TIGER

Journal Articles: 217 results
[#94] Hold the Heat: Global Heat Retention, Global Warming and Calorimetry  Joel D. Burley and Harold S. Johnston
Students perform quantitative calorimetric measurements on samples of ice/water heated by incandescent light bulbs and by convection with room-temperature surroundings.
Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 224A.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams  Ed Vitz
This series of demonstrations elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines using common laboratory materials and can be adapted for elementary through tertiary levels. The formation of fogs is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1385.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Polymeric, Metallic and Other Glasses in Introductory Chemistry  Stephen J. Hawkes
Polymeric, metallic, and other glasses and their importance are described in a manner suitable for introductory chemistry.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1377.
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids
Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties  Robert M. Hanson, Patrick Riley, Jeff Schwinefus, and Paul J. Fischer
The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level.
Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1142.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Calorimetry  JCE Editorial Staff
Lists articles describing laboratory exercises using calorimetry measurements.
J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1130.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter  Emma Kavanagh, Sam Mindel, Giles Robertson, and D. E. Peter Hughes
Describes the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element, that has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute.
Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1129.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Understanding the Clausius–Clapeyron Equation by Employing an Easily Adaptable Pressure Cooker  Monica Galleano, Alberto Boveris, and Susana Puntarulo
Describes a laboratory exercise to understand the effect of pressure on phase equilibrium as described by the ClausiusClapeyron equation. The equipment required is a pressure cooker adapted with a pressure gauge and a thermometer in the lid, allowing the measurement of the pressure and the temperature of the chamber containing the water heated until vaporization.
Galleano, Monica; Boveris, Alberto; Puntarulo, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 276.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Heat Capacity of Metals and Demonstration of the Law of Dulong and Petit  Ronald P. D'Amelia, Vincent Stracuzzi, and William F. Nirode
The work described herein discusses the use of differential scanning calorimetry in a general chemistry laboratory course to determine the specific heat capacities of metals and introduce the empirical law of Dulong and Petit.
D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Stracuzzi, Vincent; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 109.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis
Gas Clathrate Hydrates Experiment for High School Projects and Undergraduate Laboratories  Melissa P. Prado, Annie Pham, Robert E. Ferazzi, Kimberly Edwards, and Kenneth C. Janda
Presents a procedure for preparing and studying propane clathrate hydrate. This experiment introduces students to this unusual solid while stimulating a discussion of the interplay of intermolecular forces, thermodynamics, and solid structure.
Prado, Melissa P.; Pham, Annie; Ferazzi, Robert E.; Edwards, Kimberly; Janda, Kenneth C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1790.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
A Simple Calorimetric Experiment That Highlights Aspects of Global Heat Retention and Global Warming  Joel D. Burley and Harold S. Johnston
In this laboratory experiment, general chemistry students verify that heat is consumed in the melting of ice, with no increase in temperature until all the ice has melted. The fundamental calorimetric principles demonstrated by the lab results are then developed to help students better assess and understand the experimental evidence associated with global warming.
Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1686.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Freezing Point of Milk: A Natural Way To Understand Colligative Properties  Mercedes Novo, Belén Reija, and Wajih Al-Soufi
Presents a laboratory experiment that illustrates the use of freezing point measurements to control milk quality and determine molecular weight.
Novo, Mercedes; Reija, Belén; Al-Soufi, Wajih. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1673.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
Mass-Elastic Band Thermodynamics: A Visual Teaching Aid at the Introductory Level  William C. Galley
Demonstrations of five spontaneous isothermal processes involving the coupling of a mass and elastic band and arising from combinations of enthalpy and entropy changes are presented and then dissected. Analogies are drawn between these processes and common spontaneous molecular events such as chemical reactions and phase transitions.
Galley, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1147.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
"Concept Learning versus Problem Solving": Does Particle Motion Have an Effect?  Michael J. Sanger, Eddie Campbell, Jeremy Felker, and Charles Spencer
210 students were asked to answer a static, particulate-level, multiple-choice question concerning gas properties. Then they viewed an animated version of the question and answered the multiple-choice question again. The distribution of responses changed significantly after students viewed the animation.
Sanger, Michael J.; Campbell, Eddie; Felker, Jeremy; Spencer, Charles. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 875.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
What Are Students Thinking When They Pick Their Answer?  Michael J. Sanger and Amy J. Phelps
330 students were asked to answer a multiple-choice question concerning gas properties at the microscopic level and explain their reasoning. Of those who selected the correct answer, 80% provided explanations consistent with the scientifically accepted answer, while 90% of the students who picked an incorrect choice provided explanations with at least one misconception.
Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 870.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Qualitative Analysis
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
"Mysteries" of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics  Rubin Battino
Over the years the subject of thermodynamics has taken on an aura of difficulty, subtlety, and mystery. This article discusses common misconceptions and how to introduce the topic to students.
Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons  Ronald DAmelia, Thomas Franks, and William F. Nirode
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a rugged, easy-to-use instrumental method for thermal analysis determinations. The work described herein discusses the use of DSC in a general chemistry laboratory course to determine thermal properties such as melting points, ?fusionH, ?fusionS, and introduce the concept of polymorphism for organic hydrocarbons.
DAmelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 453.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Instrumental Methods |
Physical Properties |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermochemical Analysis of Neutralization Reactions: An Introductory Discovery Experiment  Kenneth V. Mills and Louise W. Guilmette
Describes a guided-inquiry laboratory pedagogy in which students discover chemical concepts in the lab and the instructor uses their pooled data to guide the lecture portion of the course. This method is illustrated by an experiment that reinforces students' understanding of stoichiometry and allows them to discover neutralization reactions and thermochemistry.
Mills, Kenneth V.; Guilmette, Louise W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 326.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression  Ronald P. D'Amelia, Thomas Franks, and William F. Nirode
The work described herein uses differential scanning calorimetry to determine the molar mass of three unknowns (nonvolatile organic hydrocarbons) by freezing point depression.
D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1537.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Dulong and Petit's Law: We Should Not Ignore Its Importance  Mary Laing and Michael Laing
This article describes two student exercises: the determination of the specific heat of a metal and hence its atomic weight and a graphical study of specific heat versus atomic weight for different groups of metals and the confirmation of Dulong and Petit's law.
Laing, Mary; Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1499.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Endothermic Chemical and Physical Changes: An Introductory Chemistry Experiment  Margaret J. Steffel
Each of eleven unidentified compounds is heated in a test tube to determine whether the endothermic change each undergoes is a chemical or a physical change.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1185.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Useful Work of a Process  Norman C. Craig
Acknowledgment of a flaw in the article, Lets Drive Driving Force Out of Chemistry.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 703.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Useful Work of a Process  Bruno Lunelli
Clarifies a potentially misleading statement in the article, Lets Drive Driving Force Out of Chemistry.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 703.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
No "Driving Forces" in General Chemistry  Evguenii I. Kozliak
A simple and easy-to-remember explanation, that precipitation of a solid and/or formation of water are driving forces of those reactions or drive them to completion, still occurs among instructors.
Kozliak, Evguenii I. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 702.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Popping Popcorn Kernels: Expanding Relevance with Linear Thinking  Jordan L. Bennett, Michael M. Fuson, and Thomas A. Evans
Graphing skills and an understanding of linear relationships are developed in the context of popping of individual popcorn kernels. Introductory-level chemistry students determine mass changes as the result of popping along with the volume and density of the popcorn flakes produced.
Bennett, Jordan L.; Fuson, Michael M.; Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 414.
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  Alfonso Aranda and María del Prado Rodríguez
Introduces the basic considerations for managing pressurized fluids, mainly liquefied and compressed gases.
Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, María del Prado. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 93.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
The Nature of Hydrogen Bonding  Emeric Schultz
Students use toy connecting blocks and Velcro to investigate weak intermolecular interactions, specifically hydrogen bonds.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 400A.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Colors in Liquid Crystals  George Lisensky and Elizabeth Boatman
This activity is suitable for exploring relationships between color, wavelength, reflection, and transmission and illustrates how temperature changes the liquid crystal's Bragg reflection wavelength.
Lisensky, George; Boatman, Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1360A.
Nanotechnology |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Spectroscopy |
Fatty Acids
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Chemistry of Moth Repellents  Gabriel Pinto
A real-life example consisting of the study of the different substances used as moth repellents is presented to introduce students to miscellaneous topics such as sublimation, intermolecular forces, insecticides, and the effect of moths on clothes. A set of questions about the most common moth repellents, well known to students, is used to motivate them to understand several everday phenomena through chemistry concepts.
Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1321.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Consumer Chemistry
Some Insights Regarding a Popular Introductory Gas Law Experiment  Ed DePierro and Fred Garafalo
This paper alerts readers to a potential source of error in one approach to the Dumas method as it is often practiced in introductory chemistry laboratories. The room-temperature vapor pressures of volatile compounds that might be considered as unknowns for the experiment lead to determined molar masses that are too low. The greater the vapor pressure of the compound, the lower the determined molar mass will be, when compared to the accepted value.
DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1194.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
The q/T Paradox: Which "Contains More Heat", a Cup of Coffee at 95°C or a Liter of Icewater?  Ed Vitz and Michael J. Schuman
In this demonstration, heat is removed from 10 cm3 of water at ~95C and 42 cm3 of water at ~0C by adding each to a measured sample of liquid nitrogen. The heat removed from the water boils the N2(l), and the quantity of liquid nitrogen that is evaporated by boiling is determined. The quantity of heat that was absorbed is calculated from the heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen and found to be about 10,000 J in the case of the hot water and 25,000 J in the case of the icewater.
Vitz, Ed; Schuman, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 856.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Let's Drive "Driving Force" Out of Chemistry  Norman C. Craig
"Driving force" is identified as a misleading concept in analyzing spontaneous change. Driving force wrongly suggests that Newtonian mechanics and determinism control and explain spontaneous processes. The usefulness of the competition of ?H versus ?S in discussing chemical change is also questioned. Entropy analyseswhich consider the contributions to the total change in entropyare advocated.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 827.
Natural Products |
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber  Curtis J. Czerwinski and Tanya J. Cordes
While several lecture demonstrations are possible using methane-filled balloons, it is often inconvenient to prepare these balloons since the pressure from standard laboratory and lecture hall gas nozzles is too low. As a solution to this problem, a methane balloon inflation chamber, prepared from a translucent 3.5-gallon pail and an aspirator or house-vacuum, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for inflating balloons in laboratories or lecture halls. Prepared in this way, methane-filled balloons can be used to demonstrate the effects of vacuum, the lifting power of low-density gases, and the explosive combustion of methane.
Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 248.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Calories - Who's Counting?   JCE Editorial Staff
Students determine how many calories are released per gram when marshmallows and cashews burn and then compare the quantity of energy available from carbohydrates vs. fats.
JCE Editorial Staff . J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1440A.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Lipids |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Fatty Acids
Using Science Fiction To Teach Thermodynamics: Vonnegut, Ice-nine, and Global Warming  Charles A. Liberko
When covering the topic of thermodynamics at the introductory level, an example from Kurt Vonnegut, Jr's, fictional novel, Cat's Cradle, is used to take what the students have learned and apply it to a new situation.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 509.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Colorful Iodine  Richard W. Ramette
Design for an iodine thermometer, demonstrating sublimation of iodine.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 878.
Main-Group Elements |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry
Uncle Tungsten  Martin E. Fuller
Design for an iodine thermometer, demonstrating sublimation of iodine.
Fuller, Martin E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 878.
Main-Group Elements |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry
Using Ice-Cooled Condensers in Chemistry Laboratory  Sally Solomon, Bryan Brook, Susan Rutkowsky, and Joseph Bennet
Using ice-cooled condensers in the chemistry laboratory; includes two simple experimental applications.
Solomon, Sally; Brook, Bryan; Rutkowsky, Susan; Bennet, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 299.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An After-Dinner Trick   JCE Editorial Staff
Using freezing-point depression to lift an ice cube out of a glass of water with a thread.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 480A.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions  Jonathan Mitschele
Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English- and metric-unit thermometers.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Three-Dimensional Model for Water  J. L. H. Johnson and S. H. Yalkowsky
Using Molymod spheres and magnets to simulate the structure and properties of water and aqueous systems.
Johnson, J. L. H.; Yalkowsky, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1088.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
H Is for Enthalpy, Thanks to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and Alfred W. Porter  Irmgard K. Howard
Origin of the word enthalpy.
Howard, Irmgard K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 697.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Is Salt Melting When It Dissolves in Water?  Alan Goodwin
Analysis of the chemical meaning of the terms melting and dissolving.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 393.
Liquids |
Solids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A Chemically Relevant Model for Teaching the Second Law of Thermodynamics  Bryce E. Williamson and Tetsuo Morikawa
Presentation of a chemically relevant model that exemplifies many aspects of the second law: reversibility, path dependence, and extrapolation in terms of electrochemistry and calorimetry.
Williamson, Bryce E.; Morikawa, Tetsuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 339.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The Purification of Water by Freeze-Thaw or Zone Melting  James Oughton, Silas Xu, and Rubin Battino
Quantitative investigation of the purification of slat water solutions through the process of partial freezing.
Oughton, James; Xu, Silas; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1373.
Conductivity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A Simplified Method for Measuring the Entropy Change of Urea Dissolution. An Experiment for the Introductory Chemistry Lab  Charles A. Liberko and Stephanie Terry
Guided inquiry to determine values for changes in enthalpy, Gibb's free energy, and entropy for the dissolution of urea in water.
Liberko, Charles A.; Terry, Stephanie. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1087.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter: A Versatile Instrument for Studying Processes in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology  Lars Wadsö, Allan L. Smith, Hamid Shirazi, S. Rose Mulligan, and Thomas Hofelich
A simple but sensitive isothermal heat-conduction calorimeter and five experiments for students to illustrate its use (heat capacity of solids, acid-base titration, enthalpy of vaporization of solvents, cement hydration, and insect metabolism).
Wadsö, Lars; Smith, Allan L.; Shirazi, Hamid; Mulligan, S. Rose; Hofelich, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1080.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Melting Point, Density, and Reactivity of Metals  Michael Laing
Using melting points and densities to the predict the relative reactivities of metals.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1054.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry
A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide  Sze-Shun Wong, Natasha D. Popovich, and Shelley J. Coldiron
Design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter.
Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 798.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
JCE Classroom Activity: Out of "Thin Air": Exploring Phase Changes  John J. Vollmer
This Activity illustrates sublimation/deposition with para-dichlorobenzene (mothballs) and evaporation/condensation with water.
Vollmer, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 488A.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Physical Properties |
Solids |
Gases
Ultramicro-Boiling-Point Determination--A Modification  Henry Brouwer
The determination of microscale boiling points in a melting-point tube may be simplified by replacing the micro-bell bubbler with an ultrathin capillary tube bubbler.
Brouwer, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1480.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Thermodynamics of Water Superheated in the Microwave Oven  B. H. Erné
Water is conveniently heated above its normal boiling point in a microwave oven in a glass microwave oven teapot. Water stops boiling soon after heating is interrupted, but subsequently added rough particles can still act as nucleation centers for a brief, spectacular burst of steam bubbles. The heat to make those steam bubbles obviously comes from the water itself, so that one can conclude that the boiling water was superheated, which is confirmed with a thermometer.
Erné, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1309.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Liquids
Hell May Be Hotter Than Heaven After All (about J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 503)  M. N. Berberan-Santos
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Berberan-Santos, Mário N. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
A Visual Aid in Enthalpy Calculations  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for reactants and products as a visual aid in the teaching of reaction-enthalpy calculations. By the use of such diagrams the division of the process into a part involving a chemical reaction without a temperature change and a part involving only a temperature change is made visually concrete.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1178.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Glass Doesn't Flow and Doesn't Crystallize and It Isn't a Liquid  Stephen J. Hawkes
It is widely believed that glass flows in historic time and it is often asserted that glass is a liquid. The evidence of archeology, geology, and viscosity and of research on glass structure and on conservation of antique glass is examined and the conclusion in the title is reached. These fallacies should not be taught.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 846.
Geochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry
Studying Thermally Induced Chemical and Physical Transformations in Common Synthetic Polymers: A Laboratory Project  Steven C. Hodgson, John D. Orbell, Stephen W. Bigger, and John Scheirs
A simple project is described for introducing students to some experimental procedures commonly used to measure the effects of thermal treatment on synthetic polymers. The thermally induced changes that occur in the commodity polymers low-density polyethylene (LDPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are examined as a function of the time of thermal treatment in an air-circulating oven.
Hodgson, Steven C.; Orbell, John D.; Bigger, Stephen W.; Scheirs, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 745.
IR Spectroscopy |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Closer Look at Phase Diagrams for the General Chemistry Course  Stephen A. Gramsch
The information provided by the high-pressure phase diagrams of some simple systems (carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, and iron) can provide a useful extension to the traditional discussion of phase diagrams in the general chemistry course. At the same time, it can prepare students for a more illuminating presentation of the concept of equilibrium than is possible through the discussion of gas phase, acid-base, and solubility product equilibria alone.
Gramsch, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 718.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Geochemistry
Illustrating Thermodynamic Concepts Using a Hero's Engine  Pedro L. Muiño and James R. Hodgson
A modified Hero's engine is used to illustrate concepts of thermodynamics and engineering design suitable for introductory chemistry courses and more advanced physical chemistry courses. This demonstration is suitable to illustrate concepts like gas expansion, gas cooling through expansion, conversion of heat to work, interconversion between kinetic energy and potential energy, and feedback mechanisms.
Muio, Pedro L.; Hodgson, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 615.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Crystals Out of "Thin Air"  John J. Vollmer
In this experiment crystals of para-dichlorobenzene form readily and efficiently from mothballs in a safe setting, using canning jars with ice cubes. The experiment can serve as an introduction to the concept of molecules, especially when combined with the condensation of liquids and the perception of odors.
Vollmer, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 486.
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Boerhaave on Fire  Damon Diemente
This article offers a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 42.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Using TOPEX Satellite El Niño Altimetry Data to Introduce Thermal Expansion and Heat Capacity Concepts in Chemistry Courses  Harvey F. Blanck
Warm water is less dense than cool water and will float somewhat like ice, with a portion above the surface of the cooler surrounding water. The height of the bump can be used to estimate the excess thermal energy in the warmer water.
Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1635.
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The Enthalpy of Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide: A General Chemistry Calorimetry Experiment  Charles J. Marzzacco
The experiment is simple, inexpensive, and colorful. In its simplest form, it can be performed in less than one hour; therefore, it is quite suitable for high school labs, which often have time restrictions. The chemicals required are household or commercial 3% H2O2(aq) and 0.50 M Fe(NO3)3(aq).
Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1517.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Catalysis
Entropy, Disorder, and Freezing  Brian B. Laird
It is argued that the usual view that entropy is a measure of "disorder" is problematic and that there exist systems at high density, for which packing considerations dominate, where a spatially ordered state has a higher entropy than a disordered one.
Laird, Brian B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1388.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
An Inexpensive Microscale Method for Measuring Vapor Pressure, Associated Thermodynamic Variables, and Molecular Weight  Jason C. DeMuro, Hovanes Margarian, Artavan Mkhikian, Kwang Hi No, and Andrew R. Peterson
Existing methods for measuring vapor pressure are too expensive or not quantitative enough for chemistry classes in secondary schools. Our method measures the vapor pressure inside a bubble trapped in a graduated microtube made from a disposable 1-mL glass pipet.
DeMuro, Jason C.; Margarian, Hovanes; Mkhikian, Artavan; No, Kwang Hi; Peterson, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1113.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An Apparatus for Temperature Displays  George Papageorgiou and John Xenos
In this article, a new simple and low-cost apparatus is introduced that provides the possibility to display temperature measurements in any lecture hall. The apparatus provides analog displays. Its construction requires only simple and inexpensive materials.
Papageorgiou, George; Xenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1094.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Correction to The Bobbing Bird  Gesser, Hyman D.
Problem with demonstration if humidity is high and correction for this.
Gesser, Hyman D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 757.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Physics Teacher  Volker B. E. Thomsen
Selected articles with a chemistry emphasis.
Thomsen, Volker B. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 18.
Spectroscopy |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Teaching Distillation Knowledge: A Video Film about Distillation Bridging a Gap Between Theory and Practice  Martin J. Goedhart, Hanno van Keulen, Theo M. Mulder, Adri H. Verdonk, and Wobbe De Vos
The authors observed that first year students hardly used their knowledge of phase theory in the design and performance of distillations. They therefore developed a video in which they confront students with the boiling properties of liquid mixtures.
Goedhart, Martin J.; van Keulen, Hanno; Mulder, Theo M.; Verdonk, Adri H.; De Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 378.
Learning Theories |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
A Closer Look at the Addition of Equations and Reactions  Damon Diemente
Chemists occasionally find it convenient or even necessary to express an overall reaction as the sum of two or more component reactions. A close examination, however, reveals that the resemblance between chemical algebraic equations is entirely superficial, and that the real meaning of addition in chemical equations is subtle and varies from case to case. In high-school courses, students are likely to encounter the addition of equations in thermochemistry, in electrochemistry, and in kinetics.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 319.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Thermochromic Solids  Jeffrey G. Hughes
The preparation of thermochromic compounds and various ways to use them.
Hughes, Jeffrey G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 57.
Coordination Compounds |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Demonstrating Heat Changes on the Overhead Projector with a Projecting Thermometer  Chinhyu Hur, Sally Solomon, and Christy Wetzel
Heat changes can be observed by using a culture dish and a thermometer that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector.
Hur, Chinhyu; Solomon, Sally; Wetzel, Christy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 51.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Heat Capacity, Body Temperature, and Hypothermia  Doris R. Kimbrough
A finger in and out of water are compared to demonstrate the difference between heat capacities and their effect on body temperature.
Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 48.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement  Mark Muyskens
Application of an integrated-circuit (IC) temperature sensor which is easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, easily computer-interfacable and has good precision is described. The design, based on the National Semiconductor LM35 IC chip, avoids some of the difficulties associated with conventional sensors (thermocouples, thermistors, and platinum resistance thermometers) and a previously described IC sensor.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 850.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Experiments of Modern Chemistry: Simultaneous Recording of Multiple Cooling Curves  Ronald A. Bailey, Sudhen B. Desai, Norbert F. Hepfinger, Henry B. Hollinger, Peter S. Locke, Kenneth J. Miller, James J. Deacutis, Donald R. VanSteele
An apparatus for simultaneous recording of six heating/cooling curves of metallic mixtures is described. Data are recorded using computer data acquisition and temperature-time data displayed and printed out for evaluation.
Bailey, Ronald A.; Desai, Sudhen B.; Hepfinger, Norbert F.; Hollinger, Henry B.; Locke, Peter S.; Miller, Kenneth J.; Deacutis, James J.; VanSteele, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 732.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?  Michael P. Jansen
When a laboratory (or Bunsen) burner is used to heat water, all of the energy liberated by the burning fuel is not absorbed by the water. This article describes a procedure for determining the percentage efficiency of this common apparatus. This experiment is suitable for secondary school students who are familiar with stoichiometry , simple calorimetry, heats of reaction, collection of gas by downward displacement of water.
Jansen, Michael P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 213.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
Home-Study Microlabs  Dietmar Kennepohl
This article presents the use of microscaled chemistry experiments for individual home study and how it can be incorporated into a course with traditional laboratory work.
Kennepohl, Dietmar. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 938.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Simple Experiment for Demostration of Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide   Van T. Lieu
The experiment involves the compression of small pieces of dry ice and carbon dioxide gas mixture in a 1-mL tuberculin syringe with the needle end of the syringe sealed.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 837.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Simple and Attractive Demonstraction of the Reversibility of Chemical Reactions  Celestyn M. Brozek
The reversibility of chemical reactions is demonstrated by dehydration of CuSO4  5H2O and the subsequent hydration of CuSO4. The associated heat consumption and the subsequent heat production illustrate the concept of endothermic and exothermic reactions.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 837.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
A Simple and Convenient Microscale Procedure for Investigation of Charles' Law  Snyder, Donald M.
Experimental procedure for establishing temperature/volume relationship for a gas and determining the value of absolute zero using very simple equipment; includes sample data and analysis.
Snyder, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A98.
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Microscale Lab
Quick Method for Making Colored-Flame Flash Paper  Sally Solomon, Chinhyu Hur, Alan Lee, and Kurt Smith
Procedure for making for making colored-flame (and multicolored) flash paper.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1133.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Celsius to Fahrenheit--Quick and Dirty  Colin Hester
Simple algorithm for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature.
Hester, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1026.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Determination of Heats of Fusion: Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry for the AP Chemistry Course   Susan M. Temme
Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in AP chemistry.
Temme, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 916.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
A Pictorial Analogy for Energy Content and Temperature  Thomas D. Crute
Analogy to help students distinguish between heat and temperature.
Crute, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 914.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Kinetics in Thermodynamic Clothing: Fun with Cooling Curves: A First-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr.
A series of experiments examining the phenomenon of cooling by producing part of the cooling curve for water at different initial temperatures, focussing on the fact that the curve is nonlinear (unlike the information presented in many texts).
Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 346.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics
The phases of sulfur  Birdwhistell, Kurt R.
Demonstrating the phases of sulfur through viscosity differences.
Birdwhistell, Kurt R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 56.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Journey around a Phase Diagram  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
This paper deals in depth with questions that arise from phase diagrams in an introductory level chemistry course.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1052.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
Calorie Content of Foods: A Laboratory Experiment Introducing Measuring by Calorimeter  Cohen, Bernard L.; Schilken, Catherine A.
Overcoming the challenges posed by determining the calorie content of food by calorimetry.
Cohen, Bernard L.; Schilken, Catherine A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 342.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Food Science
Nickel-Titanium Memory Metal: A "Smart" Material Exhibiting a Solid-State Phase Change and Superelasticity  Gisser, Kathleen R. C.; Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Cappellari, Ann; Hunsberger, Lynn; Ellis, Arthur B.; Perepezko, John; Lisensky, George C.
Several simple experiments that illustrate the shape-memory, mechanical, and acoustical properties of Nitinol.
Gisser, Kathleen R. C.; Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Cappellari, Ann; Hunsberger, Lynn; Ellis, Arthur B.; Perepezko, John; Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 334.
Solid State Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Cryophori, Hot Molecules, and Frozen Nitrogen  Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L.
Freezing water and nitrogen at low atmospheric pressure.
Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 67.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Heat of solution of hydrogen chloride: A laboratory experiment  Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A.
A simple technique for measuring the heat of solution of HCl in water.
Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 955.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Critical point phase separation in binary liquid mixtures   Bowen, L. H.; Benevides, M. L.
Critical point demonstrations are not usually practical to perform. This author provides a suggestions using hexane, nitrobenzene, triethylamine, water and phenolphthalein.
Bowen, L. H.; Benevides, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 775.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Phase diagrams of one-compound systems: What most textbooks don't say, but should!  Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.
High school and introductory chemistry texts contain errors and omissions in phase diagrams.
Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 560.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Using the electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 1. Colorimetry and thermometry experiments  Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III
The multimeter could be a very useful instrument for the chemistry laboratory bench. In this paper, the versatility of the multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory is demonstrated.
Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 514.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Molecular dynamics simulator  Matthews, G. Peter, Heald, Emerson F.
A review of a computer program that provides a display of molecular motion in a solid, liquid, or gas.
Matthews, G. Peter, Heald, Emerson F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 387.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Storing solar energy in calcium chloride  Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F.
Using common chemistry concepts to determine the feasibility of storing solar energy in calcium chloride hexahydrate.
Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Understanding the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment  Chen, Chien T.
This article reviews our current understanding and then specifies the requirements for research that will improve our ability to detect hydrocarbons and predict their fate in the subsurface environment.
Chen, Chien T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 357.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The howling gummy bear   Sullivan, Dan M.
This demonstration illustrates the fact that we consume high-energy foods in order to obtain the reduced carbon they contain.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 326.
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Boiling and freezing simultaneously - with a feeble vacuum pump!   Ellison, Mike
The author uses this demonstration of freezing and boiling at reduced pressure to reinforce concepts about energy effects in phase changes.
Ellison, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 325.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Vapor pressure demonstrations using a butane lighter  Delumyea, R. Del
The concept of the change of state of matter and particularly the volatitlity of liquids is an important concept taught in introductory chemistry courses.
Delumyea, R. Del J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 321.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Freezing point depression in a bottle of soda   Bare, William D.
The "ravenous consumption of soda" by today's students makes an interesting model with which to demonstrate the effect of solute concentration on the freezing point of an aqueous solution.
Bare, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1038.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry
Wet dry ice   Becker, Robert
A method for demonstrating the triple point of carbon dioxide in a safe way.
Becker, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 782.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Measuring the heat of sublimation of dry ice with a polystyrene foam cup calorimeter  Burgstahler, Albert W.; Bricker, Clark E.
Two versions of an insulated cup calorimetry experiment.
Burgstahler, Albert W.; Bricker, Clark E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 332.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Bomb calorimeter simulation  Olney, David J.
Simulation of the apparatus and use of a bomb calorimeter; contains nine known samples and eight unknowns.
Olney, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 922.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Experiments with "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.

Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 510.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Development of a new design for multipurpose meter: "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.; Poupon, Rene; Gavasso, Roland
The purpose of this article is to describe the design of a common box that can be turned into a simple voltmeter, a pH meter, or a calorimeter.
Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.; Poupon, Rene; Gavasso, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 507.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
pH |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A vapor pressure demonstration   Sears, Jerry A.
The fact that all liquids exert a vapor pressure is an abstract concept that many students have difficulty understanding. The following demonstration offers dramatic, visual evidence of the pressure exerted by the vapor of a liquid.
Sears, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 427.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Wet labs, computers, and spreadsheets  Durham, Bill
The following is a description of some commonly encountered experiments that have been modified for computerized data acquisition.
Durham, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 416.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Electrochemistry
How good is your bleach?  McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C.; Tyminski, Herminia
The exothermic reaction between acetone and household bleach is used to compare the strengths of various brands of bleach.
McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C.; Tyminski, Herminia J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 973.
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A clinical digital thermometer for calorimetry  Hon, Ping-Kay
Modifying an inexpensive clinical thermometer for making thermochemical measurements.
Hon, Ping-Kay J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 695.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The liquid phase of carbon dioxide: A simple lecture demonstration  Andrews, Lester
Demonstrating that liquid CO2 can exist at higher pressures.
Andrews, Lester J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 597.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Heating values of fuels: An introductory experiment  Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin; Karl, David J.
This experiment is a simple, inexpensive way for students to determine the heats of combustion of common solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels.
Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin; Karl, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 554.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry
Preparation of a simple thermochromic solid  Van Oort, Michiel J. M.
An easy, dramatic, and effective laboratory introduction to solid-solid phase transitions, thermochromism, and color changes associated with changes in ligand coordination suitable for undergraduate students in physical and general chemistry.
Van Oort, Michiel J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 84.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Thermodynamics
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Heat of vaporization of nitrogen  Hamlet, Peter
A very simple procedure for measuring the heat of vaporization of nitrogen.
Hamlet, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1060.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Demonstration of vapor pressure  Richardson, W. S.
Demonstrating the vapor pressure of several different materials using a water manometer.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 968.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
A safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2  Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin
Design, construction, and use of a safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2.
Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 347.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
Carbon dioxide: Its principal properties displayed and discussed  Bent, Henry A.
The principal properties of carbon dioxide demonstrated and discussed.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 167.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Demonstration of condensation-vaporization  Ackerson, Rex D.
Demonstrating the condensation and vaporization of Freon-12 using dry ice.
Ackerson, Rex D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 70.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Simple demonstrations of the liquefaction of gases  Marzzacco, Charles J.
This demonstration uses simple hydrocarbons to demonstrate the important ideas of states of matter and changes in state.
Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 436.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A thermochemistry experiment for freshman chemistry lab  Miller, D. P.
A thermochemistry procedure in which colors change during the experiment.
Miller, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 172.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An inexpensive thermistor thermometer for beginning chemistry laboratories  Srivastava, Shyam B.; Meloan, Clifton E.
Design of a thermistor thermometer for heats-of-reaction measurements to 0.1C over short temperature ranges.
Srivastava, Shyam B.; Meloan, Clifton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1027.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Further reflections on heat  Hornack, Frederick M.
Confusion regarding the nature of heat and thermodynamics.
Hornack, Frederick M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 869.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Chemical storage of solar energy using an old color change demonstration  Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G.
The results of a student research project that could be used as an experiment to illustrate the potential of hydrates salts for solar energy storage.
Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 252.
Photochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide  Gigure, Paul A.
The typical textbook treatment of molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide, and the implications of these concepts for the physical properties of hydrogen peroxide tend to be oversimplified and inaccurate.
Gigure, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Hydrogen Bonding
Inorganic thermochromism: A lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition  Willett, Roger D.
A description of an activity using thermochromic material is an easy way to demonstrate solid state phase transition.
Willett, Roger D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 355.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Vapor pressure apparatus for general chemistry  Long, Joseph W.
A simple apparatus for collecting vapor pressure data; relies on a mercury manometer.
Long, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 933.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
A convenient melting/freezing point depression apparatus  Singman, Charles; Sophianopoulos, Judy; Johnson, Ronald
Incorporates an easily read digital thermometer.
Singman, Charles; Sophianopoulos, Judy; Johnson, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 682.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Chemical energy: A learning package  Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth
Problems associated with the teaching of chemical energy and an instructional package designed to overcome those difficulties.
Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 656.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A simple experiment for determining vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of water  Levinson, Gerald S.
It is possible to determine the vapor pressure of water using only a tall beaker, a graduated cylinder, and a thermometer.
Levinson, Gerald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 337.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Entropy and its role in introductory chemistry  Bickford, Franklin R.
The concept of entropy as it applies to phase changes.
Bickford, Franklin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 317.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
A laboratory learning cycle: Hot stuff  Silberman, Robert G.
A calorimetry lab that allows students to design an experiment to solve a problem.
Silberman, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 229.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An illustration of applied calorimetry - Dieting students  Perkins, Robert R.
The author shares a question that catches student interest and exemplifies the theoretical concepts of calorimetry.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 548.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
A specific heat analogy  McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC
An analogy for helping students to understand the concepts of specific heat and heat transfer problems.
McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 896.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Sweet heat  O'Connor, Rod
What would be the net enthalpy change for the complete combustion of 5.00 g of glucose at body temperature?
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 889.
Carbohydrates |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Stormy weather  Taylor, Thomas E.
Question regarding the formation of rain clouds and the exothermic process of condensation.
Taylor, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 732.
Thermodynamics |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Measuring the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation  Driscoll, Jerry A.
Uses toluene, methylcyclohexane, or piperidine to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 667.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Convenient freezing point depression apparatus  Marzzacco, Charles; Collins, Marie
Uses a magnetic stirrer to continuously mix the sample being measured.
Marzzacco, Charles; Collins, Marie J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 650.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The heat of combustion of cereals  Glachino, Gary G.
Determining the heat of combustion of common children's cereals.
Glachino, Gary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 372.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Food Science
The experimental determination of the heat of vaporization of volatile liquids  Chames, Frances; Farver, Nina; Grieve, Catherine; Lynche, Archie; Mac, Michelle; Rickel, Renee; Sears, Jerry
An experiment whereby the heat of vaporization of a volatile liquid can be determined from an Arrhenius plot.
Chames, Frances; Farver, Nina; Grieve, Catherine; Lynche, Archie; Mac, Michelle; Rickel, Renee; Sears, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 362.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Illustrating chemical concepts through food systems: Introductory chemistry experiments  Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S.
Illustrating the vaporization of liquids, reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration using foods.
Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 312.
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Colloids |
Acids / Bases
Lecture demonstration of vanishing meniscus in vapor liquid transition  Duus, H. C.
Shows how the interface between vapor and liquid propane vanishes.
Duus, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 614.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Determination of solution enthalpy: An easy and simple method  Karunakaran, K.
A method that does not involve the preparation and analysis of saturated solutions at different temperatures.
Karunakaran, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Management
Toys in the chemistry classroom  Ziegler, Gene R.
Using toys to teach chemical principles; lists common toys and their potential applications.
Ziegler, Gene R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 629.
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Hydrogen bonding and heat of solution  Friedman, Norman
An experiment that clearly illustrates the role of hydrogen bond formation and its effect on the heat of solution.
Friedman, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 248.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Le Chtelier's principle: A laboratory exercise  Friedman, Frederica
Le Chtelier's principle can be demonstrated by showing that water can boil at temperatures below 100C due to reduced vapor pressure.
Friedman, Frederica J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 236.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry
What the standard state doesn't say about temperature and phase  Carmichael, Halbert
125. The author develops the concept of the "standard state" in a manner that is more robust than typical textbook treatment.
Carmichael, Halbert J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 695.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A computer program for calculation of boiling points at sub- and super-atmospheric pressures  Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David
An interactive program has been written in Fortran IV for the IBM 370/125 which will compute the boiling points of organic compounds at a range of pressures.
Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
A computer program for calculation of boiling points at sub- and super-atmospheric pressures  Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David
An interactive program has been written in Fortran IV for the IBM 370/125 which will compute the boiling points of organic compounds at a range of pressures.
Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Freezing ice cream and making caramel topping  Plumb, Robert C.; Olson, John Otto; Bowman, Leo H.
The obscurity of "colligative properties" can be dispelled by this ice cream example.
Plumb, Robert C.; Olson, John Otto; Bowman, Leo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 49.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
203-205. Three chemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 587.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Heat of combustion of zirconium. A general chemistry experiment  Banks, Richard C.; Carter, Loren; Peterson, Ellis R.
Experiment consists of a flash bulb surrounded by water and fired by a battery.
Banks, Richard C.; Carter, Loren; Peterson, Ellis R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 235.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A simplified undergraduate calorimetry experiment  Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M.
A glass calorimeter for determining ?H for the neutralization of a strong acid with a strong base.
Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 637.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A practical energy experiment or lecture demonstration  Garin, David L.
Presents two demonstrations: one involves heating different volumes of water on the same heater and measuring their temperatures; the other involves heating different volumes of water on the same heater and calculating the heat of vaporization.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 497.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
A computer program for heat of combustion calculations  Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol
A computer program is available for converting raw combustion data to the standard state energy of combustion.
Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 486.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Physical chemistry of the drinking duck  Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E.
The operation of the drinking bird is easily understood in terms of a few elementary physical chemistry principles.
Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 213.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Lecture demonstration of a phase transition in a solid  Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred
The solid-solid phase transition between two different allotropes of silver iodide.
Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 109.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Freezing curves for Salol  Laswick, Patty Hall
The convenient freezing temperature of salol (40-43 C) means that students can easily and safely melt the material using warm water
Laswick, Patty Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 537.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Convenient, inexpensive unknowns for oxygen bomb calorimetry  Shearer, Edmund C.
Ordinary aspirin tablets make excellent samples for oxygen bomb calorimetry.
Shearer, Edmund C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 410.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Evaporation rate: A beginning chemistry experiment  Feinstein, H. I.; Walters, C.
A simple procedure for determining the evaporation rate of volatile solvents.
Feinstein, H. I.; Walters, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 135.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The second law - How much, how soon, to how many?  Bent, Henry A.
Discussion of the conceptual components of thermodynamics, their mathematical requirements, and where they might be best placed in the curriculum.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 337.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Cloud Caps on High Mountains  Stevenson, Philip E.
The formation of cloud caps on high mountains illustrates cooling in an adiabatic expansion and the change in vapor pressure of a liquid with temperature.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 272.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
The snowmaking machines  Plumb, Robert C.
Illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 176.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Chemical principles exemplified  Plumb, Robert C.
Introduction to a new series, containing "exempla" (brief anecdotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles). [Debut]
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 175.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Photochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
An attachment for semiautomatic melting point determination  Vogel, George
This simple yet rugged device notifies the experimenter when a small crystalline sample in a capillary tube first begins to melt.
Vogel, George J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 789.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Indirect calorimetry by computer in the general chemistry course  DeMattia, Dennis; Gruhn, Thomas; Gorman, Mel
Describes the use of a Fortran IV program to stimulate student interest in the applications and potential of computer techniques in chemistry.
DeMattia, Dennis; Gruhn, Thomas; Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 398.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Spontaneous combustion  Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H.
Linseed oil is observed to char cotton over a period of time.
Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A simple vacuum apparatus for lecture experiments  Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H.
Describes a simple vacuum apparatus and examples of its use in lecture situations.
Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 742.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Transport Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Recent developments in calorimetry: Part two. Some associated measurements (cont.)  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Examines the measurement of electricity, calorimetric standards, solution calorimetry, and specific types of calorimeters.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A685.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry (continued) Part 2. Some associated measurements  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Topics examined include thermocouples, resistance thermometers, thermistors, and quartz crystal thermometers.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A629.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry. Part 1. Introductory survey of calorimetry  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Explores the scope and purpose of calorimetric investigation, types of calorimeters, areas of calorimetric investigation and the procedures and calculations involved.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A571.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Laboratory demonstration of fractional distillation  Coleman, H. M.
The method described here permits a quick analysis of the several distillates by direct visualization of one of the two components of a binary mixture containing toluene and acetone.
Coleman, H. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 476.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Microboiling point determination at atmospheric pressure  Chaco, M. C.
This microboiling point determination uses a melting-point capillary
Chaco, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 474.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab |
Physical Properties
Capillary tube experiments for introductory chemistry laboratory  Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian
Describes the use of a capillary tube to determine how vapor changes with temperature.
Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 387.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
States of matter (Continued). D. Solid state  Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A.
Demonstrations include writing with alum crystals, the rate of crystallization and crystal size, purification by crystallization, growing salol crystals in a polarizer, growing crystal blossoms, the melting point of eutectic (salol + benzophenone) and butectic (p-toluidine + a-naphthol), sublimation of organic substances (methyl oxalate), and the pseudo-sublimation of naphthalene.
Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A241.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Solids
Energy B. Heat energy   Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the heat of crystallization (sodium acetate and Na2S2O3[5H2O]), heat of formation (ZnCl2), heat of hydration (CaO and CuSO4), heat of neutralization, heat of solvation (alcohols), evaporation of ether and methyl chloride, and heat of solution (NH4NO3).
Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1079.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Demonstrations of spontaneous endothermic reactions  Matthews, G. W. J.
The reaction between hydrated metal chlorides and thionyl chloride provides a series of valuable experiments that can be used to demonstrate spontaneous endothermic reactions.
Matthews, G. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 476.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Melting point depression  Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam
The eutectic temperature of the piperonal / resorcinol system is well below room temperature.
Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A413.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Enthalpies of formation of solid salts  Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T.
This investigation introduces the student to several important areas of thermochemistry, including enthalpies of neutralization, enthalpies of dissolution, enthalpies of formation, and Hess' Law.
Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 474.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Relationship of enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
The primary objectives of this investigation are to relate enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy using Hess' Law and to acquaint students with Born-Haber type energy cycles.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 473.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A sensitive inexpensive thermometer  Slabaugh, W. H.
Presents a circuit diagram for a simple thermistor.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 467.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermochemical investigations for a first-year college chemistry course. A survey of existing literature  Ewing, Galen W.
The purpose of this article is to review some of the experiments that appear in the literature involving thermochemistry.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 26.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Sulfuric acid and the hydrated hydronium ion  Jurale, Bernard
Describes how the sulfuric acid-water system can be used to establish the identity of the hydronium and hydrated hydronium ions.
Jurale, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 573.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A thermal analysis experiment for introductory chemistry  Haworth, Daniel T.; McGrath, J. D.
This experiment involves the preparation of a tin-lead phase diagram.
Haworth, Daniel T.; McGrath, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 372.
Thermal Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The burning sugar cube: Still unexplained?  Doty, Gene
This brief note discusses possible explanations for the melting of a sugar cube where another rubbed with cigarette ashes burns.
Doty, Gene J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 244.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A eutectic experiment for general chemistry laboratory  Wise, John H.; Shillington, James K.; Watt, William J.; Whitaker, R. D.
This eutectic experiment examines the biphenyl-naphthalene system.
Wise, John H.; Shillington, James K.; Watt, William J.; Whitaker, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 96.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Demonstration notes: Fog formation  Benson, John E.
Suggests a modification to producing a cloud in a jar.
Benson, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Freezing point observations on micellar solutions  Hutchinson, Eric.; Tokiwa, Fumikatsu
Describes freezing point observations on solutions of p-methylphenyl glucose and p-butylphenylglucose.
Hutchinson, Eric.; Tokiwa, Fumikatsu J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 472.
Micelles |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Relationship of exothermicities of compounds to chemical bonding  Siegel, Bernard
The sign and magnitude of the standard heat of formation of a chemical compound is often used incorrectly to characterize its relative stability compared to other compounds.
Siegel, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 308.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Magnetic stirring promotes smooth boiling  Bloomfield, Jordan J.
This short note indicates that the use of a magnetic stirrer effectively prevents violent bumping.
Bloomfield, Jordan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 355.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Calorimetry  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
The freshman chemistry lab involves measuring the heat capacities of nickel and copper and the heats of two neutralization reactions.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 90.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Temperature and power measurements in precision solution calorimetry  O'Hara, William F.; Wu, Ching-Hsien; Hepler, Loren G.
Presents the design of a calorimetric apparatus, and accompanying circuit schematic, and their application to calorimetry measurements.
O'Hara, William F.; Wu, Ching-Hsien; Hepler, Loren G. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 512.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Heat of reaction and H2SO4 concentration: A general chemistry experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander
This procedure measures the heat of reaction between water and sulfuric acid of various concentrations; this information is used to determine the concentration of an unknown acid sample.
Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 472.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Heat of precipitation: A general chemistry experiment  Clever, H. Lawrence
This heat of precipitation experiment is conducted in a simple calorimeter constructed by each student from an Erlenmeyer flask.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 470.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A flashbulb bomb calorimeter  Hornyak, Frederick M.
This report describes a do-it-yourself experiment in thermochemistry using flashbulbs as calorimeter bombs.
Hornyak, Frederick M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 97.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Water equivalent of vacuum flask calorimeter by the ice fusion method  Dunicz, Boleslaw Ludwik
Presents the design of a vacuum flask calorimeter and describes the determination of its water equivalent by the ice fusion method.
Dunicz, Boleslaw Ludwik J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 635.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Determination of vapor pressure: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden
Provides a method for obtaining good vapor pressure measurements using simple equipment.
Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 494.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A temperature sensitive stirring rod: Liquefaction of NO2 as a student experiment  Eddy, Robert D.; Scholes, Samuel R., Jr.
NO2 is generated from Pb(NO3)2 and collected, condensed, and sealed in a hollow stirring rod, which is then observed in hot, cool, and cold water.
Eddy, Robert D.; Scholes, Samuel R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 527.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Molecular weight determination by boiling-point elevation: A freshman research project  Wolthuis, Enno; Visser, Marilyn; Oppenhuizen, Irene
Describes an investigation into factors influencing the results of molecular weight determination by boiling-point elevation and the procedure refined through these efforts.
Wolthuis, Enno; Visser, Marilyn; Oppenhuizen, Irene J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 412.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Undergraduate Research |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Nomenclature of phase transition  McDonald, James E.
Discusses the curious situation in which the terminology of chemistry and physics has only five words to describe the six possible transitions between three states of matter.
McDonald, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 205.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Textbook errors: Guest column. XVI: The vapor pressure of hydrated cupric sulfate  Logan, Thomas S.
Examines variability in the values of pressures of water vapor in equilibrium with pairs of cupric sulfate in hydrates quoted in the literature and texts.
Logan, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 148.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Calorimeter for determining heat capacities of liquids  Greene, Stanley A.
This paper describes a method for utilizing a constant-power heating device that eliminates the need for a preponderance of equipment yet permits reasonable accuracy in determining the heat capacities of liquids.
Greene, Stanley A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 577.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Letters to the editor  Lash, M. E.
The author clarifies the definition of critical temperature, which is often stated uncritically in textbooks.
Lash, M. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The kinetic structure of gases  Slabaugh, W. H.
Describes a model that illustrates the kinetic properties of gases and ii use to demonstrate the effect of temperature changes on the motion of gas particles.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 68.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A temperature-equilibrium demonstration  Brown, John A.
This demonstration makes use of the colored cobaltous complexes in a mixed solvent to show the dependence of some equilibria on temperature.
Brown, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 640.
Equilibrium |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Coordination Compounds
A method of estimating the boiling points of organic liquids  Pearson, D. E.
Discusses the relationship between the molecular structure of organic liquids and their boiling point.
Pearson, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 60.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure