructed atomic emission spectrometer with modular instrumentation components and a simple Bunsen burner atomizer with continuous sample introduction for lab work or demonstrations; includes sample data.
Smith, Gregory D.; Sanford, Caryn L.; Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 438.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Rapid Calculation for Preparing Solutions  Calero, Diego Lozano
Streamlined method for dilution calculations.
Calero, Diego Lozano J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 424.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Cloud Chamber Activities for the High School Classroom  Perry, John Timothy; Sankey, Mary Ann
Instructions for constructing and using an inexpensive cloud chamber; includes student assignments and sample data.
Perry, John Timothy; Sankey, Mary Ann J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 339.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Easily Constructed Salicylate-Ion-Selective Electrode for Use in the Instructional Laboratory  Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R.
Construction and use of a salicylate-ion-selective electrode; includes a calibration curve.
Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 274.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
A Transferable Gas Container (TGC): Improving the Balloon Inert Atmosphere Technique  Bohac, Andrej
Apparatus for transferring inert gases using toy balloon and rubber tubing.
Bohac, Andrej J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 263.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
The "Magic" Flask  Battino, Rubin; Fortman, John J.
Apparatus designed to "magically" dispense liquids of many different colors without refilling.
Battino, Rubin; Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 246.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Convenient Luminol Demonstration  Schechinger, Linda; Waldman, Amy Sue
Simple, inexpensive apparatus for demonstrating the oxidation of luminol.
Schechinger, Linda; Waldman, Amy Sue J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 243.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
A Versatile Support for Laboratory Stirring Motors  Cowan, K. D.; Hall, H.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Design and construction of a support to eliminate vibrational shifts for laboratory motors.
Cowan, K. D.; Hall, H.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 190.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Charles' Law Experiment for Beginning Students  Rockley, Mark G.; Rockley, Natalie L.
Experimental procedure and simple apparatus for illustrating Charles' Law and determining absolute zero; sample data and analysis are included.
Rockley, Mark G.; Rockley, Natalie L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 179.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Put a Little Kaboom in Your Classroom  Barondeau, Mike
Instructions for constructing a calcium carbide/acetylene cannon from PVC pipe.
Barondeau, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 176.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Western Washington University Instrument Center: Restructuring Shops and Service Laboratories for Limited Budgets  Wilson, H. William
Examination of restructuring shops and laboratories at Western Washington University to reduce costs and increase efficiency.
Wilson, H. William J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 169.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Administrative Issues
A Cheap and Effective Glovebag for the Undergraduate Laboratory  Hartmann, Gregory A.; Gaston, Rick
Instructions for producing inexpensive glovebags.
Hartmann, Gregory A.; Gaston, Rick J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 96.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Metal-Encased Dewar Flask  Ritter, David
Instructions for a shock-resistant, homemade metal encased Dewar.
Ritter, David J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 70.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Dry Ice and a Piece of Used Inner Tube  Ali, Saqib; Danish, M.; Mazhar, M.
Effective method for crushing dry ice.
Ali, Saqib; Danish, M.; Mazhar, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 56.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A Microscale Rotary Evaporator  Maynard, David F.
A simple roto-vap-type apparatus was developed for rapid removal of excess solvent in the microscale laboratory.
Maynard, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A272.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Microwell Colorimeter for Use in an Introductory Chemistry Lab  Crump, Jennifer; Sandwick, Roger K.
Using simple and common electronic components to manufacture an inexpensive microwell detector that uses and LCD as a light source and a CdS photocell as a detector; includes examples of applications of the device in a high school or undergraduate chemistry curriculum.
Crump, Jennifer; Sandwick, Roger K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A199.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Inexpensive Reagent Dispenser  Brouwer, H.
An inexpensive reagent dispenser constructed from a disposable syringe and three-way valve.
Brouwer, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A148.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An Inexpensive Suction Microfilter  McDevitt, Eugene J.
Two disposable polyethylene transfer pipets can be used to form a single-use filtering funnel for several grams of solid yield.
McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A147.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A Better Way to Cut Filter Paper for Microscale Lab Use  Huisman, Richard D.
Using a power paper punch to cut microscale filter paper.
Huisman, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A147.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
Salt Bridge Using Soil Moist  Brooks, David W.; Brooks, Helen B.
Using Soil Moist in the stem of a plastic transfer pipet as an effective salt bridge for small scale electrochemical experiments.
Brooks, David W.; Brooks, Helen B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A62.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
The Many Uses of a Seven-inch Side Arm Test Tube  McDevitt, Eugene J.
Reducing the cost of microglassware kits by substituting a $5 side arm test tube for a variety of operations.
McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A58.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Management
A Mini-Qualitative Organic Analysis Session  Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J.
The article describes a tested mini-scheme that works for selected unknowns and allows an instructor to introduce non-major students to a variety of functional group tests in a single laboratory session.
Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1088.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nonmajor Courses
A Digital pH-mV Meter for Overhead Projection  DuPre, Donald B.; Just, Warren E.
A commercially available and relatively inexpensive pH-mV meter may be readily modified for display on an overhead projector.
DuPre, Donald B.; Just, Warren E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1081.
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Learning Name Reactions and Name Apparatuses Through Crossword Puzzles  Lee, Albert W. M.; Tse, C. L.
These computer generated crossword puzzles consist of 38 organic name reactions and 13 name apparatuses frequently encountered at the undergraduate level.
Lee, Albert W. M.; Tse, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1071.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Potentiometric Stripping Analyses: Using a Flexible, Low-cost Computerized Instrument  Chow, C. W. K.; Davey, D. E.; Haskard, M. R.; Mulcahy, D. E.; Yeow, T. C. W.
This paper describes a simple and economic way to construct a computerized potentiometric stripping analysis system for teaching and research purposes.
Chow, C. W. K.; Davey, D. E.; Haskard, M. R.; Mulcahy, D. E.; Yeow, T. C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 997.
Potentiometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A Simple-to-Build Thermal-Conductivity GC Detector  Jones, Mark E.
The author describes an inexpensive, easy-to-build thermal-conductivity detector for gas chromatography.
Jones, Mark E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 995.
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Device for Making Classroom Molecular Models   Mattson, Bruce
A device for making high quality tetrahedral suitable for use in high school exhibits is described here.
Mattson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 977.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Modeling
Minimal-Waste Solution Dispensers   Williams, Howard P.; Woodruff, H. Frank
Reagent solution waste by students can never be eliminated, but it can be greatly reduced with little cost.
Williams, Howard P.; Woodruff, H. Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 976.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Aspirator Splashing Solved with Two Cent Cup  Garza, Victor L.
With this novel method of containment, no splashing occurs and aspirator effectiveness is not decreased
Garza, Victor L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 953.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Laboratory Wash Bottle from an Empty Shampoo Bottle  Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.
Making a laboratory wash bottle from an empty shampoo bottle.
Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 805.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive PVC Round-Bottom Flask Holders  McDevitt, Eugene J.
Using PVC pipe to hold round-bottom flasks.
McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 802.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Digital Displays of Voltage, Resistance, and Temperature  DuPre, Donald B.; Just, Warren E.
Conversion of a digital multimeter for projection on an overhead screen and employing an accessory for the presentation of temperature measurements.
DuPre, Donald B.; Just, Warren E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 691.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Density Meter for Solids  Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, Khalid
Design of a very simple density meter for determining the density of any solid materials through water displacement.
Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, Khalid J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 681.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Kinetics of Chemical Reactions: A Low-Cost and Simple Appartus  Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.; Xenos, J.
Description, applications, and experiments for a simple and inexpensive apparatus to help students understand kinetics.
Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.; Xenos, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 647.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: Intermolecular Forces and Raoult's Law  Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas
Procedure that illustrates the liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of ideal and nonideal solutions.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 613.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Rubber Elasticity: A Simple Method for Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties  Byrne, John P.
A modified triple-beam balance that uses an optical lever to detect small changes in the length of a stretched rubber band.
Byrne, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 531.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
High-Sensitivity Gamma Radiation Monitor for Teaching and Environmental Applications  Lyons, R. G.; Crossley, P. C.; Fortune, D.
Design, construction, and calibration of a high-sensitivity gamma radiation monitor.
Lyons, R. G.; Crossley, P. C.; Fortune, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 524.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Visual Demonstration of Solvent Polarities  Johnson, Dawn A.; Shaw, Roosevelt; Silversmith, Ernest F.
A solution that shows visible color differences as the solvent polarity is changed.
Johnson, Dawn A.; Shaw, Roosevelt; Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 517.
Solutions / Solvents
Hydrogen Peroxide Demo Curing the Brown Bottle-with-Black Cap Syndrome  Sae, Andy
Comparing the reactivity of 3%, 12%, and 27% H2O2 solution.
Sae, Andy J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 433.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Pictorial Analogies XI: Concentrations and Acidity of Solutions  Fortman, John J.
Visual analogies of the concentration of a solution, strength of a solution, super saturated solution, conjugate acid-base pairs, and inverse relationship between pH and [H+] and pOH and [OH-].
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 430.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Basic Principles of Scale Reading  Peckham, Gavin D.
Steps and basic principles of reading the scales of laboratory instruments.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 423.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Inexpensive PVC Splash Guards  McDevitt, Eugene J.
Placing sections of PVC pipe in the bottom of sinks to reduce splashing.
McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 358.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An Economical, Safe, and Sturdy Student Calorimeter  Ruekberg, Ben
Replacing the styrofoam, coffee cup calorimeter with the Snak Jar.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 333.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Two Safe Student Conductivity Apparatus  Katz, David A.; Willis, Courtney
Design, construction, and application of two conductivity apparatus.
Katz, David A.; Willis, Courtney J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 330.
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Avoiding the Downstream Hazard in an Ionic Solubility Study  McSwiney, H. D.
Using potassium chlorate rather than potassium dichromate in an ionic solubility experiment for improved waste disposal.
McSwiney, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 329.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
A Reaction Chamber for the Thermite Reaction  Foseid, Thomas L.
Reaction chamber for the thermite reaction for purchase.
Foseid, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 327.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inventory Control: Sampling and Analyzing Air Pollution: An Apparatus Suitable for Use in Schools  Rockwell, Dean M.; Hansen, Tony
Two variations of an air sampler and analyzer that are inexpensive, easy to construct, and highly accurate.
Rockwell, Dean M.; Hansen, Tony J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 318.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
An Analogy To Illustrate Miscibility of Liquids  Thornton, Barry K.
Using inter-school rivalries to illustrate the concept of "like dissolves like".
Thornton, Barry K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 156.
Solutions / Solvents
Heat Transfer Block Conversion for Use of a Bimetal Coil Thermometer  Flechtner, Thomas W.; Ball, David W.
Modified aluminum heating block to accept a bimetal coil pocket thermometer.
Flechtner, Thomas W.; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 79.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inserting a Wire Through a Cork or Rubber Stopper  Cargille, L. Christine L.
Easy method for inserting a wire through a cork or rubber stopper.
Cargille, L. Christine L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 74.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Converting to a microscale laboratory with improvised equipment   Crouch, R. David; Nelson, Todd D.; Kinter, Chris M.
To avoid the expenses normally involved in converting experiments over to the microscale, these authors suggest some "improvised" microscale equipment.
Crouch, R. David; Nelson, Todd D.; Kinter, Chris M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A203.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A microscale suction filtration apparatus   Winkel, Cleve R.
This apparatus helps avoid some of the troublesome aspects of filtration that occur during the transfer stage.
Winkel, Cleve R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A161.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Construction of a Micropycnometer for Determination of Density and Specific Gravity of Liquids and Solutions   Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M.
A procedure used to drastically minimize volume of liquid for disposal that includes development of other, valuable lab techniques.
Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A36.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Heat of solution of hydrogen chloride: A laboratory experiment  Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A.
A simple technique for measuring the heat of solution of HCl in water.
Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 955.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Determination of sugars in food products: Using HPLC and electrochemical detection at a Cu electrode  Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P.
This lab activity takes advantage of the fact that students' interest in a lab is increased when common life experiences are drawn upon.
Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 679.
Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Solutions / Solvents
Introducing probabilistic concepts in chemistry: The preparation of 10-24 M solution as a limiting case  de Vicente, M. Sastre
A straightforward dilution experiment that can be used as the starting point for establishing a link between chemistry and concepts of probability theory.
de Vicente, M. Sastre J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 674.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
A digital balance for overhead projection  DuPre, Donald B.; Just, Warren E.
An inexpensive digital pocket balance may be readily modified for display of weights on an overhead projector.
DuPre, Donald B.; Just, Warren E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 652.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Wash no more!   Zafran, Bob
Making reagent dispensing more efficient and less messy.
Zafran, Bob J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 595.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 2: Potentiometry and conductimetry  Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T.
Further applications of the multimeter in chemistry laboratories are discussed in this paper: potentiometry, reduction potentials and cell EMF, the Nerst equations, pH measurements, titration, conductimetry, and conduction of solutions.
Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 580.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Potentiometry
Using the electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 1. Colorimetry and thermometry experiments  Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III
The multimeter could be a very useful instrument for the chemistry laboratory bench. In this paper, the versatility of the multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory is demonstrated.
Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 514.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An inexpensive, yet strong, way to assemble aluminum rod lattices  Brisbois, Ronald G.
An inexpensive yet strong way to assemble aluminum rod lattices to help with setting up reactions or apparatus.
Brisbois, Ronald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 506.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive, liquid reagent dispenser  Vitz, Ed; Dietrich, Richard
It is expensive to dispose of liquid reagents, but it may also be expensive to invest in commercial dispensers. These authors offer a $5 solution to the problem.
Vitz, Ed; Dietrich, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 500.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An efficient and inexpensive device for measurement of gas volume  Lieu, Van T.
Diagram and description of a device for measuring gas volume that yields good results.
Lieu, Van T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 420.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A combination steam and cold plate  Eisenbraun, E. J.; Lucas, J. M.
An apparatus constructed to serve as a variable-temperature plate for use during magnetically stirred evaporation of solvents, dissolution of solids, and cooling solutions to induce crystallization.
Eisenbraun, E. J.; Lucas, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 416.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple and flexible flask supports for weighings  Rothchild, Robert
Simple and flexible round-bottom flask supports can facilitate weighings or additions of reagents to flasks.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 409.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
General chemistry lab time to learn solutions   Marino, Francis.
Concern over the number of upper-division students who come to lab unable to prepare solutions.
Marino, Francis. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 407.
Solutions / Solvents
Views of space: Analysis of molecular shapes and volumes by casting the unoccupied space within carcerand CPK molecular models  Eld, C. N., Jr.; Cram, D. J.
Corey-Pauling-Koltun molecular models have greatly helped and influenced chemical research. To help with visualizing concealed space within models, the authors have developed a plaster-case and rubber-mold system. The preparation and utility are described in this article.
Eld, C. N., Jr.; Cram, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 349.
Molecular Modeling |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive ignition device  Brouwer, Henry
With a few modifications, the push-button ignition unit used on many gas barbecues can be used to provide a safe, inexpensive source for spark generation.
Brouwer, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 329.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The use of fuses in chemical demonstrations   Fortman, John J.; Schreier, Jeffrey
Black powder fuse wicks can be used to burn hot enough for the delayed ignition of many pyrotechnic demonstrations.
Fortman, John J.; Schreier, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 328.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Curriculum using the unique capabilities of lasers   Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.
Pedagogical value of using lasers in various lessons.
Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 323.
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive alternative to pipet fillers  Galindo, Agustin; Ortega, Andres
A cheap alternative to typical pipets used for general chemistry courses.
Galindo, Agustin; Ortega, Andres J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 314.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Polarity, miscibility, and surface tension of liquids   Silverstein, Todd P.
A very simple overhead projector demonstration using water and ethanol to give a dramatic visual illustration of cohesive and adhesive forces.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 253.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A Device to Collect Sediment Cores: And an Experiment for their Chemical Analysis  Del Delumyea, R.; McCleary, Donna L.
The chemical and physical characterization of sediments in aquatic systems can be performed at the introductory chemistry level and the experience is appealing and informative for students. This paper describes a device used to gather samples.
Del Delumyea, R.; McCleary, Donna L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 172.
Green Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Demonstration of the Common Ion Effect  Koubek, E.
KCl and HCl are used in this demonstration to describe the common ion effect and to show the difference between values Q and K.
Koubek, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
A Short Cut Specific to the Preparation of 1 M Sodium Hydroxide  Ruekberg, Ben
In general chemistry, 1M of NaOH needs to be prepared often and without great concern for high purity of solution. The author provides a procedure.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 72.
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
Improvements in the ultra-micro boiling-point technique  Rausch, Gerald; Tonnis, John
Applying commercial micropipets to solve problems in using capillary tubes.
Rausch, Gerald; Tonnis, John J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A264.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive parallel interface to a digital pH meter   McMahon, John J.; Braca, Paul R.
The authors have designed an experiment in which the students build their own parallel interface "card" from inexpensive components.
McMahon, John J.; Braca, Paul R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A156.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH
Controlling a stepper motor: Using the IBM PC communication port   Chau, F. T.; Tam, K. Y.
To simplify the system for applications involving only one or two stepper motors, the serial communication port of an IBM PC may used instead of the parallel interface card.
Chau, F. T.; Tam, K. Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A154.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Scanning tunneling microscopy of silicon and carbon.  Braun, Robert D.
The author describes some of the advantages and uses of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as a student laboratory using STM.
Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The microscale organic laboratory: A very simple method of filtration and recrystallization   Laporterie, A.
The following inexpensive system can be used to perform filtration, washing and crystallization without the loss of product in an organic lab.
Laporterie, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A42.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Crystals / Crystallography
Kinetic art through chemistry  Corkern, Walter H.; Holmes, L. H., Jr.; Higginbotham, N. A.
Ethanol / water solution + one drop of heptanol with dissolved dye produces fractal-like patterns.
Corkern, Walter H.; Holmes, L. H., Jr.; Higginbotham, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1025.
Solutions / Solvents |
Dyes / Pigments |
Alcohols
Buret storage solution  Williams, Howard P.
Design of a durable and safe buret storage rack.
Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1013.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Determining the thermal expansion coefficient of gases  Lehmann, Jochen K.
The authors improved the design of the apparatus and extended the experimental task on a recently published experiment for determining the zero point of the absolute temperature scale.
Lehmann, Jochen K. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 943.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive flash chromatography apparatus for the teaching/research lab  Deal, S. Todd
The author has developed an alternative flash chromatography apparatus for use in research labs at all levels, as well as the undergraduate teaching lab, that uses materials already available in a typical academic laboratory.
Deal, S. Todd J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 939.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple and inexpensive kinetics: A student laboratory experiment and demonstration   Erwin, David K.
Laboratory experimentation, as well as in-class demonstration, involving the study of chemical kinetics can be performed using this safe, simple, and inexpensive apparatus. This apparatus requires only that systems to be studied must produce a gaseous product that can displace water.
Erwin, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 926.
Kinetics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Rate Law |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive rubber stoppers for small diameter tubing  McDevitt, Eugene J.
Boring out a regular rubber stopper to accept small diameter tubing.
McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 845.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Simple, inexpensive apparatus for sample concentration  Bruno, Thomas J.
An alternative to disadvantageous, commercial concentration apparatuses.
Bruno, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 837.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Viscosity of polymer solutions  Bertrand, Gary L.
This program contains three components: "Density of Liquids", "Viscosity of Liquids", and "Viscosity of Polymer Solutions".
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Equipment for gas law experiments  Hennings, David G.
Using the plastic bottles sold with popcorn as leveling bulbs.
Hennings, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 773.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ammonia fountain improvements  Steadman, Ned
Suggestions to eliminate the excessive preparation time and questionable reliability of the classic ammonia fountain demonstration.
Steadman, Ned J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 764.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Beer-Lambert law revisited: A development without calculus  Lykos, Peter
Development of the Beer-Lambert law without the use of calculus.
Lykos, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 730.
Solutions / Solvents
A modern vapor pressure apparatus based on the isoteniscope.  Van Hecke, Gerald R.
Equipment used for vapor pressure measurements that eliminates use of a mercury manometer.
Van Hecke, Gerald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 681.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids
Use of plastic syringes as measuring pipets.  Chiu, Grace.
Using disposable, plastic syringes as measuring pipets.
Chiu, Grace. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 666.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Like dissolves like: Dry gas  Greenberg, Fred H.
A demonstration of solubility by comparing gasoline additives containing methanol and isopropyl alcohol.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 654.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Limewater dispenser bottle.  Brouwer, H.
Simple apparatus for the siphoning of limewater solution.
Brouwer, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 582.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Low-cost water-bath temperature controller.  Mercer, Gary D.
Construction of a low-cost water-bath temperature controller for a 1- to 4-L water bath.
Mercer, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 568.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A low-cost pH meter for the classroom.  Harris, David L.; Harris, Daniel C.
Design of an inexpensive yet precise pH meter for classroom use.
Harris, David L.; Harris, Daniel C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 563.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
An equilibrium machine.  Sawyer, Douglas J.; Martens, Thomas E.
An equilibrium machine powered by air pressure that demonstrates the concepts of equilibrium, activation energy, and catalysis.
Sawyer, Douglas J.; Martens, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 551.
Equilibrium |
Catalysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Moisture-sensitive reagents in the student laboratory.  Levine, Samuel G.
Apparatus and method for for dispensing measured quantities of moisture-sensitive reagents in the student laboratory.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 501.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A reasonable alternative to water aspiration  Mulcahy, Francis M.; Robbins, Andrea M.
The authors have designed a manifold system to obtain the greatest possible use of their vacuum pumps.
Mulcahy, Francis M.; Robbins, Andrea M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 428.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Water / Water Chemistry
Unfreezing standard-taper joints  Brown, Thomas; Sund, Eldon H.
A mixture of Micro detergent and Duo Seal pump oil will unfreeze frozen standard-taper joints every time.
Brown, Thomas; Sund, Eldon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 421.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A simple generator for common gases at atmospheric pressure  Elsworth, John F.
The current high cost of either a Kipps generator for producing hydrogen sulfide in the undergraduate laboratory, or of the bottled gas, led the writer to construct a simple, economical and efficient generator for use in a laboratory fitted with an efficient fume hood.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 419.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An AC-adapter for battery operated pH meters  Mercer, Gary D.
Directions for creating an AC adapter for pH meters that are battery operated.
Mercer, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 402.
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Refrigerated dropping funnel and reflux condenser  Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
This one-piece apparatus has proved useful in controlling the temperature of a reagent during addition to a refluxing reaction mixture.
Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 331.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Avoiding capillary blockage of AA and AE spectrophotometers  Quigley, Michael N.
Using a piece of filter paper is a preventative measure that saves on equipment.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 324.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A convenient method for refurbishing laboratory clamps  Wright, Stephen W.; Teeter, J. Stephen
The authors have found that nonferrous laboratory clamps, particularly the Castalloy clamps, may be easily and safely restored by treatment with citric acid solution.
Wright, Stephen W.; Teeter, J. Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 322.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Solutions, anyone?  McCullough, Bro. Thomas
A simple, quick, and economical experiment which gives the student intimate hands-on contact with most quantitative measurements of solutions is described.
McCullough, Bro. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 293.
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
An Ace reducing adapter for screw vials.  Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce.
Using this device, solvents contained in vials can be evaporated quickly without problems.
Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Do "likes dissolve likes"? An illustration of polar and nonpolar solvents   Bergquist, Wilbur
Here is a simple and colorful demonstration to help illustrate the nature of polar and nonpolar solvents.
Bergquist, Wilbur J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 158.
Solutions / Solvents
Electrochemical measurements in general chemistry lab using a student-constructed Ag-AgCl reference electrode  Ahn, M. K.; Reuland, D. J.; Chadd, K. D.
This paper describes a simple method of making a reproducible and durable reference electrode for use by freshmen chemistry students.
Ahn, M. K.; Reuland, D. J.; Chadd, K. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 74.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Principle of extraction of solute by solvent  Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna
Among the applications of Nernst's distribution law, the most important and interesting one is the extraction of a substance dissolved in one solvent by another solvent, the two solvents being partially miscible or immiscible.
Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 73.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
The effect of temperature on the solubility of gases in liquids  Alger, Donald B.
Of 13 current-edition general chemistry texts, 11 made errors regarding the topic of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Alger, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 62.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
A gel sample block   Taslimi, Paul M.
The description of a simple device that will eliminate the necessity for the use of microcentrifuge tubes for preparation of most DNA samples.
Taslimi, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 61.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrophoresis
Integrating research instrumentation with the general chemistry curriculum. Part I: Mass spectrometry  Eichstadt, Karen E.
A three-part exercise entitled "A Glimpse of Mass Spectrometry" was designed for students enrolled in the third quarter of a one-year, nonmajor course that surveyed organic and biological chemistry.
Eichstadt, Karen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 48.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses
Micro-Kipp gas generators   Wilson, Byron J.
An attention-getting microexperiment to illustrate chemical stoichiometry involving several rockets made from plastic Beral pipets.
Wilson, Byron J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A297.
Microscale Lab |
Stoichiometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A flexible automated laboratory system for the qualitative analysis of selected metal cations   Blankenship, James F.; Costello, Steven; Sprouse, Matthew; Settle, Frank A., Jr.; Bolen, Rosina H.; Pleva, Michael A.
A flexible automated laboratory system for the qualitative analysis of selected metal cations: history, goals, experimental apparatus, software, and performance.
Blankenship, James F.; Costello, Steven; Sprouse, Matthew; Settle, Frank A., Jr.; Bolen, Rosina H.; Pleva, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A65.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Inert atmosphere techniques for the microscale laboratory   Newton, Thomas A.
A system developed to introduce students to working under inert atmosphere.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A60.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab
A chemistry degree program with computer science emphasis  Breneman, G. L.
Because computers are becoming one of the most essential pieces of equipment in chemistry, Eastern Washington University felt that it was appropriate to establish a special degree program within chemistry that emphasized computer science.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 832.
Administrative Issues |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Student / Career Counseling
Inexpensive gas law apparatus  Garrett, D. D.; Banta, M. C.; Arney, B. E.
The apparatus described in this paper avoids the problems associated with mercury as well as eliminating the friction problems usually encountered with the disposable syringes having rubber plunger tips.
Garrett, D. D.; Banta, M. C.; Arney, B. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 667.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Acid rain experiment and construction of a simple turbidity meter  Betterton, Eric A.
Construction of a simple turbidity meter in order to furnish more atmospheric chemistry experiments in the freshman and sophomore level chemistry lab.
Betterton, Eric A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 254.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Green Chemistry
An inexpensive safety shield from a plastic water jug  Fortman, John J.
A safeguard against the splattering of acids, bases, and organic liquids and the scattering of soft solids.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 234.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Using a motor to demonstrate conductivity   Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria
The turning of a propeller identifies solutions of strong electrolytes.
Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 160.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Conductivity
Fume hood testing and evaluation  Saunders, G. Thomas
Common and correctable hood-system defects and acceptable methodology to check on hood containment.
Saunders, G. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A226.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Robots in the laboratory: Part II. An overview   Strimaitis, Janet R.
Recently progressive laboratory managers have recognized the potential of laboratory robotics to create a strategic advantage for their organizations.
Strimaitis, Janet R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A20.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Density of antifreeze-water mixtures: A general chemistry experiment in compositional analysis  Flowers, Paul A.
Determining the composition of an antifreeze/water solution through density measurements.
Flowers, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1068.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis
Inexpensive alternative to purchasing immersion heaters  Garrett, D. Dewayne; Banta, M. C.
Plans for a $15 immersion heater.
Garrett, D. Dewayne; Banta, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 976.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A low-cost pipet aid  Hon, Ping-Kay
Converting a plastic desoldering pump into a pipet filler, pump, or adjustable autopipet.
Hon, Ping-Kay J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 896.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple and inexpensive wire-wrap tool  Williams, Howard P.; Cuccaro, Leslie
A simple and inexpensive tool for making wire-wrapped connections to a fragile, graphite electrode.
Williams, Howard P.; Cuccaro, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 788.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Economical electrophoresis with a controlled-current power supply  Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H.
Electrophoresis power supply that features a controllable current (0-90 mA, dc), the use of a common 120 V, ac power supply, and a materials cost of approximately $50.
Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 703.
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A simple computerized gas chromatograph  Fox, John N.; Shaner, Robert A.
Transforming an Apple computer into a versatile gas chromatograph.
Fox, John N.; Shaner, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 694.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Teaching freezing point lowering  Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover
Using Le Chatelier's principle, the van't Hoff equation, and the empirical equation to explain the lowering of the freezing point caused by dissolving antifreeze in water.
Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 676.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Device to describe wave polarization  Nicolai, Lidia; Baron, Maximo
A device to show that any type of polarized wave (plane, circular, and elliptical) can be obtained from two coherent planar waves having their vibration planes perpendicular to each other.
Nicolai, Lidia; Baron, Maximo J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 647.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Photochemistry
A convenient method to recover the solvent from halogen-CCl4 mixtures  Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W.
An alternative to disposal and distillation which is easy to perform, allowing the solvent to be recovered and stored within one hour after the completion of the experiment is presented here.
Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 532.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
A suggested improvement for the fabrication of low-cost manometers  Garrett, D. Dewayne; Banta, M. C.
A simple manometer is modified to improve readability and mechanical stability.
Garrett, D. Dewayne; Banta, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 523.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple apparatus for stirring solutions contained in submerged, sealed vessels  Grinstead, John H., Jr.; Sullivan, Jack M.
The authors designed an apparatus which can simultaneously stir the contents of several submerged flasks from readily available materials.
Grinstead, John H., Jr.; Sullivan, Jack M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 521.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Experiments with "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.

Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 510.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An inexpensive device for collection of samples of water for dissolved oxygen determination without air contact   Favaretto, Lelio
This communication describes a simple and inexpensive device that permits the collection of water samples and fixation of dissolved oxygen by the Winkler method.
Favaretto, Lelio J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 509.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Development of a new design for multipurpose meter: "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.; Poupon, Rene; Gavasso, Roland
The purpose of this article is to describe the design of a common box that can be turned into a simple voltmeter, a pH meter, or a calorimeter.
Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.; Poupon, Rene; Gavasso, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 507.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
pH |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An inexpensive laboratory steam generator  Hagen, James P.; Barton, Kevin L.
The authors have devised an inexpensive, more efficient, safer heat source suitable for laboratories not equipped with house steam.
Hagen, James P.; Barton, Kevin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 448.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A simple method for drying an NMR spinner air supply  Holden, Michael S.; Ogren, Paul J.; Lainhart, Steven D.
A simple alternative to a commercial dryer is a modified cold trap.
Holden, Michael S.; Ogren, Paul J.; Lainhart, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 445.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Heat of solution and colligative properties: An illustration of enthalpy and entropy   Mundell, Donald W.
This demonstration provides a means for challenging the students to interpret some examples where both enthalpy and entropy are possible.
Mundell, Donald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 426.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
Use of a convenient disposable filter "tip" with a Pasteur filter pipet for microscale laboratory techniques   Rothchild, Robert
The filter "tip" consists of a small wad of cotton packed into a short length of polyethylene tubing, with an inner diameter selected to fit over the tip of the Pasteur pipet.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 425.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The growth of large single crystals  Baer, Carl D.
It is possible to obtain a wide range of nicely formed crystals utilizing solution methods and commonly available materials and apparatus.
Baer, Carl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 410.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
A homemade stirring bar for magnetic stirrers  Li, Xiaorong; Chang, James C.
Inexpensive stirring bars can be made by sealing iron wire into pieces of glass tubing.
Li, Xiaorong; Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 346.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Magnetic Properties
Construction and evaluation of an inexpensive reference electrode with internal electrolyte in agar matrix  Victoria, Leandro; Ortega, M. Gloria; Ibanez, Jose A.
In this paper the authors show how to construct a reference electrode of Ag/AgCl with an internal electrolyte in agar matrix.
Victoria, Leandro; Ortega, M. Gloria; Ibanez, Jose A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 179.
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple apparatus to demonstrate differing gas diffusion rates (Graham's law)  Keller, Philip C.
The apparatus described in this note dramatically demonstrates relative diffusion rate effects for common gases like methane and carbon dioxide.
Keller, Philip C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 160.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A simple and inexpensive student viscometer  Daignault, L. G.; Jackman, D. C.; Rillema, D. P.
The authors assembled a simple Ostwald type of viscometer for use in high school and college or university general chemistry laboratories that can be constructed from readily available chemistry stockroom materials.
Daignault, L. G.; Jackman, D. C.; Rillema, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 81.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An automatic water trap for steam distillation  Ruekberg, Ben
The unpleasant aspects of the water trap can be avoided with a simple, inexpensive device that renders the water trap automatically selfdraining.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 66.
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Synthesis-laboratory fumehoods: Easy, reliable performance evaluation and importance of sash design  Adams, John B., Jr.
Performance evaluation of laboratory fume hoods.
Adams, John B., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A289.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Computers and balances   Brubaker, George R.; Alber, Larry L.
As electronic balances replace mechanical balances in teaching institutions, balance instruction must change from applied classical mechanics to principles of calibration.
Brubaker, George R.; Alber, Larry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A116.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Robots in the laboratory- An overview   Strimatis, Janet R.
Automation permits laboratories to maintain high-quality results while increasing productivity and creating more challenging work for technical personnel.
Strimatis, Janet R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A8.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A precise determination of absolute zero  Strange, Ronald S.; Lang, Frank T.
Excellent extrapolations to absolute zero can be obtained for dry air using a simple apparatus constructed from an Erlenmeyer flask, an oil manostat and a plastic syringe.
Strange, Ronald S.; Lang, Frank T. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1054.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An easy model for teaching mass / charge in mass spectrometry  de Souza, Nelson Angelo; Bravo, Ruiess Van Fossen
A model for the demonstration of ion deflection by the action of a magnet that is occurring inside of a tube of a mass spectrometer.
de Souza, Nelson Angelo; Bravo, Ruiess Van Fossen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1039.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Multiport student spectrometer  Bishop, Carl B.
A spectrometer that can be used simultaneously by seven students to observe a single spectrum emitted by an element of compound in a single light tube against a calibrated screen.
Bishop, Carl B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1037.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dropper hangers that can be easily constructed by students  Singh, Saranjit; Singh, Amarjit
Dropper hangers that can be easily constructed by students.
Singh, Saranjit; Singh, Amarjit J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 967.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Construction of a photoelectric colorimeter and application to students' experiments (Part 2)  Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako
Applications include the quantitative analysis of copper in brass, the analysis of iron in spinach and tea leaves, and the determination of the acid dissociation constant of bromothymol blue.
Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
High-efficiency condenser for low-boiling liquids and gases  Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.
Constructing a high-efficiency condenser for low-boiling liquids and gases using a 2 L plastic bottle.
Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 786.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
An offset device for interfacing pen recorders to meters  Davey, David E.; Hall, Robin D.; Mulcahy, Dennis E.; O'Connell, Gregory R.
An external offset device for interfacing strip-chart pen recorders to meters.
Davey, David E.; Hall, Robin D.; Mulcahy, Dennis E.; O'Connell, Gregory R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 784.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A novel drying/storage rack for volumetric glassware  Williams, Howard P.; Graves, Felicia B.
A drying / storage rack made from wooden dowel rods and plywood.
Williams, Howard P.; Graves, Felicia B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 771.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Obtaining the Corning catalytic combustor: A low-cost method to demonstrate catalysis  Brodemus, John S.
Corning Glassworks is making the Corning Catalytic Combuster Demo Kit available to teachers.
Brodemus, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 768.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Catalysis
Tilted TOPS: Inclined plane projection  Alyea, Hubert N.
Device to support various containers on an overhead projector so gas-generating reactions may be clearly observed.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 765.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A clinical digital thermometer for calorimetry  Hon, Ping-Kay
Modifying an inexpensive clinical thermometer for making thermochemical measurements.
Hon, Ping-Kay J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 695.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Better vacuum filtration with bicycle tube  Ali, Saqib
Using a bicycle tube to improve vacuum filtration.
Ali, Saqib J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 693.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A versatile compact reference electrode  Kusuda, Kousuke
Construction of a compact saturated calomel electrode.
Kusuda, Kousuke J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 531.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
An experiment on the molar solubility and solubility product of barium nitrate  Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse
A direct gravimetric method for determining a Ksp value.
Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 515.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gravimetric Analysis
Transformation of old two-electrode polarographs into three-electrode systems  Papadopoulos, N.; Linardis, P.
In this work a simple circuit is proposed that can transform a two-electrode polarograph into a three-electrode system.
Papadopoulos, N.; Linardis, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 419.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Another View of the Visible Spectrum  Hanrahan, E.S.
Chalk can be used with a Spectronic 20 to view the visible spectrum.
Hanrahan, E.S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Using a Dumas bulb to determine the molecular weight of a volatile liquid   Kawa, Christopher J.
The use of an aspirator improves the filling and emptying process of a Dumas bulb.
Kawa, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 336.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Liquids
Preparation and cleaning of low-cost plastic manometers  Pollnow, Gilbert F.
The author has developed an improved unbreakable manometer.
Pollnow, Gilbert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 333.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Construction of a photoelectric colorimeter and application to students' experiments  Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako
The PEC is an instrument that examines quantitatively the color change in the solutions.
Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 329.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
A simple explanation of the salt water oscillator  Noyes, Richard M.
Yoshikawa et al. have described a simple device that undergoes repeated oscillations and that can also illustrate some of the principles essential to the oscillators driven by chemical reactions.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 207.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Amusement with a salt-water oscillator  Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Nakata, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Waki, Takeshi
Rhythmic oscillations of water flow are generated when a vertically oriented hypodermic syringe, with the plunger removed, is filled with salt water and partially submerged in a beaker of pure water.
Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Nakata, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Waki, Takeshi J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 205.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple apparatus for maintaining low temperature  Ansari, M. Shahid; Saleem, M.
The apparatus has provided fairly constant temperatures in the range of 265 - 140 K.
Ansari, M. Shahid; Saleem, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 180.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive PVC infrared cell holder  McDevitt, Eugene J.
Inexpensive PVC infrared cell holder.
McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 177.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Zero-cost polystyrene film for IR spectroscopy  Fain, D.
The transparency section of many envelopes used for correspondence consists of a polystyrene film suitable for IR spectroscopy.
Fain, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 171.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive and easily constructed device for quantitative conductivity experiments   Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin
The low cost and easily replaced electrodes make this system practical for use in a general chemistry lab, while its accuracy and wide applicability permit its use in physical or quantitative chemistry experiments.
Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 168.
Quantitative Analysis |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recycling polyester tennis ball containers  Greenberg, Fred H.
Abandoned polyester tennis ball containers that accumulate on campus tennis courts may be used in the undergraduate laboratory as dispensing or storage receptacles for a variety of items.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 167.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Miniware for galvanic cell experiments  Craig, Norman C.; Ackermann, Martin N.; Renfrow, William B.
The authors use a simple miniware design of a galvanic cell that is less expensive and time consuming.
Craig, Norman C.; Ackermann, Martin N.; Renfrow, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 85.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Chemical principles for the introductory laboratory, CHM 384 (Johnson, James F.)  Wegner, Carol
A comprehensive review of the title program which overviews basic techniques and concepts presented in introductory laboratory courses. Topics include: titration, equilibrium, Ksp, solubility, Beer's law, coordination complexes and first-order rates of reaction.
Wegner, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A47.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics
The determination of the concentrations of sugar solutions by laser refractometry  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Jelks, Vaughn; Hughes, Diane Landry
The purpose of this article is to describe a simple, semi-quantitative, analytical method for determining the approximate concentrations of sucrose solutions.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Jelks, Vaughn; Hughes, Diane Landry J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1007.
Lasers |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple method for purifying silica gel for column chromatography  Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F.
A quick and efficient way to get maximum use out of silica gel.
Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 891.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The effect of polarity on solubility   Cliche, Jean-Marie; Labbe, Benoit
A procedure for a demonstration of the effect of polarity on solubility and some follow-up questions for students.
Cliche, Jean-Marie; Labbe, Benoit J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 813.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An interesting student chemistry project: Investigating Liesegang rings  Schibeci, Renato A.; Carlsen, Connie
This lab allows students not only exposure to content, but also an appreciation of the way in which scientists build their knowledge.
Schibeci, Renato A.; Carlsen, Connie J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 365.
Solutions / Solvents |
Geochemistry |
Metals
The interconversion of electrical and chemical energy: The electrolysis of water and the hydrogen oxygen fuel cell  Roffia, Sergio; Conciallini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen
The authors discuss some common drawbacks to typical electrolysis demonstrations and present an apparatus that overcomes these drawbacks.
Roffia, Sergio; Conciallini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 272.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stoichiometry |
Electrochemistry
Introductory laboratory exercises  Rollinson, Susan Wells
A description of exercises used for the first two weeks of General Chemistry that minimize the individual equipment used so as to avoid problems that commonly occur with the fluctuation of course enrollment that happens in the beginning of the semester.
Rollinson, Susan Wells J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 159.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Laboratory HVAC systems: A troika  Walls, Earl L.
Laboratory workers are almost totally ignorant of what their HVAC systems are all about and what they can expect from them.
Walls, Earl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A314.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Upgrading laboratory fume hoods  Saunders, G. Thomas
Overview of the design, location, use, and maintenance of fume hoods.
Saunders, G. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A272.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The History and Preservation of Chemical Instrumentation (Stock, John T.; Orna, Mary Virginia)  Kauffman, George B.
18 papers presented on the title subject presented at the 190th meeting of the American Chemical Society in Chicago in September of 1985.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A27.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Oven drying of volumetric glassware  Burfield, David R.; Hefter, Glenn
Quantifies the effect of heat treatment on the capacity of volumetric glassware.
Burfield, David R.; Hefter, Glenn J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1054.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An inexpensive device for projecting, measuring, and moving gas  Wojt, Richard
Using disposable plastic syringes to generate, measure, move, and dry gases.
Wojt, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1052.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
When oil and water do not mix  Trammell, Gary L.
An introduction to the physics and chemistry of interfaces and lipids, and reactions in micelles.
Trammell, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1022.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Micelles |
Lipids
Difficult repairs in glassware made feasible via an inexpensive (no cost) glass lathe  Stransky, Carl; Estler, Ron
Adapting a rotary evaporator as a glass lathe.
Stransky, Carl; Estler, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 967.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A free plastic spot plate for overhead demonstration  Marsh, Carol Goodgame
The nearest hospital or clinical laboratory is a potential source for many disposable items that can be useful to chemistry teachers.
Marsh, Carol Goodgame J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 964.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A general approach for teaching hydrolysis of salts  Aquirre-Ode, Fernando
Proposes a general, rigorous, and relatively simple approach for the hydrolysis of 1-1 electrolytes.
Aquirre-Ode, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 957.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Modifications of some traditional demonstrations with liquids  Stedjee, Brian
Immiscible liquid pairs with similar indexes of refraction.
Stedjee, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 894.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Rendering stoppers almost uncontaminatable  Ruekberg, Benjamin P.
Preventing contamination of flat top and penny-head stoppers.
Ruekberg, Benjamin P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 724.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A device to demonstrate the principles of photometry and three experiments for its use  Delumyea, R. Del
Design, construction, and use of a simple photometer that can be used in place of a Spec 20; includes three experimental procedures applying the instrument.
Delumyea, R. Del J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 630.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Easily made electronic device for conductivity experiments  Gadek, Frank J.
Simple device made from a 35-mm film canister, 9-V battery and leads, resistor, and LED.
Gadek, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 628.
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Easy demonstration of the visible spectrum using the Spectronic 20  Sherman, Marie
This demonstration can be performed to provide a relation between wavelength measurements on the Spec 20 and the actual colors of light being used.
Sherman, Marie J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 627.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Safe and reliable electrode storage  Williams, Howard P.
A container that prevents evaporation and keeps electrodes ready for use.
Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 556.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
Conductivity of solutions apparatus  Vitz, Ed
Design of simple device to demonstrate the conductivity of aqueous solutions using a pair of LED's.
Vitz, Ed J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 550.
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ksp determination of calcium sulfate  Masterman, David
A procedure to obtain the Ksp of a saturated solution of calcium sulfate in 10-20 minutes.
Masterman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 408.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2  Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin
Design, construction, and use of a safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2.
Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 347.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
Consider safety as an active process  Mehlhaff, L. C.; Berry, Keith O.
Safety considerations for physical facilities, laboratory equipment, experiments, and the operation of the laboratory.
Mehlhaff, L. C.; Berry, Keith O. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 346.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An apparatus for sample degassing and sealing  Nicodem, David E.; Marchiori, Roberto
Device that allows the preparation and sealing of low-cost test tubes by inexperienced students.
Nicodem, David E.; Marchiori, Roberto J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 282.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Photochemistry
A commercially available electronic device for conductivity experiments  Gadek, Frank J.
Application of a continuity and tone-generating chassis in a variety of conductivity experiments, particularly for hearing or visually impaired students.
Gadek, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 281.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conductivity |
Minorities in Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Simple determination of Henry's law constant for carbon dioxide  Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A.
With the aid of inexpensive pressure gauges available from automotive supply stores, the solubility of carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages or other solutions can be studied.
Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 260.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
The disappearing act: Teaching students to expect the unexpected  Kilner, Cary
A demonstration of Ksp in which a precipitate is formed and then disappears.
Kilner, Cary J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
An analogy for soluble and insoluble mixtures: Sand and magnetic iron filings  Garde, Ira Batra
Using mixtures of sand and iron filings as analogies for a soluble mixture of nonpolar substances, a soluble mixture of polar substances, and an insoluble mixture of a nonpolar and a polar substance.
Garde, Ira Batra J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 154.
Solutions / Solvents
A rotating schedule for teaching basic techniques with minimum equipment  Reed, Andree Prigoda
Invaluable lab experiences are loosing ground, often sacrificed due to the growing cost of lab equipment. This author shares some strategies for making the most out of the lab equipment you have.
Reed, Andree Prigoda J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1079.
Administrative Issues |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A new road to reactions: Part III. Teaching the heat effect of reactions  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
This series of work summarizes the authors' work on the concept of chemical reactions as a teaching and learning problem.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 972.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
The coming renaissance of descriptive chemistry  Zuckerman, J. J.
Inorganic chemistry is facing an identity crises.
Zuckerman, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 829.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
SI and non-SI units of concentration: A truce?  Rich, Ronald L.
These authors examine whether a truce could be promoted by filling a chemical gap in the System Internationale with special attention on concentration.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 784.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Nebraska instrument sharing consortium  Smith, David H.
A small group of colleges have banded together to solve one of the pressing problems in chemical education today- how to provide modern instrumentation to students at an affordable price.
Smith, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 68.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Updating older fume hoods  Saunders, G. Thomas
Modifying older fume hoods to comply with new regulatory requirements.
Saunders, G. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A178.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Making Science Laboratory Equipment (Carelse, X. F.)  Sievers, Dennis
Methods needed to produce quality laboratory materials in developing nations.
Sievers, Dennis J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A140.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Idea Bank Collation: A Handbook for Science Teachers (Talesnick, Irwin ed.)  Mikan, Frank
617 ideas including experiments, demonstrations, and laboratory equipment.
Mikan, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A140.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Molecular size and Raoult's Law  Kovac, Jeffrey
An additional cause for deviations from Raoult's Law that is rarely, if ever, mentioned in freshman chemistry texts.
Kovac, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1090.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases
An inexpensive developing chamber for radial chromatography  Gadwood, Robert C.
Design and advantages of a radial chromatography chamber.
Gadwood, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 820.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Construction of corrosion resistant, inexpensive lab lattices  Fisher, George H.; Levin, Arthur; Man, Eugene H.
Making corrosion resistant lab lattices from PVC pipe and fiberglass rods.
Fisher, George H.; Levin, Arthur; Man, Eugene H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 819.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A simple water-still alarm  Stock, John T.
An alarm to prevent overflow of a carboy filled by a steam-heated still.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 814.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Quick conductivity cell  Williams, Howard P.
A simple cell for indicating the relative conductivity of electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, and weak electrolytes.
Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 799.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The definition and symbols for the quantity called "molarity" or "concentration" and for the SI units of this quantity  Gorin, George
An alternative formulation for concentration and the SI units for this quantity.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 741.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
An inexpensive laboratory pump  Aymes, Daniel J. M.; Poupon, Ren; Paris, Michel R.
Design for a small pump for moving low flow rates of aqueous or organic solutions.
Aymes, Daniel J. M.; Poupon, Ren; Paris, Michel R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 717.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A different look at the solubility-product principle  Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr.
The progressive addition of Cl- to Ag+ yields an ion-product equal to Ksp at two different points.
Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 645.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
A two-liter pipet for bomb calorimetry  Stout, Roland P.
A 2-L volumetric flask modified to deliver a constant volume of water at a constant temperature.
Stout, Roland P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 634.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A convenient DC power source for laboratory applications  Rose, Emily J.; Shoer, Larry I.
Using small ac adapters to replace bulky dc power supplies.
Rose, Emily J.; Shoer, Larry I. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 620.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Preventing breakage of crucible lids  Adock, Louis H.
Supporting and safeguarding crucible lids inclined on a ceramic triangle.
Adock, Louis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 609.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An inexpensive mercury vapor lamp  Sands, Richard D.
Using a street lamp from a local hardware store.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 526.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple limewater maker  Prochaska, James F.
Uses gravity to separate the insoluble precipitate when preparing limewater.
Prochaska, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
An economical round bottom-flask stand  Lee, Albert W. M.; Lau, Man-Yiu
Using the bottom of 1.25-L and 2-L soft drink bottles.
Lee, Albert W. M.; Lau, Man-Yiu J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 433.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple, inexpensive gas discharge/cathode ray tube  Weichman, Roger L.
A gas discharge / cathode ray tube made from a condenser jacket and two large nails.
Weichman, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 340.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simplified Dumas flask  Hadley, Fred J.
Using glass tubing as a simple Dumas flask.
Hadley, Fred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 268.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
An atomizer for a dime  Vergara, J. L.; Kreman, M. E.; Zamighi, G. A.; Simon, S. A.
A simple, inexpensive atomizer constructed from a 1-mL disposable pipet tip.
Vergara, J. L.; Kreman, M. E.; Zamighi, G. A.; Simon, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Change in concentration with time  Umland, Jean B.
Shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 153.
Solutions / Solvents |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Aqueous hydrogen peroxide: Its household uses and concentration units  Webb, Michael J.
Includes some simple weight / volume calculations and their answers.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 152.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple apparatus for laboratory dry ice production  Ahn, Myong-Ku; Kjonaas, Richard A.
A collection bag attached to a cylinder of liquid CO2.
Ahn, Myong-Ku; Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple polarimeter and experiments utilizing an overhead projector  Dorn, H. C.; Bell, H.; Birkett, T.
Design and application of an overhead polarimeter that relies on small amounts of chiral solution and provides a "dual beam" light source for direct comparison of plane-polarized light emerging from chiral and achiral media.
Dorn, H. C.; Bell, H.; Birkett, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1106.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An alternative method for the determination of pKa  Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario
Determining pKa from the titration curve of a weak acid or base.
Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1067.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A new meaning of the terms acid and base hydrolysis  Milic, Nikola B.
Suggestions for distinguishing between solvation, hydration, and solvolysis, and hydrolysis reactions that produce hydroxo and protonated complexes.
Milic, Nikola B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1066.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
An inexpensive thermistor thermometer for beginning chemistry laboratories  Srivastava, Shyam B.; Meloan, Clifton E.
Design of a thermistor thermometer for heats-of-reaction measurements to 0.1C over short temperature ranges.
Srivastava, Shyam B.; Meloan, Clifton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1027.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The preparation of acid-base titration curves  McClendon, Michael
A simple technique for generating mechanically plotted titration curves using an electron pH meter and a low-voltage chart recorder.
McClendon, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1022.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
The insolubility of "soluble" barium nitrate  Reinstein, Jesse
The unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid.
Reinstein, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The effect of polarity on solubility  Nordstrom, Brian H.
Students observe that iodine dissolves readily in 1,1,1-trichloroethane but not water.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1009.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Water / Water Chemistry
An inexpensive, very high impedance digital voltmeter for selective electrodes  Caceci, Marco S.
Design and construction of an instrument that exceeds in accuracy and input impedance most expensive commercial pH meters and potentiometers.
Caceci, Marco S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 935.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
pH
An alternative low-cost splash arrestor  Widener, R. K.
Using a plastic connecting tee to completely control splashing in laboratory sinks.
Widener, R. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 926.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
Assembly of a simple, rugged spectroscope suitable for the lecture hall.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An inexpensive closure for dialysis tubing  Bambenek, Mark
Using plastic tubing and a glass rod as an inexpensive clamp for dialysis tubing.
Bambenek, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 889.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A perspective on solubility rules  Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl
Four solubility rule generalizations useful for introducing solubility.
Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 885.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The nine-bottle experiment revisited  Finholt, James E.
Students are challenged to design solutions appropriate for the "nine-bottle" experiment.
Finholt, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 849.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple method for detecting cracks in porcelain crucibles  McKenna, Jack F.
Inspecting crucibles for cracks by tapping them with a glass stirring rod.
McKenna, Jack F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 817.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A small electronic device for studying chemical kinetics  Prez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L.
Studying rates of reactions with a small electronic device and an oscilloscope overcomes the difficulty students encounter in solving the differential equations describing chemical equilibrium.
Prez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 808.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The goals of teaching solution equilibrium  Ruda, Paul T.
Using and making relevant the concepts of solution equilibrium.
Ruda, Paul T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Why teach solution equilibrium?  Butler, James N.
What are the most important aspects of solution equilibrium to teach at the elementary level?
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
pH
An analogy for solubility: Marbles and magnets  Kjonaas, Richard A.
Using marbles and magnets to illustrate solubility and insolubility.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 765.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Cheap drying-oven thermometers  Smith, David H.
Using a household oven thermometer.
Smith, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 712.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Solubility of mercury  Sisler, Harry H.
The statement "mercury is soluble in both polar and non-polar liquids" is misleading.
Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 566.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Low-cost immersion heaters for water baths  Battino, Rubin
Using commercially available hot water immersion heaters.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 563.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An inexpensive pipet-delivery device  Monti, Diego
An inexpensive pipet-delivery device for delivering corrosive products or solvents.
Monti, Diego J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 521.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The solubility of NiSO46H2O  Pacer, Richard A.
Approaches the position of equilibrium from both unsaturated and supersaturated solutions.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 467.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Reducing funnel breakage  Sprague, Gary
Fitting long-stem funnels with rubber bumpers to reduce breakage.
Sprague, Gary J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 389.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive ring holders for round-bottomed flasks  Moffett, Jonathan H.; Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L.
Using plastic lids, bottles, and tubing to hold round-bottomed flasks.
Moffett, Jonathan H.; Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 388.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Homemade lab equipment  Schmuckler, Joseph S.
Cites past Journal articles dealing with inexpensive equipment that can be constructed in the lab.
Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 385.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Homemade lab equipment  Schmuckler, Joseph S.
Cites past Journal articles dealing with inexpensive equipment that can be constructed in the lab.
Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 385.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The murky pool  Perkins, Robert
Using the reaction of aqueous silver nitrate with aqueous sodium sulfide to illustrate how one can correlate the terms soluble and insoluble with solubility product constants.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The useless tea kettle  Perkins, Robert
If a 2.5 L kettle contains 125 g of calcium carbonate (boiler scale), how many times would the kettle have to be filled with distilled water to remove all of the deposits given the Ksp of calcium carbonate?
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical storage of solar energy using an old color change demonstration  Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G.
The results of a student research project that could be used as an experiment to illustrate the potential of hydrates salts for solar energy storage.
Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 252.
Photochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An analogy for the leveling effect  Macomber, Roger S.
Analogy to help students understand the leveling effect of certain solvents.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 128.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Rubber bulb modification for pipetting  Davis, Joe B.
A simple modification to a rubber bulb to make it easier to insert a pipet.
Davis, Joe B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 81.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The laboratory use of chemical instrumentation in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum  Pickral, George M.
The purpose of the study reported in this article is to determine present use of chemical instrumentation in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum of four-year colleges and universities in the United States. This is the first study to break down instrument usage into six course areas: general chemistry, organic, analytical, physical, integrated laboratories and research. [Includes "Introduction to Chemical Instrumentation," on the debut of the renewal of the series, under the editorship of Frank A. Settle, Jr.]
Pickral, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, A338.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Determination of ammonia in household cleaners: an instrumental analysis experiment  Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven
This popular experiment describes a procedure that is easily modified to determine quantitatively such analytes as ammonia in solution.
Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 765.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents
An improvement for chromatography  Chiong, Hung-Cheh; Wang, Pei-Lin
A simpler setup for conducting chromatography experiments with colorless liquids.
Chiong, Hung-Cheh; Wang, Pei-Lin J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 419.
Chromatography |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Association of ions and fractional crystallization: a general chemistry experiment  Scaife, Charles W. J.; Dubs, Richard L.
The experiment in this article has been used in laboratories for non science majors and for inorganic chemistry. In both cases students attain a good understanding of what it taking place, how the various procedures affect actual concentrations of ions present, and why particular salts crystallize under certain conditions whereas others do not.
Scaife, Charles W. J.; Dubs, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 418.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
Solubility and Ksp of calcium sulfate: a general chemistry laboratory experiment  Sawyer, Albert K.
The experiment shared in this note can be used to accompany lectures on solubility or chemical equilibrium.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 416.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
A novel classification of concentration units  MacCarthy, Patrick
Concentration units can be a source of confusion for students. This article presents a treatment on this topic that may help students understand the differences between these units.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 187.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An effective demonstration of some properties of real vapors  Metsger, D. Scott
The apparatus described in this article has been found by the authors to be the most effective in vividly illustrating the behavior of a nearly ideal gas to first year chemistry students.
Metsger, D. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 67.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Solids
A practical application of molality  Penrose, John F.
The stoichiometry problem related in this note captures student interest.
Penrose, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 63.
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Pinchcock pipetting  Horn, A. H.
Modification to make the mouth operation of the conventional pipet acceptable.
Horn, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1041.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Does the N-solution problem measure student proficiency?  Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles
An investigation to determine if the commonly used, N-solution, qualitative identification laboratory assessment problem assesses students' knowledge of descriptive chemistry.
Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1032.
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Data generation in the classroom  Blanco, Luis H.
A pendulum device for generating data for statistical analysis.
Blanco, Luis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1028.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Partition coefficients - A lecture demonstration  Newton, Thomas A.
The extraction of aqueous solutions of indophenol and its sodium salt with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Vapor pressure apparatus for general chemistry  Long, Joseph W.
A simple apparatus for collecting vapor pressure data; relies on a mercury manometer.
Long, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 933.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
On the use of intravenous solutions to teach some principles of solution chemistry  Shapiro, Irwin L.
A series of laboratory periods are devoted to the chemistry of intravenous solution in a one-semeter course for nursing students.
Shapiro, Irwin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 725.
Solutions / Solvents |
Nonmajor Courses |
Medicinal Chemistry
A convenient melting/freezing point depression apparatus  Singman, Charles; Sophianopoulos, Judy; Johnson, Ronald
Incorporates an easily read digital thermometer.
Singman, Charles; Sophianopoulos, Judy; Johnson, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 682.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Syringes as pipet fillers  Hermens, Richard A.
Using a syringe to draw liquids into a pipet.
Hermens, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 676.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Simple control system for automated, multistage stills  Uphaus, R. A.; Kostka, A. G.
A system that uses LEDs to sense the water level in a still pot and control the rate of heat input to the still heating jackets.
Uphaus, R. A.; Kostka, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 674.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Water / Water Chemistry
Hot melt glue gun in the laboratory  Williams, Howard P.
Using a hot glue gun to make repairs in the laboratory.
Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 655.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A pipet/reagent stand  Garrett, James M.
Design of a combination pipet / reagent bottle stand.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 436.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potential uses for broken or worn-out glass or combination electrodes  Boring, Wayne C.; Winchell, Deborah L.
When a glass or combination electrode is no longer useful for pH measurements, it can be used in at least two ways.
Boring, Wayne C.; Winchell, Deborah L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 425.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Electrochemistry
Flask support for weighings  Rothchild, Robert
A light-weight alternative for supporting round-bottomed flasks during massing.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 339.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Versatile, inexpensive support plates for the laboratory  Harris, Thomas D.
Constructing large support platforms from iron plates and plywood.
Harris, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 256.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Notes from physics journals  Smith, Douglas D.
Solution with an index of refraction that matches that of Pyrex glass and a reverse cartesion diver.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 243.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
pH meter revisions  Eisnor, Charles R.
Two modifications to an earlier published design for an electronic pH meter.
Eisnor, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 240.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH
Safety inserter tips  Talesnick, Irwin
Fit the end of "cork borers" for inserting glass tubing.
Talesnick, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 168.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
DeVilbiss #33 atomizer  Henderson, Bro. Eric
Produces a very fine spray.
Henderson, Bro. Eric J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 168.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple semimicro distillation apparatus  Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J.
A small distillation unit for fractional distillation of small amounts of material under vacuum.
Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 164.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A demonstration model for immiscibility  Hoffman, A. B.
Uses Magic Sand to demonstrate various solubility principles.
Hoffman, A. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A simple, effective introduction to the Beer-Lambert relationships  Bowman, Leo H.
Demonstrates the realities of light absorbing phenomenon.
Bowman, Leo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents
A handy spirit lamp  Chaco, M. C.
Design for an alcohol burner.
Chaco, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 80.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Regulating the speed of a magnetic stirrer  Deckey, George
Diminishing the primary magnetic field of the stirring magnet with an aluminum plate.
Deckey, George J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 73.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Magnetic Properties
The construction of inexpensive digital pH meters  Warner, Brian D.; Boehme, Gerhard; Pool, Karl L.
Parts list and circuit diagram for a low-cost pH meter.
Warner, Brian D.; Boehme, Gerhard; Pool, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 65.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Some like it hot  Cohen, Sheldon H.
Design of three homemade heating devices: a light bulb hot plate, an electric flask heater, and a voltage controller.
Cohen, Sheldon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 62.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Evaluation of asbestos fiber hazard from wire gauzes  Yager, Billy J.
Students are concerned with the use of wire gauzes due to their asbestos content.
Yager, Billy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, A134.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
More "quickies"  Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some quick, challenging questions that cover various areas of chemistry.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 994.
X-ray Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Small things and large numbers   Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some challenging solubility problems are featured in this note.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 962.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Ksp made simple  Buss, Donald E.
Students often have a hard time understanding solubility products conceptually. The author provides appropriate questions that can better scaffold understanding.
Buss, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 958.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
High technology laboratory aids for visually handicapped chemistry students  Lunney, David; Morrison, Robert C.
This article will discuss the aids that use modern electronics technology to enable visually handicapped students to make accurate laboratory measurements and to interact independently with computers and scientific instruments.
Lunney, David; Morrison, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 228.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Balloons and the teaching of chemistry  Dewhurst, F.; Dewhurst, F. R.
Balloons are a remarkably useful tool for the chemical educationalist. Balloons can not only provide cheap, safe, and easy-to-use alternatives to more complex and costly equipment, but also they can be used as effective teaching aids to demonstrate principles of structural chemistry.
Dewhurst, F.; Dewhurst, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 44.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive method to eliminate aspirator splashing  Niewahner, J. H.
Attaching rubber hose to the aspirator.
Niewahner, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 906.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An extra function for the manual temperature compensation control on pH meters  Eilbeck, W. John
The manual temperature compensation control on pH meters changes the RT/F slope.
Eilbeck, W. John J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 834.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH
Solubility and complex ion equilibria of silver(I) species in aqueous solution  Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred
The sequential formation of precipitates and complex ions is used to demonstrate how the solubility of silver(I) compounds is related to Ksp values.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
An acid or a base?  Uriarte, Richard J.
Does a diluted acid remain acidic?
Uriarte, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 806.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Mole fraction analogies  DeLorenzo, Ron
An analogy to help students solve concentration problems.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 733.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents
Carbon tetrachloride substitute  Wynn, Charles M.
Substitution of n-hexane for carbon tetrachloride.
Wynn, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 728.
Toxicology |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
Experiments for display (Corridor demonstration)  Letcher, T. M.; Orchard, S. W.
The effect of heat on the color of cobalt(II) chloride water-alcohol solution. Refluxing solutions of different compositions.
Letcher, T. M.; Orchard, S. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 667.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Convenient freezing point depression apparatus  Marzzacco, Charles; Collins, Marie
Uses a magnetic stirrer to continuously mix the sample being measured.
Marzzacco, Charles; Collins, Marie J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 650.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Apple dunking  O'Connor, Rod
Question regarding the ratio between ions of p-nitrophenylhydrazone in reducing the pH of basic effluent.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 598.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH |
Industrial Chemistry
An adapter for heat gun drying of laboratory glassware  Eisenbraun, E. J.; Hall, Heinz
Adding a extended nozzle to a heavy-duty heat gun for drying laboratory glassware.
Eisenbraun, E. J.; Hall, Heinz J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 568.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A versatile and inexpensive pipet bulb  Deckey, George
Adding a tapered tip to a rubber pipet bulb to facilitate its ease of use.
Deckey, George J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 526.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Comparison of pipets: A laboratory experiment  May, Leopold
Students are required to report the accuracy and precision of various pipets.
May, Leopold J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 483.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Technique for controlling the filling rate of a pipet  Welty, Philip K.
Merely resting the tip of a pipet on the bottom of the container from which the sample is drawn substantially slows the filling rate.
Welty, Philip K. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 474.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Qualitative analysis, without sulfide ion, of selected cations  Rathnamma, Dasara V.
Qualitative analysis of selected 11 cations can be accomplished without the use of sulfide.
Rathnamma, Dasara V. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 287.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Inexpensive pipet delivery device  Knevel, Adelbert M.
Placing a perforated micro test tube in a pipet bulb to facilitate its operation.
Knevel, Adelbert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 285.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple high precision laboratory valves from polyethylene tubing  Piel, Elmar
Various configurations for folded polyethylene tubing to be used as improvised valves.
Piel, Elmar J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 234.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An economical and efficient reflux/distillation apparatus  Marabella, Charles P.
A modified standard distillation head and vacuum takeoff adapter.
Marabella, Charles P. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 221.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Magnetic stirring devices for use with overhead projectors  Battino, Rubin; DuFour, Howard R.; Scott, John L.
Designs for three magnetic stirrers that can be used on an overhead projector.
Battino, Rubin; DuFour, Howard R.; Scott, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 184.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A substitute for mercury electrode contacts  Bradford, John L.
Substituting steel wool or copper turnings for mercury as electrode contacts.
Bradford, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 159.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Appetizing colloids  Riley, John T.
Two examples of colloidal dispersions: the formation of foam upon mixing a solution of aluminum sulfate with a solution of egg albumin and sodium bicarbonate, and the formation of a gel upon mixing ethanol with a saturated solution of calcium acetate.
Riley, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 153.
Colloids |
Solutions / Solvents
Crystallization of sodium acetate  Hiegel, Gene A.
Procedure for preparing a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate and crystallizing it.
Hiegel, Gene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
"To sink or swim"  O'Connor, Rod
A problem regarding the maximum water hardness that can be permitted in a swimming pool if it is desired to avoid calcite formation given the carbonate ion concentration. [Debut]
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 151.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
On the misuse of Le Châtelier's principle for the prediction of the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts  Bodner, George M.
Explores why Le Châtelier's principle often fails to predict the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 117.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Inexpensive pipet filter  Van Atta, Robert E.; Kamback, Dwight O.
A superior but inexpensive pipet filter relies on a rubber bulb and a simple bead/tube assembly.
Van Atta, Robert E.; Kamback, Dwight O. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 756.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Travelling Waves of Chemical Activity in the Zaikin-Zhabotinskii-Winfree Reagent  Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T.
An overhead projector demonstration.
Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 754.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A laboratory use for discarded plastic beverage bottles  Aronson, John N.
Converting 2-L plastic bottles into powder funnels and ice buckets.
Aronson, John N. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A passive nuclear debris collector  Griffin, John J.; Stevens, Ronald L.; Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Russell, Irving J.
A simple collector that takes advantage of the ability of rain to remove trace radioactive substances from the lower atmosphere.
Griffin, John J.; Stevens, Ronald L.; Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Russell, Irving J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 475.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Applications of Chemistry
Inexpensive buret tips and sample tubes  Denio, Allen A.
Substituting disposable polypropylene pipet tips for traditional glass tips.
Denio, Allen A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 464.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Determination of solution enthalpy: An easy and simple method  Karunakaran, K.
A method that does not involve the preparation and analysis of saturated solutions at different temperatures.
Karunakaran, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Management
Formation and dissolution of precipitates  Nogar, N. S.; Jalenak, W. A.
Using the scattering of a laser beam to detect the presence of particles suspended in solution.
Nogar, N. S.; Jalenak, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 267.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Lasers
Adapting polyethylene tubing in chemical apparatus assembly  Piel, Elmar
Low density polyethylene tubing with physical characteristics about midway between glass and rubber provides tubing that for many uses is superior to both.
Piel, Elmar J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 135.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The standardization of pH meters: A comparison of procedures for different types of instruments  Lund, Walter
Discusses the various approaches to the standardization of pH meters and the limitations of the various procedures.
Lund, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 129.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Calibration |
Acids / Bases
Lab hint  Smith, Douglas D.
Using rubber eye-dropper bulbs to protect the glass ends of equipment.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 47.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Construction of a novel sample holder for use in undergraduate IR spectroscopy experiments  Law, R.; Ronald, B. P.; Ferrin, L.; Pocker, Y.
The authors share a more economical solution for holding IR samples.
Law, R.; Ronald, B. P.; Ferrin, L.; Pocker, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 508.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Colorimetric analysis for salicylate in urine: An experiment for nursing chemistry  Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A.
The iron-salicylate system provides a chemistry experiment is described here and is suitable for students majoring in nursing.
Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 464.
Nonmajor Courses |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
General chemistry-pressure measurement   Steffel, Margaret J.
This question allows students to demonstrate the understanding of the operation of barometers and vapor pressure at a freshman level.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 102.
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Rubber ruler for determination of Rf values for thin layer chromatography  Hiegel, Gene A.
The author shares a quick and simple method to aid in student reading of Rf values in TLC.
Hiegel, Gene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 59.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive gouy balance for magnetic susceptibility determination  Viswanadham, Puligandla
In this activity, the student is introduced to the principles and preparation of a double pan balance and magnetic properties of materials simultaneously through a single experiment.
Viswanadham, Puligandla J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 54.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Versatile and inexpensive lens holder for optics experiments  Spirk, Sherman A.; Friedrich, Donald M.
A simple and versatile lens holder that can be constructed from readily available parts.
Spirk, Sherman A.; Friedrich, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 768.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Case of the unlabeled bottles  Smith, Douglas D.
Students are to determine the contents of a series of unlabelled bottles.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 701.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Wash bottle for volatile solvents  Goetz, Rudolph
Modifying conventional wash bottles to make them practical for volatile solvents.
Goetz, Rudolph J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 634.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Another look at our teaching methods. Pros and cons of the silent demonstration  Woodburn, John H.
Analysis of a "silent demonstration" involving the formation of a precipitate and why the demonstration may or may not have been effective in helping students understand the intended concept.
Woodburn, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 627.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Aspirator trap bottle assembly  Greenberg, Fred H.
Suggests an aspirator consisting tape-wrapped, quart milk bottle in hollow, concrete block.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 611.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple glass connector for Teflon tubing  Peterson, John I.; Dehn, William R.
A simple means of making connections between sections of Teflon tubing.
Peterson, John I.; Dehn, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 547.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Versatile pen-holder for chart recorders  Nieschlag, Henry J.
Using a small binder clip as a versatile pen-holder for chart recorders.
Nieschlag, Henry J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 542.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Porcelain square-n-triangle for the support of a crucible and its lid  Naik, Datta V.
A porcelain support for the crucible as well as the lid.
Naik, Datta V. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 497.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gravimetric Analysis
Lecture demonstration digital multimeter  Myers, Gardiner H.; Dugan, Robert J.
Plans for a Lecture Demonstration Digital Multimeter used to measure and display electric potential, current, temperature, pressure, and pH.
Myers, Gardiner H.; Dugan, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 495.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Electrochemistry
Inexpensive +5V digital power supply  Jespersen, Neil
Using "battery eliminator" devices as inexpensive power supplies.
Jespersen, Neil J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 460.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Ear syringe pipetting bulb  Hanson, Richard H.
Using ear syringes as pipet bulbs.
Hanson, Richard H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 434.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Silver ion in water purification: A follow-up  Quane, Denis
Applying a previous idea on the possible use of silver ion in water purification to teaching the concept of Ksp.
Quane, Denis J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 381.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Technique for simultaneously stirring and monitoring the temperatures of semimicro reaction mixtures  Lutz, Wilson B.
The stirring blade and thermometer are combined into a single rotating unit.
Lutz, Wilson B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 356.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Inexpensive solvent storage cabinet that meets OSHA requirements  Taylor, Paul J.
A wooden, solvent storage cabinet.
Taylor, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 347.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Convenient and inexpensive laboratory jack  Rakoff, Henry
A modified, small hydraulic jack.
Rakoff, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 320.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Hydrogen bonding and heat of solution  Friedman, Norman
An experiment that clearly illustrates the role of hydrogen bond formation and its effect on the heat of solution.
Friedman, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 248.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Magnetic stirrers of local construction  Hall, Heinz; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Design of a magnetic stirrer that is housed in a protective housing for improved safety.
Hall, Heinz; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 229.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Selective solubility: "Like dissolves like"  Smith, Wayne L.
Azobenzene is a better analog of DDT than iodine in demonstrating the pesticide's solubility in fatty tissue.
Smith, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 228.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Lipids
Simple practical lab test for freshman students  Jones, Mark M.
Uses the preparation of a solution of designated molarity as a test of student competence; the solution is evaluated using its optical density.
Jones, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 178.
Solutions / Solvents
Low-cost, repeating, precision pipetter for student use  Peirson, David R.
The Cornwall pipetter is ideal for use in teaching laboratories where it can provide safe, rapid, precision pipetting of most liquids.
Peirson, David R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 173.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
On mole fractions in equilibrium constants  Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K.
Proposes a hybrid equilibrium constant for use in introductory chemistry courses.
Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 151.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Modification to LED colorimeter  Atkinson, G. F.
Suggestions for improvements to the LED colorimeter described in the cited article.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 66.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chemical equilibrium  Burke, Barbara A.
Demonstrates the equilibrium between blue CuSO4 and green K2(CuBr4) on an overhead projector.
Burke, Barbara A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Flashy solutions  Riley, John T.
Demonstrations using universal indicator.
Riley, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
Lab safety: The case of the errant cylinder   Ozaruk, N.
The anchoring of compressed gas cylinders to keep them from being knocked over, with the accompanying possibility of breaking off the valve, is an accepted safe practice. However, there has been some skepticism as to what would have happened if a cylinder valve was knocked off. The author shares a vivid description that appeared in the National Safety Council Chemical Section Newsletter. Also: a high school safety rules booklet; a hazardous materials safety booklet; and wall charts on Laboratory Techniques and Laboratory Safety.
Ozaruk, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
The solubility of CaSO4: An ion exchange-complexometric titration experiment for the freshman laboratory  Koubek, Edward
This lab may be used to introduce the student to two important areas of chemistry with the added advantage that one method serves as a direct check on the other.
Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 254.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Ion Exchange
Antichap lipstick and nonbonded interactions. A nonscience majors laboratory experience  Most, Clark, Jr.
A laboratory with real life applications helps nonscience majors learn about solubility.
Most, Clark, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 194.
Solutions / Solvents |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
LXXXVII. DC power supplies for the laboratory [part one]  Ewing, Galen W.
Reviews the characteristics of commercial power supplies for the laboratory.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, A537.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A simple and inexpensive eye irrigation fountain  Dewald, R. R.; Haas, T. E.; Norder, W. A.
Design for a simple and inexpensive eye irrigation fountain.
Dewald, R. R.; Haas, T. E.; Norder, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 810.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Chromatography on chalk  Wollrab, Adalbert
Describes how a variety of mixtures can be separated using a piece of chalk.
Wollrab, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 809.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple flask rinser  Everson, Robert J.
Design for a simple flask rinser.
Everson, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 789.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Two simple modifications of the common type of metal filterpump  Hartman, Karel; Towner, William H.
Two simple modifications to reduce problems with the common type of metal filterpump.
Hartman, Karel; Towner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 786.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An alternate method for the storage of scientific glassware  Haynes, LeRoy W.; Beyerle, Elmer B.
Using packing peanuts to store glassware.
Haynes, LeRoy W.; Beyerle, Elmer B. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 657.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ion-exchange resins - A simple apparatus  Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo
A modified procedure and apparatus for speeding up the use of ion-exchange resins.
Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
A simple sample holder for use in thermostat tanks  Greig, D. G. T.
Using a floating platform to support samples in a thermostated water bath.
Greig, D. G. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 549.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Ksp experiment: The solubility product for barium hydroxide  Reynolds, John P.
Two procedures for determining the solubility product of barium hydroxide and the effect of temperature on Ksp.
Reynolds, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 521.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Compact compacts  Bier, C. J.; Schiller, Joseph E.; Hengeveld, Frank W.; Smith, Herbert L.; Karnes, John P.
Exercises in distillation and the law of multiple proportions; the "Men and Molecules" radio program; and assessing solution concentrations.
Bier, C. J.; Schiller, Joseph E.; Hengeveld, Frank W.; Smith, Herbert L.; Karnes, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 519.
Solutions / Solvents
Protective cover for glass electrodes  DeWitt, H. D.
Slipping a piece of perforated vinyl tubing over the end of a glass electrode.
DeWitt, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 498.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
The gooseneck clamp  Wilson, S. R.
Making a gooseneck clamp by welding together an old lamp gooseneck and a clamp.
Wilson, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 407.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modification of a constant flow buret  Sturtevant, Floyd; Hartman, Kenneth
Modification and testing of an earlier presented design for of a constant flow buret.
Sturtevant, Floyd; Hartman, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 393.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
An inexpensive pipetting device  Racusen, David
Using a bulb as an inexpensive pipetting device.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 386.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Improving the speed control of magnetic stirrers  Eikenberry, Eric F.
A sheet of aluminum placed on top of a magnetic stirrer improves its control without otherwise affecting its operation.
Eikenberry, Eric F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 385.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive laboratory jack apparatus for undergraduate laboratories  Power, L. F.; Bedford, H.
A very simple and low cost design for a laboratory jack.
Power, L. F.; Bedford, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 348.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Meso analysis  Janardhan, P. B.
Description of equipment and procedures for chemical analysis on a semimicro scale.
Janardhan, P. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Microscale Lab
A Vidicon detection system for teaching absorption spectroscopy  Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.
Describes the conversion of a television system into an absorption spectrograph that can be used as a live demonstration.
Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 218.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
Molar solubility calculations and the control equilibrium  Chaston, S. H. H.
The Control-Equilibrium method uses as its starting point a precise procedure for obtaining the equilibrium that accounts for the bulk of the decomposition of starting materials.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 206.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
A simple gas chromatograph for teaching purposes  Wollrab, Adalbert
A simple apparatus for demonstrating the separation of a mixture of pentane and hexane gas.
Wollrab, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 200.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Gases
Converting a television system into a quantitative atomic emission spectrograph  Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.; Nelson, D. L.
The conversion involves placing a transmission grating over the lens of a television camera that is focussed on a discharge tube.
Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.; Nelson, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 198.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A spectrophotometric determination of fluoride adapted for the freshman laboratory  Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W.
In this experiment the student determines the fluoride ion concentration of a sodium fluoride solution, which they can do with high precision and accuracy.
Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 680.
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy
A variable volume, problem-free repetitive pipet  Blackman, David.; Sanchez, Guillermo
Describes a variable volume, repetitive pipet that does not react adversely with liquid reagents.
Blackman, David.; Sanchez, Guillermo J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 851.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple recording titrator  Walton, Harold F.
Design and use of a simple recording titrator.
Walton, Harold F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 795.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A semimicro salt bridge  McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C.
Using capillary U-tubes as semimicro salt bridges.
McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 781.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive improvement of single pan balances  McKay, Edward S.; Vasers, Alise
Reducing the abuse of single pan, automatic balances by attaching plastic stops on either side of the operating lever.
McKay, Edward S.; Vasers, Alise J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 710.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Capital equipment breakage liability  Brooks, David W.
Recommends to treat capital equipment breakage liability as a part of consumable expense.
Brooks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 662.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A simplified undergraduate calorimetry experiment  Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M.
A glass calorimeter for determining ?H for the neutralization of a strong acid with a strong base.
Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 637.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Micro hot stage  Klimis, Dorothy J.; Tibbetts, Donald L.
A micro hot stage for determining the melting points of very small quantities.
Klimis, Dorothy J.; Tibbetts, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 576.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
A stabilized linear direct reading conductance apparatus. The solvolysis of t-butyl chloride  Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M.
A simple ac conductivity apparatus for experiments in chemical kinetics is described; the instrument is sufficiently reliable that it can be used by first year students and assembled in a few hours.
Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Construction of a self-filling pycnometer in five minutes  McCullough, Thomas, C.S.C.
Procedure for constructing a self-filling pycnometer for precise determinations of the specific gravities of liquids.
McCullough, Thomas, C.S.C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 546.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
The equilibrium between a solid solution and an aqueous solution of its ions  Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I.
It is the purpose of this paper to present the equations that describe the equilibrium between solid solutions and their ions and to outline methods for their derivation.
Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 415.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Selected properties of selected solvents  Nilles, George P.; Schuetz, Robert D.
Selected properties of fifty common solvents.
Nilles, George P.; Schuetz, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 267.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Dissolved oxygen determination  Berger, Toby E.
Details regarding the cited procedure.
Berger, Toby E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 160.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Notes on determination of dissolved oxygen  Sommers, Raymond A.
Simplifications in the referenced procedure that make it more suitable for the introductory laboratory.
Sommers, Raymond A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 160.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
An inexpensive magnetic stirrer  Ellis, J.; Kanamori, S.
Constructing a portable magnetic stirrer from an automobile windshield wiper motor.
Ellis, J.; Kanamori, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 137.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The helix coil transition of DNA  Steinert, Roger; Hudson, Bruce
The design and use of a photometer to detect the transition of DNA from the double helix to random coil form.
Steinert, Roger; Hudson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 129.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An automatic laboratory flood-control system  Becsey, Julius G.; Froebe, Larry R.
Design of an automatic laboratory flood-control system.
Becsey, Julius G.; Froebe, Larry R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 84.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Dry ice baths, the easy way  Land, H. Bruce III
Obtaining CO2 in syphon tube bottles and generating dry ice in the quantities needed on demand can eliminate many problems.
Land, H. Bruce III J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 78.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Definition of standard states  Lukens, David C.
A suggested sequence of definitions for the standard state.
Lukens, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 654.
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Student flowmeters and an air pollution experiment  Kohn, Harold W.
Using glass wool as an absorbent for atmospheric contaminants and three simple devices for measuring flow rates of gases.
Kohn, Harold W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 643.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A safe, inexpensive heat source for undergraduate laboratories  Burshnick, E. J.; Roberts, R. M.; Monti, S. A.; McElwee, D. L.; Gilbert, J. C.
This heating source is flameless, highly efficient, safe, and easy to use.
Burshnick, E. J.; Roberts, R. M.; Monti, S. A.; McElwee, D. L.; Gilbert, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 623.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An inexpensive DC ohmmeter  Getzin, Donald R.
Design for an inexpensive DC ohmmeter.
Getzin, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 442.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Dissolved oxygen. A relevant experiment for the introductory laboratory  Stagg, William R.
Students measure the dissolved oxygen content of water from several natural sources as well as the change in solubility with temperature.
Stagg, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 427.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
A visual demonstration of preferential absorption  Folster, Harry G.
The preferential absorption of one solute from a mixture of solutes can be demonstrated by a simple and inexpensive technique in which the separation is visually evident.
Folster, Harry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 322.
Transport Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple pressure applicator device for column chromatography  Chen, S. C.
Diagrams a simple pressure applicator for column chromatography.
Chen, S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 318.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography
Solubility of lead bromide in nitrate media. A study of ionic interactions  Cooper, J. N.
Students are asked to determine, as a class, the solubility of lead bromide at a fixed temperature in solutions covering a range of known sodium nitrate concentrations.
Cooper, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 282.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Density gradients in chemistry teaching  Miller, P. J.
Outlines experiments in which a density gradient may be used to advantage, including the analysis of organic compounds, aqueous solutions, binary mixtures of organic compounds, solids, and solvent extractions.
Miller, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 278.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Precipitation of lead chromate from homogeneous solution. A lecture demonstration or laboratory experiment  Ramette, Richard W.
Both the "conventional precipitation" and the precipitation from homogeneous solution are done simultaneously so that the striking differences in chemistry, appearance, and precipitate produced can be compared.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 270.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
A cheap vibration-free base for sensitive balances  Ganesan, L. R.; Renganathan, S.
Using tennis balls sandwiched between two planks as a cheap vibration-free base for sensitive balances.
Ganesan, L. R.; Renganathan, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 201.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Increased utilization of electronic apparatus  Twigg, Martyn V.
It is possible to utilize more fully an electronic instrument by connecting it to several probes via a simple switch unit.
Twigg, Martyn V. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 191.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A very economical strip chart pen recorder  Quintana-Owen, Patricia; Nunez-Farias, Francisco; Taylor, Thomas E.
Design for a strip chart pen recorder constructed from an audio speaker core and a small fan motor.
Quintana-Owen, Patricia; Nunez-Farias, Francisco; Taylor, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 142.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple apparatus for teaching the principles of chromatography  Kellomaki, Aarre
A device that follows the elution of electrolytes through liquid column chromatography by continuously measuring the conductivity of the effluent.
Kellomaki, Aarre J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 139.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Using alligation alternate to solve composition problems  Mancott, Anatol
Problems involving the composition of mixtures may be solved by using the relatively obscure method of "alligation alternate" in lieu of the standard algebraic procedure with no loss in accuracy; includes five examples.
Mancott, Anatol J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 57.
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Isotopes
The effervescence of ocean surf  Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
A pure liquid will not foam, but all true solutions will, as dictated by the fundamental concepts of surface thermodynamics enunciated by Gibbs.
Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Entropy Makes Water Run Uphill - in Trees  Stevenson, Philip E.
Explains how Sequoias over 300 feet tall can draw water up to their topmost leaves.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 837.
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Plant Chemistry |
Membranes |
Transport Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Miscellanea No. 6  Eberhardt, W. H.
A collection of clarified, underemphasized, and misunderstood topics, including cell electromotive force and disproportionate reactions; partially miscible liquids and upper consolute temperatures; enthalpy and free energy of formation; and magnetic moment.
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
Size of a molecule. Or what's in a shape?  Demchik, Michael J.; Demchik, Virginia C.
The authors describe an experiment which helps students understand why oleic acid is essentially insoluble in water.
Demchik, Michael J.; Demchik, Virginia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 770.
Lipids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Fatty Acids
Polywater. A lesson and opportunity in science  Christian, P. A.; Berka, L. H.
The authors present an intriguing observation and offer outlines of some possible studies that can be undertaken in any adequately equipped high school or college chemistry laboratory.
Christian, P. A.; Berka, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 667.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Beginning chemistry can be relevant  Corwin, James F.
The continuing criticism offered by students of the science that the present day courses are not relevant to contemporary problems. This can be answered in part by a laboratory program based on environmental problems.
Corwin, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 522.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Protective lockout and tagging of equipment  Gatwood, G. T.
Examines purpose, responsibility, procedure, and violations with regards to the protective lockout and tagging of equipment.
Gatwood, G. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A585.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A sealed stirring device  Vithanage, Cyril
The stirrer described here is very simple in design and can be used when a leakproof stirrer is required for enclosed chemical reactions.
Vithanage, Cyril J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 552.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple, inexpensive laboratory stirring motor  Sprague, Peter W.; Ziegler, Stanley
Describes a mechanical stirrer constructed from an electric motor and machined aluminum parts.
Sprague, Peter W.; Ziegler, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 726.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
A sealed stirring device  Vithanage, Cyril
The stirrer described here is very simple in design and can be used when a leakproof stirrer is required for enclosed chemical reactions.
Vithanage, Cyril J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 552.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modification of the Fisher-Todd spectranal for student use  Knudson, George
The presented modifications to the Fisher-Todd spectranal allows first-year students to observe standards and unknowns quickly with minimum assistance by the instructor.
Knudson, George J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 308.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
Polyethylene capillary pipets  Melrose, Floyd C.; Lyle, David L.
Presents a method for making long, flexible capillary pipets using ordinary polyethylene tubing.
Melrose, Floyd C.; Lyle, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 284.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A demonstration experiment on partial molar volumes  Coch, Juan A.; Lopez, Valentin
The partial molar volume of trichloroacetic acid can be determined by measuring the increase in volume when TCA is dissolved in water at constant temperature and pressure.
Coch, Juan A.; Lopez, Valentin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 270.
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
A bridge-rectifier-milliammeter instrument for conductance studies  Nordmann, J.; Steinberg, Edwin
Modification of an earlier described instrument.
Nordmann, J.; Steinberg, Edwin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 241.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A simple colorimetry apparatus  Walsh, Joseph M.
Presents a simple apparatus to improve the technique and results in an introductory calorimetry experiment.
Walsh, Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 202.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The correction for buoyancy using a single-pan balance  Burg, W. R.; Veith, D. A.
Derives the equation for buoyancy correction using a single-pan balance.
Burg, W. R.; Veith, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 192.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive easy-to-use, safe pipet filler  Spencer, Jesse G.
An inexpensive easy-to-use, safe pipet filler constructed from a rubber bulb and the tip of a polyethylene drying tube.
Spencer, Jesse G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 166.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The control of temperature - Part two  van Swaay, Maarten
Focusses on the design, characteristics, and operation of thermocouples and thermistors.
van Swaay, Maarten J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A565.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
The control of temperature - Part one  van Swaay, Maarten
Examines the design, characteristics, and operation of temperature controlling circuits.
van Swaay, Maarten J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A515.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Baby bottles and elementary chemistry  Davenport, D. A.
Presents several experiments that rely on baby bottles, including Charles' Law expansion, vapor pressure of volatile liquids, molecular weights of volatile liquids, and closed-atmosphere experiments.
Davenport, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 878.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Liquids |
Oxidation / Reduction
An inexpensive vacuum and gas handling system for the freshman laboratory  Zuehlke, R. W.; Cartier, P. G.
Presents an inexpensive vacuum and gas handling system for the freshman laboratory.
Zuehlke, R. W.; Cartier, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 874.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
A convenient stencil for glass etching  Alix, Ernest C.
A procedure for etching glass using a mimeograph stencil and hydrofluoric acid.
Alix, Ernest C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 863.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Transistorized power sources for constant current coulometric titration  Stock, John T.
This coulometric titrator uses a complementary pair of transistors to minimize heating affects and improve stability with respect to temperature; an example of experimental use for the apparatus is included.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 858.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Potentiometric determination of solubility product constants: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
This paper describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 857.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A versatile and compact chromatographic chamber  Lehrfeld, J.
This simple and inexpensive glass chamber facilitates thin-layer chromatography separations of a large number of samples within 5 minutes.
Lehrfeld, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A simple method for recording with a conventional analytical balance  Charles, R. G.
Presents a simple and inexpensive device, based an a small Hall-effect transducer, for recording with an analytical balance.
Charles, R. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 787.
Magnetic Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A strong and inexpensive glass-to-metal seal  Benson, John E.; Garten, Robert L.
Short note on the use of epoxy cement as a strong and inexpensive glass-to-metal seal.
Benson, John E.; Garten, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 766.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Diffusion of potassium permanganate as a lecture demonstration  Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E.
Dropping crystals of potassium permanganate into a tall column of water leads to the slow dissolution and diffusion of the potassium permanganate throughout the column over a semester's time.
Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 758.
Transport Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Solutions / Solvents |
Liquids
Thermometer safety  Pollara, Frank Z.
Breakage can be minimized and safety maximized if a serum-sleeve-type rubber stopper is substituted for the regular stopper when used to seal distillation flasks employed in general chemistry.
Pollara, Frank Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 644.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An improved equivalent weight apparatus  Brown, Oliver L.
Presents an improved apparatus for the reaction of weighed samples of metals with hydrochloric acid and the measurement of the volume of hydrogen evolved.
Brown, Oliver L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals |
Laboratory Management |
Reactions |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
A simple amperostat for coulometric titration  Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G.
Describes the circuit, assembly, and performance of a simple amperostat for coulometric titration.
Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 613.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
A jig for making styrofoam molecular models  Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E.
This jig allows holes to be produced quickly in spheres of many different sizes.
Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 492.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Modeling
Construction and uses of an inexpensive polarimeter  Vennos, Mary S.
Presents a design of an inexpensive polarimeter and its use to determine the specific rotation of sucrose and the concentration of an unknown sucrose solution.
Vennos, Mary S. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 459.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Photochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Instrumental Methods |
Noncovalent Interactions
Integrated circuits in the instrumental laboratory  Scherer, George A.
A brief introduction to integrated circuits that exemplifies their use in instrumentation through the construction of a square wave generator, audio amplifier, decimal counting unit, and operational amplifier.
Scherer, George A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 399.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Semiconductors
Radioisotope generators for introductory laboratory use  Crater, H. L.; Macchione, J. B.; Gemmill, W. J.; Kramer, H. H.
Describes the use of simple radioisotope generators in 23 different experiments involving nuclear theory.
Crater, H. L.; Macchione, J. B.; Gemmill, W. J.; Kramer, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 287.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple safety device for unattended laboratory heating  DeJarlais, W. J.
Presents a design for a device for unattended laboratory heating.
DeJarlais, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 286.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A portable steam bath  Roswell, D. F.; Miller, M. P.; Zaczek, N. M.
Describes a portable steam bath heated by an immersion heater.
Roswell, D. F.; Miller, M. P.; Zaczek, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 236.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Polarimeter for an overhead projector  Frank, Forrest J.; Kidwell, Sharon M.
Describes the construction of a simple polarimeter designed to be mounted an an overhead projector.
Frank, Forrest J.; Kidwell, Sharon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 58.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive spot plate  Woelfel, Warren C.
Describes constructing disposable spot plates from Parafilm.
Woelfel, Warren C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 56.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Le Chtelier's principle  Melott, Adrian L.
Adding a strong base to aqueous ammonia causes gaseous ammonia to be released.
Melott, Adrian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A519.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Apparatus for determining vapor density  Uglum, K. L.; Carson, L. M.; Riley, R. V.
Presents a simplified vapor-density experiment suitable for use as a freshman demonstration or an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment.
Uglum, K. L.; Carson, L. M.; Riley, R. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 203.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Mini centrifuge  Janardhan, P. B.
Design of a simple, electric centrifuge well suited for semimicro work.
Janardhan, P. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 744.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
A simple vacuum apparatus for lecture experiments  Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H.
Describes a simple vacuum apparatus and examples of its use in lecture situations.
Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 742.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Transport Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A dual range direct current power supply for student use  Mowery, Dwight F., Jr.
Presents a design for and the performance of a dual range direct current power supply for student use.
Mowery, Dwight F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 739.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
An apparatus for the investigation of Graham's law of effusion  Rice, Laurence A.; Chang, James C.
Modification of an earlier apparatus for the investigation of Graham's law of effusion and its applications.
Rice, Laurence A.; Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 676.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Transport Properties |
Gases
Mole fraction versus molality  Creak, G. Alan
Mole fractions are not always unambiguous when used in the context of ionic solutions.
Creak, G. Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 622.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A durable flask for density measurements by students  Baker, Wilbur L.
This short note describes an inexpensive, durable flask for density measurements by students.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 531.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
An inexpensive, inert thermocouple probe  Meiser, John H.
An inexpensive, wide temperature range probe can be made easily from 1/8 inch stainless steel tubing commonly used for gas chromatography.
Meiser, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Le Chtelier and ionic equilibria  Ringbom, Anders
When s solution contains several weak acids, the squares of the separately calculated hydrogen ion concentrations of all weak acids in the solution are additive.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 442.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple sprayer for quantitative thin-layer chromatography  Samuels, Stanley
A simple, inexpensive sprayer for chromatographic use that can be constructed by a student as a laboratory project.
Samuels, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 438.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple and accurate dilatometer for liquids  Wagner, Robert E.; Meyer, Edwin F.
The density of a liquid as a function of temperature may be readily measured using this dilatometer.
Wagner, Robert E.; Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 349.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
A lecture room digital multimeter  Barnard, W. Robert.; Kelley, John C.; Gidden, Robert; Eberhardt, William H.
Presents a design for a lecture room digital multimeter and a lecture table manometer.
Barnard, W. Robert.; Kelley, John C.; Gidden, Robert; Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 206.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A calorimeter for general chemistry  Garin, D. L.
Suggests an insulated food jar as a durable and suitable calorimeter for general chemistry.
Garin, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 37.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry: Part two. Some associated measurements (cont.)  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Examines the measurement of electricity, calorimetric standards, solution calorimetry, and specific types of calorimeters.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A685.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry (continued) Part 2. Some associated measurements  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Topics examined include thermocouples, resistance thermometers, thermistors, and quartz crystal thermometers.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A629.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Explosion-proof electrical equipment  Ehrenkranz, T. E.
Details the hazardous location classifications for electrical equipment of the National Electrical Code.
Ehrenkranz, T. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A601.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Recent developments in calorimetry. Part 1. Introductory survey of calorimetry  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Explores the scope and purpose of calorimetric investigation, types of calorimeters, areas of calorimetric investigation and the procedures and calculations involved.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A571.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Dissociation of weak acids and bases at infinite dilution  Stock, D. Irwin
It is all too easy to forget that in a solution of infinite dilution the solvent itself is ionized to an extent governed by its ionization constant, and that the concentration of its ions will appear in the expression for the dissociation constant of the solute.
Stock, D. Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 764.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Avoiding parallax error when reading a mercury manometer  Carroll, H. L.
This short note describes a simple method employing graph paper to avoid parallax error when reading a mercury manometer.
Carroll, H. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 763.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Construction of an inexpensive desiccator  Birdwhistell, R. K.
A short note on a simple desiccator made from a jar and electrical conduit.
Birdwhistell, R. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 667.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple distillation apparatus  Fenster, A. N.
This short note presents a modified Kugelrohr-type short-path distillation apparatus.
Fenster, A. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 660.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Accurate measurement of gas volumes by a soap-film method  Hello, O.
The measurement of small gas volumes can be greatly improved by using the soap-film apparatus described in this article.
Hello, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 568.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Letter to the editor  Jadd, Eugene C.
Describes the Teflon tubing "Flo-Tite."
Jadd, Eugene C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 486.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Automatic temperature control  Patton, J. W.
Provides a diagram for an automatic temperature control circuit.
Patton, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 422.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Diffusion-seal desiccator for student use  Turk, Amos; Turk, Jonathan
Describes an inexpensive desiccator that dispenses with the usual hermetic seal.
Turk, Amos; Turk, Jonathan J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 421.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A study of the silver tree experiment  Carmody, Walter R.; Wiersma, Jack
Examines the errors associated with and efforts to improve the results of the silver tree experiment.
Carmody, Walter R.; Wiersma, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 417.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis on paper  Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V.
This article describes a microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis on paper that is powered by a 9 V battery.
Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 415.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple stand for the determination of alpha particle range  Borke, Mitchell L.
This short note describes a simple stand for the determination of alpha particle range and energy.
Borke, Mitchell L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 390.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Charles' Law: A general chemistry experiment  Haworth, Daniel T.
This paper describes an apparatus that can be used to determine the value of absolute zero.
Haworth, Daniel T. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 353.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The rest point of the balance  Hakala, Reino W.
Elaborates on the formula for finding the rest point of a balance.
Hakala, Reino W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 306.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A laboratory method for teflon-to-glass connections  Krulfeld, M.
Describes a method of connecting Teflon tubing to glass or silica.
Krulfeld, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 303.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Liquid-liquid extraction  Joseph-Nathan, P.
Describes how liquid-liquid extraction can be done using commercially available substances and an apparatus of small dimensions that still allows an experiment to be followed visually.
Joseph-Nathan, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 176.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Application of binary and ternary arithmetic to weighing problems  Lang, Sidney B.; Peck, Robert L.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the advantages of using a ternary system of weights on a two-pan balance and a binary system on a single-pan balance.
Lang, Sidney B.; Peck, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 48.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Construction of an inexpensive constant temperature device  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Presents a design for a simple constant temperature device.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 29.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Are solubilities and solubility products related?  Meites, Louis; Prode, J. S. F.; Thomas, Henry C.
The relation between solubilities and solubility products is far less intimate than is stated or implied by introductory texts and the ideas and calculations involved are too complex for presentation on the elementary level.
Meites, Louis; Prode, J. S. F.; Thomas, Henry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 667.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Acetamide as a solvent for freezing point depression and solubility experiments  Davis, Jeff C., Jr.
Suggests acetamide as a solvent for freezing point depression and solubility experiments.
Davis, Jeff C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 611.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Improvements in the Victor-Meyer  Bader, Morris
Two improvements in the Victor-Meyer have simplified the apparatus and greatly increased the accuracy of molecular weight determinations.
Bader, Morris J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 500.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The dissolution of tin in solutions of iodine  Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F.
The progress of this reaction can be followed by the loss of weight of a tin disc.
Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 483.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Kinetics |
Gravimetric Analysis
The "Baggie" desiccator  Thompson, H. Bradford
Using a 400-ml beaker covered by a plastic baggie as a desiccator.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 473.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The labstand: A successor to the ring stand  Rinquist, Olaf; Runquist, Alfonse; Senkler, George
A vertical pegboard replaces conventional ring stands.
Rinquist, Olaf; Runquist, Alfonse; Senkler, George J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 444.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Porous glass salt bridges  Durst, Richard A.
Describes the characteristics and applications of porous glass salt bridges.
Durst, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
Discarded "IV" bottles are useful  Ostrander, Charles
Discarded "IV" bottles are useful for dispensing solutions and reduce the chances of contamination.
Ostrander, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 379.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Preventing spillage when pouring mercury  Carlton, Terry S.
A glass adapter of the type used in distillations has proved effective in preventing spillage during mercury transfers.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 320.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Simple equipment for automatic potentiometric pH titrations  Olsen, Eugene D.
This paper describes a simple yet versatile apparatus employing a siphon pipet to deliver titrant solution automatically and accurately during the course of a titration.
Olsen, Eugene D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 310.
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Electrical conductance apparatus  Steinberg, Edwin E.; Nordmann, J.
A circuit diagram for an electrical conductance apparatus that is safe, accurate, and allows for qualitative measurements.
Steinberg, Edwin E.; Nordmann, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 309.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A broad-surface condenser  Schultz, Harry P.
Describes a light, broad-surface condenser made from two Pyrex watch glasses whose edges have been sealed to one another with epoxy.
Schultz, Harry P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 272.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Short-range manometer  Miller, N. E.
Presents a design for an inexpensive, rugged, and accurate short-range manometer.
Miller, N. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Constant rate gas generator  Asakura, Shizuo
By reversing the usual procedure of a Kipp generator and dropping the liquid reagent onto the solid, a constant flow of gas may be obtained.
Asakura, Shizuo J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 203.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple two-dimensional magnetic disc models of ionic liquids  Angell, C. A.; Gruen, D. M.
Modeling ionic liquids using magnetic, elastomer-bonded materials capable of floating on water.
Angell, C. A.; Gruen, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 194.
Molecular Modeling |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents
Letter to the editor  Kruh, Daniel
Points out a possible alternative to multiple prolonged underwater magnetic stirrers in a constant temperature system.
Kruh, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 46.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Compressed gas cylinders and cylinder regulators used in laboratories  Pinney, George
Presents safety guidelines regarding the use of compressed gas cylinders and cylinder regulators in laboratories.
Pinney, George J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A976.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
Emergency exhaust ventilation  Steere, Norman V.
Considers laboratory safety design standards and chemical safety in biological laboratories.
Steere, Norman V. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A464.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Devices1965 kit  Alyea, Hubert N.
Lists the materials necessary for construction of thirteen basic TOPS devices.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A461.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potential hazards involved in using dimethyl sulfoxide  Buckley, Alan
Solutions of compounds in DMSO can present particular hazards.
Buckley, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 674.
Solutions / Solvents
The rest point of the balance  Crawford, Crayton M.
This paper offers a new method for determining the rest point of a balance.
Crawford, Crayton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 669.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potentiometer for the general chemistry laboratory  Wood, Stanley E.; Anderson, C. B.
A circuit diagram is presented for a potentiometer used to verify the Nernst equation and investigate other electrochemical phenomenon.
Wood, Stanley E.; Anderson, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 659.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Conductance bridge for general chemistry laboratory  Anderson, C. B.; Wood, Stanley E.
Using the conductance bridge presented, students have determined the dissociation constant of acetic acid in water, and investigated the change upon dilution in the fraction dissociated.
Anderson, C. B.; Wood, Stanley E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 658.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Direct current power supply suitable for freshman laboratory  Baker, Wilbur L.; Boozer, Charles E.
A full-wave silicon rectifier is designed as a direct current power supply suitable for freshman laboratory.
Baker, Wilbur L.; Boozer, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 657.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Student potentiometer using a zener diode  Atkinson, George F.
Presents a circuit diagram for a student potentiometer using a zener diode.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 656.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Improvised melting point apparatus  Rogers, F. E.
A simple substitute for the Fisher-Johns melting point apparatus can be improvised using Wood's alloy.
Rogers, F. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 619.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An inexpensive immersion heater for an oil bath  Ault, Addison
A short note on an inexpensive immersion heater for an oil bath made from a resistor.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 603.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An economical laboratory safety shield  Lutz, W. B; Gehres, D. W.
A laminated safety sheet available at automotive glass dealers is used as an economical laboratory safety shield.
Lutz, W. B; Gehres, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 535.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Notes on experiments for introductory college chemistry  
A brief set of notes regarding the complex salt [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2, the Guoy balance, Avogadro's number, and the stoichiometry of a mixture.
J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 495.
Coordination Compounds |
Magnetic Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents
Solvent effect on the keto-enol equilibrium of acetoacetic ester  Lockwood, Karl L.
The purpose of the investigation is to introduce students to some of the factors that influence an equilibrium constant.
Lockwood, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 481.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
An exercise in glass manipulation: Preparation of a hypodermic syringe  Brasted, Robert C.
In order to familiarize students with glass manipulation, a hypodermic syringe is constructed.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Relationship of enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
The primary objectives of this investigation are to relate enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy using Hess' Law and to acquaint students with Born-Haber type energy cycles.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 473.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A sensitive inexpensive thermometer  Slabaugh, W. H.
Presents a circuit diagram for a simple thermistor.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 467.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Experimental approach to stoichiometry. In first-year chemistry at Northwestern  King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton
Presents five experiments in which students are given a minimal set of directions and a simply stated objective.
King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 464.
Stoichiometry |
Coordination Compounds |
Undergraduate Research |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Simple devices aid laboratory efficiency  Baker, Wilbur L.
Pictures of a sink strainer, balance cover, buret storage rack, and self-leveling buret support feet.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 457.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters  Robertson, R. E.
Describes a safe solution to problems with squeeze bottles containing high vapor pressure liquids.
Robertson, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 457.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Detection of chloride ion in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Summarizes and evaluates several published methods for detecting chloride ions in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 440.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Melting point apparatus  Brown, Richard K.
Describes a simple melting point apparatus that relies on a soldering iron element for heat.
Brown, Richard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 433.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution  Krause, Richard E.
This short note describes a simple method for the preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution.
Krause, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 426.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
A temperature-independent concentration unit  Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr.
Describes a new system of concentration, termed molicity by the authors.
Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 420.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
The laboratory ringstand problem and the UCLA solution  Robertson, G. Ross
Efforts to improve upon the standard laboratory ringstand.
Robertson, G. Ross J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 399.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis  van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F.
Presents the design and an evaluation of performance for a simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis.
van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
A modified condensing apparatus for both refluxing and distilling  Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C.
The condenser described here can be pivoted from a vertical position (refluxing) to one approximately horizontal (distilling) without having to switch the inlet and outlet condensor connections.
Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 221.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Management
Several designs for constructing potentiometers  Battino, Rubin
This paper describes several designs for constructing inexpensive potentiometers that possess a practical degree of precision.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 211.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A gas scrubber for eliminating noxious vapors  Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C.
Presents an apparatus for preventing the escape of undesirable materials into the air.
Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 136.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letter to the editor  Uebele, Curtis E.
Describes a simple method by which the effectiveness of magnetic stir bars may be greatly improved in solutions containing an undissolved solid.
Uebele, Curtis E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 48.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Eye protection in laboratories  Steere, Norman V.
Reviews requirements for and issues related to eye protection in laboratories.
Steere, Norman V. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A936.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An improvised steam bath  Kaye, I. A.
Presents a design for a simple, inexpensive, and easily constructed heating bath.
Kaye, I. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 669.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Storage of scientific glassware in polystyrene  Hunter, I. R.; Walden, M. K.
Suggests preparing a foamed polystyrene sheet for the storage of laboratory glassware.
Hunter, I. R.; Walden, M. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 667.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A simple direct current source for the laboratory  de Ita, Odon Sanchez; Urquiza, Manual
Presents a simple apparatus for the conversion of ac to dc.
de Ita, Odon Sanchez; Urquiza, Manual J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 655.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Nonvoiding plastic squeeze bottles  Harber, W. I.
A simple modification eliminates the problem of voiding in plastic squeeze bottles.
Harber, W. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 653.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple method of coating with polyethylene  Anderson, H. L.; Jones, F. R.; Wood, R. H.
Describes a process for coating metal containers (aluminum, copper, and stainless steel) with a thin layer of relatively inert polyethylene.
Anderson, H. L.; Jones, F. R.; Wood, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 638.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Hinged plate flask support  McAchran, Gerald E.
This brief note describes a simple alternative to a conventional iron ring.
McAchran, Gerald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 632.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive centrifuge for micro qualitative analysis  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Presents an inexpensive micro centrifuge.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A constant-level device for water baths  Harlan, H. D.
A brief note regarding the application of a siphon as a constant-level device for water baths.
Harlan, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 614.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Pedestal for a substitution-type balance  Weaver, E. C.; Foster, Laurence S.
Presents a sturdy pedestal for a substitution-type balance that eliminates vibrations.
Weaver, E. C.; Foster, Laurence S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 514.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Distilled water purity monitor using an ac polarization electrode  Freedman, R. W.; Radkoff, S.
Presents a circuit diagram for a distilled water purity monitor using an ac polarization electrode.
Freedman, R. W.; Radkoff, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 387.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive Littrow spectrograph  Thorn, Craig
A spectrograph of sufficient quality for introductory students need not be expensive is one is willing to construct it from readily available parts.
Thorn, Craig J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 209.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Laboratory jack: Apparatus for undergraduate laboratories  Cordes, A. W.
Suggests use of a modified automobile jack.
Cordes, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 130.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Using variable voltage transformers to control heaters  Battino, Rubin
Presents a graph relating the wattage (heat output) to the voltage applied to a heater.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 104.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
SD-17 - Simplified TOPS kit (s-TOPS)  Alyea, Hubert N.
Lists 43 standard parts from which to construct fifteen devices to conduct 1500 TOPS experiments.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A575.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Float method for the analysis of solutions  Osburn, J. O.
Presents suggestions for investigations to accompany and earlier published article.
Osburn, J. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A538.
Solutions / Solvents
A simple demonstration of some precipitation and solubility effects  Matijevic, E.
Provides suggestions for research to accompany earlier published articles.
Matijevic, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A386.
Undergraduate Research |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Precipitation from homogeneous solution  Gordon, L.; Salesin, E. D.
Suggests research questions based on an earlier published article.
Gordon, L.; Salesin, E. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A306.
Undergraduate Research |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH
A temperature sensitive stirring rod  Eddy, R. D.
Provides suggestions for research based on an earlier published article.
Eddy, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A186.
Undergraduate Research |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A reaction tube for sodium and chlorine  Barnard, W. Robert
Describes reacting sodium and chlorine in Pyrex tubing.
Barnard, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A49.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Magnetic stirrer: Instrument for the freshman laboratory  Slabaugh, W. H.
Presents the design of a simple magnetic stirrer that can be mass produced.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 642.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Uses for rubber eye-dropper bulbs  Markowitz, Meyer M.; Boryta, Daniel A.
These simple diagrams present seven inventive uses for rubber eye-dropper bulbs.
Markowitz, Meyer M.; Boryta, Daniel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 482.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive spectrograph of moderately high resolution  Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D.
This article describes a spectrograph with a resolving power greater than 6000 that can easily be built for a minimal cost.
Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 452.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters to the editor  Verbit, Lawrence P.
The author warns that only seamless Teflon-covered stirring bars should be used at elevated temperatures and reduced pressures.
Verbit, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 92.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Beam protective device for an automatic analytical balance  Vollmer, Robert
Describes a device that will emit an audible signal if the door of an analytical balance is raised with the beam in an unarrested position.
Vollmer, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 77.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Constant current power supply  Svec, Harry J.; Peterson, Norman C.
Provides a circuit diagram for a constant current power supply.
Svec, Harry J.; Peterson, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 37.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A compact light box  Barnard, Robert
Presents the design of a light box suitable for demonstrations involving solutions, precipitations, or any basic chemical reaction.
Barnard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A953.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Reactions
Letters  Harris, Sidney P.
Suggests some additional information to supplement a previous article.
Harris, Sidney P. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 319.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry experiments. Part 2. General chemistry experiments  Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N.
Presents a variety of experiments that make use of hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry.
Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry
A laboratory blower-dryer  Naff, M. Benton
Describes the construction of a simple hot-air blower.
Naff, M. Benton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 601.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters  Naiman, Barnet
Suggests small vials modified to hold eyedroppers to weigh samples of a volatile liquid accurately.
Naiman, Barnet J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 594.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Electrolytic conductivity: A demonstration experiment  Thomas, William B.
Describes a simple method of measuring electrolytic conductivity based on Ohm's law.
Thomas, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 531.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Portable down-draft table for lecture experiments  Campbell, J. A.; Hollenberg, J. Leland
Presents a designed for a portable down-draft table for lecture experiments requiring the ventilation of noxious products.
Campbell, J. A.; Hollenberg, J. Leland J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 422.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Magnetic stirring promotes smooth boiling  Bloomfield, Jordan J.
This short note indicates that the use of a magnetic stirrer effectively prevents violent bumping.
Bloomfield, Jordan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 355.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A simple gas law apparatus  Carter, K. N.
The apparatus presented here can be used to verify the ideal gas law, determine the vapor pressure of water at an elevated temperature, or determine the number of moles of dry air under two different sets of conditions for comparison.
Carter, K. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 302.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Perforated board mounting for semimicro set-ups  Beech, J. A.
Presents a semimicro mounting system that is versatile and portable.
Beech, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 293.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
A simple and inexpensive student spectroscope  Edwards, R. K.; Brandt, W. W.; Companion, Audrey L.
Presents a design for a simple and inexpensive student spectroscope.
Edwards, R. K.; Brandt, W. W.; Companion, Audrey L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 147.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
Disposable aluminum weighing dishes  Houston, David F.
Describes the production of aluminum weighing dishes of varying sizes from aluminum foil.
Houston, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 101.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Magnetic stirrer for large volumes  Markowitz, Meyer M.; Boryta, Daniel A.
A horseshoe magnet is adapted for use as a magnetic stirrer.
Markowitz, Meyer M.; Boryta, Daniel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 96.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple vacuum system  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
Describes several experiments employing a simple vacuum system, including Boyle's law, the ideal gas law, and the molecular weight of gases.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 20.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Device to convert a hypodermic syringe into a multi-purpose apparatus  Shapiro, Samuel
Summarizes several ways in which hypodermic syringes can be used in the laboratory.
Shapiro, Samuel J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 626.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Adapting hospital "castoffs" for use in a chemistry laboratory  Martinette, Sister Mary B. V. M.; Crowell, Sister Agnita D. C.
A short note on the use of discarded hospital bottles in the chemistry laboratory.
Martinette, Sister Mary B. V. M.; Crowell, Sister Agnita D. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 619.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Float method for the analysis of solutions  Osburn, James O.; Choi, Il C.
Describes a simple procedure for making precise and reproducible concentration measurements through the thermal equilibrium float method.
Osburn, James O.; Choi, Il C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 578.
Solutions / Solvents
A low cost direct current source for the laboratory  Barnard, W. Robert.; Woodriff, Ray
Presents a low cost source of variable direct current.
Barnard, W. Robert.; Woodriff, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 521.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Substitute for separatory funnels  Jean, Marcel
A modified polyethylene wash bottle can make a convenient substitute for a separatory funnel.
Jean, Marcel J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 515.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Temperature and power measurements in precision solution calorimetry  O'Hara, William F.; Wu, Ching-Hsien; Hepler, Loren G.
Presents the design of a calorimetric apparatus, and accompanying circuit schematic, and their application to calorimetry measurements.
O'Hara, William F.; Wu, Ching-Hsien; Hepler, Loren G. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 512.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A rapid, direct-reading micro-balance  Harris, D. L.
Describes a micro-balance that relies on a spring from a Jolly specific-gravity balance.
Harris, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 469.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A flashbulb bomb calorimeter  Hornyak, Frederick M.
This report describes a do-it-yourself experiment in thermochemistry using flashbulbs as calorimeter bombs.
Hornyak, Frederick M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 97.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An improved gas generator for elementary chemistry  Thiessen, G. W.; Hall, M.
Describes a small-scale adaptation of the Lassieur generator that provides a self-controlled evolution of gas from solid and liquid reagents.
Thiessen, G. W.; Hall, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 19.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A constant temperature reaction vessel for the thermal decomposition of solids  Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J.
Describes an apparatus suitable for studying the thermal decomposition of potassium permanganate in high vacuum.
Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 643.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Water equivalent of vacuum flask calorimeter by the ice fusion method  Dunicz, Boleslaw Ludwik
Presents the design of a vacuum flask calorimeter and describes the determination of its water equivalent by the ice fusion method.
Dunicz, Boleslaw Ludwik J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 635.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple ice calorimeter: A first experiment in thermochemistry  Mahan, Bruce H.
This note describes a relatively crude and simple ice calorimeter that can be supplied to each student.
Mahan, Bruce H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 634.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics
Method for attaching glass, water aspirators to water lines  Perrine, Theodore D.
Describes the attachment of glass aspirators to water pipelines by means of metal pipe bushings.
Perrine, Theodore D. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 481.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters  Lebowitz, William
Comments on the preferred method for cleaning laboratory glassware.
Lebowitz, William J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A reagent bottle for dispensing insoluble gases  Bixby, Louis W.
This apparatus can be used to generate hydrogen and oxygen collected through water displacement.
Bixby, Louis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 430.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
An inexpensive electric cork boring machine  Barnard, W. Robert
This short note describes an inexpensive electric cork boring machine modified from a household drill.
Barnard, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 334.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An apparatus for the continuous production of triple distilled water  Taylor, Jay E.
Presents the design of an apparatus for the continuous production of triple distilled water.
Taylor, Jay E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 204.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Determination of solubility: A laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P.
Students are required to determine the solubility of common salts at various temperatures by finding the temperature at which a solution of known composition is saturated.
Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 137.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
pH meters  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the operation and individual components of pH meters.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A477.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Temperature-controlled baths (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines several commercial, temperature-controlled baths.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A199.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive and convenient method for powdering solids for melting point determinations  Pinkus, A. G; Waldrop, P. G.
Recently a new mulling technique for preparing samples for infrared spectra was reported which makes use of ground glass plates.
Pinkus, A. G; Waldrop, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 618.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Weight titrations revived  Thoburn, James M.
With the use of syringes and automatic balances, it is possible to make weight titrations more practical than ordinary volumetric determinations.
Thoburn, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 616.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters to the editor  Hall, Arthur C.
The molality-molarity paradox presented in an earlier article is artificial rather than apparent.
Hall, Arthur C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 584.
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Rapid dispensing of liquids for large laboratory classes  Radin, Norman S.
Describes an automatic syringe that is useful for rapidly dispensing liquids for large laboratory classes.
Radin, Norman S. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 579.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Liquids
Letters to the editor  Boryta, Daniel
The author offers a suggestion to stop water splashing from aspirator pumps.
Boryta, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 530.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Vapor density apparatus for general chemistry laboratory  Masterton, W. L.; Williams, T. R.
Presents the design of an apparatus that eliminates errors due to absorption and evaporation in the determination of molecular weights of volatile liquids.
Masterton, W. L.; Williams, T. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 528.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Letters to the editor  Radley, Edward T.
A suggestion to improve the precision of titrations without burets.
Radley, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 474.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A water aspirator hood  Moore, Wilbur D.
Presents the design of a small, localized hood that operates using water aspiration.
Moore, Wilbur D. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 407.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A test tube automatic gas generator  Alpern, D. K.
A simple design for an automatic gas generator can be used to produce common gases such as hydrogen from zinc and hydrochloric acid.
Alpern, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 302.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
A splashless table drain  Smucker, Arthur A.; Weaver, Henry D., Jr.
Presents a design for a splashless table drain.
Smucker, Arthur A.; Weaver, Henry D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 301.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Titration without burets  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Describes the use of small polyethylene bottles to measure the acid strength of vinegar.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters to the editor  Guenther, William B.
The author questions the continued use of two pan balances in the quantitative analysis course.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 257.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A molality-molarity paradox?  Toby, Sidney
The author points out that there seems no obvious reason why molality could not equal molarity in a solution whose density is less than unity.
Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 230.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A simple valve for burets or chromatographic columns  Harpur, R. P.
A new form of tetrafluoroethylene tubing is employed in a simple valve for burets or chromatographic columns.
Harpur, R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 149.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple Pyrex-detection system  Thompson, H. Bradford
A simple method for identifying Pyrex glassware.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 569.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A boiling point apparatus  Lykos, Peter G.
A one-piece boiling-point apparatus that utilizes Cottrell's principle of spraying the thermometer with boiling liquid is described.
Lykos, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 565.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A laboratory aid to speed-up filtration  Feinstein, H. I.
A laboratory aid to speed-up filtration is constructed from a funnel and an atomizer bulb.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 509.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An improved magnetic rotation apparatus  Dodd, Thomas N., Jr.
This article is a continuation of an earlier paper describing the design, construction, and operation of an improved magnetic rotation apparatus.
Dodd, Thomas N., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 459.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Apparatus for illustrating Le Châtelier's principle  Tucker, W. C., Jr.
A device consisting of glass tubes and varying levels of water is presented as a means for illustrating equilibrium and Le Châtelier's principle.
Tucker, W. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 411.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium
Inexpensive, nonclogging, non-freezing buret valve  Crawford, Crayton M.
Presents a design for a nonclogging, non-freezing buret valve.
Crawford, Crayton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 380.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Letters  Fieser, Louis F.
Calls attention to a stopperless separatory funnel design.
Fieser, Louis F. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 48.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple flow indicator  Apice, P. J.
A simple flow indicator can be easily constructed with a small piece of glass tubing and a few inches of wire.
Apice, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 33.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An improved stirrer  Ludwig, Jerome H.; Blatchford, John K.
This short note presents a simple, easily constructed, and rugged stirrer for laboratory use.
Ludwig, Jerome H.; Blatchford, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 616.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A chromatographic chamber for the student laboratory  Wiggans, Donald S.
The construction of an effective chromatographic tank can be accomplished by means of two beakers.
Wiggans, Donald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 536.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple and efficient device for cleaning dropping bottles  Shen, Samuel Yi-Wen
Presents a setup that has been successfully used for the cleaning of dropping bottles.
Shen, Samuel Yi-Wen J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 327.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Textbook errors: XIII. The nature of ionic and molecular species in sulfuric acid  Brubaker, Carl H., Jr.
Addresses misconceptions regarding the strength of sulfuric acid and the nature of ionic and molecular species present in solution.
Brubaker, Carl H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 325.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A simplified electrolysis apparatus  Teichman, Louis
Describes a simplified electrolysis apparatus using a plastic dish, two electrodes, and two test tubes.
Teichman, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 291.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Heating devices for microchemical operations  Stock, John T.; Fill, M. A.
Two devices provide heating for microchemical operations.
Stock, John T.; Fill, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 619.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Electrolytic conductivity apparatus  Schmuckler, Joseph S.; Schenck, Robert C.
Presents an apparatus that will demonstrate the conductivity of salts when fused in the solid state, in solution, and in various degrees of dilution.
Schmuckler, Joseph S.; Schenck, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 506.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity
A device for demonstrating conductivity of solutions  Eiseman, Fred B., Jr.
An apparatus has been developed that makes it possible to demonstrate the conductivities of solutions without destroying, transferring, or contaminating them
Eiseman, Fred B., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 445.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents
A convenient glass cutter for tubing  Woodriff, Ray
A convenient glass cutter for tubing is constructed from a long-nosed pliers.
Woodriff, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 293.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Finding the rest point of a balance: A mathematical justification for an odd number of swings  Wirtschafter, Jonathan D.
Presents a mathematical justification for an odd number of swings in determining the rest point of a balance.
Wirtschafter, Jonathan D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 216.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Semimicro cryoscopic molecular-weight determinations  Pinkus, A. G.; Barron, B. G.
These suggestions eliminate two sources of difficulty encountered by students in carrying out cryoscopic (Rast) molecular-weight determinations.
Pinkus, A. G.; Barron, B. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 138.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Apparatus for the demonstration of conductivity of electrolytes  Suter, Hans A.; Kaelber, Lorraine
This device uses a continuous flow of water and a light bulb to demonstrate the conductivity of electrolytes.
Suter, Hans A.; Kaelber, Lorraine J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 640.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
Calorimeter for determining heat capacities of liquids  Greene, Stanley A.
This paper describes a method for utilizing a constant-power heating device that eliminates the need for a preponderance of equipment yet permits reasonable accuracy in determining the heat capacities of liquids.
Greene, Stanley A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 577.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Lecture thermometer and voltmeter  Dutton, Frederic B.
A sensitive temperature-indicating device with a reasonable rapid response time that relies on a thermocouple and can be seen by a large group.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 478.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Fundamentals of the analytical balance  Evans, W. D.
The usefulness of the analytical balance increases when the chemist understands its operation well enough to utilize its full capabilities and to realize its limitations.
Evans, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 419.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Textbook errors: III. The solubility of gases in liquids  Mysels, Karol J.
Rising temperature is generally said to reduce the solubility of gases in liquids, yet the facts disagree with any such generalization.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 399.
Gases |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
A precaution in the use of magnetic stirrers  Passer, Moses
A recommendation to use only uncoated magnetic stirring bars for high-temperature work in inert solvents is based on a laboratory accident.
Passer, Moses J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 332.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Magnetic Properties |
Laboratory Management
Device to prevent back-suction in vacuum systems  Mathur, G. P.; Mukherjee, S.
Presents a device designed to prevent back-suction in vacuum systems.
Mathur, G. P.; Mukherjee, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 216.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance  Stacy, Irving F.
Provides a mathematical analysis for finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance.
Stacy, Irving F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Some improvised apparatus  Casimir, Sister Mary
Presents several examples of simple equipment constructed by high school students, some for demonstrations and others for use in the lab.
Casimir, Sister Mary J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 69.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A simple melting-point apparatus  Gero, Alexander
The melting-point apparatus described in this paper is distinguished by extreme simplicity of construction and negligible cost.
Gero, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 645.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A student polarimeter  Nechamkin, Howard
Describes the construction and use of a crude polarimeter suitable for use by students in early chemistry courses.
Nechamkin, Howard J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 579.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple valve to prevent back suction in a vacuum system  Chaco, M. C.
A simple, compact device has been designed to prevent back suction of water from a water pump.
Chaco, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 547.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Molecular weight apparatus for use in general chemistry  Randall, David L.
Some of the difficulties that arise when general chemistry students determine the molecular weight of a volatile liquid are avoided by the use of a specialized glass bulb.
Randall, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 297.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Apparatus for demonstrating paper chromatography  Baker, Philip S.
Presents a very simple and convenient arrangement for demonstrating paper chromatography.
Baker, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 237.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Letters to the editor  Weaver, Elbert C.
Acknowledges and corrects an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Wescott, Emery N.
Points out an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Wescott, Emery N. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 101.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Storing rubber tubing  Young, Roland S.; Benfield, D. A.; Strachan, K. G.
A convenient arrangement to store rubber tubing in a minimum space is illustrated.
Young, Roland S.; Benfield, D. A.; Strachan, K. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 317.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Some (organic) lab tips  Antelman, Marvin
A short list of recommendations regarding boiling chips, a substitute cold finger, increasing the capacity of a stopper, inexpensive stirrers, and using bathtub plugs for stoppers.
Antelman, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 523.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A continuous cloud chamber  Kuehner, A. L.
Details the construction and use of a continuous cloud chamber.
Kuehner, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 511.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
An inexpensive thermostat  Linke, William F.
A simple and surprisingly efficient thermostat can be constructed in minutes using a three-necked flask and a liquid (or mixture of liquids) that boils at a desired temperature.
Linke, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 492.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Gas-collection bottles  Shumaker, Earl
Recommends making gas-collection bottles community property in the laboratory to save space in students' storage drawers.
Shumaker, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 229.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Semimicro laboratories  Chelberg, Raymond R.; Anderson, John E.
Describes the equipment and preparations needed to conduct semimicro laboratories in general, organic, and analytical chemistry.
Chelberg, Raymond R.; Anderson, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 189.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters  Swinehart, D. F.
The author points out the repeated observation of positive corrections to be made in calibrating Exax burets.
Swinehart, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 660.
Calibration |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Support for compressed gas cylinders  Young, Roland S.; Snaddon, R.
Describes the use of rubber suction discs to secure compressed gas cylinders.
Young, Roland S.; Snaddon, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 528.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
An improvised ultramicroscope  Kiplinger, C. C.
The ultramicroscope is an effective device for demonstrating the probability of molecular motion by its revelation of Brownian movement.
Kiplinger, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 42.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus