TIGER

Journal Articles: 332 results
The Electrochemical Synthesis of Transition-Metal Acetylacetonates  S. R. Long, S. R. Browning, and J. J. Lagowski
The electrochemical synthesis of transition-metal acetylacetonates can assist in the transformation of an entry-level laboratory course into a research-like environment where all members of a class are working on the same problem, but each student has a personal responsibility for the synthesis and characterization of a specific compound.
Long, S. R.; Browning, S. R.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1429.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams  Ed Vitz
This series of demonstrations elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines using common laboratory materials and can be adapted for elementary through tertiary levels. The formation of fogs is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1385.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Helping Students Assess the Relative Importance of Different Intermolecular Interactions  Paul G. Jasien
A semi-quantitative model has been developed to estimate the relative effects of dispersion, dipoledipole interactions, and H-bonding on the normal boiling points for a series of simple, straight-chain organic compounds. Application of this model may be useful in addressing student misconceptions related to the additivity of intermolecular interactions.
Jasien, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1222.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties
Data Pooling in a Chemical Kinetics Experiment: The Aquation of a Series of Cobalt(III) Complexes  Richard S. Herrick, Kenneth V. Mills, and Lisa P. Nestor
Describes an experiment that introduces students to integrated rate laws, the search for a mechanism that is consistent with chemical and kinetic data, and the concept of activation barriers and their measurement in a curriculum whose pedagogical philosophy makes the laboratory the center of learning for undergraduates in their first two years of instruction.
Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.; Nestor, Lisa P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1120.
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Exploring Solid-State Structure and Physical Properties: A Molecular and Crystal Model Exercise  Thomas H. Bindel
This laboratory allows students to examine relationships among the microscopicmacroscopicsymbolic levels using crystalline mineral samples and corresponding crystal models. The exercise also reinforces Lewis dot structures, VSEPR theory, and the identification of molecular and coordination geometries.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 822.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
VSEPR Theory |
Lewis Structures |
Physical Properties
Netorials  Rebecca Ottosen, John Todd, Rachel Bain, Mike Miller, Liana Lamont, Mithra Biekmohamadi, and David B. Shaw
Netorials is a collection of about 30 online tutorials on general chemistry topics designed as a supplement for high school or college introductory courses. Each Netorial contains several pages of interactive instruction that includes animated mouse-overs, questions for students to answer, and manipulable molecular structures.
Ottosen, Rebecca; Todd, John; Bain, Rachel; Miller, Mike; Lamont. Liana; Biekmohamadi, Mithra; Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 463.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions |
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry
Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions  Emeric Schultz
Describes the dynamic reaction figure, a flexible learning tool that can be used to balance chemical equations, predict the results of potential reactions, present the underlying mechanism of reactions, and solve quantitative problems in a number of areas.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nonmajor Courses
The Glyoxal Clock Reaction  Julie B. Ealy, Alexandra Rodriguez Negron, Jessica Stephens, Rebecca Stauffer, and Stanley D. Furrow
The glyoxal clock reaction has been adapted to a general chemistry kinetics lab to determine the order of the reacting species using a Calculator Based Laboratory or LabPro equipment.
Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1965.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Hydration of Acetylene: A 125th Anniversary  Dmitry A. Ponomarev and Sergey M. Shevchenko
The discovery the hydration of alkynes catalyzed by mercury ions by Mikhail Kucherov made possible industrial production of acetaldehyde from acetylene and had a profound effect on the development of industrial chemistry in the 1920th centuries.
Ponomarev, Dmitry A.; Shevchenko, Sergey M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1725.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkynes |
Catalysis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Reactions
Carbon Dioxide Fountain  Seong-Joo Kang and Eun-Hee Ryu
This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain that, unlike the traditional ammonia fountain, is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available.
Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Incomplete Combustion of Hydrogen: Trapping a Reaction Intermediate  Bruce Mattson and Trisha Hoette
In this demonstration, a hydrogen flame is played across the face of an ice cube and the combustion is quenched in an incomplete state. The resulting solution contains a stable side-product, hydrogen peroxide, whose presence can be verified with two simple chemical tests.
Mattson, Bruce; Hoette, Trisha. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1668.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates
The A1c Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry  Robert C. Kerber
The glycated hemoglobin blood test is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1541.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioorganic Chemistry
The Aromaticity of Pericyclic Reaction Transition States  Henry S. Rzepa
Presents an approach that combines two fundamental concepts in organic chemistry, chirality and aromaticity, into a simple rule for stating selection rules for pericyclic reactions in terms of achiral Hckel-aromatic and chiral Mbius-aromatic transition states.
Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1535.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
A Student Laboratory Experiment Based on the Vitamin C Clock Reaction  Ed Vitz
Describes an adaptation of the vitamin C clock reaction to a student laboratory experiment in which the orders with respect to peroxide and iodide, the rate constant, and the activation energy are determined by the method of initial rates.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1156.
Consumer Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Primo Levi and The Periodic Table: Teaching Chemistry Using a Literary Text  Viktoria Klara Lakatos Osorio, Peter Wilhelm Tiedemann, and Paulo Alves Porto
Describes the use of a problem-solving activity with first-year undergraduate students based on an excerpt from Primo Levi's book The Periodic Table.
Osorio, Viktoria Klara Lakatos; Tiedemann, Peter Wilhelm; Porto, Paulo Alves. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 775.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
An Inquiry-Based Chemistry Laboratory Promoting Student Discovery of Gas Laws  A. M. R. P. Bopegedera
This article describes a laboratory in which students discover the gas laws using Vernier sensors and Microsoft Excel.
Bopegedera, A. M. R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 465.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Physical Properties
Applications of Reaction Rate  Kevin Cunningham
This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. The assignment is designed to develop and assess a number of valuable skills and understandings, including the ability to write effectively.
Cunningham, Kevin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 430.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Characterization of High Explosives and Other Energetic Compounds by Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling  John A. Bumpus, Anne Lewis, Corey Stotts, and Christopher J. Cramer
Four experiments suitable for use in the undergraduate instructional laboratory demonstrate the use of computational chemistry and molecular-modeling procedures to calculate selected physical and chemical properties of several high explosives and other energetic compounds.
Bumpus, John A.; Lewis, Anne; Stotts, Corey; Cramer, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 329.
Computational Chemistry |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching Structure–Property Relationships: Investigating Molecular Structure and Boiling Point  Peter M. Murphy
The boiling points for 392 organic compounds are tabulated by carbon chain length and functional group to facilitate a wide range of inquiry-based activities that correlate the effects of chemical structure on physical properties.
Murphy, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 97.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Let Us Give Lewis Acid–Base Theory the Priority It Deserves  Alan A. Shaffer
The Lewis concept is simple yet powerful in its scope, and can be used to help beginning students understand reaction mechanisms more fully. However, traditional approaches to acid-base reactions at the introductory level ignores Lewis acid-base theory completely, focusing instead on proton transfer described by the Br?nsted-Lowry concept.
Shaffer, Alan A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1746.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Lewis Structures |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Predicting Inorganic Reaction Products: A Critical Thinking Exercise in General Chemistry  David G. DeWit
Describes a course module designed to afford practice in applying the principles encountered throughout the general chemistry sequence to understanding and predicting chemical reactivity and the products of simple inorganic reactions.
DeWit, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1625.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Chemical Composition of a Fountain Pen Ink   J. Martín-Gil, M. C. Ramos-Sánchez, F. J. Martín-Gil, and M. José-Yacamán
Black ink (Parker Quink) widely used in 19501980 is characterized and compared with other traditional inks. There is agreement that the main cause of ink decay is the iron(II) sulfate content, whose effect is stronger than the destructive action of acids.
Martín-Gil, J.; Ramos-Sánchez, M. C.; Martín-Gil, F. J.; José-Yacamán, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1476.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Free Radicals |
Reactions
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 8. Abstract of Special Issue 34  Rachel Bain, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, James H. Maynard, John W. Moore, and C. Jonathan Mitschele
Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 8 can help move students understanding of waves from mechanical models to the chemical phenomena those models explain.
Bain, Rachel; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.; Mitschele, C. Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1406.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
Endothermic Chemical and Physical Changes: An Introductory Chemistry Experiment  Margaret J. Steffel
Each of eleven unidentified compounds is heated in a test tube to determine whether the endothermic change each undergoes is a chemical or a physical change.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1185.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Two "Gas-in-a-Bag" Reactions To Show the Predictive Power of the Relative AcidBase Strength Chart  Brett Criswell
Describes a demonstration in which two different pairs of solid chemicals mixed in two different Ziploc bags in the presence of a small quantities of water react to produce gases. Students are informed that the reactions are BrnstedLowry acidbase type reactions and must determine which member in each pair will act as the acid and which as the base.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1167.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Was Markovnikov's Rule an Inspired Guess?  Peter Hughes
A study of 19th century literature shows that neither Markovnikov nor any of his contemporaries carried out the reactions often attributed to himthe addition of hydrogen bromide or hydrogen chloride to propene. Since there is little evidence for Markovnikov's rule in his 1870 article, it is likely that it was more of an inspired guess than a rational conclusion.
Hughes, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1152.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Molecular Handshake: Recognition through Weak Noncovalent Interactions  Parvathi S. Murthy
This article traces the development of our thinking about molecular recognition through noncovalent interactions, highlights their salient features, and suggests ways for comprehensive education on this important concept.
Murthy, Parvathi S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1010.
Applications of Chemistry |
Biosignaling |
Membranes |
Molecular Recognition |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Reactions
Acid–Base Chemistry According to Robert Boyle: Chemical Reactions in Words as well as Symbols  David E. Goodney
Examples of acidbase reactions from Robert Boyle's The Sceptical Chemist are used to illustrate the rich information content of chemical equations. Boyle required lengthy passages of florid language to describe what can be done quite simply with a chemical equation.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
From "Greasy Chemistry" to "Macromolecule": Thoughts on the Historical Development of the Concept of a Macromolecule  Pedro J. Bernal
This paper presents a narrative about the historical development of the concept of a macromolecule. It does so to illustrate how the history of science might be used as a pedagogical tool to teach science, particularly to non-majors.
Bernal, Pedro J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 870.
Colloids |
Nonmajor Courses |
Polymerization |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Interactive Demonstrations for Mole Ratios and Limiting Reagents  Crystal Wood and Bryan Breyfogle
The objective of this study was to develop interactive lecture demonstrations based on conceptual-change learning theory. Experimental instruction was designed for an introductory chemistry course for nonmajors to address misconceptions related to mole ratios and limiting reagents
Wood, Crystal; Breyfogle, Bryan. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 741.
Learning Theories |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Student-Centered Learning
Incorporation of Microwave Synthesis into the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Alan R. Katritzky, Chunming Cai, Meghan D. Collins, Eric F. V. Scriven, Sandeep K. Singh, and E. Keller Barnhardt
Describes a simple way to effectively implement microwave synthesis into the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum.
Katritzky, Alan R.; Cai, Chunming; Collins, Meghan D.; Scriven, Eric F. V.;Singh, Sandeep K.; Barnhardt, E. Keller. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 634.
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Microwave-Assisted Heterocyclic Chemistry for Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Robert Musiol, Bozena Tyman-Szram, and Jaroslaw Polanski
Microwave-assisted techniques are used to design new environmentally benign syntheses of heterocycles for the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Musiol, Robert; Tyman-Szram, Bozena; Polanski, Jaroslaw. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 632.
Green Chemistry |
Heterocycles |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Revisiting Molar Mass, Atomic Mass, and Mass Number: Organizing, Integrating, and Sequencing Fundamental Chemical Concepts  Stephen DeMeo
It is often confusing for introductory chemistry students to differentiate between molar mass, atomic mass, and mass number as well as to conceptually understand these ideas beyond a surface level. One way to improve understanding is to integrate the concepts, articulate their relationships, and present them in a meaningful sequence.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 617.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
The Ultrasonic Soda Fountain: A Dramatic Demonstration of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solutions  John E. Baur and Melinda B. Baur
An ultrasonic bath is used to accelerate the rate at which carbonated beverages equilibrate with the atmosphere. The resulting fountain, which can reach heights in excess of 3 meters, is a dramatic demonstration of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Baur, John E.; Baur, Melinda B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 577.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Alkynes via the Alkylation of Sodium Acetylides. An Introduction to Synthetic Design for Organic Chemistry Students  Jennifer N. Shepherd and Jason R. Stenzel
Teams of students design a microscale synthesis of an unsymmetrical alkyne using commercially available terminal alkynes and alkyl halides and characterize the resulting products using TLC, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Depending on the chosen reactants, students observe both substitution and elimination products, or in some cases, no reaction at all.
Shepherd, Jennifer N.; Stenzel, Jason R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 425.
Alkylation |
Alkynes |
Elimination Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Intelligent Thermochromic Windows  Ivan P. Parkin and Troy D. Manning
This article covers the background and related science associated with a thermochromic window, a device that changes its reflectance and transmission properties at a specific critical temperature.
Parkin, Ivan P.; Manning, Troy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 393.
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Solid State Chemistry
Mechanisms That Interchange Axial and Equatorial Atoms in Fluxional Processes: Illustration of the Berry Pseudorotation, the Turnstile, and the Lever Mechanisms via Animation of Transition State Normal Vibrational Modes  Marion E. Cass, King Kuok Hii, and Henry S. Rzepa
Teaching the Berry pseudorotation mechanism presents particular pedagogic problems due to both its dynamic and three dimensional character. The approach described here illustrates these processes using interactive animations embedded in a Web page.
Cass, Marion E.; Hii, King Kuok; Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 336.
Computational Chemistry |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals
Using Jmol To Help Students Better Understand Fluxional Processes   William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
This new WebWare neatly combines instructional text and Jmol interactive, animated illustrations to teach mechanisms that need to be clearly visualized in order to be well understood.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 336.
Computational Chemistry |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals
4-Dimethylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Syntheses of Esters: A Comparison  Annemieke W. C. van den Berg and Ulf Hanefeld
Students compare acid-catalyzed ester synthesis and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed reaction. Based on the outcome of the experiments, students discuss the different reaction mechanisms and reason why different products are formed.
van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 292.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil. An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory  Nathan R. Clarke, John Patrick Casey, Earlene D. Brown, Ezenwa Oneyma, and Kelley J. Donaghy
Presents a simple synthetic laboratory that requires students to find a general synthetic method to make biodiesel (fuel made from clean sources such as vegetable oils) and assess its viscosity versus temperature.
Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 257.
Applications of Chemistry |
Esters |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
Derivatization of Fullerenes: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Charles T. Cox Jr. and Melanie M. Cooper
Presents two undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories detailing the synthesis of fullerene derivatives, using the Bingel (carbene insertion) and Prato (1,3-dipolar addition) protocols.
Cox, Charles T., Jr.; Cooper, Melanie M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 99.
Acids / Bases |
Addition Reactions |
Chromatography |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis  Brian F. Woodfield, Merritt B. Andrus, Gregory L. Waddoups, Melissa S. Moore, Richard Swan, Rob Allen, Greg Bodily, Tricia Andersen, Jordan Miller, Bryon Simmons, and Richard Stanger
Describes a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. The purpose of these simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments.
Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1728.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Simple and Easy-To-Learn Chart of the Main Classes of Inorganic Compounds and Their Acid–Base Reactions  Grigoriy Sereda
Presents a two-dimensional chart for the classification of the main classes of inorganic compounds with respect to their acidic and basic properties that makes it possible to predict reaction products and determine the coefficients in chemical equations of acidbase reactions.
Sereda, Grigoriy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1645.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon, M. T. Moran-Moran, Alejandro Alatorre-Ordaz, Bruce Mattson, and Scot Eskestrand
Ozone, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is produced electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it, to observe its action in simulated environmental applications, and to measure its rate of production.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mayen-Mondragon, Rodrigo; Moran-Moran, M. T.; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Mattson, Bruce; Eskestrand, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1546.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Mass Relationships in a Chemical Reaction: Incorporating Additional Graphing Exercises into the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
The purpose of this article is to increase student involvement with graph construction specifically in the context of introductory laboratory activities that involve mass relationships between reacting substances and products. In this regard, five massmass plots derived from a synthesis of a binary compound from its elements are presented as well as a set of questions to focus learners on the significance of each plot. The benefit of providing learners with these types of graphing activities include the use of higher-order cognitive processes as well as the elucidation of fundamental chemical knowledge such as the law of the conservation of mass, the law of constant composition, limiting and excess reactants, and empirical formula.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1219.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis
Zinc (dust and bulk)  Jay A. Young
The hazards of zinc (dust and bulk) are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1143.
Laboratory Management |
Metals |
Physical Properties
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 7 Abstract of Special Issue 32, a CD-ROM of Flames and Explosions   Rachel Bain, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, James H. Maynard, and John W. Moore
A visual library containing more than 230 QuickTime movies and more than 6700 still images, Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 7: Flames and Explosions features the kind of chemistry that is sure to spark an interest. Organized using both the periodic table and type of reaction, CCA! 7 makes it easy for you to find the movie or image you seek to add that spark of interest to your presentation. CCA! 7 covers a broad range of spectacular chemical reactions while also offering a depth of coverage that encourages discussions that compare and contrast particular reactions.
Bain, Rachel; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1102.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy  Kestutis Bendinskas, Christopher DiJiacomo, Allison Krill, and Ed Vitz
A two-week biochemistry experiment was introduced in the second-semester general chemistry laboratory to study the oxidation of ethanol in vitro in the presence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). This reaction should pique student interest because the same reaction also occurs in human bodies when alcoholic drinks are consumed. Procedures were developed to follow the biochemical reaction by visible spectroscopy and to avoid specialized equipment. The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of this enzymatic reaction was investigated during the first week. The effects of temperature, pH, the specificity of the enzyme to several substrates, and the enzyme's inhibition by heavy metals were explored during the second week.
Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1068.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Food Science
The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene   Judith C. Amburgey-Peters and LeRoy W. Haynes
We investigated the reaction of (Z)-1,2-diphenylethene (cis-stilbene) with various brominating reagents and solvents following directions in standard organic chemistry manuals. We were particularly interested in learning which combination of brominating reagent and solvent gave the best yield of (d,l)-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane without the formation of significant amounts of meso-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane, which is essentially the sole product from the reaction of bromine with (E)-1,2-diphenylethene (trans-stilbene). Based on the results from the standard preparatory methods, some permutations of solvent and brominating reagent were tried.
Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1051.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Conceptual Considerations in Molecular Science  Donald T. Sawyer
The undergraduate curriculum and associated textbooks include several significant misconceptions.
Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 985.
Catalysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
An Interactive Classroom Activity Demonstrating Reaction Mechanisms and Rate-Determining Steps  Laura D. Jennings and Steven W. Keller
An interactive classroom activity is described that allows visualization of microscopic reaction mechanisms via the macroscopic process of unwrapping and eating chocolate candies.
Jennings, Laura D.; Keller, Steven W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 549.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber  Curtis J. Czerwinski and Tanya J. Cordes
While several lecture demonstrations are possible using methane-filled balloons, it is often inconvenient to prepare these balloons since the pressure from standard laboratory and lecture hall gas nozzles is too low. As a solution to this problem, a methane balloon inflation chamber, prepared from a translucent 3.5-gallon pail and an aspirator or house-vacuum, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for inflating balloons in laboratories or lecture halls. Prepared in this way, methane-filled balloons can be used to demonstrate the effects of vacuum, the lifting power of low-density gases, and the explosive combustion of methane.
Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 248.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A Substitute for “Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride”  Joshua M. Daley and Robert G. Landolt
Benzotrifluoride (BTF) is a suitable solvent substitute for carbon tetrachloride in experiments requiring application of bromine (Br2) in free radical or addition reactions with organic substrates. A 1 M solution of Br2 in BTF may be used to distinguish hydrocarbons based on the ease of abstraction of hydrogen atoms in thermally or light-induced free radical substitutions. Efficacy of minimization of solvent use, by aliquot addition to neat samples, has been established.
Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 120.
Alkenes |
Free Radicals |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions
A Reaction That Takes Place in Beakers but Not in Conical Flasks: A Catalysis-Related Demonstration  Colin White
A striking demonstration emphasizing that substances which promote reactions are not catalysts if they are consumed in the process. The demonstration is based on the iron(II) induced oxidation of iodide by chromium(VI).
White, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 364.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Aluminum Chloride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum chloride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 331.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Why Chemical Reactions Happen (James Keeler and Peter Wothers)  John Krenos
By concentrating on a limited number of model reactions, this book presents chemistry as a cohesive whole by tying together the fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and quantum chemistry, mainly through the use of molecular orbital interpretations.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 201.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot  Edward Urbansky
Reply to comments on original article.
Urbansky, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Reaction order Ambiguity  Sue Le Vent
Integrated rate equations (for constant reaction volume) may be given in terms of relative reactant concentration, C (= concentration/initial concentration) and relative time, T (= time/half-life); in these forms, the equations are independent of rate constants and initial concentrations.
Le Vent, Sue. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Reactions (→) vs Equations (=)  S. R. Logan
A recent chemical kinetics text uses an equals sign for an overall reaction, whereas an arrow is used in each of the reaction steps that are proposed to constitute the mechanism, and for any elementary process.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1258.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Dynamic Visualization in Chemistry Abstract of Special Issue 31, a CD-ROM for Mac OS and Windows  James P. Birk, Debra E. Leedy, Rachel A. Morgan, Mark Drake, Fiona Lihs, Eleisha J. Nickoles, and Michael J. McKelvy
Each presentation is designed to help chemistry students acquire a dynamic, three-dimensional, atomic-level visualization of matter and to use this view to explain and ultimately predict the behavior of materials. It integrates video of experiments and animations of theoretical models. Students zoom in on physical and chemical processes at resolutions as high as the atomic level.
Birk, James P.; Leedy, Debra E.; Morgan, Rachel A.; Drake, Mark; Lihs, Fiona; Nickoles, Eleisha J.; McKelvy, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1095.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Solid State Chemistry
Applying the Reaction Table Method for Chemical Reaction Problems (Stoichiometry and Equilibrium)  Steven F. Watkins
A systematic approach to chemical reaction calculations (stoichiometry calculations) - the "Reaction Table Method" (similar to the equilibrium table method).
Watkins, Steven F. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 658.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Chemical Equilibria Involving Copper(II) Ethylenediamine Complexes  Roberto Zingales
Demonstration illustrating the formation of two different complexes when copper(II) ions react with ethylenediamine.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 535.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemical Equilibria Involving Reactions of Silver(I) Ions  Roberto Zingales
Demonstrating a series of reactions involving silver(I) ions.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 534.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Precipitation / Solubility
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Calcium Carbide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for calcium carbide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 378.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon  James G. Goll and Stacie L. Mundinger
Teaching chemistry using From the Earth to the Moon (an HBO original movie series).
Goll, James G.; Mundinger, Stacie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 292.
Electrochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Chromium(VI) Oxide, CrO3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for chromium(VI) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 259.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Aluminum Oxide, Al2O3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 258.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Periodic Table Live! 3rd Edition: Abstract of Special Issue 17  Nicholas B. Adelman, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, Alton J. Banks, John C. Kotz, William R. Robinson, and Susan Young
CD-ROM containing an interactive journey through the periodic table; includes information about each element, biographies of discoverers, videos of reactions, sources and uses, macro and atomic properties, and crystalline structures.
Adelman, Nicholas B.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Banks, Alton J.; Kotz, John C.; Robinson, William R.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1487.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solid State Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography
Nitric Acid (approx. 70%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for nitric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1413.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Case of Three  Thomas R. Rybolt and Thomas G. Waddell
A chemical mystery emphasizing simple physical properties (density) and chemical characterization of metals, featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Rybolt, Thomas R.; Waddell, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 448.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Forensic Chemistry |
Metals |
Physical Properties
Tick Tock, a Vitamin C Clock  Stephen W. Wright
Uses supermarket chemicals to perform a clock reaction; students vary the concentration of reactants and observe the effect on the time required for the reaction to reach its endpoint.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 40A.
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Vitamins |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Redox Redux: Recommendations for Improving Textbook and IUPAC Definitions  Ed Vitz
Defining oxidation / reduction reactions as those in which oxidation states of the reactant(s) change.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 397.
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Sink or Swim: The Cartesian Diver  K. David Pinkerton
Cartesian divers are a quick and simple way to illustrate relationships among pressure, volume, temperature, and buoyancy. The Activity could be used in connection with the concepts of gases and liquids and discussions of Boyle's, Charles's, and the ideal gas laws.
Pinkerton, K. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 200A.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Melting Point, Density, and Reactivity of Metals  Michael Laing
Using melting points and densities to the predict the relative reactivities of metals.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1054.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry
The Conductivity of Molten Materials  Monica E. Thomas, Audrey A. Cleveland, Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, and Michael R. Hall
Demonstrating the conductivity of molten ionic compounds; includes apparatus for demonstrating conductivity and suggested list of selected test materials and their melting points.
Thomas, Monica E.; Cleveland, Audrey A.; Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1052.
Conductivity |
Metals |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot!  Edward T. Urbansky
Using integrated rate plots to determine reaction order.
Urbansky, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 921.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
Teaching about Flame Retardants. A Joint Israeli-Dutch Project  Miri Kesner and Wobbe de Vos
Flame retardants make interesting chemistry and moreover, the chemistry is highly relevant from an everyday life point of view. This article reports on a joint Israeli-Dutch project aimed at teaching the production, properties, and applications of some bromine-containing flame retardants, including their environmental aspects, in secondary education.
Kesner, Miri; de Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 41.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
A Simple Method for Demonstrating Enzyme Kinetics Using Catalase from Beef Liver Extract  Kristin A. Johnson
A simple visual method of demonstrating enzyme kinetics using beef liver catalase. Filter paper is saturated with beef liver extract and placed into a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The catalase in the extract decomposes the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Oxygen forms on the filter paper, and the filter paper rises to the top of the beaker. Catalase activity is measured by timing the rise of the enzyme-soaked filter paper to the top of beakers containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
Johnson, A. Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1451.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Reactions
Combustion Demonstration Using Updated Flame Tornado  Edward G. Senkbeil
This demonstration uses the combustion of different forms of cellulose and an updated version of the "flame tornado" as an ignition source to illustrate the factors affecting the combustion process. The objectives of the experiment are to illustrate the factors affecting the rate of a combustion reaction and to demonstrate the factors affecting the production of a flame by using the flame tornado.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Everyday Chemical Reactions: A Writing Assignment to Promote Synthesis of Concepts and Relevance in Chemistry  Abby L. Parrill
Capturing the interest of students in required chemistry courses is a problem for which many solutions have been proposed and described. The solution proposed here is the use of a writing assignment on everyday chemical reactions. Students select their own organic reaction and apply concepts learned throughout the semester to understanding it.
Parrill, Abby L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1303.
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions
When A + B  Is Not Equal To B + A  Erling Antony, Lindsay Mitchell, and Lauren Nettenstrom
Many acid-base chemistry demonstrations and laboratory manuals include the "baking soda volcano". Others use the formation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in human breath. This demonstration uses principles from both as well as stoichiometry to answer the question "Does the order of mixing of reagents make a difference?"
Antony, Erling; Mitchell, Lindsay; Nettenstrom, Lauren. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1180.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
A Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances, 2nd Edition
by Pradyot Patnaik

  Douglas Walters
Reference book that contains a wealth of valuable information on about 1500 chemicals.
Walters, Douglas. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1122.
Physical Properties |
Toxicology

A Closer Look at Phase Diagrams for the General Chemistry Course  Stephen A. Gramsch
The information provided by the high-pressure phase diagrams of some simple systems (carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, and iron) can provide a useful extension to the traditional discussion of phase diagrams in the general chemistry course. At the same time, it can prepare students for a more illuminating presentation of the concept of equilibrium than is possible through the discussion of gas phase, acid-base, and solubility product equilibria alone.
Gramsch, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 718.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Geochemistry
Catalytic Oxidation of Ammonia: A Sparkling Experiment  Vladimir A. Volkovich and Trevor R. Griffiths
A lecture demonstration experiment on the catalytic oxidation of ammonia using chromium(III) oxide as a catalyst is described.
Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 177.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
An Experiment to Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
This experiment, which is a modified version of the traditional iodine clock reaction, allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reactants, and activation energies. It also lets students discover that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having a lower activation energy.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1714.
Catalysis |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law
The Blue Bottle Reaction as a General Chemistry Experiment on Reaction Mechanisms  Steven C. Engerer and A. Gilbert Cook
Using the scientific method (observe, question, hypothesize, experiment, repeat) students propose and test possible reaction mechanisms for the methylene blue-catalyzed oxidation of dextrose with its dramatic color change. Students are led to discover the three-step mechanism through a series of questions.
Engerer, Steven C.; Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1519.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
More on Double Replacement  Kauffman, G. B.
Reference to directions for writing double replacement reactions.
Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1340.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Correction to The Bobbing Bird  Gesser, Hyman D.
Problem with demonstration if humidity is high and correction for this.
Gesser, Hyman D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 757.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Using Large Glass Cylinders To Demonstrate Chemical Reactions  Wobbe de Vos
This article describes a simple laboratory experiment that aims at pedagogic as well as aesthetic aspects of chemical reactions. Experiments of this type have a high educational potential as students have the opportunity to observe the actual formation of a precipitate instead of just being able to see the result. The experiment is also suitable for demonstrating some of the fascinating beauty of chemical reactions to the general public.
de Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 528.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions
Teaching Chemistry Using the Movie Apollo 13  James G. Goll and B. J. Woods
The use of this popular movie has helped generate interest in chemistry courses.
Goll, James G.; Woods, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 506.
Undergraduate Research |
Learning Theories |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Replace Double Replacement  R. Bruce Martin
Reactions described as double replacements in high school texts are poorly described by this designation. The driving force for such reactions is precipitation of a solid derived from ions in solution or the production of water in acid-base reactions.
Martin, R. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 133.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility
The Design and Synthesis of a Large Interactive Classroom  Laurel L. Clouston and Mark H. Kleinman
The use of group learning techniques in large classes has been used to effectively convey the central concepts of SN1 and SN2 reactions in an introductory organic chemistry class. The activities described are best used as an introduction to these mechanisms.
Clouston, Laurel L.; Kleinman, Mark H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 60.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories
Microscale Thermite Reactions  Francisco J. Arnáiz, Rafael Aguado, and Susana Arnáiz
The reaction of aluminum with the oxides of a variety of elements illustrates exothermic reactions that require a high activation energy. It is also an appropriate experiment with regard to the discussion of Ellingham diagrams. When drama is not the main objective, conducting these reactions at microscale level offers numerous advantages over the usual scale.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnáiz, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1630.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment  John A. Olmsted III
An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer.
Olmsted, John A., III. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1261.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Chemical Etching of Group III - V Semiconductors  Najah J. Kadhim, Stuart H. Laurie, and D. Mukherjee
This article reviews the chemical etchants used for the treatment of GaAs and others III - V. Semiconductors, the factors involved in their mechanism and the many potential pitfalls, arwillan defects associated with them.
Kadhim, Najah J.; Laurie, Stuart H.; Mukherjee, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 840.
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
Physical Properties
Slide Projector Corrosion Cell  Silvia Tejada, Estela Guevara, and Esperanza Olivares
The process of corrosion can be demonstrated in a slide projector, since the cell is in the shape of a slide, or on the stage of an overhead projector by setting up a simple galvanic cell. Corrosion occurs as the result of a galvanic cell reaction, in which the corroding metal acts as the anode. Several simple demonstrations relating to corrosion are described here.
Tejada, Silvia; Guevara, Estela; Olivares, Esperanza. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Chemical Domino Demonstration  M. Dale Alexander
The Chemical Domino Demonstration is both educational and entertaining. It provides an excellent means for a review of chemical concepts at the conclusion of a general chemistry course. This demonstration consists of a number of different chemical reactions occurring in sequence in a Rube Goldberg-type apparatus.
M. Dale Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 490.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Mechanism Templates: Lecture Aids for Effective Presentation of Mechanism in Introductory Organic Chemistry  Brian J. McNelis
To promote active student learning of mechanism in introductory organic chemistry, hand-outs have been developed with incomplete structures for reaction processes depicted, which are called mechanism templates. The key to these lecture aids is to provide only enough detail in the diagram to facilitate notetaking, ensuring that these templates are dynamic learning tools that must be utilized by an engaged and alert student.
Brian J. McNelis. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 479.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Boiling Point and Molecular Weight (the author replies)  Rich, R.L.
The author agrees that polarizability is a major determinat of boiling points. However, the author differs on how to apply the above on nonpolar molecules.
Rich, R.L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 394.
Physical Properties
Boiling Point and Molecular Weight  Myers, R.Thomas
Boiling points of nonpolar compounds have several factors including polarizability, size, ionization potential, and shape. Molecular weight is not a factor while determining boiling points.
Myers, R.Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 394.
Physical Properties
Letters to the Editor  
Boiling points of nonpolar compounds have several factors including polarizability, size, ionization potential, and shape. Molecular weight is not a factor while determining boiling points.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 394.
Physical Properties
Teaching Distillation Knowledge: A Video Film about Distillation Bridging a Gap Between Theory and Practice  Martin J. Goedhart, Hanno van Keulen, Theo M. Mulder, Adri H. Verdonk, and Wobbe De Vos
The authors observed that first year students hardly used their knowledge of phase theory in the design and performance of distillations. They therefore developed a video in which they confront students with the boiling properties of liquid mixtures.
Goedhart, Martin J.; van Keulen, Hanno; Mulder, Theo M.; Verdonk, Adri H.; De Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 378.
Learning Theories |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
A Closer Look at the Addition of Equations and Reactions  Damon Diemente
Chemists occasionally find it convenient or even necessary to express an overall reaction as the sum of two or more component reactions. A close examination, however, reveals that the resemblance between chemical algebraic equations is entirely superficial, and that the real meaning of addition in chemical equations is subtle and varies from case to case. In high-school courses, students are likely to encounter the addition of equations in thermochemistry, in electrochemistry, and in kinetics.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 319.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
A Kinetics Experiment To Demonstrate the Role of a Catalyst in a Chemical Reaction: A Versatile Exercise for General or Physical Chemistry Students  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
By modifying the iodine clock reaction, students can use the initial rate method to observe the role of a catalyst in a chemical reaction via activation energy calculations and evaluate a proposed mechanism. They can also determine the order with respect to each reactant and the rate constants of the noncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 87.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Letter to the Editor about Letter to the Editor "Redox Challenges" from David M. Hart and Response from Roland Stout (J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226-7)  Andrzej Sobkowiak
Examples of a variety of redox equations.
Sobkowiak, Andrzej. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1256.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Simple and Attractive Demonstraction of the Reversibility of Chemical Reactions  Celestyn M. Brozek
The reversibility of chemical reactions is demonstrated by dehydration of CuSO4  5H2O and the subsequent hydration of CuSO4. The associated heat consumption and the subsequent heat production illustrate the concept of endothermic and exothermic reactions.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 837.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
Entertaining Chemistry  John F. Elsworth
"A Volcanic Serpent" (ammonium dichromate), "A Homemade Hydrogen Rocket", and "Johnny's Saga in Chemistry" (sulfuric acid + calcium carbonate) demonstrations.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1128.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Redox Challenges: Good Times for Puzzle Fanatics  Roland Stout
Three difficult to balance redox equations.
Stout, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1125.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Fe(s) + Cu(II)(aq) ----> Fe(II)(aq) + Cu(s): Fifteen Centuries of Search  Vladimir Karpenko
Historical development of understanding of the title reaction, particularly erroneous alchemical beliefs.
Karpenko, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1095.
Metals |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Carbohydrate Dehydration Demonstrations  David A. Dolson, Rubin Battino, Trevor M. Letcher, K. H. Pegel, and N. Revaprasadu
Study of the dehydration of a carbohydrate by sulfuric acid and variables that influence the reaction (including type of sugar, sugar granule size, and amount of water added to sugar).
Dolson, David A.; Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.; Pegel, K. H.; Revprasadu, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 927.
Carbohydrates |
Reactions
Synthesis and Decomposition of Zinc Iodide: Model Reactions for Investigating Chemical Change in the Introductory Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
Procedure for synthesizing and then decomposing zinc iodide in introductory chemistry that offers advantages over traditional synthesis/decomposition species (e.g. copper sulfide and magnesium oxide).
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 836.
Synthesis |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Conservation of Matter  Meyer, Edwin F.
Letter pointing out that the demonstration referred to allows a quantitative measurement of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide.
Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 764.
Physical Properties |
Stoichiometry
More Chemistry in a Soda Bottle: A Conservation of Mass Activity  Daniel Q. Duffy, Stephanie A. Shaw, William O. Bare, and Kenneth A. Goldsby
Conservation of mass activity using vinegar and baking soda in a 2-L soda bottle.
Duffy, Daniel Q.; Shaw, Stephanie A.; Bare, William D.; Goldsby, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 734.
Reactions |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited  David A. Dolson, Michael E. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, Rubin Battino, Lisa S. Jutte
Demonstrations involving methanol cannons and chain reactions.
Dolson, David A.; Dolson, Michael E.; Hall, Michael R.; Battino, Rubin; Jutte, Lisa S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 732.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Alcohols
Small Scale One-Pot Reactions of Copper, Iron, and Silver  Epp, Dianne N.
Investigation of a series of reactions involving copper, iron, and silver, all conducted with very small quantities in a single well.
Epp, Dianne N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 545.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
The Periodic Table CD  Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L.
Description of the Periodic Table CD, containing a database of still images and motion sequences of reactions and uses/applications of each chemical element.
Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 409.
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Kinetics in Thermodynamic Clothing: Fun with Cooling Curves: A First-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr.
A series of experiments examining the phenomenon of cooling by producing part of the cooling curve for water at different initial temperatures, focussing on the fact that the curve is nonlinear (unlike the information presented in many texts).
Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 346.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics
Put a Little Kaboom in Your Classroom  Barondeau, Mike
Instructions for constructing a calcium carbide/acetylene cannon from PVC pipe.
Barondeau, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 176.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The phases of sulfur  Birdwhistell, Kurt R.
Demonstrating the phases of sulfur through viscosity differences.
Birdwhistell, Kurt R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 56.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Learning Name Reactions and Name Apparatuses Through Crossword Puzzles  Lee, Albert W. M.; Tse, C. L.
These computer generated crossword puzzles consist of 38 organic name reactions and 13 name apparatuses frequently encountered at the undergraduate level.
Lee, Albert W. M.; Tse, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1071.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Chart for Deciding Mechanism for Reaction of Alkyl Halide with Nucleophile/Base  McClelland, Bruce W.
The decision chart offered here is based upon the well-known and accepted characteristics of the reaction system mechanisms described in typical introductory organic chemistry textbooks.
McClelland, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1047.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Chemistry Navigator  Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan
Chemistry Navigator is a hyperbook-database of information in the form of descriptive text, numerical values of properties, full color photos of chemicals and reactions, three dimensional molecular structures, QuickTime animations of structural features, and graphs showing periodic trends, relative elemental abundances, and other properties.
Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 941.
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Pictorial Analogies XIII: Kinetics and Mechanism  Fortman, John J.
Pictorial analogies for first order kinetics, the effect of concentration and temperature on reaction rate, and the requirement for proper molecular orientation for reaction.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 848.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
Reactions
ChemDemos  Moore, John W.; Jacobsen, Jerrold; Hunsberger, Lynn R.; Gammon, Steven D.; Zimmerman, John
A video laserdisc that includes 30 demonstrations suitable for introductory chemistry.
Moore, John W.; Jacobsen, Jerrold; Hunsberger, Lynn R.; Gammon, Steven D.; Zimmerman, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 779.
Reactions
Kinetics of Chemical Reactions: A Low-Cost and Simple Appartus  Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.; Xenos, J.
Description, applications, and experiments for a simple and inexpensive apparatus to help students understand kinetics.
Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.; Xenos, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 647.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Kinetics
An Oscillating Reaction as a Demonstration of Principles Applied in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Weimer, Jeffrey J.
Platinum catalyzed decomposition of methanol.
Weimer, Jeffrey J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 325.
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis |
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Reactions
The Determination of Number-Average Molecular Weight: A Polymer Experiment for Lower-Division Chemistry Students  Williams, Kathryn R.; Bernier, Ulrich R.
Procedure to determine the number-average molecular weight of a polymer.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Bernier, Ulrich R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 265.
Physical Properties
A Safe and Easy Classroom Demonstration of the Generation of Acetylene Gas  Cox, Marilyn Blagg
Reacting calcium carbide with water to generate ethyne.
Cox, Marilyn Blagg J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 253.
Alkynes |
Reactions
Pyrotechnic Reactions Without Oxygen  Wright, Stephen W.
Reaction of K3FeF6 with Al and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) with Mg.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 251.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Collecting and Using the Rare Earths  Solomon, Sally; Lee, Alan
Prices, sources, handling tips, and specific suggestions about how to use the lanthanide elements in the classroom and the laboratory.
Solomon, Sally; Lee, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 247.
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Physical Properties
Bean counter's caution   Schwartz, Leslie J.
The article "The "Bean Lab' is useful only for elementary mechanisms.
Schwartz, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1042.
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Bleaching with Chlorine: Another Tomato Juice Demonstration   Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W.
Bubbling chlorine gas through tomato juice produces dramatic color changes. This paper provides safe instructions for the demonstration.
Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 154.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Is This Reaction a Substitution, Oxidation-Reduction, or Transfer?  Imyanitov, Naum S.
Author argues that separation of chemical reaction types based on convention do not always follow objective and consistent rules. This leads to confusion among students and artificial borders within the various sub-disciplines in chemistry.
Imyanitov, Naum S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 14.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemical Demonstrations: A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry, Volume 4 (Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.)  Kauffman, George B.
78 procedures grouped into two chapters, one on clock reactions, the other on electrochemistry, batteries, electrolytic cells, and plating.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A187.
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Gas reactions in plastic bags: Relating laboratory observations to the atomic-molecular model  Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M.
Carrying out chemical reactions in Ziplock bags to investigate a variety of chemical concepts.
Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1026.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Molecular dynamics of the F + H2 chemical reaction  Kutz, H. Douglas; Copeland, Jonathan H.; Mathai, George T.
Software that presents the F + H2 reaction in terms of the potential energy surface and associated reaction dynamics.
Kutz, H. Douglas; Copeland, Jonathan H.; Mathai, George T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1011.
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Reactions
Reaction dynamics  Lacks, Daniel
Software that simulates collisions of an atom with a diatomic molecule, allowing students to set the initial conditions and the type of atom or molecule involved.
Lacks, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1010.
Reactions |
Rate Law
Intensive and extensive: Underused concepts  Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
Methods for teaching intensive and extensive properties.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 957.
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Replacement reactions using a dissecting microscope  Lam-Erwin, Chuk-Yin; Sprague, Joseph
Performing drop-size experiments under dissecting microscopes, including examining the reactivity of metals and double replacement reactions.
Lam-Erwin, Chuk-Yin; Sprague, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 855.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases
Imprecise numbers and incautious safety procedure mar experiment.  Nelson, Robert N.
Problems with significant figures and safety concerns regarding two published experiments.
Nelson, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 688.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Illustration of Mn and Mw in chain-growth polymerization using a simplified model: An undergraduate polymer chemistry laboratory exercise  Snyder, Donald M.
This exercise helps to attain three pedagogical objectives. Laying out the chains illustrates that a polymer is composed of a mixture of various chain lengths, the random-number assembly of the chain illustrates the statistical aspects of chain growth, the limited number of chains and chain length of the chain allows direct calculation of the number of chains and the weight averages of the chains.
Snyder, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 422.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Helping students to improve their approach to predicting the products of chemical reactions  Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Zipp, Arden P.
One task that seems to baffle many of today's beginning chemistry students is predicting the products of chemical reactions and writing net ionic equations to represent them.
Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 390.
Reactions
Understanding the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment  Chen, Chien T.
This article reviews our current understanding and then specifies the requirements for research that will improve our ability to detect hydrocarbons and predict their fate in the subsurface environment.
Chen, Chien T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 357.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Analogical demonstrations   Fortman, John J.
By illustrating an analogy with a visual demonstration, a student is aided in both understanding and remembering a lesson.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 323.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases
The conversion of chemical energy: Part 1. Technological examples  Wink, Donald J.
When a chemical reaction occurs, the energy of the chemical species may change and energy can be released or absorbed from the surroundings. This can involve the exchange of chemical energy with another kind of energy or with another chemical system.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 108.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Photosynthesis
KC? Discoverer with Knowledgeable Counselor  Cabrol, Daniel; Moore, John W.; Rittenhouse, Rita C.
KC? Discoverer is a program that permits students and faculty to explore a wide range of properties of the elements and is closely coordinated with the periodic table.
Cabrol, Daniel; Moore, John W.; Rittenhouse, Rita C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 40.
Physical Properties |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Use of liquid oxygen to support combustion   Sullivan, Dan M.
Production, procedure, and safety of demonstrations involving liquid nitrogen in order to demonstrate: Charles' Law, production and properties of liquid oxygen, effects of concentration on reactions and reaction rates, liquefaction and boiling of oxygen kindling temperature, reactions between substances in two different states of matter, and comparison of partial and complete combustion.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1036.
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Ammonia bottle  Sheets, Michael
A suggested variation to this impressive demonstration.
Sheets, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 247.
Reactions
In praise of copper  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of copper make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory activities.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 106.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reactivity of nickel  Birk, James P.; Ronan, Martha; Bennett, Imogene; Kinney, Cheri
A series of experiments which lead to observations about the reactivity of nickel. [Debut]
Birk, James P.; Ronan, Martha; Bennett, Imogene; Kinney, Cheri J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 48.
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation State |
Electrochemistry
Reaction of bromine with hydrocarbons on the overhead, real or simulated  Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt
A simulation that looks like the addition of bromine to hydrocarbons but is not (the bromine is simulated using a mixture of food colorings).
Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 961.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Addition Reactions
The H2 + Cl2 explosion as a chemical analogue of the photoelectric effect: A true quantum mechanical demonstration  Knox, Kerro
The photochemical hydrogen-chlorine reaction affords a good example of the quantum aspect of light and its interaction with matter.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 897.
Reactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
A Governor's School course emphasizing chemical reactions  Deavor, James P.
Format, lecture content, and laboratory program for a course that emphasizes chemical reactions and the relevancy of chemistry to our lives.
Deavor, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 669.
Reactions
A catalog of reactions for general chemistry  Tykodi, R. J.
A catalog of chemical reactions intended to help students understand what kinds of chemical reactions commonly occur and why.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 665.
Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
Avoid misleading the students  Rich, Ronald L.
Chemists have a long-standing habit, misleading at least to students, of saying that strong bases produce acids in various reactions.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 629.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
The cadmium-sodium nitrate reaction  Hill, William D., Jr.
A reaction involving lead and sodium nitrate prompted the idea to try reacting cadmium and sodium nitrate with the anticipation of producing cadmium oxide.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 529.
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions
The pitfalls of precipitation reactions   Slade, Peter W.; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W.
This is an overview of specific equilibria problems in precipitation reactions.
Slade, Peter W.; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 316.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions  Thompson, Ralph J.
How to calculate the equilibrium constant of an acid-base reaction.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review II (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Coleman, William F.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review I (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Balahura, Robert J.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Balahura, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Refractive index - A simple demonstration experiment  Mishra, S. K.; Parasher, P.; Sharma, P. D.
Adding benzene and bromobenzene to glass wool makes it disappear.
Mishra, S. K.; Parasher, P.; Sharma, P. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 852.
Physical Properties
The iodine clock reaction: A surprising variant  Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L.
Substituting malonic acid for sulfuric acid.
Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 852.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
"The Periodic Stack"  Farris, Mike
A Hypercard stack that operates on a data base of information about the properties and reactions of the chemical elements.
Farris, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 756.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
The bismuth-sodium nitrate reaction  Hill, William D., Jr.
Reaction for preparing bismuth(III) oxide and determining its percentage yield.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 709.
Reactions |
Synthesis
Early exposure to chemical reactions in general chemistry  Richardson, W. S.; Teggins, J. E.
An experiment that introduces general chemistry students to a variety of chemical reactions at the beginning of the course.
Richardson, W. S.; Teggins, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 644.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis
The liquid phase of carbon dioxide: A simple lecture demonstration  Andrews, Lester
Demonstrating that liquid CO2 can exist at higher pressures.
Andrews, Lester J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 597.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
On a Reaction Involving Oxygen and Metal Sulfides  Hill, William D., Jr.
The role of iron(III) oxide as a catalyst in the production of oxygen by the thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate promoted the idea to use this oxide to repeat the reactions involving oxygen and the metal sulfides described in an earlier article.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 448.
Catalysis |
Reactions
The formaldehyde-sulfite clock reaction revisited  Warneck, Peter
The purpose of this present note is to discuss the mechanism and the change of pH during the reaction.
Warneck, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 334.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
pH |
Rate Law
In pursuit of chemical literacy: A place for chemical reactions  Bond, Douglas
The author has described one method of implementing a course for nonscience majors in which an early and repeated exposure to chemical reactions in tandem with a set of scientific values is the key to approaching scientific literacy.
Bond, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 157.
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Questions from a can of Pepsi  Mitchell, Tony
A can of Pepsi can be the starting point of countless chemistry questions that students can relate to. The author encourages other instructors to think about helping students understand chemistry as it relates to contemporary society.
Mitchell, Tony J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1070.
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Metals
Oscillating reactions   Kolb, Doris.
A demonstration done on the overhead that oscillates.
Kolb, Doris. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1004.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
The study of a simple redox reaction as an experimental approach to chemical kinetics  Elias, Horst; Zipp, Arden P.
The authors present a kinetics experiment based on the oxidation of iodide ions that, like the iodine clock, is quick and easy to perform but has the advantage of being followed directly rather than indirectly.
Elias, Horst; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 737.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Principles of electronegativity Part I. General nature  Sanderson, R. T.
The concept of electronegativity has been modified, expanded, and debated. The concept can be used to help students gain valuable insights and understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between atomic structure and compound properties. This is the first in a series of articles that explores the important concept of electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 112.
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A new road to reactions. Part 5. The elements and their atoms  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
It is worthwhile considering introductory students' concepts of chemical reactions and the significance of these concepts for a strategy for teaching the conservation of elements.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1010.
Reactions |
Learning Theories
A spectacular demonstration: 2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O  Skinner, James F.
Detonating hydrogen in a copper combustion chamber.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 545.
Reactions |
Free Radicals
A simple, safe, and inexpensive laboratory exercise in the guided inquiry format  de Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A.
Introductory laboratory exercise that illustrates stoichiometry, limiting reagents, and proportionality by reacting calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide.
de Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 452.
Stoichiometry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Reactions
The cola clock: A new flavor to an old classic  Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W.
The classic iodine clock reaction with Vitex replacing starch as the indicator.
Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 445.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Kinetics and mechanism of the iodine azide reaction: A videotaped experiment  Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L.
A clock reaction suitable for videotaping and presenting to a large lecture class of general chemistry for analysis.
Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 271.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
The arsenic(III) sulfide clock reaction  Watkins, Kenneth W.
Two colorless solutions, one containing sodium arsenite and acetic acid and the other containing sodium thiosulfate are mixed in a beaker; after about 20 seconds, the mixture turns a brilliant yellow color. This clock reaction is well suited for determining the order of reaction and the activation energy.
Watkins, Kenneth W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 255.
Reactions
A new method to balance chemical equations  Garcia, Arcesio
A simple method, applicable to any kind of reaction, that does not require the knowledge of oxidation numbers.
Garcia, Arcesio J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 247.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation State |
Reactions
Annotating reaction equations  Tykodi, R. J.
Annotating aqueous solution reactions fosters recognition of the fundamental reaction categories; ready recognition of a reaction type is the first step toward understanding the "whys and wherefores" inherent in the reaction.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 243.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
A nuts and bolts approach to explain limiting reagents  Blankenship, Craig
Using nuts and bolts to simulate the stoichiometry of a chemical reaction and the concept of limiting and excess reactants.
Blankenship, Craig J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 134.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
The density of solids  Hill, William D, Jr.
Supplement to and application of this experiment.
Hill, William D, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 92.
Solids |
Physical Properties
Demonstration of condensation-vaporization  Ackerson, Rex D.
Demonstrating the condensation and vaporization of Freon-12 using dry ice.
Ackerson, Rex D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 70.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A new road to reactions: Part III. Teaching the heat effect of reactions  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
This series of work summarizes the authors' work on the concept of chemical reactions as a teaching and learning problem.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 972.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
The coming renaissance of descriptive chemistry  Zuckerman, J. J.
Inorganic chemistry is facing an identity crises.
Zuckerman, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 829.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Guided inquiry laboratory  Allen, J. B.; Barker, L. N.; Ramsden, J. H.
The primary purpose of this article is to illustrate the concepts involved in converting a traditional "verification" experiment to a "guided inquiry" experiment.
Allen, J. B.; Barker, L. N.; Ramsden, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 533.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
The gelation of polyvinyl alcohol with borax: A novel class participation experiment involving the preparation and properties of a "slime"  Casassa,E.Z.; Sarquis, A.M.; Van Dyke, C.H.
In this report, the authors describe a safe, interesting, and inexpensive class participation experiment, easily and quickly done by all the students in small to moderately large lecture halls.
Casassa,E.Z.; Sarquis, A.M.; Van Dyke, C.H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 57.
Alcohols |
Polymerization |
Physical Properties
Hazardous Chemicals, Information and Disposal Guide, Second Edition (Armour, Margaret-Ann)  McKusick, Blaine C.
Properties, hazards, and handling of 220 common laboratory chemicals.
McKusick, Blaine C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A302.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Doing the dishes: An analogy for use in teaching reaction kinetics  Last, Arthur M.
An analogy between doing dishes and a two-step reaction.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1015.
Kinetics |
Reactions
The catalytic function of enzymes  Splittgerber, Allan G.
Review of the structure, function, and factors that influence the action of enzymes.
Splittgerber, Allan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1008.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Interstellar chemistry  Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A.
Surveys some of the features that characterize interstellar chemistry, particularly the composition of the interstellar medium and the nature of the changes that occur there.
Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 832.
Astrochemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A new road to reactions. Part 2  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
Helping introductory students understand the nature of chemical reactions.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 648.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
A pictorial framework to aid conceptualization of reaction stoichiometry  Cameron, David L.
Approach to teaching stoichiometry that promotes students' understanding of a reaction as a coherent process.
Cameron, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 510.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Chain reaction wheel: An approach to free radical reactions  Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl
Using a "chain reaction wheel" to help students understand the mechanism of free radical reactions.
Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 467.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Organic chemistry for health-science students   Schumm, Margot K.
It is important to teach health-science students reaction mechanisms when teaching them organic and biochemistry.
Schumm, Margot K. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 272.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A new road to reactions. Part 1  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
Suggestions on how to carry out discovery learning as a teaching method in chemistry; recommends several specific reactions for use in activities.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 238.
Reactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Using a dissecting microscope in teaching introductory chemistry  Winokur, Robert; Monroe, Manus
Using microscopes to observe the physical characteristics and chemical reactions of several substances.
Winokur, Robert; Monroe, Manus J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 157.
Reactions |
Physical Properties
Invisible water: A gas density demonstration  Maciel, Richard P.
Demonstrating the density of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (TTE), whose density is about six times that of air.
Maciel, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 153.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Kinetics and mechanism-a games approach  Harsch, Gunther
Using statistical games to simulate and illustrate a variety of chemical kinetics.
Harsch, Gunther J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1039.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Iodine clock reaction mechanisms  Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T.
Outlines the mechanism for the simple iodine clock reaction and the "Old Nassau" modification.
Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1037.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
The deceptive difficulty of descriptive chemistry and the chemistry curriculum  Bent, Henry A.
Considers the unique challenges of teaching and understanding descriptive and provides 12 descriptive, chemical equation puzzles.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 985.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Reactions
The thermite reaction: A chemical ground breaking  Eastland, George W., Jr.
Technique for initiating the thermite reaction at a safe distance.
Eastland, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 723.
Reactions
Teaching of chemical reactions and syntheses  Basolo, Fred
We are obliged to teach students some fundamental reactions that all chemists should know.
Basolo, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 520.
Reactions |
Synthesis
Indigo  Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E.
A brief history of the uses and origins of indigo as well as a look at the molecular structure of this molecule.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 633.
Dyes / Pigments |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A safe and simple demonstration of the effect of temperature on reaction rate  Boring, Wayne C.; McMillan, Ernest T.
The demonstration described here utilizes a safe and familiar reaction to illustrate the concept of reaction rate to students.
Boring, Wayne C.; McMillan, Ernest T. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 414.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine  Briggs, Thomas S.
Reacting chlorine generated from liquid bleach with red phosphorus (from a match book) and iron from steel wool.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 788.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
General chemistry for engineers  Kybett, B. D.
A logical way introduce polymers into the general chemistry course. From "The Goals of General Chemistry - A Symposium."
Kybett, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 724.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A unified approach to the study of chemical reactions in freshman chemistry  Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D.
An approach that aims to provide students with the background that will enable them to make reasonable predictions as to the likely products of a chemical reaction.
Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 377.
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Entropy and its role in introductory chemistry  Bickford, Franklin R.
The concept of entropy as it applies to phase changes.
Bickford, Franklin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 317.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Group IA elements: Chemical properties (a); Group IA elements: Chemical properties (b)  Dombrink, Kathleen J.
Film loop that demonstrates reactions between alkali metals and halogens.
Dombrink, Kathleen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Metals
An improved copper cycle experiment  Umans, Ton; de Vos, Wobbe
This simple lab demonstrates chemical transformations in and the conservation of copper.
Umans, Ton; de Vos, Wobbe J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 52.
Reactions
An experimental introduction to stoichiometry   Webb, Michael J.
A procedure for an experiment with the purpose: To show via experiment that the quantities of materials used in chemical reactions are related to balanced chemical equations.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 192.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
What is the rate-limiting step of a multistep reaction?  Murdoch, Joseph R.
The purpose of this paper is to point out the circumstances where analogies can be used successfully and to develop a generalization which can be used for all reactions, including those with polymolecular steps.
Murdoch, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 32.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Chemical Kinetics: Reaction Rates  Mickey, Charles D.
Reviews the chemistry behind factors that influence the rates of chemical reactions.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 659.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Photochemical reactions of tris(oxalato)iron (III): A first year chemistry experiment  Baker, A. D.; Casadevell, A.; Gafney, H. D.; Gellender, M.
An experiment based on the photoreduction of potassium ferrioxalate.
Baker, A. D.; Casadevell, A.; Gafney, H. D.; Gellender, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 314.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Illustrating chemical concepts through food systems: Introductory chemistry experiments  Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S.
Illustrating the vaporization of liquids, reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration using foods.
Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 312.
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Colloids |
Acids / Bases
Artifacts and the Electromotive Series  Mickey, Charles D.
The chemistry of metals and its application to archeology.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 275.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metallurgy |
Reactions
An introductory level kinetics investigation  McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C.
A kinetic study of the hydrolysis of 3-bromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid.
McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 155.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Electronegativity, bond energy, and chemical reactivity  Myers, R. Thomas
The Pauling electronegativity concept can be used to help rationalize several kinds of chemical reactions.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 711.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Reactions
The thermite lecture demonstration  Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B.
Glycerine plus KMnO4 are used to ignite the thermite in a clay flower pot.
Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 675.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Acid-base half-reactions - A useful formalism for review lessons  Atkinson, G. F.
An effective way to draw analogies between acid-base and redox effects while reviewing both.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Thermodynamics and solubilities of salts of dipositive ions  Riley, Gary F.; Eberhardt, William H.
Used to illustrate the application of the principle that a decrease in free energy is a criterion for the spontaneity of a chemical reaction.
Riley, Gary F.; Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 206.
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
A few chemical magic tricks based on the clock reaction  Shigematsu, Euchi
Three tricks based on the clock reaction involving KIO3 and NaHSO3.
Shigematsu, Euchi J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 184.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Chemistry concatenated  Beaumont, R. C.
A series of chemical reactions featuring reversible equilibria and nine major color changes.
Beaumont, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 37.
Reactions |
Equilibrium
A discovery experiment. CO2 soap bubble dynamics  Millikan, Roger C.
Students often make a choice of major based upon the view of a subject that they derive from the beginning course. Rare are the chemistry courses that provide the excitement and chance for discovery, while providing a basic understanding of chemistry. This article describes an experiment that does provide such an opportunity.
Millikan, Roger C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 807.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Surface Science
The Landolt, "Old Nassau", and variant reactions   Moss, Arthur
Instructions for a modification to the classic "iodine clock" reaction.
Moss, Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 244.
Kinetics |
Reactions
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
Teaching about "why do chemical reactions occur": Gibbs free energy  Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S.
Approaching the topic of Gibbs free energy from the student's prior experience in algebra and geometry, it is possible to construct a proof that should enable students to explain the derivation of G = H - TS.
Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 757.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Pharmacological projects/case studies for teaching molecular structure and reactivity  Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm
Using pharmacological agents to provide projects that develop and illustrate concepts of molecular stereochemistry, functional groups, and types of reactions and reactivity.
Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 677.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Stereochemistry |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Preparation of polyurethane foam: A lecture demonstration  Dirreen, Glen E.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.
A polyurethane foam is produced by forming a polyurethane polymer concurrently with a gas evolution process.
Dirreen, Glen E.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 431.
Reactions |
Polymerization
The Old Nassau reaction  Alyea, Hubert N.
A description of the chemistry and history of the Old Nassau reactions.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 167.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Lap-dissolve slides. Multiple-use formats for pre-laboratory instruction  Fine, Leonard W.; Harpp, David N.; Krakower, Earl; Snyder, James P.
Describes and provides examples of the lap-dissolve effect, a technique that uses two 35mm slide projectors to convey changing images in a large lecture setting.
Fine, Leonard W.; Harpp, David N.; Krakower, Earl; Snyder, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 72.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Singlet oxygen in aqueous solution: A lecture demonstration   Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G.
Lecture demonstrations involving chemiluminescence are useful for the purpose both of displaying chemical phenomena and of illustrating specific principles.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 358.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
The chemistry involved in the preparation of a paint pigment. An experiment for the freshman laboratory  Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W.
This experiment allows for students to see a demonstration of a variety of chemical principles and reactions.
Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 117.
Reactions |
Dyes / Pigments |
Applications of Chemistry
A simple general chemistry kinetics experiment  Gellender, Martin
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate provides a gradual and clearly distinguishable appearance of color as the reaction proceeds.
Gellender, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 806.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The chemistry of color photography  Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.
Provides a brief introduction to the chemical reaction involved in color photography and the physical principles that permit those reactions to reproduce colored images.
Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 622.
Photochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Reactions
Near 100% student yields with the "cycle of copper reactions" experiment  Condike, George F.
Improvements to the "cycle of copper reactions" experiment to improve yields.
Condike, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 615.
Reactions
Conversion of black and white prints to color in daylight. A demonstration lecture for general and organic courses  Wheeler, Thomas N.
A black and white print is converted to a full color print with the lights on; includes a detailed discussion of the chemical processes involved in the demonstration.
Wheeler, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 607.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction
The reactions of ferroin complexes. A color-to-colorless freshman kinetic experiment  Edwards, John O.; Edwards, Kathleen; Palma, Jorge
A group of related reactions that can be easily followed with a colorimeter which show that the mechanism by which a reaction takes place may not be at all obvious from the stoichiometry.
Edwards, John O.; Edwards, Kathleen; Palma, Jorge J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 408.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A general chemistry experiment on the identification of reaction products  Preer, James R.
Reaction products are identified by comparison of directly observable properties with those of known substances; the student writes reactants and products and proceeds to balance the equation.
Preer, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 389.
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis
What is oxidation?  Herron, J. Dudley
Why do most teachers continue to define oxidation and reduction in terms of a gain and loss of electrons rather than in terms of a change in oxidation number? [Debut]
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 51.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Preparation and properties of potassium trioxalatoferrate(III) trihydrate  Aravamudan, G.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Udupa, M. R.
The authors report on an exercise involving potassium trioxalatoferrate(III) trihydrate as an illustrative exercise in general chemistry laboratory courses.
Aravamudan, G.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Udupa, M. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 129.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Physical Properties
The octane cannon experiment updated for television  Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.
Video recording the detonation of octane in a clear tube for frame-by-frame analysis of a rapid reaction.
Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 856.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Some reactions of tungsten: A lecture demonstration  Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H.
Several demonstrations involving reactions of tungsten.
Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 810.
Metals |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The reduction of CuO with burner gas and without a fume hood. A high school chemistry experiment  Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas
This experiment is a modification of the classic reduction of CuO with hydrogen gas, except natural gas is used as the reducing agent, eliminating the danger of working with hydrogen.
Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 717.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
An oscillating iodine clock  Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C.
An oscillating iodine clock reaction that gives striking cyclic changes from colorless to gold to blue using simple reagents.
Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 496.
Reactions |
Kinetics
The phenomenon of synergism in the field of chemistry  Sunier, Arthur A.
Presents examples of synergism in chemistry and examines its underlying causes.
Sunier, Arthur A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 805.
Reactions
Faster dinner via molecular potential energy  Modestino, Sherwood A.
The cooking time for a beef roast can be reduced by using a device that acts as a heat pipe.
Modestino, Sherwood A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 706.
Heat Capacity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Pseudo first-order kinetics  Corbett, John F.
A kinetic study of second-order reactions under first-order conditions can yield accurate second-order rate constants provided an empirical allowance is made for the depletion of the reactant in excess.
Corbett, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 663.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Passage of fruit flies through a hole. A model for a reversible chemical reaction  Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf
The passage of fruit flies through a single orifice provides an excellent model for illustrating the principles of equilibrium and chemical dynamics; the results are found to be temperature dependent and reproducible.
Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 534.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The color blind traffic light. An undergraduate kinetics experiment using an oscillating reaction  Lefelhocz, John F.
This kinetics experiment involves the student with a qualitative study of the influence of chemical and physical variables on the rate of a specific reaction.
Lefelhocz, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 312.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
The chemistry of winemaking. An unique lecture demonstration  Church, L. B.
This paper shows that a very complex series of reactions present in the preparation of wine can be used as the focal point to illustrate many other general classes of chemical reactions and physical processes.
Church, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 174.
Alcohols |
Consumer Chemistry |
Reactions
When your car rusts out  Knockemus, Ward
Explains the rusting of a car by considering electrochemical corrosion and the Nernst equation.
Knockemus, Ward J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Reactions
A study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl  Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben
The authors describe the experimental procedure and a discussion of results for a study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl.
Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 327.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Hydrolysis of the carbonate ion  Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James
Predicting and testing the product of the reaction between aqueous Cu(NO3)2 and Na2CO3.
Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hydrolysis of the carbonate ion  Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James
Predicting and testing the product of the reaction between aqueous Cu(NO3)2 and Na2CO3.
Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstrating the relation between rate constants and the equilibrium constant  Meyer, Edwin F.; Glass, Edward
Presents an approach used with an apparatus to demonstrate quantitatively the relationship between rate constants and the equilibrium constant for simple reversible reactions.
Meyer, Edwin F.; Glass, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 646.
Rate Law |
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Interpretation of oxidation-reduction  Goodstein, Madeline P.
Presents an interpretation of the oxidation number system based upon the electronegativity principle, thus removing the adjective "arbitrary" frequently found in the descriptions of oxidation number.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 452.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Understanding a culprit before eliminating it. An application of Lewis acid-base principles to atmospheric SO2 as a pollutant  Brasted, Robert C.
The SO2 molecule offers ample opportunities for teaching practical chemistry. [Debut of first run. This feature reappeared in 1986.]
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Demonstration of photochemistry and the dimerization and trapping of free radicals  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This demonstration uses simple equipment and involves a rapid, readily noticeable color change and also illustrates dimerization and the trapping of free radicals.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 315.
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactions
Definition of reaction rate and the steady state assumption  Rasiel, Yecheskel; Freeman, Wade A.
Clarifies the definition of reaction rate and the steady state assumption.
Rasiel, Yecheskel; Freeman, Wade A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 159.
Rate Law |
Reactions
The oxidation of hydrazine by basic iodine solutions: A stoichiometric study  Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W.
This experiment relies on an oxidation-reduction reaction for which a variety of products is energetically possible.
Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 872.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Group VI. The Sulfur Family D. Sulfur Dioxide  Alyea, Hubert N.
Seven demonstrations involving sulfur dioxide.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A977.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reactions of metals and sulfur  Walker, Noojin
An iron nail reacts with sulfur to produce iron(II) sulfide.
Walker, Noojin J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A901.
Metals |
Reactions
Spontaneous combustion  Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H.
Linseed oil is observed to char cotton over a period of time.
Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A simple vacuum apparatus for lecture experiments  Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H.
Describes a simple vacuum apparatus and examples of its use in lecture situations.
Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 742.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Transport Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reactions  Edwards, John O.
The bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reaction is important and should be included in any detailed discussion of kinetics and mechanism at an early undergraduate level.
Edwards, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 386.
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
From stoichiometry and rate law to mechanism  Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John
Examines the rules used by chemists as guidelines in developing mechanisms from stoichiometric and rate law observations.
Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 381.
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Reactive Intermediates
The revolution in elementary kinetics and freshman chemistry  Wolfgang, Richard
New developments in kinetics so fundamentally affect our most elementary conception of chemical change that they must inevitably be reflected in beginning courses in chemistry; includes an outline for freshmen on elementary chemical dynamics.
Wolfgang, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 359.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemical dynamics for college freshmen  Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B.
Suggestions for topics regarding chemical dynamics to be considered in freshman chemistry.
Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 354.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Group 1. The Alkali Metals. The Copper Group   Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations include the density and melting point of copper versus sodium, the conductivity of sodium, the reactivity with water of groups IA vs IB, and the stability of CO3--, HCO3-, and hydroxides of groups IA vs IB.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A919.
Metals |
Reactions |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Reaction Rates and Equilibria A. Rate of Reaction 1. Effect of concentration  Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction include H2O2+Cu(NH3)4++, Zn+acid, and the "long delay" iodine clock reaction.
Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A274.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
A study of the silver tree experiment  Carmody, Walter R.; Wiersma, Jack
Examines the errors associated with and efforts to improve the results of the silver tree experiment.
Carmody, Walter R.; Wiersma, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 417.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Capillary tube experiments for introductory chemistry laboratory  Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian
Describes the use of a capillary tube to determine how vapor changes with temperature.
Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 387.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
VII - Combustion and flame  Anderson, Robbin C.
Presents and describes an extensive bibliography on the study of combustion and flames.
Anderson, Robbin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 248.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
Demonstrations of spontaneous endothermic reactions  Matthews, G. W. J.
The reaction between hydrated metal chlorides and thionyl chloride provides a series of valuable experiments that can be used to demonstrate spontaneous endothermic reactions.
Matthews, G. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 476.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
Fusion reactions under the microscope  Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe
An electrically heated wire is used to identify a variety of cations and anions according to colors observed under a microscope.
Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 421.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Demonstration of chemical reaction via aerosol spray reagents  Stedman, Earl D.
Demonstrations of chemical reactions via aerosol spray reagents may include acid-base indicators and precipitation reactions.
Stedman, Earl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 377.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions
Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose: A student study of a reaction mechanism  Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A.
By extending the experimental work in a kinetic study of the hydrolysis of sucrose, the beginning student in chemistry can gather some insight into the mechanism of the reaction.
Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 34.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Carbohydrates
Teaching principles of quantitative analysis with "qual" reactions  O'Donnell, T. A.
A series of test-tube reactions using semi-micro techniques has been devised to precede each section of the course in quantitative analysis designed to illustrate qualitatively or semi-qualitatively the chemical reactions or principles that are the basis of each quantitative exercise.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 434.
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Infrared spectrometry to study second order reaction kinetics  Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y.
The change studied is a synthesis reaction between menthol and phenyl isocyanate.
Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 613.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
The hydration of carbon dioxide: A double clock experiment  Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L.
This extension of the "Soda Water Clock" experiment provides a quantitative kinetics investigation.
Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 610.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters  Gates, Henry S.
Brings the reader's attention to work done by Petit and Dulong in revising a large number of atomic weights in order to bring all of their reported atomic heat capacities into agreement with the hypothesis that atomic heat capacity is the same for all elements.
Gates, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 575.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion  Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H.
Presents the oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion as an ideal reaction to study as part of an experiment on kinetics.
Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 549.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Homogeneous catalysis: A reexamination of definitions  Leisten, J. A.
Considers common questions regarding the action of catalysts by examining various typical examples.
Leisten, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 23.
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
The direct reactions of solids  Feigl, F.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Feigl, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A135.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Solids
Variation in reactivityA demonstration  Bowen, D. M.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Bowen, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A135.
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Alkali metal-water reactions  Markowitz, Meyer M.
The typical open-air demonstration of sodium reacting with water does not in reality represent the typical reaction of an alkali metal with liquid water; the article goes on to consider other factors that may influence these reactions.
Markowitz, Meyer M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 633.
Reactions |
Metals |
Water / Water Chemistry
KineticsEarly and often  Campbell, J. A.
Describes an approach to investigating kinetics and its application to the "blue bottle" experiment.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 578.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The physical and chemical character of graphite  Tee, Peter A. H.; Tonge, Brian L.
Examines the physical and chemical character of graphite, its occurrence and manufacture, and uses and future applications.
Tee, Peter A. H.; Tonge, Brian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 117.
Physical Properties
Letters to the editor  Jurale, Bernard
Compares the catalytic capability of reagent vs. technical grade manganese oxide in the decomposition of potassium chlorate.
Jurale, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Reactions |
Catalysis
Letters to the editor  Meyer, E. Gerald; Weaver, Elbert C.
The authors encourage instructors of introductory chemistry not to distract students with side reactions.
Meyer, E. Gerald; Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Reactions
The preparation of magnesium nitride  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests some research activities based on an article published previously in the Journal.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A960.
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions
A compact light box  Barnard, Robert
Presents the design of a light box suitable for demonstrations involving solutions, precipitations, or any basic chemical reaction.
Barnard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A953.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Reactions
Hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry experiments. Part 2. General chemistry experiments  Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N.
Presents a variety of experiments that make use of hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry.
Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry
Magnetic stirring promotes smooth boiling  Bloomfield, Jordan J.
This short note indicates that the use of a magnetic stirrer effectively prevents violent bumping.
Bloomfield, Jordan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 355.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Some aspects of chemical kinetics for elementary chemistry  Benson, Sidney W.
The author suggests greater efforts to address the issue of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in introductory chemistry.
Benson, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 321.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
The carbon-12 scale of atomic masses  Labbauf, Abbas
Examines the concept of atomic weight and the rise and coexistence of the oxygen and carbon scales of atomic mass.
Labbauf, Abbas J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 282.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Oxidation-reduction mechanisms  Duke, F. R.
Summarizes various types of oxidation-reduction mechanisms.
Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 161.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
A temperature sensitive stirring rod: Liquefaction of NO2 as a student experiment  Eddy, Robert D.; Scholes, Samuel R., Jr.
NO2 is generated from Pb(NO3)2 and collected, condensed, and sealed in a hollow stirring rod, which is then observed in hot, cool, and cold water.
Eddy, Robert D.; Scholes, Samuel R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 527.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure: A demonstration using a "Ziegler" type catalyst  Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max
A simple experiment on the polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure is described using a "Ziegler" type catalyst prepared from amyl lithium and titanium tetrachloride.
Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 344.
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Alkenes
Chemistry in the manufacture of modern gasoline  Kimberlin, C. N., Jr.
This paper presents a brief review of the chemistry involved in the manufacture of gasoline, particularly catalytic cracking reactions.
Kimberlin, C. N., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 569.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. II. Bond energies  Reinmuth, Otto
Examines bond and dissociation energies, the "constancy" of C-H and C-C dissociation energies, and some common types of organochemical reactions.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 318.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions
An efficient chemiluminescent system and a chemiluminescent clock reaction  White, Emil H.
Presents the investigation of two chemiluminescent systems - the first is particularly brilliant and the second acts as a clock reaction.
White, Emil H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 275.
Photochemistry |
Reactions
A "clock reaction" for a beginning course in college chemistry  Black, Arthur H.; Dodson, Vance H.
The reduction of the cerium(IV) ion in aqueous sulfuric acid to the cerium(III) ion with oxalate ion can be followed visually and without special colorimetric devices.
Black, Arthur H.; Dodson, Vance H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 562.
Reactions
Simple generalized reaction schemes  Estok, George K.
In the early development of a student's background in chemistry it seems desirable to encourage an integrated understanding of the types of chemical particles and the formal ways in which they may react.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 115.
Reactions
The formaldehyde clock reaction  Barrett, Richard L.
The formaldehyde clock reaction has some advantages over the familiar iodine clock and deserves to be better known.
Barrett, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 78.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Ammonia and "ammonium hydroxide"  Davis, John B.
One of several reactions that needs reevaluation in the light of the modern theory of valence is the reaction between ammonia and water and the fiction of the ammonium hydroxide molecule.
Davis, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 511.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Silver trees  Gleim, David I.
Describes the classic silver tree and the examination of its crystals under the microscope.
Gleim, David I. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 151.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Qualitative adequacy of phlogiston  Scott, John Howe
The author illustrates the phlogiston theory and the reasoning of those who used it historically (particularly Scheele) by applying them to several simple chemical reactions.
Scott, John Howe J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 360.
Reactions
A clock reaction  Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot
Ferrous ions in an alkaline solution of a tartrate form of a soluble chelate complex that reacts sluggishly with iodine.
Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 386.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry