TIGER

Journal Articles: 426 results
The Use of Limits in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course  Paul S. Matsumoto, Jonathan Ring, and Jia Li (Lily) Zhu
This article describes the use of limits in topics usually covered in advanced placement or first-year college chemistry. This approach supplements the interpretation of the graph of an equation since it is usually easier to evaluate the limit of a function than to generate its graph.
Matsumoto, Paul S.; Ring, Jonathan; Zhu, Jia Li (Lily). J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1655.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Thermodynamics
A Kool Reaction from the Fine Print  Susan A. S. Hershberger and Arlyne M. Sarquis
Students investigate the reduction of artificial food dyes by citric acid-promoted oxidation of a metal in the form of fine or coarse steel wool. The artificial red and yellow food dyes present in drink mixes contain azo linkages (nitrogennitrogen double bonds) that are readily reduced to colorless products under mild reducing conditions.
Hershberger, Susan A. S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1792A.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Todd P. Silverstein
Offers additional solutions to the cracked watch glass problem associated with an earlier published dehydration of sugar demonstration.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Edward F. Duhr, Allison S. Soult, John G. Maijub, and Fitzgerald B. Bramwell
The procedure for Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom! can lead to watch glass breakage and thereby a fire hazard.
Duhr, Edward F.; Soult, Allison S.; Maijub, John G.; Bramwell, Fitzgerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Edward F. Duhr, Allison S. Soult, John G. Maijub, and Fitzgerald B. Bramwell
The procedure for Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom! can lead to watch glass breakage and thereby a fire hazard.
Duhr, Edward F.; Soult, Allison S.; Maijub, John G.; Bramwell, Fitzgerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Using Computer Simulations To Teach Salt Solubility. The Role of Entropy in Solubility Equilibrium  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Pairs of salts are discussed to illustrate the interpretation of their different behavior in water in terms of the fundamental concept of entropy. The ability of computer simulations to help improve students' understanding of these chemistry concepts is also examined.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 170.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The q/T Paradox: Which "Contains More Heat", a Cup of Coffee at 95°C or a Liter of Icewater?  Ed Vitz and Michael J. Schuman
In this demonstration, heat is removed from 10 cm3 of water at ~95C and 42 cm3 of water at ~0C by adding each to a measured sample of liquid nitrogen. The heat removed from the water boils the N2(l), and the quantity of liquid nitrogen that is evaporated by boiling is determined. The quantity of heat that was absorbed is calculated from the heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen and found to be about 10,000 J in the case of the hot water and 25,000 J in the case of the icewater.
Vitz, Ed; Schuman, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 856.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Regarding Entropy Analysis  Thomas H. Bindel
There is a problem with the symbol ?Suniv as it does not indicate whether the reactive system is in standard state or not.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 839.
Thermodynamics
Regarding Entropy Analysis  Robert M. Hanson
Presents a minor criticism I have regards ?Suniv not involving entropy effects of concentration and pressure.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 839.
Thermodynamics
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber  Curtis J. Czerwinski and Tanya J. Cordes
While several lecture demonstrations are possible using methane-filled balloons, it is often inconvenient to prepare these balloons since the pressure from standard laboratory and lecture hall gas nozzles is too low. As a solution to this problem, a methane balloon inflation chamber, prepared from a translucent 3.5-gallon pail and an aspirator or house-vacuum, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for inflating balloons in laboratories or lecture halls. Prepared in this way, methane-filled balloons can be used to demonstrate the effects of vacuum, the lifting power of low-density gases, and the explosive combustion of methane.
Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 248.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Teaching Entropy Analysis in the First-Year High School Course and Beyond  Thomas H. Bindel
A 16-day teaching unit is presented that develops chemical thermodynamics at the introductory high school level and beyond from exclusively an entropy viewpoint referred to as entropy analysis. Many concepts are presented, such as: entropy, spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics, qualitative and quantitative entropy analysis, extent of reaction, thermodynamic equilibrium, coupled equilibria, and Gibbs free energy. Entropy is presented in a nontraditional way, using energy dispersal.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1585.
Thermodynamics
Campbell's Rule for Estimating Entropy Changes  Norman C. Craig
I am pleased that Campbells rule for estimating entropy changes in gas-consuming and gas-producing chemical reactions has attracted immediate interest.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1571.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Campbell's Rule for Estimating Entropy Changes  William B. Jensen
In a recent article Norman Craig has proposed the rule-of-thumb that the approximate value of the entropy of reaction is related to the net moles of gas consumed or generated in the reaction .
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1570.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Playing Card Equilibrium  Frank L. Lambert
From experience, I am hypersensitive to the misconceptions of students and instructors that can be caused when playing cards are used in teaching chemistry. The root of such errors lies in overlooking the non-mobile, non-energetically-interacting nature of pieces of cardboard. Only if they are being shuffled can cards serve as some sort of analogy to molecular behavior in chemistry.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1569.
Equilibrium |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Old Nassau Demonstration with Wilkinson Modification  Lawrence E. Wilkinson
A modification of the Old Nassau Reaction demonstration is presented, wherein a 0.025 M silver nitrate solution is used in place of the mercury(II) chloride solution employed in the original demonstration.
Wilkinson, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1474.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Thermodynamics in Context: A Case Study of Contextualized Teaching for Undergraduates  John Holman and Gwen Pilling
Thermodynamics is often considered to be a dry and theoretical area of undergraduate chemistry. To make it more accessible, a contextualized approach to first-year university thermodynamics has been developed, building on the experiences at the high school level of ChemCom in the United States and Salters Advanced Chemistry in the United Kingdom.
Holman, John; Pilling, Gwen. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 373.
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Dean J. Campbell
Additional safety considerations and a CO2 rocket car.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Edward G. Senkbeil
Description of a similar demonstration and additional safety considerations.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Edward G. Senkbeil
Description of a similar demonstration and additional safety considerations.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Playing-Card Equilibrium  Robert M. Hanson
A simple hands-on simulation suitable for either classroom use or laboratory investigation involves using a standard deck of playing cards to explore the statistical aspects of equilibrium. Concepts that can be easily demonstrated include fluctuation around a most probable distribution, Le Chtelier's principle, the equilibrium constant, prediction of the equilibrium constant based on probability, and the effect of sample size on equilibrium fluctuations.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1271.
Equilibrium |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Reactions (→) vs Equations (=)  S. R. Logan
A recent chemical kinetics text uses an equals sign for an overall reaction, whereas an arrow is used in each of the reaction steps that are proposed to constitute the mechanism, and for any elementary process.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1258.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Three Forms of Energy  Sigthór Pétursson
Calculations comparing the energy involved in three forms: heat, mechanical energy, and expansion against pressure.
Pétursson, Sigthór . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 776.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nutrition |
Thermodynamics
Chemical Equilibria Involving Copper(II) Ethylenediamine Complexes  Roberto Zingales
Demonstration illustrating the formation of two different complexes when copper(II) ions react with ethylenediamine.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 535.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemical Equilibria Involving Reactions of Silver(I) Ions  Roberto Zingales
Demonstrating a series of reactions involving silver(I) ions.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 534.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Precipitation / Solubility
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Warren Hirsch
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Hirsch, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Frank L. Lambert
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Frank L. Lambert
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
Rubber Bands, Free Energy, and Le Châtelier's Principle  Warren Hirsch
Using a rubber band to illustrate Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy.
Hirsch, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 200A.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
H Is for Enthalpy, Thanks to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and Alfred W. Porter  Irmgard K. Howard
Origin of the word enthalpy.
Howard, Irmgard K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 697.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Redox Redux: Recommendations for Improving Textbook and IUPAC Definitions  Ed Vitz
Defining oxidation / reduction reactions as those in which oxidation states of the reactant(s) change.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 397.
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A Chemically Relevant Model for Teaching the Second Law of Thermodynamics  Bryce E. Williamson and Tetsuo Morikawa
Presentation of a chemically relevant model that exemplifies many aspects of the second law: reversibility, path dependence, and extrapolation in terms of electrochemistry and calorimetry.
Williamson, Bryce E.; Morikawa, Tetsuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 339.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The Lead-Acid Battery: Its Voltage in Theory and in Practice  Richard S. Treptow
Lead-acid battery fundamentals, cell voltage and the Nernst equation, and an analysis of actual battery performance.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 334.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
Spontaneous Assembly of Soda Straws  D. J. Campbell, E. R. Freidinger, J. M. Hastings, and M. K. Querns
Demonstrating spontaneous assembly using soda straws.
Campbell, D. J.; Freidinger, E. R.; Hastings, J. M.; Querns, M. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 201.
Materials Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Stories to Make Thermodynamics and Related Subjects More Palatable  Lawrence S. Bartell
Collection of anecdotes regarding the history and human side of chemistry.
Bartell, Lawrence S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1059.
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Applications of Chemistry
Melting Point, Density, and Reactivity of Metals  Michael Laing
Using melting points and densities to the predict the relative reactivities of metals.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1054.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry
An Alcohol Rocket Car--A Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Dean J. Campbell
Burning methanol in a wheeled milk jug.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 910.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Teaching about Flame Retardants. A Joint Israeli-Dutch Project  Miri Kesner and Wobbe de Vos
Flame retardants make interesting chemistry and moreover, the chemistry is highly relevant from an everyday life point of view. This article reports on a joint Israeli-Dutch project aimed at teaching the production, properties, and applications of some bromine-containing flame retardants, including their environmental aspects, in secondary education.
Kesner, Miri; de Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 41.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
A Simple Method for Demonstrating Enzyme Kinetics Using Catalase from Beef Liver Extract  Kristin A. Johnson
A simple visual method of demonstrating enzyme kinetics using beef liver catalase. Filter paper is saturated with beef liver extract and placed into a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The catalase in the extract decomposes the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Oxygen forms on the filter paper, and the filter paper rises to the top of the beaker. Catalase activity is measured by timing the rise of the enzyme-soaked filter paper to the top of beakers containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
Johnson, A. Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1451.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Reactions
Interpretation of Second Virial Coefficient  Vivek Utgikar
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Utgikar, Vivek. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics of Water Superheated in the Microwave Oven  B. H. Erné
Water is conveniently heated above its normal boiling point in a microwave oven in a glass microwave oven teapot. Water stops boiling soon after heating is interrupted, but subsequently added rough particles can still act as nucleation centers for a brief, spectacular burst of steam bubbles. The heat to make those steam bubbles obviously comes from the water itself, so that one can conclude that the boiling water was superheated, which is confirmed with a thermometer.
Erné, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1309.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Liquids
When A + B  Is Not Equal To B + A  Erling Antony, Lindsay Mitchell, and Lauren Nettenstrom
Many acid-base chemistry demonstrations and laboratory manuals include the "baking soda volcano". Others use the formation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in human breath. This demonstration uses principles from both as well as stoichiometry to answer the question "Does the order of mixing of reagents make a difference?"
Antony, Erling; Mitchell, Lindsay; Nettenstrom, Lauren. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1180.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
A Visual Aid in Enthalpy Calculations  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for reactants and products as a visual aid in the teaching of reaction-enthalpy calculations. By the use of such diagrams the division of the process into a part involving a chemical reaction without a temperature change and a part involving only a temperature change is made visually concrete.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1178.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Simulating Dynamic Equilibria: A Class Experiment  John A. Harrison and Paul D. Buckley
A first-order reversible reaction is simulated on an overhead projector using small coins or discs. Results illustrate how dynamic equilibria are established and allow the introduction of the concept of an equilibrium constant. Le Chtelier's principle is illustrated by further simulations.
Harrison, John A.; Buckley, Paul D. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1013.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Reactions
A Closer Look at Phase Diagrams for the General Chemistry Course  Stephen A. Gramsch
The information provided by the high-pressure phase diagrams of some simple systems (carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, and iron) can provide a useful extension to the traditional discussion of phase diagrams in the general chemistry course. At the same time, it can prepare students for a more illuminating presentation of the concept of equilibrium than is possible through the discussion of gas phase, acid-base, and solubility product equilibria alone.
Gramsch, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 718.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Geochemistry
Ionic Crystals: A Simple and Safe Lecture Demonstration of the Preparation of NaI from Its Elements  Zelek S. Herman
A simple and safe classroom demonstration showing the production of sodium iodide (NaI) crystals from elemental sodium and elemental (molecular) iodine is presented. The demonstration, which is quite impressive, naturally fits into the discussion of ionic bonding and the alkali halide crystals.
Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 619.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
Illustrating Thermodynamic Concepts Using a Hero's Engine  Pedro L. Muiño and James R. Hodgson
A modified Hero's engine is used to illustrate concepts of thermodynamics and engineering design suitable for introductory chemistry courses and more advanced physical chemistry courses. This demonstration is suitable to illustrate concepts like gas expansion, gas cooling through expansion, conversion of heat to work, interconversion between kinetic energy and potential energy, and feedback mechanisms.
Muio, Pedro L.; Hodgson, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 615.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Catalytic Oxidation of Ammonia: A Sparkling Experiment  Vladimir A. Volkovich and Trevor R. Griffiths
A lecture demonstration experiment on the catalytic oxidation of ammonia using chromium(III) oxide as a catalyst is described.
Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 177.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The Use of Extent of Reaction in Introductory Courses  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of the extent of reaction as an alternative to the traditional approach to stoichiometry in first-year chemistry. The method focuses attention on the reaction as a whole rather than on pairs of reagents as in the traditional approach. The balanced equation is used as the unit of change.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 52.
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Boerhaave on Fire  Damon Diemente
This article offers a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 42.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Using TOPEX Satellite El Niño Altimetry Data to Introduce Thermal Expansion and Heat Capacity Concepts in Chemistry Courses  Harvey F. Blanck
Warm water is less dense than cool water and will float somewhat like ice, with a portion above the surface of the cooler surrounding water. The height of the bump can be used to estimate the excess thermal energy in the warmer water.
Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1635.
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Entropy, Disorder, and Freezing  Brian B. Laird
It is argued that the usual view that entropy is a measure of "disorder" is problematic and that there exist systems at high density, for which packing considerations dominate, where a spatially ordered state has a higher entropy than a disordered one.
Laird, Brian B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1388.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
The Evolution of the Celsius and Kelvin Temperature Scales and the State of the Art  Julio Pellicer, M. Amparo Gilabert, and Ernesto Lopez-Baeza
A physical analysis is given of the evolution undergone by the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, from their definition to the present day.
Pellicer, Julio; Gilabert, M. Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 911.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories
The Methane Balloon  Walter H. Corkern and Elvin Hughes Jr.
The objectives are (i) to describe a novel method of inflating a balloon with methane, (ii) to show that methane is lighter than air, and (iii) to demonstrate the flammability of methane.
Corkern, Walter H.; Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 794.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Using Large Glass Cylinders To Demonstrate Chemical Reactions  Wobbe de Vos
This article describes a simple laboratory experiment that aims at pedagogic as well as aesthetic aspects of chemical reactions. Experiments of this type have a high educational potential as students have the opportunity to observe the actual formation of a precipitate instead of just being able to see the result. The experiment is also suitable for demonstrating some of the fascinating beauty of chemical reactions to the general public.
de Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 528.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions
Photon-Initiated Hydrogen-Chlorine Reaction  Schwenz, Richard; Geiger, Lynn
Incorrect termination step for the H2 + Cl2 reaction mechanism.
Schwenz, Richard; Geiger, Lynn J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 470.
Mechanisms of Reactions
Microscale Thermite Reactions  Francisco J. Arnáiz, Rafael Aguado, and Susana Arnáiz
The reaction of aluminum with the oxides of a variety of elements illustrates exothermic reactions that require a high activation energy. It is also an appropriate experiment with regard to the discussion of Ellingham diagrams. When drama is not the main objective, conducting these reactions at microscale level offers numerous advantages over the usual scale.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnáiz, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1630.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom!  Todd P. Silverstein and Yi Zhang
Our demonstration uses no sulfuric acid, yields relatively little smoke, and produces an exciting and unpredictable growing column of black carbon.
Silverstein, Todd P.; Zhang, Yi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 748.
Carbohydrates |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Slide Projector Corrosion Cell  Silvia Tejada, Estela Guevara, and Esperanza Olivares
The process of corrosion can be demonstrated in a slide projector, since the cell is in the shape of a slide, or on the stage of an overhead projector by setting up a simple galvanic cell. Corrosion occurs as the result of a galvanic cell reaction, in which the corroding metal acts as the anode. Several simple demonstrations relating to corrosion are described here.
Tejada, Silvia; Guevara, Estela; Olivares, Esperanza. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity (the author replies)  Ochs, Raymond S.
The term "spontaneous" is historical baggage.
Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 659.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity  Earl, Boyd L.
The term "spontaneous" is worth keeping in the chemistry lexicon.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 658.
Thermodynamics
Letters to the Editor  
The term "spontaneous" is worth keeping in the chemistry lexicon.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 658.
Thermodynamics
Chemical Domino Demonstration  M. Dale Alexander
The Chemical Domino Demonstration is both educational and entertaining. It provides an excellent means for a review of chemical concepts at the conclusion of a general chemistry course. This demonstration consists of a number of different chemical reactions occurring in sequence in a Rube Goldberg-type apparatus.
M. Dale Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 490.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Mechanism Templates: Lecture Aids for Effective Presentation of Mechanism in Introductory Organic Chemistry  Brian J. McNelis
To promote active student learning of mechanism in introductory organic chemistry, hand-outs have been developed with incomplete structures for reaction processes depicted, which are called mechanism templates. The key to these lecture aids is to provide only enough detail in the diagram to facilitate notetaking, ensuring that these templates are dynamic learning tools that must be utilized by an engaged and alert student.
Brian J. McNelis. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 479.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Nucleophilic Substitution
A Closer Look at the Addition of Equations and Reactions  Damon Diemente
Chemists occasionally find it convenient or even necessary to express an overall reaction as the sum of two or more component reactions. A close examination, however, reveals that the resemblance between chemical algebraic equations is entirely superficial, and that the real meaning of addition in chemical equations is subtle and varies from case to case. In high-school courses, students are likely to encounter the addition of equations in thermochemistry, in electrochemistry, and in kinetics.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 319.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
A Modified Hydrogen/Oxygen Balloon Demonstration  Ian J. McNaught
Using a ratio of 1:2 volumes of hydrogen and oxygen for balloons as instead of a 2:1 ratio for safety.
McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 52.
Gases |
Reactions
Demonstrating Heat Changes on the Overhead Projector with a Projecting Thermometer  Chinhyu Hur, Sally Solomon, and Christy Wetzel
Heat changes can be observed by using a culture dish and a thermometer that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector.
Hur, Chinhyu; Solomon, Sally; Wetzel, Christy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 51.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letter to the Editor about Letter to the Editor "Redox Challenges" from David M. Hart and Response from Roland Stout (J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226-7)  Andrzej Sobkowiak
Examples of a variety of redox equations.
Sobkowiak, Andrzej. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1256.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement  Mark Muyskens
Application of an integrated-circuit (IC) temperature sensor which is easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, easily computer-interfacable and has good precision is described. The design, based on the National Semiconductor LM35 IC chip, avoids some of the difficulties associated with conventional sensors (thermocouples, thermistors, and platinum resistance thermometers) and a previously described IC sensor.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 850.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Stable Solutions for the Iodine Clock Reaction  George B. Kauffman and Charles R. Hall
Advanced preparation of solutions for the iodine clock reaction.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 616.
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents
The Coupling of Related Demonstrations to Illustrate Principles in Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium  Richard A. Pacer
Two very simple lecture demonstrations, both involving the reaction of magnesium with one or more dilute acids, are linked together to illustrate principles in chemical kinetics and equilibrium.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 543.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving  Robert Q. Thompson
Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 532.
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Applications of Chemistry
Elasticity to Measure Thermodynamic Properties  Jonathan Mitschele
Repetition of original experiment.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 368.
Thermodynamics
A Brief History of Thermodynamics Notation  Rubin Battino, Laurence E. Strong, Scott E. Wood
This paper gives a brief history of thermodynamic notation for the energy, E, enthalpy, H, entropy, S, Gibbs energy, G, Helmholtz energy, A, work, W, heat, Q, pressure, P, volume, V, and temperature, T. In particular, the paper answers the question, "Where did the symbol S for entropy come from?"
Battino, Rubin; Strong Laurence E.; Wood, Scott E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 304.
Thermodynamics
Chemical Equilibrium (the author replies)  Banerjee, Anil
Item 7 deserves a fuller answer than was provided.
Banerjee, Anil J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A262.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Chemical Equilibrium  Logan, S. R.
Item 7 deserves a fuller answer than was provided.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A261.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Concept Maps in Chemistry Education  Alberto Regis, Pier Giorgio Albertazzi, Ezio Roletto
This article presents and illustrates a proposed application of concept maps in chemistry teaching in high schools. Three examples of the use of concept maps in chemistry teaching are reported and discussed with reference to: atomic structure, oxidation-reduction and thermodynamics.
Regis, Alberto; Albertazzi, Pier Giorgio; Roletto, Ezio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1084.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity  Raymond S. Ochs
Despite the importance of thermodynamics as the foundation of chemistry, most students emerge from introductory courses with only a dim understanding of this subject.
Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 952.
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories |
Equilibrium
Simple and Attractive Demonstraction of the Reversibility of Chemical Reactions  Celestyn M. Brozek
The reversibility of chemical reactions is demonstrated by dehydration of CuSO4  5H2O and the subsequent hydration of CuSO4. The associated heat consumption and the subsequent heat production illustrate the concept of endothermic and exothermic reactions.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 837.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
An Approach to Reaction Thermodynamics through Enthalpies, Entropies, and Free Energies of Atomization  James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie
An alternative to the conventional method of calculating enthalpies of reaction is presented, using enthalpies of atomization in place of enthalpies of formation. This allows the student to see directly that the reaction enthalpies are determined by the difference in bond strengths in the reactants and products.
James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 631.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
A Novel Approach to Teaching Electrochemical Principles  Paul Krause and Jerry Manion
To demonstrate that work may be done by a chemical reaction, a reaction producing a gas is carried out in a large, closed syringe. As the gas is generated, the syringe plunger is forced out.
Krause, Paul; Manion, Jerry. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 354.
Reactions |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Quick Method for Making Colored-Flame Flash Paper  Sally Solomon, Chinhyu Hur, Alan Lee, and Kurt Smith
Procedure for making for making colored-flame (and multicolored) flash paper.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1133.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Entertaining Chemistry  John F. Elsworth
"A Volcanic Serpent" (ammonium dichromate), "A Homemade Hydrogen Rocket", and "Johnny's Saga in Chemistry" (sulfuric acid + calcium carbonate) demonstrations.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1128.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Redox Challenges: Good Times for Puzzle Fanatics  Roland Stout
Three difficult to balance redox equations.
Stout, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1125.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Photosynthesis: Why Does It Occur?  J. J. MacDonald
Explanation of why photosynthesis occurs; stating that it is merely the reverse of respiration is misleading.
MacDonald, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1113.
Plant Chemistry |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Fe(s) + Cu(II)(aq) ----> Fe(II)(aq) + Cu(s): Fifteen Centuries of Search  Vladimir Karpenko
Historical development of understanding of the title reaction, particularly erroneous alchemical beliefs.
Karpenko, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1095.
Metals |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Carbohydrate Dehydration Demonstrations  David A. Dolson, Rubin Battino, Trevor M. Letcher, K. H. Pegel, and N. Revaprasadu
Study of the dehydration of a carbohydrate by sulfuric acid and variables that influence the reaction (including type of sugar, sugar granule size, and amount of water added to sugar).
Dolson, David A.; Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.; Pegel, K. H.; Revprasadu, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 927.
Carbohydrates |
Reactions
Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited  David A. Dolson, Michael E. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, Rubin Battino, Lisa S. Jutte
Demonstrations involving methanol cannons and chain reactions.
Dolson, David A.; Dolson, Michael E.; Hall, Michael R.; Battino, Rubin; Jutte, Lisa S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 732.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Alcohols
Demonstrating a Lack of Reactivity Using a Teflon-Coated Pan  Thomas G. Richmond
Demonstration to illustrate a lack of chemical activity using a Teflon-coated pan.
Richmond, Thomas G.; Krause, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 731.
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding
Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions  Radhakrishnamurty, P.
Can there exist different ways of balancing a chemical reaction?
Radhakrishnamurty, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 668.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Put a Little Kaboom in Your Classroom  Barondeau, Mike
Instructions for constructing a calcium carbide/acetylene cannon from PVC pipe.
Barondeau, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 176.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Periodic Trends for the Entropy of Elements  Thoms, Travis
Graphical representation and explanation for periodic trends in the entropy of elements.
Thoms, Travis J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 16.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Thermodynamics |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements
Chart for Deciding Mechanism for Reaction of Alkyl Halide with Nucleophile/Base  McClelland, Bruce W.
The decision chart offered here is based upon the well-known and accepted characteristics of the reaction system mechanisms described in typical introductory organic chemistry textbooks.
McClelland, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1047.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
An Oscillating Reaction as a Demonstration of Principles Applied in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Weimer, Jeffrey J.
Platinum catalyzed decomposition of methanol.
Weimer, Jeffrey J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 325.
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis |
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Reactions
A WARNING: Explosion Hazards of Reacting Magnesium and Aluminum with Powdered Silver Nitrate  Laing, Michael
Danger of reacting Mg and AgNO3, Al and AgNO3.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 270.
Metals |
Reactions
A Safe and Easy Classroom Demonstration of the Generation of Acetylene Gas  Cox, Marilyn Blagg
Reacting calcium carbide with water to generate ethyne.
Cox, Marilyn Blagg J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 253.
Alkynes |
Reactions
Pyrotechnic Reactions Without Oxygen  Wright, Stephen W.
Reaction of K3FeF6 with Al and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) with Mg.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 251.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Cryophori, Hot Molecules, and Frozen Nitrogen  Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L.
Freezing water and nitrogen at low atmospheric pressure.
Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 67.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Bleaching with Chlorine: Another Tomato Juice Demonstration   Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W.
Bubbling chlorine gas through tomato juice produces dramatic color changes. This paper provides safe instructions for the demonstration.
Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 154.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
A simple and colorful demonstration of light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane  Stevens, Malcolm P.
Light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane.
Stevens, Malcolm P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1028.
Catalysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Photochemistry |
Reactions
A spontaneous exothermic reaction between two solids: A safe demonstration  Scott, Earle S.
Reaction between equal masses of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium nitrite.
Scott, Earle S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1028.
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
Intensive and extensive: Underused concepts  Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
Methods for teaching intensive and extensive properties.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 957.
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Free-radical polymerization of acrylamide  Silversmith, Ernest F.
A rapid and foolproof thermal polymerization.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Free Radicals |
Polymerization |
Reactions
Imprecise numbers and incautious safety procedure mar experiment.  Nelson, Robert N.
Problems with significant figures and safety concerns regarding two published experiments.
Nelson, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 688.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Putting some snap into work.  Mitschele, Jonathan.
Suggestions for improving the instructional value of the demonstration presented.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 687.
Thermodynamics
The thermodynamics of home-made ice cream.  Gibbon, Donald L.; Kennedy, Keith; Reading, Nathan; Quieroz, Mardsen.
Using the production of ice cream to teach heat capacity, viscosity, and freezing-point reduction.
Gibbon, Donald L.; Kennedy, Keith; Reading, Nathan; Quieroz, Mardsen. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 658.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The extent of acid-base reactions (the author replies).  Thompson, Ralph J.
A poor example for calculating the extent of reaction between hydronium ion and aniline was chosen.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions.  Tapparo, Andrea.
Several misleading statements can be found in the original article.
Tapparo, Andrea. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 515.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
Helping students to improve their approach to predicting the products of chemical reactions  Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Zipp, Arden P.
One task that seems to baffle many of today's beginning chemistry students is predicting the products of chemical reactions and writing net ionic equations to represent them.
Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 390.
Reactions
Refrigerated dropping funnel and reflux condenser  Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
This one-piece apparatus has proved useful in controlling the temperature of a reagent during addition to a refluxing reaction mixture.
Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 331.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Boiling and freezing simultaneously - with a feeble vacuum pump!   Ellison, Mike
The author uses this demonstration of freezing and boiling at reduced pressure to reinforce concepts about energy effects in phase changes.
Ellison, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 325.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
The conversion of chemical energy: Part 1. Technological examples  Wink, Donald J.
When a chemical reaction occurs, the energy of the chemical species may change and energy can be released or absorbed from the surroundings. This can involve the exchange of chemical energy with another kind of energy or with another chemical system.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 108.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Photosynthesis
The bird-scarer (combustion) demo   Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B.
This is a demonstration version of a device used to scare birds with loud noises occurring at regular intervals.
Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 64.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Small-scale thermochemistry experiment   Brouwer, Henry
An inexpensive calorimeter that uses approximately 1/10 of the reagents required for the foam coffee cup.
Brouwer, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A178.
Heat Capacity |
Thermodynamics |
Microscale Lab
Use of liquid oxygen to support combustion   Sullivan, Dan M.
Production, procedure, and safety of demonstrations involving liquid nitrogen in order to demonstrate: Charles' Law, production and properties of liquid oxygen, effects of concentration on reactions and reaction rates, liquefaction and boiling of oxygen kindling temperature, reactions between substances in two different states of matter, and comparison of partial and complete combustion.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1036.
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Spontaneous detonation of a mixture of two odd electron gases   Briggs, Thomas S.
Instructions for safe detonation of ClO2 and NO (the fastest known reaction between two stable molecules at room temperature).
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 938.
Reactions |
Resonance Theory
The reusable heat pack   McAfee, Lyle V.; Jumper, Charles F.
A commercial product that can be used to demonstrate thermodynamic principles.
McAfee, Lyle V.; Jumper, Charles F. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 780.
Thermodynamics
Recovery of silver from and some uses for waste silver chloride  Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K.
Procedures for conversion to silver nitrate, using waste AgCl as an oxidizing agent, and electrodepositon experiments.
Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 602.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
A call for simplification   Schomaker, Verner; Waser, Jurg
Does "An Instructive Gibbs-Function Problem" unnecessarily confuse even the most capable students? An exchange of letters.
Schomaker, Verner; Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 443.
Thermodynamics
A call for simplification   Peterson, Donald
Does "An Instructive Gibbs-Function Problem" unnecessarily confuse even the most capable students? An exchange of letters.
Peterson, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 443.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
The temperature and pressure dependence of the equilibrium properties of a system: Introducing thermodynamics in the classroom  Solomon, Theodros
Introducing thermodynamics in the classroom in a manner that allows students to gain hints at the methods or approaches to be adopted.
Solomon, Theodros J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 294.
Thermodynamics
Ammonia bottle  Sheets, Michael
A suggested variation to this impressive demonstration.
Sheets, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 247.
Reactions
Chemical equilibrium: I. The thermodynamic equilibrium constant  Gordus, Adon A.
This is the first article in a series of eight that investigates the various assumptions that result in the simplified equilibrium equations found in most introductory texts. In this first article, the author considers the general nature of the constant K, Le Chatelier's principle, and the effect of the temperature on K.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 138.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
In praise of copper  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of copper make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory activities.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 106.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Thermodynamic irreversibility  Hollinger, Henry B.; Zenzen, Michael J.
Concepts of "reversible" and "irreversible" start out seeming simple enough, but students often become confused. This article tackles areas of confusion in hopes of providing clarity.
Hollinger, Henry B.; Zenzen, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 31.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Reaction of bromine with hydrocarbons on the overhead, real or simulated  Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt
A simulation that looks like the addition of bromine to hydrocarbons but is not (the bromine is simulated using a mixture of food colorings).
Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 961.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Addition Reactions
The H2 + Cl2 explosion as a chemical analogue of the photoelectric effect: A true quantum mechanical demonstration  Knox, Kerro
The photochemical hydrogen-chlorine reaction affords a good example of the quantum aspect of light and its interaction with matter.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 897.
Reactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
A Governor's School course emphasizing chemical reactions  Deavor, James P.
Format, lecture content, and laboratory program for a course that emphasizes chemical reactions and the relevancy of chemistry to our lives.
Deavor, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 669.
Reactions
A catalog of reactions for general chemistry  Tykodi, R. J.
A catalog of chemical reactions intended to help students understand what kinds of chemical reactions commonly occur and why.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 665.
Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
An effective approach to teaching electrochemistry  Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney
By interweaving concepts from thermodynamics and chemical kinetics with those of electrochemical measurement, the authors provide students with an enriched appreciation of the utility of ideas from kinetics and thermodynamics.
Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 403.
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
The pitfalls of precipitation reactions   Slade, Peter W.; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W.
This is an overview of specific equilibria problems in precipitation reactions.
Slade, Peter W.; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 316.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions
The hydrolysis of salts derived from a weak monoprotic acid and a weak monoprotic base  Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo
The limitations as well as the conditions under which this simplified approach to the hydrolysis of salts from a weak acid and a weak base can yield almost exact results are discussed.
Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 221.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions  Thompson, Ralph J.
How to calculate the equilibrium constant of an acid-base reaction.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
With Clausius from energy to entropy  Baron, Maximo
Examination of entropy following the route taken by Clausius.
Baron, Maximo J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1001.
Thermodynamics
The iodine clock reaction: A surprising variant  Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L.
Substituting malonic acid for sulfuric acid.
Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 852.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The bismuth-sodium nitrate reaction  Hill, William D., Jr.
Reaction for preparing bismuth(III) oxide and determining its percentage yield.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 709.
Reactions |
Synthesis
On a Reaction Involving Oxygen and Metal Sulfides  Hill, William D., Jr.
The role of iron(III) oxide as a catalyst in the production of oxygen by the thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate promoted the idea to use this oxide to repeat the reactions involving oxygen and the metal sulfides described in an earlier article.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 448.
Catalysis |
Reactions
Chemical generation and visualization of hydrodynamic instability: An extremely simple demonstration of self-organization  Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J.
The chemical convection system described here is the pattern formation seen when an acidic vapor comes into contact with the surface of an aqueous solution containing indicator.
Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 210.
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A simple explanation of the salt water oscillator  Noyes, Richard M.
Yoshikawa et al. have described a simple device that undergoes repeated oscillations and that can also illustrate some of the principles essential to the oscillators driven by chemical reactions.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 207.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Amusement with a salt-water oscillator  Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Nakata, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Waki, Takeshi
Rhythmic oscillations of water flow are generated when a vertically oriented hypodermic syringe, with the plunger removed, is filled with salt water and partially submerged in a beaker of pure water.
Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Nakata, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Waki, Takeshi J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 205.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Some models of chemical oscillators   Noyes, Richard M.
This review concentrates on models of chemical oscillations, which constitute the self-organization of a system in time without any accompanying organization in space.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 190.
Thermodynamics
Self-organization in chemistry: The larger context   Soltzberg, Leonard J.
The following three papers in this symposium will serve the reader as a good introduction to self-organization in chemical systems.
Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 187.
Thermodynamics
In pursuit of chemical literacy: A place for chemical reactions  Bond, Douglas
The author has described one method of implementing a course for nonscience majors in which an early and repeated exposure to chemical reactions in tandem with a set of scientific values is the key to approaching scientific literacy.
Bond, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 157.
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions
Oscillating reactions   Kolb, Doris.
A demonstration done on the overhead that oscillates.
Kolb, Doris. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1004.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
The Australian Academy of Science School Chemistry Project: A new-generation secondary school chemistry course  Bucat, R. B.; Cole, A. R. H.
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the philosophies behind the courses described in this paper and the consequent design decisions regarding the selection and sequence of the chemistry content.
Bucat, R. B.; Cole, A. R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 777.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Metabolism |
Thermodynamics
The endothermic dissolution of ammonium nitrate   Kauffman, George B.; Ferguson, Craig A.
A brief procedure for demonstrating the endothermic dissolution of ammonium nitrate.
Kauffman, George B.; Ferguson, Craig A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 267.
Thermodynamics
Demonstration of chemical inhibition  Cooke, David O.
This demonstration convincingly shows shows the effect of an inhibitor on a chemical system.
Cooke, David O. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 68.
Catalysis |
Reactions
Correct equilibrium constants for water (the authors reply)  Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark
Water and hydronium ion Ka values are special cases.
Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1068.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics
A new road to reactions. Part 5. The elements and their atoms  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
It is worthwhile considering introductory students' concepts of chemical reactions and the significance of these concepts for a strategy for teaching the conservation of elements.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1010.
Reactions |
Learning Theories
Converting sunlight to mechanical energy: A polymer example of entropy  Mathias, Lon J.
Demonstrating entropy using an elastomer and a virtual foolproof "light engine".
Mathias, Lon J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 889.
Thermodynamics
A spectacular demonstration: 2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O  Skinner, James F.
Detonating hydrogen in a copper combustion chamber.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 545.
Reactions |
Free Radicals
The cola clock: A new flavor to an old classic  Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W.
The classic iodine clock reaction with Vitex replacing starch as the indicator.
Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 445.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
The arsenic(III) sulfide clock reaction  Watkins, Kenneth W.
Two colorless solutions, one containing sodium arsenite and acetic acid and the other containing sodium thiosulfate are mixed in a beaker; after about 20 seconds, the mixture turns a brilliant yellow color. This clock reaction is well suited for determining the order of reaction and the activation energy.
Watkins, Kenneth W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 255.
Reactions
A new method to balance chemical equations  Garcia, Arcesio
A simple method, applicable to any kind of reaction, that does not require the knowledge of oxidation numbers.
Garcia, Arcesio J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 247.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation State |
Reactions
Annotating reaction equations  Tykodi, R. J.
Annotating aqueous solution reactions fosters recognition of the fundamental reaction categories; ready recognition of a reaction type is the first step toward understanding the "whys and wherefores" inherent in the reaction.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 243.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
A nuts and bolts approach to explain limiting reagents  Blankenship, Craig
Using nuts and bolts to simulate the stoichiometry of a chemical reaction and the concept of limiting and excess reactants.
Blankenship, Craig J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 134.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Thermodynamics and the bounce  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
Explaining the bouncing of a rubber ball using the laws of thermodynamics.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 43.
Thermodynamics
Stretched elastomers: A case of decreasing length upon heating  Clough, S. B.
Demonstrating and explaining the decrease in length of a heated rubber band.
Clough, S. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 42.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A useful balloon demonstration: Pressure difference behavior  Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A.
The authors contribute an interesting variant on the 'crushed can' experiment. [typo: first author's middle initial should be E.]
Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 629.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
A multipurpose, dramatic combustion effect  Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Dore, Marcel; Schwarcz, Joseph A.
A powerful demonstration on combustion that has been used in and out of the classroom is described in this note.
Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Dore, Marcel; Schwarcz, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 349.
Reactions
Thermodynamics and reactions in the dry way  Tykodi, Ralph J.
In dealing with reactions in the dry way, we can actually "see" in detail the workings of the thermodynamic machinery responsible for moving the reaction in the spontaneous direction. This note presents ideas at the general chemistry level.
Tykodi, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 107.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Dangerous demos  Nagel, Miriam C.
The author questions the pedagogical value of demonstrations that pose great danger, such as reacting sodium and water.
Nagel, Miriam C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 81.
Reactions
The catalytic function of enzymes  Splittgerber, Allan G.
Review of the structure, function, and factors that influence the action of enzymes.
Splittgerber, Allan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1008.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Interstellar chemistry  Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A.
Surveys some of the features that characterize interstellar chemistry, particularly the composition of the interstellar medium and the nature of the changes that occur there.
Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 832.
Astrochemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
New stoichiometry for copper dissolution in nitric acid  El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A.
NO2 does not appear to be a primary product in the oxidation of copper metal by nitric acid.
El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 761.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Conversion of standard thermodynamic data to the new standard state pressure  Freeman, Robert D.
Analyzes the changes that will be required to convert standard thermodynamic data from units of atmospheres to the bar.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 681.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Energy interconversions in photosynthesis  Bering, Charles L.
Reviews the energetics of the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Bering, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 659.
Photosynthesis |
Photochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Bioenergetics
A pictorial framework to aid conceptualization of reaction stoichiometry  Cameron, David L.
Approach to teaching stoichiometry that promotes students' understanding of a reaction as a coherent process.
Cameron, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 510.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Chain reaction wheel: An approach to free radical reactions  Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl
Using a "chain reaction wheel" to help students understand the mechanism of free radical reactions.
Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 467.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Derivation of the ideal gas law  Levine, S.
Derivation of the ideal gas law from a thermodynamic influence.
Levine, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 399.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Organic chemistry for health-science students   Schumm, Margot K.
It is important to teach health-science students reaction mechanisms when teaching them organic and biochemistry.
Schumm, Margot K. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 272.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Le Châtelier's principle, temperature effects, and entropy  Campbell, J. Arthur
A useful extension of Le Chatelier's Principle to predict concentration, pressure, and temperature effects solely from the equation for the net reaction.
Campbell, J. Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 231.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Constant properties of systems: A rationale for the inclusion of thermodynamics in a high school chemistry course  Schultz, Ethel L.
Using the zinc / copper system to illustrate how the thermodynamic functions can be introduced gradually and naturally into a course of study.
Schultz, Ethel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 228.
Thermodynamics
Should thermodynamics be X-rated?  Bent, Henry A.
The benefits and detractions of teaching thermodynamics in high school and introductory college courses.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 228.
Thermodynamics
A gas kinetic explanation of simple thermodynamic processes  Waite, Boyd A.
Proposes a simplified, semi-quantitative description of heat, work, and internal energy from the viewpoint of gas kinetic theory; both heat and work should not be considered as forms of energy but rather as different mechanisms by which internal energy is transferred from system to surroundings.
Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 224.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics
Using a dissecting microscope in teaching introductory chemistry  Winokur, Robert; Monroe, Manus
Using microscopes to observe the physical characteristics and chemical reactions of several substances.
Winokur, Robert; Monroe, Manus J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 157.
Reactions |
Physical Properties
Iodine clock reaction mechanisms  Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T.
Outlines the mechanism for the simple iodine clock reaction and the "Old Nassau" modification.
Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1037.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Thermo in the general chemistry course (the author replies)  Schaffrath, Robert E.
A conceptual approach to thermodynamics is appropriate for general chemistry.
Schaffrath, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 936.
Thermodynamics
Thermo in the general chemistry course  Kimmell, Howard
A conceptual approach to thermodynamics is appropriate for general chemistry.
Kimmell, Howard J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 936.
Thermodynamics
How to get the most from the dichromate volcano demonstration: Aluminothermy  Trogler, William C.
Reducing the green ash produced by the dichromate volcano (Cr2O3) with aluminum in a thermite-like display.
Trogler, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Thermodynamic changes, kinetics, equilibrium, and LeChatelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
A series of demonstrations in which water in beakers and the flow of water between beakers is used to represent the components of an exothermic chemical reaction and the flow and quantity of thermal energy involved in chemical changes.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 804.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
The thermite reaction: A chemical ground breaking  Eastland, George W., Jr.
Technique for initiating the thermite reaction at a safe distance.
Eastland, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 723.
Reactions
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chloride reaction: Improvements on a lecture demonstration  Ramette, R. W.
Improvements to the photon-initiated reaction between hydrogen and chlorine gas - the gas mixture is generated by the electrolysis of 8 M HCl.
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 722.
Photochemistry |
Reactions
Start the term with a bang  Clare, Sheldon I.
The reaction of sodium in water is used to ignite a piece of filter paper.
Clare, Sheldon I. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 635.
Reactions
Teaching of chemical reactions and syntheses  Basolo, Fred
We are obliged to teach students some fundamental reactions that all chemists should know.
Basolo, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 520.
Reactions |
Synthesis
A demonstration to aid in differentiating the concepts of heat and temperature  Stevens, George H.
An easy, effective, "real world" demonstration on the distinction between heat and temperature. From "Using 'Real World' Examples in the Teaching of Chemistry - A Symposium", 7th BCCE, Stillwater OK, 1982.
Stevens, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1035.
Thermodynamics
Hazardous chemical storage  Williamson, J. R.
Some tips on safe chemical storage: maximum separation of reactive chemicals equals minimum risk; do not store in alphabetical order; don't store water sensitive chemicals in a water sprinkled storage area; don't store solvents in anything but vented cabinets; don't store incompatible chemicals together; don't store oxidizers and fuels together; do store non-reactive chemicals together, and do store chemicals by reactivity class or by compatibility.
Williamson, J. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 668.
Reactions |
Laboratory Management
Indigo  Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E.
A brief history of the uses and origins of indigo as well as a look at the molecular structure of this molecule.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 633.
Dyes / Pigments |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A safe and simple demonstration of the effect of temperature on reaction rate  Boring, Wayne C.; McMillan, Ernest T.
The demonstration described here utilizes a safe and familiar reaction to illustrate the concept of reaction rate to students.
Boring, Wayne C.; McMillan, Ernest T. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 414.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Treat 'em to Tchaikovsky  Whitman, Mark
The author shares a demonstration that attracts great student attention. Students are highly successful when answering questions about the phenomenon in this demonstration on ensuing exams.
Whitman, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 229.
Reactions |
Rate Law
Solar energy experiment for beginning chemistry  Davis, Clyde E.
This article introduces an experiment that incorporates chemical applications of solar energy into the curriculum.
Davis, Clyde E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 158.
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine  Briggs, Thomas S.
Reacting chlorine generated from liquid bleach with red phosphorus (from a match book) and iron from steel wool.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 788.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemical energy: A learning package  Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth
Problems associated with the teaching of chemical energy and an instructional package designed to overcome those difficulties.
Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 656.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A unified approach to the study of chemical reactions in freshman chemistry  Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D.
An approach that aims to provide students with the background that will enable them to make reasonable predictions as to the likely products of a chemical reaction.
Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 377.
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Entropy and its role in introductory chemistry  Bickford, Franklin R.
The concept of entropy as it applies to phase changes.
Bickford, Franklin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 317.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
An illustration of applied calorimetry - Dieting students  Perkins, Robert R.
The author shares a question that catches student interest and exemplifies the theoretical concepts of calorimetry.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 548.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Notation for order of addition  Niewahner, J. H.
The notation described here will enable a student to include in the chemical equation an implied statement regarding the order of addition.
Niewahner, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 461.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Temperature effect on reaction rates   Eliason, Robert; McMahon, Terence
A demonstration has been developed which nicely illustrates the temperature effect on reaction rates and the general rule relating temperature increases with rate increases.
Eliason, Robert; McMahon, Terence J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 354.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Entropy as a driving force  Salzsieder, John C.
An inexpensive demonstration that requires virtually no setup time (and always works!) can be used to illustrate the driving force of entropy.
Salzsieder, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 280.
Thermodynamics
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
What is the rate-limiting step of a multistep reaction?  Murdoch, Joseph R.
The purpose of this paper is to point out the circumstances where analogies can be used successfully and to develop a generalization which can be used for all reactions, including those with polymolecular steps.
Murdoch, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 32.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
C6H22O11 + H2SO4 = CO + ?  Smith, Douglas D.
Explaining the dehydration of sucrose by sulfuric acid.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 805.
Reactions
Synthesis and decomposition of ZnI2  Walker, Noojin
Illustrates direct combination, decomposition, the effect of a catalyst, recrystallization of sublimed I2, and electrolysis.
Walker, Noojin J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 738.
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry
Chemical Kinetics: Reaction Rates  Mickey, Charles D.
Reviews the chemistry behind factors that influence the rates of chemical reactions.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 659.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Artifacts and the Electromotive Series  Mickey, Charles D.
The chemistry of metals and its application to archeology.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 275.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metallurgy |
Reactions
Rossini, William Tell and the iodine clock reaction: A lecture demonstration  Brice, L. K.
The iodine clock reaction is timed to coincide with three portions of the William Tell Overture.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Bent thermometer  Smith, Douglas D.
Reducing the breakage of thermometers, using CO2 as an insecticide, and improving the demonstration of the reaction between sodium and water.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 742.
Laboratory Management |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Reactions
Electronegativity, bond energy, and chemical reactivity  Myers, R. Thomas
The Pauling electronegativity concept can be used to help rationalize several kinds of chemical reactions.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 711.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Reactions
The thermite lecture demonstration  Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B.
Glycerine plus KMnO4 are used to ignite the thermite in a clay flower pot.
Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 675.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Corrosion: A Waste of energy  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Thermodynamics and electrochemical aspects of corrosion, and inhibition of the corrosion process.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 673.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry
Why thermodynamics should not be taught to freshmen, or who owns the problem?  Battino, Rubin
Thermodynamics should not be taught to freshmen - there are better things to do with the time.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 520.
Thermodynamics
What thermodynamics should be taught to freshmen, or what is the goal?  Campbell, J. A.
The great majority of students in first-year college courses must try to work problems involving changes in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs Free Energy.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 520.
Thermodynamics
Bond free energies  Amador, Alberto
Provides standard free energies for the formation of common single and multiple bonds.
Amador, Alberto J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 453.
Covalent Bonding |
Thermodynamics
Compact Compacts  Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F.
A collection of three suggestions regarding demonstrating the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins and the first law of thermodynamics as applied to air conditioning.
Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thermodynamics
An apparent contradiction in the application of the principle of Le Chtelier  Mellon, E. K.
Unless some care is exercised, the application of free energy concepts in situations where marked temperature changes occur can lead to apparent contradictions like the one described in this paper.
Mellon, E. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 380.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Entropy and rubbery elasticity  Nash, Leonard K.
Thermodynamic analysis of the polymeric molecules of rubber.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 363.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Statistical Mechanics
A few chemical magic tricks based on the clock reaction  Shigematsu, Euchi
Three tricks based on the clock reaction involving KIO3 and NaHSO3.
Shigematsu, Euchi J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 184.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Chemistry concatenated  Beaumont, R. C.
A series of chemical reactions featuring reversible equilibria and nine major color changes.
Beaumont, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 37.
Reactions |
Equilibrium
A Demonstration of burning magnesium and dry ice  Driscoll, Jerry A.
This demonstration is a new, exciting approach to an older demonstration.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 450.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions
The Landolt, "Old Nassau", and variant reactions   Moss, Arthur
Instructions for a modification to the classic "iodine clock" reaction.
Moss, Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 244.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Teaching about "why do chemical reactions occur": Gibbs free energy  Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S.
Approaching the topic of Gibbs free energy from the student's prior experience in algebra and geometry, it is possible to construct a proof that should enable students to explain the derivation of G = H - TS.
Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 757.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Lecture table experimental demonstration of entropy  Dole, Malcolm
Apparatus for demonstrating entropy that involves heating a stretched rubber band with hot steam.
Dole, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 754.
Thermodynamics
Le Chtelier's principle demonstrated with a rubber band  Smith, Douglas D.
Heating a rubber band causes it to contract and stretching it causes it to become warmer.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 701.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Pharmacological projects/case studies for teaching molecular structure and reactivity  Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm
Using pharmacological agents to provide projects that develop and illustrate concepts of molecular stereochemistry, functional groups, and types of reactions and reactivity.
Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 677.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Stereochemistry |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The burning sugar cube  Smith, Douglas D.
A wide range of powdered solids can be used to produce a burning sugar cube.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 552.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Using oxidation state diagrams to teach thermodynamics and inorganic chemistry  Friedel, A.; Murray, R.
Using oxidation state diagrams is suggested as a means of solving some of the problems associated with the teaching of thermodynamics and inorganic group chemistry.
Friedel, A.; Murray, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 485.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation State
The Preparation of polyurethane foam: A lecture demonstration  Dirreen, Glen E.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.
A polyurethane foam is produced by forming a polyurethane polymer concurrently with a gas evolution process.
Dirreen, Glen E.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 431.
Reactions |
Polymerization
A simple lab demonstrating energy transformation  Miller, Daniel W.
Building and investigating a sulfuric acid / lead electrolytic cell.
Miller, Daniel W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 245.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Thermodynamics
Chemical oscillations as an undergraduate experiment  Deb, B. M.
Hitherto unreported observations regarding the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating system.
Deb, B. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 236.
Reactions |
Kinetics
The Old Nassau reaction  Alyea, Hubert N.
A description of the chemistry and history of the Old Nassau reactions.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 167.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Singlet oxygen in aqueous solution: A lecture demonstration   Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G.
Lecture demonstrations involving chemiluminescence are useful for the purpose both of displaying chemical phenomena and of illustrating specific principles.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 358.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
The chemistry involved in the preparation of a paint pigment. An experiment for the freshman laboratory  Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W.
This experiment allows for students to see a demonstration of a variety of chemical principles and reactions.
Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 117.
Reactions |
Dyes / Pigments |
Applications of Chemistry
Footnote to the drinking duck exemplum  Plumb, Robert C.; Cross, Judson B.; Keil, Robert G.
Variations on the drinking bird demonstration.
Plumb, Robert C.; Cross, Judson B.; Keil, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 728.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The chemistry of color photography  Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.
Provides a brief introduction to the chemical reaction involved in color photography and the physical principles that permit those reactions to reproduce colored images.
Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 622.
Photochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Reactions
Conversion of black and white prints to color in daylight. A demonstration lecture for general and organic courses  Wheeler, Thomas N.
A black and white print is converted to a full color print with the lights on; includes a detailed discussion of the chemical processes involved in the demonstration.
Wheeler, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 607.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
203-205. Three chemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 587.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An alternative to AgNO3: Interaction of metallic zinc with aqueous lead acetate  Williams, Helen L.
The reaction between zinc and aqueous lead acetate is selected as being the best for replacing the copper-silver nitrate reaction (due to the high cost of silver nitrate).
Williams, Helen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 391.
Laboratory Management |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Brief introduction to the three laws of thermodynamics  Stevenson, Kenneth L.
Brief descriptions of the three laws of thermodynamics.
Stevenson, Kenneth L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 330.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics, folk culture, and poetry  Smith, Wayne L.
The principles of the first, second, and third laws of thermodynamics are illustrated in songs and poems.
Smith, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 97.
Thermodynamics
What is oxidation?  Herron, J. Dudley
Why do most teachers continue to define oxidation and reduction in terms of a gain and loss of electrons rather than in terms of a change in oxidation number? [Debut]
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 51.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
A vigorous, spontaneous endothermic reaction   Hawkins, Malcolm D.

Hawkins, Malcolm D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, A178.
Thermodynamics
An endothermic reaction   Burt, Norman E.

Burt, Norman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, A178.
Thermodynamics
Goal-oriented teaching of thermodynamics in general chemistry  Canham, G. W. Rayner
Thermodynamics can be more interesting if biological applications are emphasized.
Canham, G. W. Rayner J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 600.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Some reactions of tungsten: A lecture demonstration  Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H.
Several demonstrations involving reactions of tungsten.
Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 810.
Metals |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
A practical energy experiment or lecture demonstration  Garin, David L.
Presents two demonstrations: one involves heating different volumes of water on the same heater and measuring their temperatures; the other involves heating different volumes of water on the same heater and calculating the heat of vaporization.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 497.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
An oscillating iodine clock  Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C.
An oscillating iodine clock reaction that gives striking cyclic changes from colorless to gold to blue using simple reagents.
Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 496.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Scuba diving and the gas laws  Cooke, E. D.; Baranowski, Conrad
Three illustrations of physical-chemical principles drawn from scuba diving.
Cooke, E. D.; Baranowski, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Footnote to the house heating exemplum  Plumb, Robert C.; Campbell, J. A.
Offers a simple proof regarding an earlier column.
Plumb, Robert C.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
The first law. For scientists, citizens, poets and philosophers  Bent, Henry A.
Practical experiences and phenomena that serve to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 323.
Thermodynamics
Physical chemistry of the drinking duck  Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E.
The operation of the drinking bird is easily understood in terms of a few elementary physical chemistry principles.
Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 213.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
LeChatelier's principle and a rubber band  DeLorenzo, Ronald
The cited demonstration can also be sued to illustrate LeChatelier's principle .
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 124.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Two lecture experiments demonstrating limiting quantities  Dillard, Clyde R.
Uses reactions between HCl and magnesium and HCl and calcium to demonstrate the concept of limiting reactants.
Dillard, Clyde R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A694.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Effect of temperature on reaction rate  Simon, J.
The reaction of aluminum in HCl.
Simon, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A85.
Rate Law |
Reactions
The reducing property of ammonia  Long, Robert H.
Heating black copper (II) oxide with ammonium carbonate yields metallic copper, red copper (I) oxide, and water.
Long, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A85.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The phenomenon of synergism in the field of chemistry  Sunier, Arthur A.
Presents examples of synergism in chemistry and examines its underlying causes.
Sunier, Arthur A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 805.
Reactions
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Seven questions requiring the application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 769.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Astrochemistry
Pseudo first-order kinetics  Corbett, John F.
A kinetic study of second-order reactions under first-order conditions can yield accurate second-order rate constants provided an empirical allowance is made for the depletion of the reactant in excess.
Corbett, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 663.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Passage of fruit flies through a hole. A model for a reversible chemical reaction  Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf
The passage of fruit flies through a single orifice provides an excellent model for illustrating the principles of equilibrium and chemical dynamics; the results are found to be temperature dependent and reproducible.
Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 534.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
When You Heat Your House Does the Thermal Energy Content Increase?  Bilkadi, Zayn; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
Whether or not the total energy content of the air increases or decreases cannot be answered unambiguously.
Bilkadi, Zayn; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 493.
Thermodynamics
Entropy and a rubber band  Laswick, Patty Hall
A temperature change is noted when a rubber band held against the cheek is stretched and then released.
Laswick, Patty Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 469.
Thermodynamics
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of basic chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 328.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes
The chemistry of winemaking. An unique lecture demonstration  Church, L. B.
This paper shows that a very complex series of reactions present in the preparation of wine can be used as the focal point to illustrate many other general classes of chemical reactions and physical processes.
Church, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 174.
Alcohols |
Consumer Chemistry |
Reactions
The effervescence of ocean surf  Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
A pure liquid will not foam, but all true solutions will, as dictated by the fundamental concepts of surface thermodynamics enunciated by Gibbs.
Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
When your car rusts out  Knockemus, Ward
Explains the rusting of a car by considering electrochemical corrosion and the Nernst equation.
Knockemus, Ward J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Reactions
Gas Laws, Equilibrium, and the Commercial Synthesis of Nitric acid. A Simple Demonstration  Alexander, M. Dale
This demonstration of the commercial production of nitric acid uses a simple apparatus to illustrate a number of basic chemical concepts, including Le Chatelier's principle.
Alexander, M. Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 838.
Synthesis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Entropy Makes Water Run Uphill - in Trees  Stevenson, Philip E.
Explains how Sequoias over 300 feet tall can draw water up to their topmost leaves.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 837.
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Plant Chemistry |
Membranes |
Transport Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Tire Inflation Thermodynamics  Plumb, Robert C.; Connors, John J.
Explains why inflating a tire with a hand pump heats the air being pumped into the tire.
Plumb, Robert C.; Connors, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 837.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Heat of hydration  Dannhauser, Walter
A commonly published experiment can be expanded so that students may obtain the enthalpy of the reaction between anhydrous salts and water.
Dannhauser, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 329.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions
A study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl  Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben
The authors describe the experimental procedure and a discussion of results for a study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl.
Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 327.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
A color indicating time reaction  Chen, Philip S.
Combining solutions of sodium thoisulfate and ferric chloride produces a dramatic color change.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A784.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion  Johnson, Joseph E.
Modifications or additions to previously published demonstration.
Johnson, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A439.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases |
Transport Properties |
Coordination Compounds
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
These twelve overhead projection demonstrations include rates of reactions, clock reactions, the effect of temperature and the presence of a catalyst on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the relationship between viscosity and temperature, equilibria, solubility product, and the common ion effect.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
13 demonstrations, including electrophoresis, electrolysis, corrosion inhibition, endothermic and exothermic reactions, crystals and crystallization, reactions with sodium, and the kinetics of H2O2 decomposition.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A387.
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Kinetics
Catalysis demonstrations with Cr2O3  Briggs, Thomas S.
Cr2O3 is used as a catalyst in the oxidation of nonflammable substances such as glycerine and glacial acetic acid.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
A classroom demonstration of exothermicity  Boschmann, Erwin
The heat generated by dissolving NaOH in water causes iodine crystals to sublime.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Hydrolysis of the carbonate ion  Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James
Predicting and testing the product of the reaction between aqueous Cu(NO3)2 and Na2CO3.
Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hydrolysis of the carbonate ion  Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James
Predicting and testing the product of the reaction between aqueous Cu(NO3)2 and Na2CO3.
Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Autoxidation of benzoin  Chen, Philip S.
Benzoin in its enediol form undergoes autoxidation in alkaline solution in the presence of air.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A67.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
So-called zeroth law of thermodynamics  Redlich, Otto
The "zeroth law of thermodynamics" elucidates the difference between the axiomatic and the epistemological method; it is neither a law nor a statement of fact but a guideline for checking our description of nature.
Redlich, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 740.
Thermodynamics
Simple method for demonstrating an enzymatic reaction  Tang, Chung-Shih
Uses taste sensations of papaya seeds under varying conditions to demonstrate an enzymatic reaction.
Tang, Chung-Shih J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 692.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Food Science |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Demonstrating the relation between rate constants and the equilibrium constant  Meyer, Edwin F.; Glass, Edward
Presents an approach used with an apparatus to demonstrate quantitatively the relationship between rate constants and the equilibrium constant for simple reversible reactions.
Meyer, Edwin F.; Glass, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 646.
Rate Law |
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Instant first aid  Kaufman, James A.
Explains how instant ice and hot packs work.
Kaufman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 518.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Culture and the conservation laws  Bent, Henry A.
There are no consumers of mass or energy, only converters.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 518.
Thermodynamics
Interpretation of oxidation-reduction  Goodstein, Madeline P.
Presents an interpretation of the oxidation number system based upon the electronegativity principle, thus removing the adjective "arbitrary" frequently found in the descriptions of oxidation number.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 452.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Understanding a culprit before eliminating it. An application of Lewis acid-base principles to atmospheric SO2 as a pollutant  Brasted, Robert C.
The SO2 molecule offers ample opportunities for teaching practical chemistry. [Debut of first run. This feature reappeared in 1986.]
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An alternative to free energy for undergraduate instruction  Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank
It is the purpose of this paper to question the usefulness of the Gibbs function for the student and to propose an alternative based on the use of entropy functions that help the student to focus more sharply on the features of a system that relate to its capacity to change.
Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 347.
Thermodynamics
Our freshmen like the second law  Craig, Norman C.
The author affirms the place of thermodynamics in the introductory chemistry course and outlines a presentation that has been used with students at this level.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 342.
Thermodynamics
The second law - How much, how soon, to how many?  Bent, Henry A.
Discussion of the conceptual components of thermodynamics, their mathematical requirements, and where they might be best placed in the curriculum.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 337.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Demonstration of photochemistry and the dimerization and trapping of free radicals  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This demonstration uses simple equipment and involves a rapid, readily noticeable color change and also illustrates dimerization and the trapping of free radicals.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 315.
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactions
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Cloud Caps on High Mountains  Stevenson, Philip E.
The formation of cloud caps on high mountains illustrates cooling in an adiabatic expansion and the change in vapor pressure of a liquid with temperature.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 272.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
The Methanol Lighter  Bailar, John C., Jr.
The methanol lighter illustrates the roles that thermodynamics, kinetics, and catalysis play in determining if a reaction will take place.
Bailar, John C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 272.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The snowmaking machines  Plumb, Robert C.
Illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 176.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Chemical principles exemplified  Plumb, Robert C.
Introduction to a new series, containing "exempla" (brief anecdotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles). [Debut]
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 175.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Photochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Oxidizing action of sulfur dioxide  Lauren, Paul M.
A burning ribbon of magnesium is dropped into a flask of sulfur dioxide produces elemental sulfur.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A55.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A spontaneous endothermic reaction  Hambly, Arthur N.
Barium hydroxide and ammonium thiocyanate react in a flask, causing the water beneath it to freeze.
Hambly, Arthur N. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A55.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
Volkswagen versus the hummingbird  Nebbia, Giorgio
Questions the cited (046-07-0455) thermodynamic calculations.
Nebbia, Giorgio J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 701.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
An improved equivalent weight apparatus  Brown, Oliver L.
Presents an improved apparatus for the reaction of weighed samples of metals with hydrochloric acid and the measurement of the volume of hydrogen evolved.
Brown, Oliver L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals |
Laboratory Management |
Reactions |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Quantities of work in thermodynamic equations  Wright, P. G.
Examines distinctions to be made between work done by forces exerted by external bodies and acting on a system with work done by forces exerted by the system on external bodies.
Wright, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 380.
Thermodynamics
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) Is there such a thing as a negative pH value? Or one above 14? (2) What is entropy, in terms a beginner may understand? (3) On calculating the molecular weight of a solute from concentration and freezing point depression.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Group VI. The Sulfur Family D. Sulfur Dioxide  Alyea, Hubert N.
Seven demonstrations involving sulfur dioxide.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A977.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reactions of metals and sulfur  Walker, Noojin
An iron nail reacts with sulfur to produce iron(II) sulfide.
Walker, Noojin J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A901.
Metals |
Reactions
A transparent dust explosion apparatus  Haight, G. P., Jr.; Duvall, Robert.; Phillips, Stanley
Design for a transparent dust explosion apparatus
Haight, G. P., Jr.; Duvall, Robert.; Phillips, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A833.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Nitrogen chemistry. C. Fixation of nitrogen  Mancuso, Carl J.
Demonstrations include air + Al-amalgam; the arc process for NO2; and the Ostwald process: NH3 + O2 and NO to HNO3.
Mancuso, Carl J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A567.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Reactions
Nitrogen chemistry. A. Nitrogen. B. Ammonia  Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstration include an ammonia generator; ammonia diffusion throughout a rubber balloon; ammonium chloride smoke; and secret writing using HgNH2Cl + Hg.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A567.
Reactions
Spontaneous combustion  Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H.
Linseed oil is observed to char cotton over a period of time.
Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Energy cycles  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Points out limitations and potential pitfalls associated with the use energy cycles to show the atomic and molecular energy factors that may influence an observable chemical property.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 420.
Thermodynamics
Bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reactions  Edwards, John O.
The bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reaction is important and should be included in any detailed discussion of kinetics and mechanism at an early undergraduate level.
Edwards, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 386.
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
From stoichiometry and rate law to mechanism  Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John
Examines the rules used by chemists as guidelines in developing mechanisms from stoichiometric and rate law observations.
Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 381.
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Reactive Intermediates
The revolution in elementary kinetics and freshman chemistry  Wolfgang, Richard
New developments in kinetics so fundamentally affect our most elementary conception of chemical change that they must inevitably be reflected in beginning courses in chemistry; includes an outline for freshmen on elementary chemical dynamics.
Wolfgang, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 359.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemical dynamics for college freshmen  Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B.
Suggestions for topics regarding chemical dynamics to be considered in freshman chemistry.
Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 354.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Silver tree  Smith, Donald Z.
A suggestion for improving the silver:copper ratio in the silver tree experiment.
Smith, Donald Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 275.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Biological oxidations and energy conservation  Kirschbaum, Joel
Examines the oxidative steps leading to the synthesis of ATP in living organisms and their metabolic control.
Kirschbaum, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 28.
Bioenergetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Group 1. The Alkali Metals. The Copper Group   Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations include the density and melting point of copper versus sodium, the conductivity of sodium, the reactivity with water of groups IA vs IB, and the stability of CO3--, HCO3-, and hydroxides of groups IA vs IB.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A919.
Metals |
Reactions |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Burning without access to air  Alfthan, Voldemar
Permanganate in the presence of sulfuric acid furnishes the oxygen needed for rapid combustion.
Alfthan, Voldemar J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Reaction Rates and Equilibria A. Rate of Reaction 1. Effect of concentration  Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction include H2O2+Cu(NH3)4++, Zn+acid, and the "long delay" iodine clock reaction.
Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A274.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Energy E. Mechanical Energy   Owens, Charles
A steam engine demonstrates the transformation of heat into motion.
Owens, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A273.
Thermodynamics
Energy C. Electrical Energy  Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin
Demonstrations include aluminum flashed in oxygen; photo-bromination of cinnamic acid, hexane, tartaric acid, toluene; photochemical H2+Cl2 explosion and the slow photochemical H2+Cl2 into 2HCl.
Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A83.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
Letter to the editor  Brescia, Frank
Calls on instructors not to confuse students with inappropriate definitions of work.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 771.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
A study of the silver tree experiment  Carmody, Walter R.; Wiersma, Jack
Examines the errors associated with and efforts to improve the results of the silver tree experiment.
Carmody, Walter R.; Wiersma, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 417.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Determination of the combining weight of tin: A new look at an old experiment  Carmody, Walter R.
Describes efforts to improve the determination of the combining weight of tin
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 416.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Synthesis
VII - Combustion and flame  Anderson, Robbin C.
Presents and describes an extensive bibliography on the study of combustion and flames.
Anderson, Robbin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 248.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction: An elementary chemistry experiment  Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W.
Students are asked to decide which of a number of nitrogen containing species is a reasonable product of the reaction between the hydroxylammonium ion and iron (III) on the basis of the experimentally determined stoichiometry of the reaction.
Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 109.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Energy B. Heat energy  Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Noerdin, Isjrin; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations presented include the absorption of black vs white surfaces, the heat ignition of touching flash-bulbs, the low heat of combustion of guncotton, and the heats of displacement of metals.
Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Noerdin, Isjrin; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A978.
Metals |
Thermodynamics
Energy B. Heat energy   Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the heat of crystallization (sodium acetate and Na2S2O3[5H2O]), heat of formation (ZnCl2), heat of hydration (CaO and CuSO4), heat of neutralization, heat of solvation (alcohols), evaporation of ether and methyl chloride, and heat of solution (NH4NO3).
Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1079.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility
The fundamental assumptions of chemical thermodynamics  MacRae, Duncan
Examines the fundamental terms, definitions, and assumptions of chemical thermodynamics.
MacRae, Duncan J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 586.
Thermodynamics
Demonstrations of spontaneous endothermic reactions  Matthews, G. W. J.
The reaction between hydrated metal chlorides and thionyl chloride provides a series of valuable experiments that can be used to demonstrate spontaneous endothermic reactions.
Matthews, G. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 476.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Fusion reactions under the microscope  Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe
An electrically heated wire is used to identify a variety of cations and anions according to colors observed under a microscope.
Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 421.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Demonstration of chemical reaction via aerosol spray reagents  Stedman, Earl D.
Demonstrations of chemical reactions via aerosol spray reagents may include acid-base indicators and precipitation reactions.
Stedman, Earl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 377.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions
The enigmatic polymorphism of iron  Myers, Clifford E.
Unusual and nontypical, elemental iron can provide the impetus for discussing important chemical principles and properties, including basic thermodynamic concepts and the phenomenon and theory of ferromagnetism.
Myers, Clifford E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 303.
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
The use and misuse of the laws of thermodynamics  McGlashan, M. L.
Examines the first and second laws, the usefulness of thermodynamics, the calculation of equilibrium constants, and what entropy does not mean.
McGlashan, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 226.
Thermodynamics
Demonstrating concepts of statistical thermodynamics: More on the Maxwell Demon bottle  Sussman, M. V.
The Maxwell Demon bottle can illustrate the nature of entropy, the difference between a work effect and a heat effect, the difference between reversible and irreversible work effects, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and similar intangibles.
Sussman, M. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 105.
Thermodynamics
Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose: A student study of a reaction mechanism  Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A.
By extending the experimental work in a kinetic study of the hydrolysis of sucrose, the beginning student in chemistry can gather some insight into the mechanism of the reaction.
Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 34.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Carbohydrates
Combustion versus biological oxidation  Asenjo, Conrado F.
Describes a simple toy that can be used to illustrate the difference between combustion and biological oxidation.
Asenjo, Conrado F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 558.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Thermodynamics of the ionization of acetic and chloroacetic acids  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
Students are asked to determine the effect of the structure of acetic, chloroacetic, dichloroacetic, and trichloroacetic acid on equilbria and to discuss the observed effects in terms of standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 484.
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Enthalpies of formation of solid salts  Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T.
This investigation introduces the student to several important areas of thermochemistry, including enthalpies of neutralization, enthalpies of dissolution, enthalpies of formation, and Hess' Law.
Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 474.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Relationship of enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
The primary objectives of this investigation are to relate enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy using Hess' Law and to acquaint students with Born-Haber type energy cycles.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 473.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Teaching principles of quantitative analysis with "qual" reactions  O'Donnell, T. A.
A series of test-tube reactions using semi-micro techniques has been devised to precede each section of the course in quantitative analysis designed to illustrate qualitatively or semi-qualitatively the chemical reactions or principles that are the basis of each quantitative exercise.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 434.
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions
A simple model for the SN2 mechanism.  Nyquist, H. LeRoy
Presents a simple, physical model for the SN2 mechanism.
Nyquist, H. LeRoy J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 103.
Molecular Modeling |
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Continuous process for catalytic oxidation of ammonia  Olmsted, Michael P.
A heated platinum coil catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia.
Olmsted, Michael P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A973.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, LeChatelier's Principle. III. Halide-halate equilibria  Eberhardt, William H.
Compares four equilibria: KI + KIO3, KI + KBrO3, KBR + KBrO3, and KBr + KIO3.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A883.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, Le Châtelier's principle II  Eberhardt, William H.
This demonstration involves a reversible, temperature-based transformation from blue tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ to pink sixfold coordinated Co2+.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A591.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Metallic reduction of aqueous hydrogen chloride  Walker, Noojin, Jr.
Calcium reacts with HCl to liberate hydrogen gas.
Walker, Noojin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A477.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, Le Chtelier's principle  Eberhardt, William H.
Aqueous KI is added to a solution of CuSO4 in a separatory funnel; adding more CuSO4 demonstrates an equilibrium sift.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A477.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Thermal expansion of gases  Barnard, W. Robert
Liquid nitrogen is poured over an inflated balloon.
Barnard, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A139.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
A new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone  King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth
Presents a new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone.
King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A139.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Mysels, Karol J.
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 677.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Bauman, Robert
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Bauman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 676.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Kokes, Richard J.
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Kokes, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 675.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Bauman, Robert
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Bauman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 675.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Infrared spectrometry to study second order reaction kinetics  Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y.
The change studied is a synthesis reaction between menthol and phenyl isocyanate.
Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 613.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
The hydration of carbon dioxide: A double clock experiment  Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L.
This extension of the "Soda Water Clock" experiment provides a quantitative kinetics investigation.
Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 610.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion  Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H.
Presents the oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion as an ideal reaction to study as part of an experiment on kinetics.
Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 549.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Reversible and irreversible work: A lecture demonstration  Eberhardt, William H.
This lecture demonstration illustrates the concepts of reversible and irreversible work using a pendulum and attached pan balance.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 483.
Thermodynamics
The Carnot cycle and Maxwell's relations  Nash, Leonard K.
Maxwells equations can be derived from nothing more than the Carnot cycle and the deployment of the simplest plane geometry.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 368.
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Teaching the entropy concept  Plumb, Robert C.
Presents a macroscopic lecture demonstration illustrating both potential energy and entropy driving forces and showing their interrelationship.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 254.
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
Work of compressing an ideal gas  Bauman, Robert P.
In formulating examples of compression problems there should be an explicit statement that the process is reversible, or at least slow.
Bauman, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 102.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Colorimetric chemical kinetics experiment  Corsaro, Gerald
This article describes an experiment in which a photocolorimetric technique is employed to follow a bimolecular reaction rate; the reactants are crystal violet and the hydroxide ion.
Corsaro, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 48.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Homogeneous catalysis: A reexamination of definitions  Leisten, J. A.
Considers common questions regarding the action of catalysts by examining various typical examples.
Leisten, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 23.
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Solvay processes  Johns, Robert J.
A simple demonstration of the Solvay process.
Johns, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A535.
Reactions
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
A reaction tube for sodium and chlorine  Barnard, W. Robert
Describes reacting sodium and chlorine in Pyrex tubing.
Barnard, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A49.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Alkali metal-water reactions  Markowitz, Meyer M.
The typical open-air demonstration of sodium reacting with water does not in reality represent the typical reaction of an alkali metal with liquid water; the article goes on to consider other factors that may influence these reactions.
Markowitz, Meyer M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 633.
Reactions |
Metals |
Water / Water Chemistry
KineticsEarly and often  Campbell, J. A.
Describes an approach to investigating kinetics and its application to the "blue bottle" experiment.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 578.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A simple approach to the second law  Breck, W. G.
Uses a reversible Carnot cycle as a simple approach to explicating the second law.
Breck, W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 353.
Thermodynamics
Temperature dependence of equilibrium: A first experiment in general chemistry  Mahan, Bruce H.
This experiment uses cooling curves to derive the expression for the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant.
Mahan, Bruce H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 293.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Letters to the editor  Jurale, Bernard
Compares the catalytic capability of reagent vs. technical grade manganese oxide in the decomposition of potassium chlorate.
Jurale, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Reactions |
Catalysis
Letters to the editor  Meyer, E. Gerald; Weaver, Elbert C.
The authors encourage instructors of introductory chemistry not to distract students with side reactions.
Meyer, E. Gerald; Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Reactions
Maxwell's demon demonstrator  Sussman, M. V.
Describes a simple device used to illustrate the concept of irreversibility.
Sussman, M. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 49.
Thermodynamics
A compact light box  Barnard, Robert
Presents the design of a light box suitable for demonstrations involving solutions, precipitations, or any basic chemical reaction.
Barnard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A953.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Reactions
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion of H2S  Thomas, P. M.
Hydrogen sulfide passed over lead(IV) oxide bursts into flame.
Thomas, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry experiments. Part 2. General chemistry experiments  Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N.
Presents a variety of experiments that make use of hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry.
Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry
The thermal decomposition of KClO3  Bostrup, O.; Demandt, K.; Hansen, K. O.
It is not true that heated potassium chlorate will decompose to produce only KCl and oxygen.
Bostrup, O.; Demandt, K.; Hansen, K. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 573.
Reactions |
Catalysis
A second lecture in thermodynamics  Burton, Milton
Outlines an introduction for the three laws of thermodynamics
Burton, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 500.
Thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics: Introduction for beginners at any level  Bent, Henry A.
Examines and offers suggestions for dealing with some of the challenges in teaching thermodynamics at an introductory level.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 491.
Thermodynamics
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discussion of the conventions, definitions, and symbols of thermodynamics.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
Some aspects of chemical kinetics for elementary chemistry  Benson, Sidney W.
The author suggests greater efforts to address the issue of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in introductory chemistry.
Benson, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 321.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
Chemical equilibrium: The hydrogenation of benzene  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
This procedure examines the reversible reaction between benzene and hydrogen, forming cyclohexane, in the presence of a metal catalyst.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 91.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Catalysis
Heat of reaction and H2SO4 concentration: A general chemistry experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander
This procedure measures the heat of reaction between water and sulfuric acid of various concentrations; this information is used to determine the concentration of an unknown acid sample.
Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 472.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
How can you tell whether a reaction will occur?  MacWood, George E.; Verhoek, Frank H.
This paper attempts to answer the title question in a clear and direct fashion.
MacWood, George E.; Verhoek, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 334.
Thermodynamics
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Suggests that more should be done to teach introductory college chemistry students basic principles such as entropy and free energy.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 333.
Thermodynamics
Oxidation-reduction mechanisms  Duke, F. R.
Summarizes various types of oxidation-reduction mechanisms.
Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 161.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A simple ice calorimeter: A first experiment in thermochemistry  Mahan, Bruce H.
This note describes a relatively crude and simple ice calorimeter that can be supplied to each student.
Mahan, Bruce H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 634.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics
The stability of solutions for the iodine clock reaction  Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R.
The results of attempts to stabilize solutions needed for the iodine clock reaction to allow long-term storage.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 577.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
Polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure: A demonstration using a "Ziegler" type catalyst  Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max
A simple experiment on the polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure is described using a "Ziegler" type catalyst prepared from amyl lithium and titanium tetrachloride.
Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 344.
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Alkenes
Chemistry in the manufacture of modern gasoline  Kimberlin, C. N., Jr.
This paper presents a brief review of the chemistry involved in the manufacture of gasoline, particularly catalytic cracking reactions.
Kimberlin, C. N., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 569.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. II. Bond energies  Reinmuth, Otto
Examines bond and dissociation energies, the "constancy" of C-H and C-C dissociation energies, and some common types of organochemical reactions.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 318.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions
An efficient chemiluminescent system and a chemiluminescent clock reaction  White, Emil H.
Presents the investigation of two chemiluminescent systems - the first is particularly brilliant and the second acts as a clock reaction.
White, Emil H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 275.
Photochemistry |
Reactions
Model of a potential energy surface  Dye, J. L.
Describes a physical, three-dimensional model of the potential energy surface for HBr.
Dye, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 215.
Kinetics |
Reactive Intermediates |
Reactions
A "clock reaction" for a beginning course in college chemistry  Black, Arthur H.; Dodson, Vance H.
The reduction of the cerium(IV) ion in aqueous sulfuric acid to the cerium(III) ion with oxalate ion can be followed visually and without special colorimetric devices.
Black, Arthur H.; Dodson, Vance H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 562.
Reactions
A phosphine fire flask  Dillard, Clyde R.
Presents a flask and demonstration that relies on the spontaneous combustion of phosphine gas.
Dillard, Clyde R. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 137.
Reactions
Simple generalized reaction schemes  Estok, George K.
In the early development of a student's background in chemistry it seems desirable to encourage an integrated understanding of the types of chemical particles and the formal ways in which they may react.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 115.
Reactions
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Effect of water on the interaction of aluminum and iodine  Azmatullah, Syed; Viswanathan, Argot
A drop of water added to powdered aluminum and iodine initiates a vigorous reaction.
Azmatullah, Syed; Viswanathan, Argot J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 447.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Reactions
Lecture demonstrations of incendiaries. II  Antelman, Marvin
Demonstrations described involve gunpowder, the combustion of sulfur dioxide, zirconium, nitric acid, sodium peroxide, hot iron, ammonium nitrate, organic chlorates and nitrates, and zinc stearate.
Antelman, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 273.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The formaldehyde clock reaction  Barrett, Richard L.
The formaldehyde clock reaction has some advantages over the familiar iodine clock and deserves to be better known.
Barrett, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 78.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Le Châtelier's principle and the equilibrium constant  Miller, Arild J.
Many students of chemistry have difficulty in understanding how the position of equilibrium in a gaseous reaction can change when the pressure is altered, in accordance with Le Châtelier's principle, without causing a corresponding variation in the equilibrium constant.
Miller, Arild J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 455.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Gases
A heat engine run by rubber  Cox, E. G.
Describes a rotating wheel powered by the alternate heating and cooling of rubber bands.
Cox, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 307.
Thermodynamics
Ammonia and "ammonium hydroxide"  Davis, John B.
One of several reactions that needs reevaluation in the light of the modern theory of valence is the reaction between ammonia and water and the fiction of the ammonium hydroxide molecule.
Davis, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 511.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Praseodymium tetrafluoride  Perros, Theodore P.; Munson, Thomas R.; Naeser, Charles R.
In spite of the experimental failures to prepare praseodymium tetrafluoride, there is strong evidence for its possible formation to be found by calculating the equilibrium constants for some of the reactions by which this compound might be prepared.
Perros, Theodore P.; Munson, Thomas R.; Naeser, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 402.
Oxidation State |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Letters  Miranda, Bienvenido T.
Commmentary on two earlier Journal articles.
Miranda, Bienvenido T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 264.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Silver trees  Gleim, David I.
Describes the classic silver tree and the examination of its crystals under the microscope.
Gleim, David I. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 151.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Thermite ignition assured  Brockett, Clyde P.
Offers a suggestion for igniting course mixtures of commercial grade thermite.
Brockett, Clyde P. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 525.
Reactions
Letters  Angus, L. H.
Suggests a simple temperature-equilibrium demonstration.
Angus, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Thermodynamics
A simple demonstration of the Carnot cycle  Calingaert, George
This simple demonstration makes use of a stretched rubber band whose temperature changes are noted with the lips.
Calingaert, George J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 405.
Thermodynamics
Qualitative adequacy of phlogiston  Scott, John Howe
The author illustrates the phlogiston theory and the reasoning of those who used it historically (particularly Scheele) by applying them to several simple chemical reactions.
Scott, John Howe J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 360.
Reactions
An ammonium dichromate "volcano"  Deloach, Will S.; McHugh, John W.; Black, Jerry
Describes a model volcano with a mechanism for igniting and disposing of ammonium dichromate.
Deloach, Will S.; McHugh, John W.; Black, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 649.
Reactions
A temperature-equilibrium demonstration  Brown, John A.
This demonstration makes use of the colored cobaltous complexes in a mixed solvent to show the dependence of some equilibria on temperature.
Brown, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 640.
Equilibrium |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Coordination Compounds
On accenting observations in chemistry  Campbell, J. A.
A chemical equations is, for many a student, such a complete abstraction that he would be hard put to describe the actual observations that would be made in a process for which he was supplied the complete equation.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 634.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A clock reaction  Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot
Ferrous ions in an alkaline solution of a tartrate form of a soluble chelate complex that reacts sluggishly with iodine.
Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 386.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Making water gas by cracking methanol  Viertel, William K.
Methanol vapor decomposes very readily at about 1000C into carbon monoxide and hydrogen; presents an apparatus for collecting the hydrogen gas generated through this process.
Viertel, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 220.
Alcohols |
Reactions