TIGER

Journal Articles: 351 results
Designing and Conducting a Purification Scheme as an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Practical  Kate J. Graham, Brian J. Johnson, T. Nicholas Jones, Edward J. McIntee, and Chris P. Schaller
Describes an open-ended laboratory practical that challenges students to evaluate when different purification techniques are appropriate.
Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Schaller, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1644.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H2S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds  Indu Tucker Sidhwani and Sushmita Chowdhury
The classic technique for the qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures relies on highly toxic hydrogen sulfide. Increasing environmental awareness has prompted the development of a green scheme for the detection of cations by spot tests that is simple and fast.
Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1099.
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
If You Were a Molecule in a Chromatography Column, What Would You See?  John Mattice
To visualize what takes place in a chromatography column, enlarge the molecules to human size and expand the columns to keep the ratio of size of molecule to size of column the same. Using such a model, this article explains how band broadening occurs as a result of resistance to mass transfer, multiple flow paths, and stagnant mobile phase.
Mattice, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 925.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Size Exclusion Chromatography: An Experiment for High School and Community College Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory Programs  Linda S. Brunauer and Kathryn K. Davis
Describes an experiment in which students use column chromatography to separate and characterize biomolecules, thus expanding their exposure to chromatographic procedures beyond those more commonly employed at the secondary level (e.g., paper or thin-layer chromatography).
Brunauer, Linda S.; Davis, Kathryn K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 683.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Enzymes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Colorful Column Chromatography: A Classroom Demonstration of a Three-Component Separation  Lars V. Heumann
Describes a classroom demonstration for the separation of a ternary mixture consisting of intensely colored compounds using silica gel column chromatography.
Heumann, Lars V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 524.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Investigating Students' Ability To Transfer Ideas Learned from Molecular Animations of the Dissolution Process  Resa M. Kelly and Loretta L. Jones
This study examines what features of the particulate nature of matter learned from viewing two animations of sodium chloride dissolution students would transfer to their descriptions of the participation of aqueous sodium chloride in a chemical reaction.
Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 303.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Constructivism
A Simple Experiment in the Separation of a Solid-Phase Mixture and Infrared Spectroscopy for Introductory Chemistry  Paul S. Szalay
In this guided-inquiry experiment, a two-component solid mixture of caffeine and ibuprofen is separated through a series of solution extractions and precipitations. The components are then analyzed using IR spectrophotometry to determine how effectively they were separated.
Szalay, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Determining the Solubility Product of Fe(OH)3: An Equilibrium Study with Environmental Significance  Michelle Meighan, Joseph MacNeil, and Renee Falconer
This study explores the environmental impact of acidic mine drainage by investigating the relationship between pH and the aqueous solubility of heavy metals. Students precipitate Fe(OH)3 from acidic FeCl3 and NaOH and use the concentrations of ferric and hydroxide ionsdetermined through pH and flame spectroscopyto calculate the Ksp of Fe(OH)3.
Meighan, Michelle; MacNeil, Joseph; Falconer, Renee. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 254.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Spectroscopy
The Chemistry of Swimming Pool Maintenance  Carl Salter and David L. Langhus
This paper examines the key ideas behind swimming pool chemistry -- the central importance of pH and its effect on chlorine sanitation and calcium carbonate solubility. The paper also reviews the analytical procedures and common practices used to monitor and control pool chemistry or correct problems.
Salter, Carl; Langhus, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1124.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH |
Photochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Analysis of the Thickening Agents in Automotive Greases by GC–MS  David Mayotte, Craig J. Donahue, and Cheryl A. Snyder
Describes a laboratory procedure for the identification of the thickening agents in lubricating greases by GCMS.
Mayotte, David; Donahue, Craig J.; Snyder, Cheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 902.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Fatty Acids
The Ultrasonic Soda Fountain: A Dramatic Demonstration of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solutions  John E. Baur and Melinda B. Baur
An ultrasonic bath is used to accelerate the rate at which carbonated beverages equilibrate with the atmosphere. The resulting fountain, which can reach heights in excess of 3 meters, is a dramatic demonstration of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Baur, John E.; Baur, Melinda B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 577.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility provides an animated, visual interpretation of the different solubilities of related salts based on simple entropy changes associated with dissolution: configurational disorder and thermal disorder.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 173.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Computational Chemistry
A New Java Animation in Peer-Reviewed JCE WebWare  William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
Just added to JCE WebWare, Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility uses a Java applet and Web browser to present an animated illustration of differences in the solubility of salts due to differences in the entropy of solvation.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 173.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Using Computer Simulations To Teach Salt Solubility. The Role of Entropy in Solubility Equilibrium  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Pairs of salts are discussed to illustrate the interpretation of their different behavior in water in terms of the fundamental concept of entropy. The ability of computer simulations to help improve students' understanding of these chemistry concepts is also examined.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 170.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Checkerboard Chromatography  Charles A. Smith
This hands-on activity allows students to simulate chromatographic simulations using a grid, colored pieces of paper, and a six-sided die. Students observe the separation as it is occurring and perform experiments on flow rate, column length, and mobile phase composition.
Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 384A.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples. An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory  Christopher J. Pursell, Bert Chandler, and Michelle M. Bushey
This experiment can be done in a lab, as a "dry-lab", or as an in-class exercise. Students explore a number of basic separation topics and work with figures of merit for real and meaningful samples. We have adopted a strategy where students encounter various instruments and methods of analyses multiple times throughout the curriculum. The level of sophistication in the exposures increases with the experience level of the students. Through this repeated exposure students will gain a better and fuller understanding of these methods than they would with a single exposure to the technique in the analytical or instrumental laboratory.
Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1783.
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chemometrics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner  Kurt R. Mathews, James D. Landmark, and Douglas F. Stickle
Here we describe a procedure to produce a standard curve for quantification of starch concentration using colorimetry.
Mathews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 702.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Flotation De-Inking Experiment for the Recycling of Paper  Richard A. Venditti
This short article describes a simple, inexpensive method to execute in the laboratory a batch type flotation de-inking process on wastepaper.
Venditti, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 693.
Separation Science |
Surface Science |
Industrial Chemistry
Potential Hazard   Jean B. Umland
Use of the apparatus for fractional distillation shown in Figure 4 of the article Learning in Chemistry with Virtual Laboratories would be very likely to cause an explosion because the apparatus shown has no vent.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 641.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Separation Science
An Improved Method for the Extraction and Thin-Layer Chromatography of Chlorophyll a and b from Spinach  Hao T. Quach, Robert L. Steeper, and G. William Griffin
A direct method of extracting plant pigments from spinach leaves into a dry organic solvent is presented. This method avoids liquidliquid extractions and subsequent drying as is found in previously reported methods.
Quach, Hao T.; Steeper, Robert L.; Griffin, G. William. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 385.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Magnetic Particle Technology. A Simple Preparation of Magnetic Composites for the Adsorption of Water Contaminants  Luiz C. A. Oliveira, Rachel V. R. A. Rios, José D. Fabris, Rochel M. Lago, and Karim Sapag
In this article a simple undergraduate laboratory experiment to produce magnetic adsorbents is described. These magnetic materials efficiently adsorb contaminants from water and can be easily removed from the medium by a simple magnetic separation process.
Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Rios, Rachel V.R.A.; Fabris, José D.; Lago, Rochel M.; Sapag, Karim. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 248.
Green Chemistry |
Magnetic Properties |
Materials Science |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Solubility Rules: Three Suggestions for Improved Understanding  Bob Blake
Many general chemistry textbooks have errors or omissions in their rules for predicting solubility that the author highlights and attempts to correct. In addition, it is proposed that the following changes be made to the discussion of solubility so that students and teachers can have a greater understanding of solubility.
Blake, Bob. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1348.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Students' Understanding of Solution Chemistry Concepts  Tacettin Pinarbasi and Nurtaç Canpolat
This study examines undergraduates' understanding of some concepts in solution chemistry such as unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions; physical properties of solutions; and gas solubility. We suggest that the results can be utilized in research that develops teaching strategies to overcome students' misunderstanding.
Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Canpolat, Nurtaç . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1328.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Manual Microscale Column Chromatography Pressurization Apparatus  Bruce W. Baldwin
Pressurization of a Pasteur pipet for microscale chromatography is simplified by connecting a 20- or 30-mL syringe to the pipet using a length of Tygon tubing. This simple system allows the student to easily dry-pack a column using common chromatography packing materials.
Baldwin, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1182.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Simulating Chromatographic Separations in the Classroom  Charles A. Smith and F. Warren Villaescusa
Using this classroom simulation, students develop a set of rules used to investigate the effect of flow rate, column dimension, particle size, and mobile/stationary phase affinity on chromatographic separations. While performing the simulation, the concepts of longitudinal and eddy diffusion are dramatically illustrated.
Smith, Charles A.; Villaescusa, F. Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1023.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
A Concept-Based Environmental Project for the First-Year Laboratory: Remediation of Barium-Contaminated Soil by In Situ Immobilization  Heather D. Harle, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
Simulating the detection and remediation of lead-contaminated soil using barium.
Harle, Heather D.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 561.
Synthesis |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
A Simple Method for Determination of Solubility in the First-Year Laboratory  Heather D. Harle, Julia A. Ingram, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
Efficient means of determining the solubility of a solute using a Buchner-type funnel for filtration and an analytical balance to measure mass changes.
Harle, Heather D.; Ingram, Julia A.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 560.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Laboratory Management |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis
Chemical Equilibria Involving Copper(II) Ethylenediamine Complexes  Roberto Zingales
Demonstration illustrating the formation of two different complexes when copper(II) ions react with ethylenediamine.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 535.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemical Equilibria Involving Reactions of Silver(I) Ions  Roberto Zingales
Demonstrating a series of reactions involving silver(I) ions.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 534.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Precipitation / Solubility
Solvent Extraction Using Safe and Commonly Available Materials To Demonstrate the Difference in Solubility of Two Mixed Solutes  Dante Gilbert L. de Leon and Armando M. Guidote Jr.
Solvent extraction using safe and commonly available materials to demonstrate the difference in solubility of two mixed solutes.
de Leon, Dante Gilbert L.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 436.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Using Ice-Cooled Condensers in Chemistry Laboratory  Sally Solomon, Bryan Brook, Susan Rutkowsky, and Joseph Bennet
Using ice-cooled condensers in the chemistry laboratory; includes two simple experimental applications.
Solomon, Sally; Brook, Bryan; Rutkowsky, Susan; Bennet, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 299.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Micelle-Mediated Extraction of Heavy Metals from Environmental Samples: An Environmental Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Dimosthenis L. Giokas, Evangelos K. Paleologos, and Miltiades I. Karayannis
A laboratory focussing on the determination of metallic elements in drinking water through cloud-point extraction.
Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Karayannis, Miltiades I. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 61.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Using Limiting-Excess Stoichiometry to Introduce Equilibrium Calculations: A Discrepant Event Laboratory Activity Involving Precipitation Reactions  Stephen DeMeo
Students are introduced to the concept of equilibrium as they investigate two precipitation reactions, predict which reactant is present in excess, and find that there are two excess reactants.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 474.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis
Modeling the Drug Discovery Process: The Isolation and Biological Testing of Eugenol from Clove Oil  William H. Miles and Patricia M. Smiley
Experiment that illustrates the principles of modern drug discovery.
Miles, William H.; Smiley, Patricia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 90.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Relating Qualitative Analysis to Equilibrium Principles  Glenn V. Lo
Mathcad document intended for a prelab activity for qualitative analysis experiments.
Lo, Glenn V. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1557.
Qualitative Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Precipitation / Solubility
The Purification of Water by Freeze-Thaw or Zone Melting  James Oughton, Silas Xu, and Rubin Battino
Quantitative investigation of the purification of slat water solutions through the process of partial freezing.
Oughton, James; Xu, Silas; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1373.
Conductivity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Thin-Layer Electrophoresis  Tom Lyons Fisher, Tara Leslie Fitzsimmons, and I. David Reingold
Thin-layer electrophoresis apparatus.
Fisher, Tom Lyons; Fitzsimmons, Tara Leslie; Reingold, I. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1241.
Amino Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
ACS National Meeting: Chicago, August 25-30, 2001. CHED-Sponsored Workshops  
CHED-sponsored workshops, ACS National Meeting, Chicago, August 25-30, 2001.
J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1005.
Conferences |
Precipitation / Solubility
Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium  Andrés Raviolo
A problem about solubility equilibrium is presented as a resource for the evaluation of students; it involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation, and allows one to assess whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon.
Raviolo, Andrés. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 629.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Small-Scale Filtration Using a Modified Plastic Syringe  Mikael Begtrup
A simple procedure is described for manual, small-scale pressure filtration performed in a modified plastic syringe.
Begtrup, Mikael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 543.
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Understanding Solubility through Excel Spreadsheets  Pamela Brown
This article describes assignments related to the solubility of inorganic salts that can be given in an introductory general chemistry course. These assignments address the need for math, graphing, and computer skills in the chemical technology program by developing skill in the use of Microsoft Excel to prepare spreadsheets and graphs and to perform linear and nonlinear curve-fitting.
Brown, Pamela. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 268.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Precipitation / Solubility
An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  Doble Mukesh
Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs.
Mukesh, Doble. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 211.
Separation Science |
Learning Theories
Fast Ionic Migration of Copper Chromate  Adolf Cortel
Among the many demonstrations of ionic migration in an electric field, the ones showing the migration of colored Cu+2 and CrO4-2 ions are popular. The demonstration described here introduces some modifications to allow a fast displacement of these ions.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 207.
Covalent Bonding |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Modification of Small-Scale One-Pot Reactions to an Inquiry-Based Laboratory Exercise  C. Jayne Wilcox
Students are given an initial handout and asked to complete a short, attention-getting exercise. They must continue to work on logical, short exercises given to them one at a time, in handout format. The inquiry-based approach is intended to increase students' comprehension of what they're doing in the laboratory and why.
Wilcox, C. Jayne. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 62.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
The Write Stuff: Using Paper Chromatography to Separate an Ink Mixture  
Using a simple chromatographic technique, paper chromatography, to find out if ordinary black marking pens contain only black ink, or a mixture of colored dyes.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 176A.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and R. M. Pike
This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 625.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility
Preparation and Analysis of Multiple Hydrates of Simple Salts  Richard W. Schaeffer, Benny Chan, Shireen R. Marshall, Brian Blasiole, Neetha Khan, Kendra L. Yoder, Melissa E. Trainer, and Claude H. Yoder
A laboratory project in which students prepare a series of hydrates of simple salts and then determine the extent of hydration of the product(s); provides a good introduction to the concepts of solubility, saturation, recrystallization, relative compound stability, and simple gravimetric analysis.
Schaeffer, Richard W.; Chan, Benny; Marshall, Shireen R.; Blasiole, Brian; Khan, Neetha; Yoder, Kendra L.; Trainer, Melissa E.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 509.
Stoichiometry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Identification of Pharmaceuticals via Computer-Aided Thin Layer Chromatography  Anthony J. Macherone Jr. and Theodore J. Siek
This analytical laboratory experiment demonstrates the methodology of TLC in its relation to toxicology and forensic chemistry. It is easily adapted for high school seniors or undergraduates and employs experimental techniques associated with TLC and post-lab data analysis with concomitant introduction of concepts.
Macherone, Anthony J., Jr.; Siek, Theodore J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 366.
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Toxicology |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Cleaning Up with Chemistry: Investigating the Action of Zeolite in Laundry Detergent  
In this activity, you will investigate the properties of one ingredient, aluminosilicate. The particular aluminosilicate used in powdered laundry detergent is sodium zeolite A. In this activity, you will extract sodium zeolite A from powdered laundry detergent and examine its properties.
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1416A.
Materials Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Student Understanding of Chromatography: A Hands-On Approach  Robert D. Curtright, Randy Emry, and John Markwell*
This exercise sets up a collaborative activity that challenges students to develop a chromatographic solvent with the appropriate polarity to separate leaf chlorophyll and anthocyanin pigments by TLC. The suggested activity has been tested with both high-school advanced-chemistry students and with undergraduate students in an introductory biochemistry class.
Curtright, Robert D.; Emry, Randy; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 249.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure  M. Dale Alexander
The ammonia smoke fountain demonstration utilizes a modification of the apparatus used in the standard ammonia fountain. The modification allows for the introduction of hydrogen chloride gas into a flask of ammonia rather than water. The flow rate of hydrogen chloride gas into the flask in the smoke fountain is not constant, but periodic; that is, the smoke puffs from the end of the tube. This unexpected behavior elicits an interesting thermodynamic explanation.
Alexander, M. Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 210.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Replace Double Replacement  R. Bruce Martin
Reactions described as double replacements in high school texts are poorly described by this designation. The driving force for such reactions is precipitation of a solid derived from ions in solution or the production of water in acid-base reactions.
Martin, R. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 133.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Simplified Method for the Microscale Extraction of Pigments from Spinach  Kimberley R. Cousins and Kathleen M. Pierson
A method is presented for microscale sample preparation for the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the pigments in spinach. A commercial vegetable juicer is used for the initial extraction from spinach. This is followed by filtration, liquid/liquid extraction, centrifugation, and evaporation.
Cousins, Kimberley R.; Pierson, Kathleen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1268.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Separation Techniques for Undergraduates  Darwin B. Dahl, John T. Riley, and Thomas K. Green
Over the past several years the Chemistry Department at Western Kentucky University (WKU) has sought to strengthen its undergraduate program departmental through acquisition of FT-NMR, fluorescence, electrochemical, thermal analysis, laser Raman, microscale organic, and polymer laboratory instrumentation; this has enabled the department to build a successful undergraduate program.
Dahl, Darwin B.; Riley, John T.; Green, Thomas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1209.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Microscale Lab
The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum  Roy W. Clark and Judith M. Bonicamp
The authors sought to find those cases of partly soluble substances for which simple calculations such as Ksp=S2, and Ksp=4S3 can realistically be used for computing solubility from Ksp and the reverse calculation. Empirical solubility data are compared with solubilities calculated from reliable Ksp values that have been adjusted for activity coefficients. A table of 18 substances is suggested for textbook use.
Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1182.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Solubility equilibria are best taught qualitatively in introductory chemistry, leaving the calculations to higher level courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1179.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
An Inexpensive Detector for Gas Chromatography  Allan L. Smith, Edward J. Thorne, and Wolfgang Nadler
We have developed a low-cost (parts cost approximately $70) detector that can be used in a freshman level class to demonstrate the fundamental principles of gas chromatography (GC). The detector box can be used in a modification of experiments available in the literature which do not enable a quantitative method of analysis. We have used it with success in a freshman class of approximately 450 students in an experiment to separate chlorinated hydrocarbons via GC.
Smith, Allan L.; Thorne, Edward J.; Nadler, Wolfgang. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1129.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Basic Laboratory Chemistry  reviewed by Deborah McCool
Basic Laboratory Chemistry is a series of sixteen programs presenting demonstrations of many processes and experimental techniques used in the chemistry laboratory in both macroscale and microscale. Topics included in the programs are assembling macroscale and microscale apparatus, spectroscopy, chromatography, and procedures such as filtration, extraction, distillation, and titration.
McCool, Deborah. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 830.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  Greg P. Smestad and Michael Gratzel
A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer.
Smestad, Greg P.; Grtzel, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 752.
Photochemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Nanotechnology |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Teaching Distillation Knowledge: A Video Film about Distillation Bridging a Gap Between Theory and Practice  Martin J. Goedhart, Hanno van Keulen, Theo M. Mulder, Adri H. Verdonk, and Wobbe De Vos
The authors observed that first year students hardly used their knowledge of phase theory in the design and performance of distillations. They therefore developed a video in which they confront students with the boiling properties of liquid mixtures.
Goedhart, Martin J.; van Keulen, Hanno; Mulder, Theo M.; Verdonk, Adri H.; De Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 378.
Learning Theories |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
Solubility and the Perpetuation of Error  Hawkes, S.J.
Error in determining the solubility product of lead iodide.
Hawkes, S.J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 138.
Precipitation / Solubility
Letters to the Editor  
Error in determining the solubility product of lead iodide.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 138.
Precipitation / Solubility
A Microscale Laboratory Heating System  Dwight Kinzer
A multifunctional heating system and a disposable still for use in the microscale laboratory are described. Time required for laboratory procedures is minimized. A novel microscale boiling point determination procedure is included.
Kinzer, Dwight. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Extraction, Isolation, and Characterization of Fullerene C60: A Safe and Reliable Separation Experiment  Jamey L. Anderson, Michele A. West, Christopher S. Foote
Appropriate for an advanced high school or introductory college chemistry laboratory, the experiment described here allows students to safely perform organic chemistry techniques in the absence of a fume hood.
Anderson, Jamey L.; West, Michele A.; Foote, Christopher S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 311.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Micropath Distillation Apparatus  N. K. Hazra and D. Mal
A shortpath distillation apparatus in its inverted position can be used for microscale distillation of a liquid sample. This article describes the process.
Hazra, N. K.; Mal, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A103.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Air Stream-Assisted Sublimation on a Microscale: A Rapid Procedure Suitable for Sophomore Laboratory  Prem D. Sattsangi
Using familiar apparatus, such as a 3-mL reaction vial, an air condenser, a stream of clean air/nitrogen/argon, an aluminum heating block and a hot plate, several compounds in the microscale amounts (50 mg), with its melting points ranging from 50-240 C, have been successfully sublimed in 40 minutes.
Sattsangi, Prem D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A3.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
The Extraction of Caffeine from Tea: A Modification of the Procedure of Murray and Hansen  Andreas Hampp
This slight variation of Murray and Hansen's procedure is currently used in our first-year chemistry laboratory classes and clearly shows a higher student success rate in the isolation crude caffeine. The experiment described here is performed in a three-hour lab period, which is followed by sublimation and characterization through melting point and infrared spectroscopy on a second day.
Hampp, Andreas. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1172.
Separation Science |
Physical Properties |
IR Spectroscopy
Thin-Layer Chromatography: Four Simple Activities for Undergraduate Students  Jamil Anwar, Saeed Ahmad Nagra, Mehnaz Nagi
To simplify the conventional thin-layer chromatography, four TLC exercises are described which are easy to perform in a high school or college laboratory.
Anwar, Jamil; Nagra, Saeed Ahmad; Nagi, Mehnaz. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 977.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiments That Illustrate General Problems in Chromatography  M. Lederer, E. Leipzig-Pagani
A number of chromatography experiments using cellulose thin layers and aqueous eluents are proposed to illustrate how chromatography can be used for "pattern recognition" of the inks of felt-tip pens, the principle of displacement chromatography of the constituents of the antiseptic Mercurochrome, salting-out chromatography for the separation of halides, and the impossibility to use chromatography alone as a method of identification.
Lederer, M.; Leipzig-Pagani, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 974.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Home-Study Microlabs  Dietmar Kennepohl
This article presents the use of microscaled chemistry experiments for individual home study and how it can be incorporated into a course with traditional laboratory work.
Kennepohl, Dietmar. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 938.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
An n-Bottle Lab Exercise With No Hazardous Waste  Claire R. Olander
Traditional n-bottle exercises include precipitation reactions of environmentally hazardous substances, thereby creating a waste disposal problem. The lab exercise described here uses substances whose waste can be easily treated and disposed in the trash.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 849.
Laboratory Management |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis
A Multistep Equilibria-Redox-Complexation Demonstration to Illustrate Le Châtelier's Principle  Tomás G. Berger and Edward K. Mellon
This brief article describes a demonstration that has been used to discuss Le Chtelier's principle, redox chemistry, equilibria versus steady state situations, and solubility of species.
Berger, Tomás G.; Mellon, Edward K. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 783.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Simulated Growth Hormone Analysis  Mary Harris
Growth hormone is a drug that is sometimes abused by amateur or professional athletes for performance-enhancement. This laboratory is a semi-microscale simulation analysis of a sample of "urine" to detect proteins of two very different molecular weights.
Harris, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 735.
Hormones |
Proteins / Peptides |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis
Use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in Nonscience Major Course Laboratory Experiments  Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos
Our efforts have centered on introducing prospective science communicators (film, video, radio, television, and journalism majors) to science relative to their majors and personal interests. Quality lecture-discussion topics, "mystery"-based laboratory activities have assisted in introducing and/or explaining specific areas of chemistry that attempt to reduce fear of subject matter.
Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 565.
Nonmajor Courses |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Forensic Chemistry |
Separation Science
Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in River and Bay Sediments: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Environmental Chemistry Using Capillary Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection  Susan E. Kegley, Kristen J. Hansen, and Kevin L. Cunningham
This paper briefly discusses the history of PCB use and provides guidelines for finding and evaluating PCB-contaminated sites as a way to interest students by showing them an application of chemistry to the "real world."
Kegley, Susan E.; Hansen, Kristen J.; Cunningham, Kevin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 558.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Sodium Chloride Revisited  Robert V. Stick and Mauro Mocerino
This "Tested Demonstration" describes the preparation of sodium chloride from its elements, sodium and chlorine. Along the way, tests for chlorine, iodine, and the chloride ion are included.
Stick, Robert V.; Mocerino, Mauro. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 539.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Why Don't Water and Oil Mix?  Katia Pravia and David F. Maynard
To develop an understanding of the molecular interactions of polar and nonpolar molecules, we have developed two simple and extremely useful overhead projection demonstrations that help students conceptualize the solubility rules.
Katia Pravia and David F. Maynard. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 497.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Solubility and Thermodynamics: An Introductory Experiment  Robert G. Silberman
This article describes a laboratory experiment suitable for high school or freshman chemistry students in which the solubility of potassium nitrate is determined at several different temperatures.
Silberman, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 426.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
The Teaching of Precipitation Equilibrium: A New Approach  Ana M. V. S. V. Cavaleiro
In this paper we present a simplified integrated approach to the calculation of the solubility in water of a salt, and the pH of the saturated solution, taking into account the acid-base reactions of the anion.
Cavaleiro, Ana M. V. S. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 423.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
CAI for Chemistry  Lesile Glasser, John D. Bradley, George Brink, and Pam van Zyl
These six programs provide an opportunity for interactive practice of general chemistry material.
Glasser, L.; Bradley, J. D.; Brink, G.; van Zyl, P. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 323.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Compact Steam Distillation Apparatus  Imran Ali
A very compact steam distillation apparatus is designed and reported in this paper.
Ali, Imran. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 285.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The Solubility of Gases in Liquids  L. H. Holmes, Jr.
This short article addresses the solubility of gases in liquids. It describes the confusion that appears in some general chemistry textbooks concerning the qualitative dependence of solubility on temperature for gases and offers an opinion on the subject.
Holmes, L. H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 143.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases |
Liquids
Small Scale Electrophoresis  Brooks, Helen B.; Brooks, David W.
Simple electrophoresis apparatus for separating food coloring in plastic pipet using five 9-V batteries.
Brooks, Helen B.; Brooks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A28.
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Biotechnology |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Crystallization of Supersaturated Sodium Acetate and the Temperature Dependence of the Autoionization Constant of Water  Joseph A. Pergler, Ronald O. Ragsdale, and Thomas G. Richmond
A procedure to qualitatively demonstrate the variation of the autoionization constant of water with temperature.
Pergler, Joseph A.; Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1027.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
Small Scale One-Pot Reactions of Copper, Iron, and Silver  Epp, Dianne N.
Investigation of a series of reactions involving copper, iron, and silver, all conducted with very small quantities in a single well.
Epp, Dianne N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 545.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Revitalizing the Gravimetric Determination in Quantitative Analysis Laboratory  Harris, Thomas M.
A gravimetry experiment that illustrates many of the chemical and physical principles of precipitation; includes sample data and analysis.
Harris, Thomas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 355.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
An Environmental Distillation Experiment for Nonscience Majors  Soriano, David S.; Draeger, Jon A.
Comparison of total dissolved solids for several samples of water before and after a single, simple distillation.
Soriano, David S.; Draeger, Jon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 84.
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
An Inexpensive Suction Microfilter  McDevitt, Eugene J.
Two disposable polyethylene transfer pipets can be used to form a single-use filtering funnel for several grams of solid yield.
McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A147.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A Better Way to Cut Filter Paper for Microscale Lab Use  Huisman, Richard D.
Using a power paper punch to cut microscale filter paper.
Huisman, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A147.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
The ABC's of Chromatography: A Colorful Demonstration.  Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N.
This demonstration involves the separation of combinations of seven highly colored dyes by thin layer chromatography to help explain separation science while capturing the attention of the audience by spelling words with these dyes.
Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1075.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Soda Water, Supercooling or Freezing Point Depression?  Brooker, Murray H.
Composition, preparation, properties, and behavior of soda water.
Brooker, Murray H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 903.
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Consumer Chemistry
Solubility of CO2: A Variation of the Experiment Measuring Standard Molar Volume of a Gas  Koster, David F.; Trimble, Russell F.
Carbon dioxide is formed in a molar volume experiment and the difference between the expected and actual volume of the gas is used to determine its solubility.
Koster, David F.; Trimble, Russell F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 528.
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chromatographic Separation of Plant Pigments Using Sand as the Adsorbant: An Inexpensive Chromatographic Technique  Lalitha, Nagubandi
Separating grass pigments using sand as the adsorbant.
Lalitha, Nagubandi J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 432.
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Avoiding the Downstream Hazard in an Ionic Solubility Study  McSwiney, H. D.
Using potassium chlorate rather than potassium dichromate in an ionic solubility experiment for improved waste disposal.
McSwiney, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 329.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
Will a precipitate form? Will it dissolve?: The Role of Lecture Demonstrations in Facilitating the Introduction to Solubility Product Equilibria  Pacer, Richard A.; Williams, Kathryn
Three demonstrations to illustrate solubility product equilibria.
Pacer, Richard A.; Williams, Kathryn J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 69.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
A microscale suction filtration apparatus   Winkel, Cleve R.
This apparatus helps avoid some of the troublesome aspects of filtration that occur during the transfer stage.
Winkel, Cleve R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A161.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
A small-scale, easy-to-run wastewater-treatment plant: The treatment of an industrial water that contains suspended clays and soluble salts   Alvaro, Mercedes; Espla, Mercedes; Llinares, Jesus; Martinez-Manez, Ramon; Soto, Juan
Chemistry students are often interested in the chemical principles involved in industrial processes, the pollutants and waste products are generated, and their removal. This experiment introduces students to several theoretical concepts as they apply to real physical and chemical waste-treatment processes.
Alvaro, Mercedes; Espla, Mercedes; Llinares, Jesus; Martinez-Manez, Ramon; Soto, Juan J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A129.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Colloids |
Separation Science
A Microseparatory Funnel   Hulce, Martin
An apparatus for separations of liquids between 2-6mL total volume.
Hulce, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A39.
Separation Science
Ammonia balloon  Mattson, Bruce
Demonstrating ammonia's aqueous solubility using a container whose volume changes.
Mattson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1029.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Extraction of FD&C dyes from common food sources: Their separation utilizing column chromatography  Bird, E. W.; Sturtevant, Floyd
A simple procedure for the extraction and separation of five FD&C food dyes from a variety of commercial food mixtures using a low pressure column chromatography apparatus.
Bird, E. W.; Sturtevant, Floyd J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 996.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Combined ascending-descending paper chromatography  McCullough, Thomas; Rocabado, Walter
A modification of paper chromatography that includes both ascending and descending flow using readily available equipment.
McCullough, Thomas; Rocabado, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 995.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Size-exclusion chromatography: Separating large molecules from small  McLoughlin, Daniel J.
Description, theory, demonstration, and experimental procedure regarding size-exclusion chromatography.
McLoughlin, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 993.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation science and chromatography: A colorful introduction  Wigman, Larry S.; Kelsch, Catherine T.
Two-dye separation experiments (extraction and column chromatography) to introduce the concepts of phases, partitioning, equilibrium, plate height, and resolution.
Wigman, Larry S.; Kelsch, Catherine T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 991.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments
A thin-layer and column chromatography experiment adapted for use in secondary schools: A quick, safe, colorful, convenient introduction to two basic techniques  Reynolds, Ronald C.; O'Dell, C. Allen
Two quick, safe, and convenient procedures for thin-layer and column chromatography appropriate for the high school classroom.
Reynolds, Ronald C.; O'Dell, C. Allen J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 989.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Chromatography of M&M candies  Kandel, Marjorie
Paper chromatography separation to detect the presence of yellow #5 (tartrazine) in M&M candies.
Kandel, Marjorie J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 988.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Supermarket column chromatography of leaf pigments  Kimbrough, Doris R.
Simple and effective method of column chromatography of leaf pigments using chemicals and equipment that can be purchased at most grocery, hardware, and/or drugstores.
Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 987.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Making radial chromatography creative chromatography: For fun flowers on fabrics  Becker, Robert; Ihde, John; Cox, Kersti; Sarquis, Jerry L.
Doing chromatographic separations on T-shirts and creating flower patterns on filter paper.
Becker, Robert; Ihde, John; Cox, Kersti; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 979.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
T-shirt chromatography: A chromatogram you can wear  Buccigross, Jeanne M.
Two methods for producing T-shirt chromatograms.
Buccigross, Jeanne M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 977.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An hydrogen sulfide free analytical technique for cation analysis: The statistical approach  Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez
In this analysis the study of each cation was carried out independently without taking into account the other cations present in the solutions.
Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 934.
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Solubility of alcohols  Corkern, Walter H.; Munchausen, Linda L.
A very visible demonstration of a gradual progression of a range of solubility, using an alcohol, a dye, and water in a petri dish.
Corkern, Walter H.; Munchausen, Linda L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 928.
Alcohols |
Precipitation / Solubility
Replacement reactions using a dissecting microscope  Lam-Erwin, Chuk-Yin; Sprague, Joseph
Performing drop-size experiments under dissecting microscopes, including examining the reactivity of metals and double replacement reactions.
Lam-Erwin, Chuk-Yin; Sprague, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 855.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases
Ammonia fountain improvements  Steadman, Ned
Suggestions to eliminate the excessive preparation time and questionable reliability of the classic ammonia fountain demonstration.
Steadman, Ned J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 764.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Constructing a complete temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture: A new experiment that uses quantitative gas chromatography.  Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang.
Experiment to help students appreciate fractional distillation and a fundamental application of gas chromatography.
Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 581.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Simple soda bottle solubility and equilibria  Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C.
Using a bottle of selzter water and bromocresol green to demonstrate gas-liquid solubility (carbon dioxide in water).
Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Principle of extraction of solute by solvent  Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna
Among the applications of Nernst's distribution law, the most important and interesting one is the extraction of a substance dissolved in one solvent by another solvent, the two solvents being partially miscible or immiscible.
Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 73.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Studying odd-even effects and solubility behavior using alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids  Burrows, Hugh D.
Odd-even effect provides a satisfying way of introducing students to a large area of chemistry that encompasses both classical thermodynamics and applied aspects.
Burrows, Hugh D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 69.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
The effect of temperature on the solubility of gases in liquids  Alger, Donald B.
Of 13 current-edition general chemistry texts, 11 made errors regarding the topic of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Alger, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 62.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
A carbonate project introducing students to the chemistry lab  Dudek, Emily
A description of a first semester general chemistry laboratory that helps acquaint students with a large variety of chemistry laboratory procedures.
Dudek, Emily J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 948.
Chemometrics |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
A sensual separation science experiment: Solvent extraction and chromatographic separation of menthol utilizing various consumer products  Furton, Kenneth G.; Perez, Maria I.
Evaluation of the utility of all the commercially available laundry detergents as general purpose column packing for chromatography.
Furton, Kenneth G.; Perez, Maria I. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 946.
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Surface Science
Chemical equilibrium: VIII. Precipitates   Gordus, Adon A.
The final article in a series (see previous months this year): This article focuses on ionic precipitates in water and how buffered solutions allow easier calculation of solubilities.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 927.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Rapid semimicro extraction and purification of caffeine from a commercial product  Neuzil, E. F.
Extraction and purification of a well-known substance (caffeine) from No Doz.
Neuzil, E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A262.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Amino acid chromatography: The "best" technique for student labs  Helser, Terry L.
Comparisons of linear, conical, and circular chromatograms, as well as media and elutants.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 964.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Economical electrophoresis with a controlled-current power supply  Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H.
Electrophoresis power supply that features a controllable current (0-90 mA, dc), the use of a common 120 V, ac power supply, and a materials cost of approximately $50.
Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 703.
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A simple computerized gas chromatograph  Fox, John N.; Shaner, Robert A.
Transforming an Apple computer into a versatile gas chromatograph.
Fox, John N.; Shaner, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 694.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Recycling lead(II) halides from solubility experiments  Scaife, Charles W.; Hall, Chadlee D.
Procedure for recycling lead(II) chloride.
Scaife, Charles W.; Hall, Chadlee D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 605.
Green Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A convenient method to recover the solvent from halogen-CCl4 mixtures  Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W.
An alternative to disposal and distillation which is easy to perform, allowing the solvent to be recovered and stored within one hour after the completion of the experiment is presented here.
Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 532.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Analysis of organic acids: A freshman laboratory experiment  Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.
In this experiment students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol.
Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The pitfalls of precipitation reactions   Slade, Peter W.; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W.
This is an overview of specific equilibria problems in precipitation reactions.
Slade, Peter W.; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 316.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions
A simple apparatus to demonstrate differing gas diffusion rates (Graham's law)  Keller, Philip C.
The apparatus described in this note dramatically demonstrates relative diffusion rate effects for common gases like methane and carbon dioxide.
Keller, Philip C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 160.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
In praise of thiosulfate  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of thiosulfate make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory experiments.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
An automatic water trap for steam distillation  Ruekberg, Ben
The unpleasant aspects of the water trap can be avoided with a simple, inexpensive device that renders the water trap automatically selfdraining.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 66.
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The most useful actinide isotope: Americium-241  Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T.
This paper briefly reviews Americium's discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and its uses with an emphasis on its production and separations chemistry.
Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 15.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Solubility (Hallgren, Richard) Review II  Gizara, Jeanne M.
This program is divided into four modules and is intended to supplement laboratory experience in solubility determination.
Gizara, Jeanne M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A44.
Precipitation / Solubility
Solubility (Hallgren, Richard)  Darrow, Frank W.
This program is divided into four modules and is intended to supplement laboratory experience in solubility determination.
Darrow, Frank W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A43.
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemistry from waste products: Fractional distillation of used engine oil  Mashava, Peter M.; Alonge, Ilori E.; Mlenga, Francis
Fractional distillation of used engine oil.
Mashava, Peter M.; Alonge, Ilori E.; Mlenga, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1042.
Separation Science
Efficient microscale filtration  Belletire, John L.; Mahmoodi, Nosrat O.
A simple technique for the rapid filtration of small liquid samples.
Belletire, John L.; Mahmoodi, Nosrat O. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 964.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
An experiment on the molar solubility and solubility product of barium nitrate  Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse
A direct gravimetric method for determining a Ksp value.
Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 515.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gravimetric Analysis
Textbook error: Industrial production of alumina  Kennard, Colin H. L.
In the industrial world, the Al(OH)4- is reprecipitated by dropping the temperature and pressure, and the supersaturated solution seeded.
Kennard, Colin H. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 313.
Industrial Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The separation of cobalt from nickel by anion exchange chromatography   Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L.
The authors have modified other experiments, using "macro" amounts of ions, and have determined the optimum conditions to produce a visually observable demonstration that illustrates several fundamental principles of the general chemistry course.
Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 166.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Visible spectrophotometric determination of the partition coefficient of methyl violet: A microscale extraction experiment  Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L.
This experiment is designed to demonstrate the principles of separation by solvent extraction, partition coefficient, and the construction and use of a Beer-Lambert standard curve.
Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 91.
Separation Science |
Chemometrics
An integrated first-year laboratory experiment involving synthesis, spectroscopy, and chromatography of metal acetylacetonates  Glidewell, Christopher; McKenchnic, James S.
This article presents a comprehensive experiment, involving synthesis, thin-layer chromatography, interpretation of two types of NMR and mass spectra.
Glidewell, Christopher; McKenchnic, James S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1015.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Experimental work with tin(II) chloride in a high school   Sanchez, Manuela Martin
The author describes a final-project performed by students that integrates concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Students seek answers to questions such as: "What reactions were involved; why is an aqueous solution of SnCl2 acidic; how can elemental tin be recovered from the system?"
Sanchez, Manuela Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 898.
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
A simple method for purifying silica gel for column chromatography  Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F.
A quick and efficient way to get maximum use out of silica gel.
Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 891.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Science Volume 4 - Physics / Chemistry Chemical Elements (Minnesota Educational Computing Corporation)  Hartman, Kenneth A.
Six programs, three relating to solubility products, two on gas laws, and a Milliken Oil Drop Experiment.
Hartman, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A26.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R.
Separating and identifying the amino acids found in aspartame.
Conklin, Alfred R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1065.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Physical and chemical properties  Boschmann, Erwin
A series of overhead demonstrations regarding physical and chemical properties.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 891.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Gases
Ksp determination of calcium sulfate  Masterman, David
A procedure to obtain the Ksp of a saturated solution of calcium sulfate in 10-20 minutes.
Masterman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 408.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Gel electrophoresis in a covered butter dish  Hopkins, T. R.; Sreekrishna, K.
The construction and use of a low-cost horizontal gel electrophoresis apparatus.
Hopkins, T. R.; Sreekrishna, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 279.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Biotechnology
Annotating reaction equations  Tykodi, R. J.
Annotating aqueous solution reactions fosters recognition of the fundamental reaction categories; ready recognition of a reaction type is the first step toward understanding the "whys and wherefores" inherent in the reaction.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 243.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
The disappearing act: Teaching students to expect the unexpected  Kilner, Cary
A demonstration of Ksp in which a precipitate is formed and then disappears.
Kilner, Cary J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
TRS-80 Chemistry Lab, Volume 1, Review II (Hallgren, Richard C.)  Beck, James D.
Programs covering the kinetic theory, Charles' law, Boyle' law, titration, and solubility.
Beck, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A106.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
TRS-80 Chemistry Lab, Volume 1, Review I (Hallgren, Richard C.)  Rowe, Frederick J.
Programs covering the kinetic theory, Charles' law, Boyle' law, titration, and solubility.
Rowe, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A105.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Countercurrent extraction of ink: A demonstration of the chromatographic mechanism  Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T.
A simple system that can demonstrate the significance of discontinuous countercurrent extraction.
Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1109.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
An inexpensive developing chamber for radial chromatography  Gadwood, Robert C.
Design and advantages of a radial chromatography chamber.
Gadwood, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 820.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Reverse-phase separation of FD & C dyes using a solvent gradient  Ondrus, Martin G.
An impressive separation of FD&C dyes in aqueous solution can be demonstrated with a C18 Sep Pak and a 10-mL disposable syringe.
Ondrus, Martin G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 798.
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Gel filtration - An innovative separation technique  Blumenfeld, Fred; Gardner, James
Discusses the theory behind gel filtration and a procedure for using this method for separating organic and inorganic molecules.
Blumenfeld, Fred; Gardner, James J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 715.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
A new road to reactions. Part 2  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
Helping introductory students understand the nature of chemical reactions.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 648.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
A different look at the solubility-product principle  Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr.
The progressive addition of Cl- to Ag+ yields an ion-product equal to Ksp at two different points.
Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 645.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
An inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract  Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael
Constructing a simple column chromatograph from a disposable pipet.
Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 530.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Simple limewater maker  Prochaska, James F.
Uses gravity to separate the insoluble precipitate when preparing limewater.
Prochaska, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
A science fair display of chromatography of inks  Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J.
60. Bits and pieces, 23. Solving a chromatography mystery simulated on an Apple II.
Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 410.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
The solubility of CaSO4 (the author replies)  Sawyer, Albert K.
Reasons why the lab determination of Ksp for CaSO4 is ten times higher than the published value.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 362.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The solubility of CaSO4   Hawkes, Stephen J.
Reasons why the lab determination of Ksp for CaSO4 is ten times higher than the published value.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 362.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Separation and identification of commonly used drugs: A thin-layer chromatography experiment for freshman chemistry  Bonicamp, Judith M.
Using a simplified and accelerated TLC kit for drug detection.
Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 160.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
An improved method for visualizing TLC plates using iodine  Roberbon, John
Mixing iodine with silica gel and pouring it onto a thin layer chromatography plate for faster visualization.
Roberbon, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 156.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
The insolubility of "soluble" barium nitrate  Reinstein, Jesse
The unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid.
Reinstein, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The effect of polarity on solubility  Nordstrom, Brian H.
Students observe that iodine dissolves readily in 1,1,1-trichloroethane but not water.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1009.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Water / Water Chemistry
Chromatography: Use of a microcomputer to introduce laboratory techniques  Holdsworth, David K.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. Program to introduce paper, thin-layer, column, and gas-liquid chromatography.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 790.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
An analogy for solubility: Marbles and magnets  Kjonaas, Richard A.
Using marbles and magnets to illustrate solubility and insolubility.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 765.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
An inexpensive experiment for the introduction of high performance liquid chromatography  Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.
Separates the food dyes found in grape-flavored Kool-Aid using isocratic and gradient solution methods. [Debut]
Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 716.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
The extraction of gold and its simulation with copper  Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M.
The simulation of the extraction of gold by the use of its analog, copper, makes it possible to capitalize on the glamor of gold without sacrificing any chemical principles.
Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 634.
Separation Science |
Metallurgy |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Solubility of mercury  Sisler, Harry H.
The statement "mercury is soluble in both polar and non-polar liquids" is misleading.
Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 566.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The solubility of NiSO46H2O  Pacer, Richard A.
Approaches the position of equilibrium from both unsaturated and supersaturated solutions.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 467.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Chlorophyll separation and spectral identification  Diehl-Jones, Susan M.
Extracting chlorophyl a and b from spinach and separating them using thin-layer and column chromatography.
Diehl-Jones, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 454.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
The useless tea kettle  Perkins, Robert
If a 2.5 L kettle contains 125 g of calcium carbonate (boiler scale), how many times would the kettle have to be filled with distilled water to remove all of the deposits given the Ksp of calcium carbonate?
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Lecture experiment in gas-liquid chromatography with a simple gas chromatograph at room temperature  Wollrah, Adalbert
Apparatus and method for separating mixtures of pentane / hexane and methyl chloride / carbon tetrachloride.
Wollrah, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1042.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Partition coefficients - A lecture demonstration  Newton, Thomas A.
The extraction of aqueous solutions of indophenol and its sodium salt with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Collapsing can  Sands, Richard D.
Demonstrates the solubility of ammonia gas in water.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Classroom chromatography  Bauer, Christopher F.
A classroom demonstration in which students are used to illustrate the operation of a chromatographic column.
Bauer, Christopher F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 846.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Solubility of lead sulfate in water and in sodium sulfate solutions: An experiment in atomic absorption spectrophotometry  Lehman, Thomas A.; Everett, Wayne W.
Measurement of Pb+2 concentrations by atomic absorption spectrophotometry permits direct calculation of the solubility product constant of lead sulfate in the presence of low concentrations of added sulfate.
Lehman, Thomas A.; Everett, Wayne W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 797.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A simple semimicro distillation apparatus  Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J.
A small distillation unit for fractional distillation of small amounts of material under vacuum.
Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 164.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A demonstration model for immiscibility  Hoffman, A. B.
Uses Magic Sand to demonstrate various solubility principles.
Hoffman, A. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Isolation, separation and identification of synthetic food colors  Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G.
A simple, inexpensive experiment for the extraction of synthetic dyes permitted in foodstuffs, and their separation and identification using thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.
Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 67.
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A practical Solvay process experiment  McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M.
This note features practical augmentation to the Solvay process experiment.
McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1035.
Gases |
Separation Science
Separation technology: I. Chromatography   Mickey, Charles D.
This article covers the development of and the many different types of chromatography available and offers a good overview of the powers of this tool of analytical chemistry.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 997.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Filtering technique: A quantitative evaluation  Meloan, C. E.
A set of experiments are presented to integrate more quantitative aspects to the filtering process.
Meloan, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 73.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Soil analysis for high school chemistry students  Eisenmann, Mary A.
Students examine the solubility of nitrate ions, the insolubility of iron hydroxide and iron carbonate, and the reaction between acid and carbonates.
Eisenmann, Mary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 897.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Solubility and complex ion equilibria of silver(I) species in aqueous solution  Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred
The sequential formation of precipitates and complex ions is used to demonstrate how the solubility of silver(I) compounds is related to Ksp values.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
An economical and efficient reflux/distillation apparatus  Marabella, Charles P.
A modified standard distillation head and vacuum takeoff adapter.
Marabella, Charles P. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 221.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Crystallization of sodium acetate  Hiegel, Gene A.
Procedure for preparing a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate and crystallizing it.
Hiegel, Gene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
On the misuse of Le Châtelier's principle for the prediction of the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts  Bodner, George M.
Explores why Le Châtelier's principle often fails to predict the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 117.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Travelling Waves of Chemical Activity in the Zaikin-Zhabotinskii-Winfree Reagent  Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T.
An overhead projector demonstration.
Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 754.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The precipitation of ferrous hydroxide: A lecture demonstration  Lau, O. W.
This demonstration can illustrate such topics as the solubility of ionic compounds, electrode potentials of transition elements and their modification by formation of either an insoluble compound of a complex ion, and mixed valence compounds.
Lau, O. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 474.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Isoenzymes  Daugherty, N. A.
The separation, identification, and measurement of isoenzymes is an appropriate topic for a special lecture in general chemistry.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 442.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The electrophoresis of indicators: An analogy to isoenzyme separation  Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K.
A lecture demonstration that illustrates the principles involved in the separation of isoenzymes but avoids the problems inherent in isoenzyme separations.
Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Enzymes |
Separation Science
Formation and dissolution of precipitates  Nogar, N. S.; Jalenak, W. A.
Using the scattering of a laser beam to detect the presence of particles suspended in solution.
Nogar, N. S.; Jalenak, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 267.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Lasers
Acne lotion - Great for pimples and making polymers!  May, Jeffrey
Benzoyl peroxide can easily be separated from acne lotion.
May, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Polymerization |
Consumer Chemistry |
Separation Science
Thermodynamics and solubilities of salts of dipositive ions  Riley, Gary F.; Eberhardt, William H.
Used to illustrate the application of the principle that a decrease in free energy is a criterion for the spontaneity of a chemical reaction.
Riley, Gary F.; Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 206.
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
Thin layer chromatographic separation of common analgesics - A consumer experiment  Cormier, Russell A.; Hudson, William B.; Siegel, Jay A.
A simple method for determining which analgesics have which ingredients.
Cormier, Russell A.; Hudson, William B.; Siegel, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 180.
Consumer Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Simple liquid-liquid extraction experiment for freshmen  Jones, Mark M.; Champion, Gwendalyn R.
A procedure can be described here can be carried out with the equipment normally present in a typical freshman laboratory. The experiment turns out to be a very good test of the student' technique and understanding.
Jones, Mark M.; Champion, Gwendalyn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 119.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Another look at our teaching methods. Pros and cons of the silent demonstration  Woodburn, John H.
Analysis of a "silent demonstration" involving the formation of a precipitate and why the demonstration may or may not have been effective in helping students understand the intended concept.
Woodburn, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 627.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Simultaneous equilibria involving insoluble salts  Baumann, Jacob B.
This demonstration is derived from and involves the same reactions as the Mohr titration of chloride ion with silver nitrate solution using potassium chromate as an indicator.
Baumann, Jacob B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 618.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Determination of iodide in seaweed. A general chemistry research experience  Senyk, Joan I.
Students determine the best procedure for the analysis of iodide in locally gathered seaweed.
Senyk, Joan I. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 511.
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Isolation of dyes for analysis  Levinson, Alfred S.
The use of ion exchange resin for the isolation of dyes from beverages, gelatin desserts, and other foods.
Levinson, Alfred S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 460.
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Precipitation of lead as lead chloride in presence of mercuric ions  Pyriadi, Thanun Mohamad; Polis, Aroosiak
In the presence of Hg2+ it seems that PbCl2 does not precipitate easily unless cooled.
Pyriadi, Thanun Mohamad; Polis, Aroosiak J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 439.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis
Selective solubility: "Like dissolves like"  Smith, Wayne L.
Azobenzene is a better analog of DDT than iodine in demonstrating the pesticide's solubility in fatty tissue.
Smith, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 228.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Lipids
Paper chromatography of carbohydrates  Croft, L. R.; Haghighi, S.
A simple detection reagent for carbohydrates.
Croft, L. R.; Haghighi, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 112.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Carbohydrates
Separation of an APC mixture. A quantitative analysis experiment  Haddad, Paul; Rasmussen, Malcolm
In this paper the well known technique of pH, controlled extractive separation of a mixture of an acidic, basic, and neutral organic substance has been applied to separation and analysis of a mixture of the drugs aspirin, caffeine, and phenacetin.
Haddad, Paul; Rasmussen, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 731.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
Separation of waste plastics. An experiment in solvent fractionation  Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan
The authors share their design for a scheme for separation of specific plastics from a mixture. This activity engages students and relates to recycling.
Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 653.
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Chromatography on chalk  Wollrab, Adalbert
Describes how a variety of mixtures can be separated using a piece of chalk.
Wollrab, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 809.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Solutions / Solvents
An industrial steam distillation: Separation of rosin and turpentine from pine gum  Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad
Procedure for converting a tacky intractable mass - pine gum - into two recognizable and useful materials - a fragrant water-white liquid (turpentine) and a hard amber-colored resin (rosin).
Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 672.
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Ion-exchange resins - A simple apparatus  Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo
A modified procedure and apparatus for speeding up the use of ion-exchange resins.
Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Ksp experiment: The solubility product for barium hydroxide  Reynolds, John P.
Two procedures for determining the solubility product of barium hydroxide and the effect of temperature on Ksp.
Reynolds, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 521.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Determining an endpoint by the appearance of precipitate  Cochran, George T.; Hobart, David E.
A method for dependably identifying the endpoint in the titration of various concentrations of iodide solutions with lead(II).
Cochran, George T.; Hobart, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 459.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
An experiment for introductory college chemistry. How to establish a chemistry equation  Masaguer, J. R.; Coto, M. Victoria; Casas, J. S.
The stoichiometry of the reaction between potassium chromate and barium chloride in an aqueous state is determined by using the height of of the precipitate formed when different amounts of both solutions are mixed in a graduated cylinder.
Masaguer, J. R.; Coto, M. Victoria; Casas, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 387.
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A simple gas chromatograph for teaching purposes  Wollrab, Adalbert
A simple apparatus for demonstrating the separation of a mixture of pentane and hexane gas.
Wollrab, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 200.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Gases
A comparison of base strengths using visual and EMF observations  Campbell, J. A.
A series of sequentially added dilute aqueous solutions whose changes provide evidence for different degrees of dissociation of a series and complexes.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 185.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
Thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes. Separation by paper electrophoresis and estimate of stability constants  Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J.
Differently charged species of thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes are separated by paper electrophoresis.
Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 122.
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrophoresis
The extraction of caffeine from tea  Mitchell, R. H.; Scott, W. A.; West, P. R.
The authors refine a popular experiment in which students refine caffeine from tea.
Mitchell, R. H.; Scott, W. A.; West, P. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 69.
Natural Products |
Food Science |
Separation Science
Demonstration of solubility of "immiscible" fluids  Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E.
Demonstrating that hexane is miscible in water.
Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 724.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Preparation of reagent grade iron(III) oxide from iron ore. An experiment for freshman chemistry  Mulokozi, A. N.
Involves analysis of iron ore and the recovery of iron(III) oxide from iron ore using ion-exchange separation.
Mulokozi, A. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 634.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Fiber tip chromatography hints  Falkin, Harlan
Suggestions for chromatography paper and method.
Falkin, Harlan J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 448.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management |
Dyes / Pigments
Fiber tipped pens as a chromatography experiment  Kasimer, Philip
Allowing students to develop their own solvent mixtures for separating the constituent dyes in fiber tipped pens.
Kasimer, Philip J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 158.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
TLC detection of caffeine in commercial products  Pavlik, James W.
An introductory experiment that involves the thin layer chromatography detection of caffeine in a variety of familiar pharmaceutical products.
Pavlik, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 134.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis
Rapid crystal growth and supersaturation demonstrated with guanidine trichloroacetate  Young, Keith E.
A solution of guanidine trichloroacetate quickly produces long, needle-like crystals when a seed crystal is added.
Young, Keith E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A644.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility
The thin-layer chromatography of drugs. A laboratory experiment  Neman, R. L.
Students are introduced to thin layer chromatography, are provided samples known to contain alkaloids and barbiturates, separate the mixtures using tlc, determine the components of their unknowns, and calculate Rf values for the components.
Neman, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 834.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Quartz geodes  Plumb, Robert C.; Krauskopf, Konrad B.
Discusses the geochemistry behind the natural formation of quartz geodes.
Plumb, Robert C.; Krauskopf, Konrad B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 763.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Geochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Caffeine and benzoic acid in soft drinks  Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A.
Simple procedures for isolating caffeine and benzoic acid from commercial soft drinks.
Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 708.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Small-scale thin-layer chromatography. Experiments for teaching purposes  Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G.
Describes a number of rapid thin-layer chromatography separations that can be conveniently used to introduce chromatography in the teaching laboratory.
Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 545.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Dissolved oxygen. A relevant experiment for the introductory laboratory  Stagg, William R.
Students measure the dissolved oxygen content of water from several natural sources as well as the change in solubility with temperature.
Stagg, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 427.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Circular chromatography of inks  Wan, Alfred S. C.
Circular chromatography provides a very convenient and rapid method for demonstrating the principles of paper chromatography.
Wan, Alfred S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 335.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Precipitation of lead chromate from homogeneous solution. A lecture demonstration or laboratory experiment  Ramette, Richard W.
Both the "conventional precipitation" and the precipitation from homogeneous solution are done simultaneously so that the striking differences in chemistry, appearance, and precipitate produced can be compared.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 270.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple apparatus for teaching the principles of chromatography  Kellomaki, Aarre
A device that follows the elution of electrolytes through liquid column chromatography by continuously measuring the conductivity of the effluent.
Kellomaki, Aarre J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 139.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The separation of a sodium-rubidium mixture on an ion-exchanger. A laboratory experiment  Coetzee, C. J.
This experiment demonstrates the separation of sodium and rubidium from each other on an AMP-asbestos ion exchange column.
Coetzee, C. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 33.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Let's get the nonscience majors into the lab!  Griffin, Roger W., Jr.
The author shares his experiences with a successful laboratory course for nonmajors. Experiments which have been carried out include: geometry of molecules, measurements and errors, separation and purification, spectroscopy, chromatography, colored natural products, and dyes.
Griffin, Roger W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 685.
Nonmajor Courses |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
VSEPR Theory |
Spectroscopy
A unified introductory chemistry laboratory  Splittgerber, A. G.; MacLean, D. B.; Neils, J.
Common criticisms against chemistry learning laboratories accuse typical first year laboratories of painting an inaccurate portrait of the nature of the chemistry research experience. The author propose a project-type unified laboratory program.
Splittgerber, A. G.; MacLean, D. B.; Neils, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 330.
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Equilibrium |
Qualitative Analysis
A simple separation and identification of radium D, E, and F.  Glasoe, Paul K.
The author provides a modification to general chemistry lab involving a separation and identification of a radium sample.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 268.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Trimyristin from nutmeg  Frank, Forrest; Roberts, Theodore; Snell, Jane; Yates, Christy; Collins, Joseph
The author proposes the isolation and saponification of trimytistin from nutmeg as an excellent experiment to introduce general chemistry students to laboratory techniques or for use with the organic chemistry course in which case more techniques an be introduces.
Frank, Forrest; Roberts, Theodore; Snell, Jane; Yates, Christy; Collins, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 255.
Natural Products |
Food Science |
Separation Science
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
These twelve overhead projection demonstrations include rates of reactions, clock reactions, the effect of temperature and the presence of a catalyst on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the relationship between viscosity and temperature, equilibria, solubility product, and the common ion effect.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Hydrolysis of the carbonate ion  Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James
Predicting and testing the product of the reaction between aqueous Cu(NO3)2 and Na2CO3.
Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hydrolysis of the carbonate ion  Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James
Predicting and testing the product of the reaction between aqueous Cu(NO3)2 and Na2CO3.
Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Procedure for recovering silver nitrate from silver-silver oxide residues  Henderson, K. O.; Garin, David L.
Presents a procedure for recovering silver nitrate from silver-silver oxide residues.
Henderson, K. O.; Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 741.
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Solubility and the chemistry of the covalent bond: More on DDT - A substituted alkyl halide  Hill, John W.
Discusses applications of the insolubility of DDT in water and its solubility in covalent fatty tissues.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Covalent Bonding |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
A thin-layer chromatography experiment for general chemistry  Lincoln, S.; Pohl, R. A.; Haworth, D. T.
Describes an experiment that can be used to separate the classical groups of inorganic cations thin layer chromatography analysis using microcrystalline cellulose.
Lincoln, S.; Pohl, R. A.; Haworth, D. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 401.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Ratio diagrams: A simple graphical representation of complicated equilibria  de Levie, R.
Introduces and demonstrates the usefulness and general applicability of ratio diagrams as the simplest graphical representation of equilibria involving mononuclear species.
de Levie, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 187.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A simple laboratory experiment on PVP column chromatography  Lerner, Joseph
This experiment deals with the separation of three colored biochemicals, two of which are vitamins, the other a protein.
Lerner, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 32.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Vitamins
Ionic versus covalent bonding  Goldish, Dorothy M.
Ionic sodium chloride dissolves in water but covalent benzyl chloride does not.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A497.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Potentiometric determination of solubility product constants: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
This paper describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 857.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A versatile and compact chromatographic chamber  Lehrfeld, J.
This simple and inexpensive glass chamber facilitates thin-layer chromatography separations of a large number of samples within 5 minutes.
Lehrfeld, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
An introduction to chromatography  Gaucher, G. M.
The object of this presentation is to serve as a preliminary practical introduction and guide to chromatography.
Gaucher, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 729.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Ion Exchange
Counter-current distribution as a student laboratory experiment  Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran
This experiment demonstrates the principles of extraction and counter-current distribution as well as spectrophotometric analysis.
Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 525.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Modifications of solution chromatography illustrated with chloroplast pigments  Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph
Using plant pigments to demonstrate various chromatographic techniques, including column adsorption, paper adsorption, paper partition, column partition, and thin layer chromatography.
Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 476.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Disc electrophoresis  Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B.
Describes the procedures involved in separating proteins or nucleic acids through disc electrophoresis.
Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 41.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Separation Science
Group VI. The Sulfur Family D. Sulfur Dioxide  Alyea, Hubert N.
Seven demonstrations involving sulfur dioxide.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A977.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Effect of shock on CS2 vapor  Viswanathan, Arcot
An explosive shock separates CS2 into its constituent elements.
Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A901.
Gases |
Separation Science
Le Chtelier's principle  Melott, Adrian L.
Adding a strong base to aqueous ammonia causes gaseous ammonia to be released.
Melott, Adrian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A519.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Group II. The alkaline earths. The zinc group  Young, James A.; Klug, Evangeline B.
Demonstrates the formation of insoluble salts in the Ca-group (II-A) and sulfides of the Zn-group (II-B).
Young, James A.; Klug, Evangeline B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A59.
Precipitation / Solubility
Laboratory experiments for the introductory chemistry course  Walter, Robert I.
Short descriptions of introductory experiments, including separations by recrystallization, distillation, and ion exchange; the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol to acetone; and the synthesis of compounds exhibiting geometric isomerism,
Walter, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 672.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Calcium carbonate equilibria in the oceans - ion pair formation  Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred
Discusses some of the problems encountered in studying the chemistry of lakes and oceans, focussing on the solubility of calcium carbonate in marine environments.
Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 513.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis
Calcium carbonate equilibria in lakes  Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred
Discusses some of the problems encountered in studying the chemistry of lakes and oceans, focussing on the solubility of calcium carbonate in fresh water lakes.
Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 511.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
Cylindrical thin-layer chromatography  Jordan, David
This short note describes the use and advantages of cylindrical thin-layer chromatography.
Jordan, David J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 510.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
The use of cellophane sheets for direct reading and recording of Rf values  Chortyk, O. T.; Kushnir, I.
Describes the use of cellophane sheets for direct reading and recording of Rf values.
Chortyk, O. T.; Kushnir, I. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 506.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Le Chtelier and ionic equilibria  Ringbom, Anders
When s solution contains several weak acids, the squares of the separately calculated hydrogen ion concentrations of all weak acids in the solution are additive.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 442.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple sprayer for quantitative thin-layer chromatography  Samuels, Stanley
A simple, inexpensive sprayer for chromatographic use that can be constructed by a student as a laboratory project.
Samuels, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 438.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Instantaneous precipitation from homogeneous solution  Hiskey, C. F.; Cantwell, F. F.
Procedure for the iodine clock reaction.
Hiskey, C. F.; Cantwell, F. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A727.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics
Chromatography: Inorganic separations using chalkboard chalk  Lauren, Paul M.
This demonstration involves separating several combinations of aqueous ions.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A345.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Group 1. The Alkali Metals C. The Copper Group  Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert
Demonstrations include electroplating copper, Fehling's test, the silver mirror (Ag+ + tartrate), insoluble silver salts, photo-film + hypo, hypo fixer + silver coin, and a solution of gold in aqua-regia.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1005.
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Metals
Dodecyl sodium sulfate as a reagent for the detection of potassium  Neman, R. L.
The proposed test involves the addition of an aqueous solution of dodecyl sodium sulfate to precipitate dodecyl potassium sulfate.
Neman, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 479.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Metals
Qualitative analysis with paper chromatography  Poonia, N. S.
A spot of an unknown mixture is subjected to radial development, and the circular chromatogram is divided into a number of segments used for the detection of different cations or groups of cations.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 477.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Laboratory demonstration of fractional distillation  Coleman, H. M.
The method described here permits a quick analysis of the several distillates by direct visualization of one of the two components of a binary mixture containing toluene and acetone.
Coleman, H. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 476.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis on paper  Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V.
This article describes a microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis on paper that is powered by a 9 V battery.
Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 415.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Test tube and glass rod tlc  Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer
Describes the use of test tubes and glass rods coated on their outer surfaces for thin layer chromatography.
Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 297.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The use of talc as a tlc adsorbent  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes the use of talc as a thin layer chromatography adsorbent, particularly with respect to the separation of flavonoids, sugars, and proteins.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 294.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Liquid-liquid extraction  Joseph-Nathan, P.
Describes how liquid-liquid extraction can be done using commercially available substances and an apparatus of small dimensions that still allows an experiment to be followed visually.
Joseph-Nathan, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 176.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Student experiments involving unknown solubility constants  Heinz, D. E.
Insoluble metallic salts of sorbic and cinnamic acid are synthesized and characterized, and their solubilities in various solvents under many conditions are investigated.
Heinz, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 114.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Synthesis
Energy B. Heat energy   Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the heat of crystallization (sodium acetate and Na2S2O3[5H2O]), heat of formation (ZnCl2), heat of hydration (CaO and CuSO4), heat of neutralization, heat of solvation (alcohols), evaporation of ether and methyl chloride, and heat of solution (NH4NO3).
Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1079.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility
Separation by adsorption chromatography: An experiment on a colorless mixture  Pine, Stanley H.
Acetophenone and alpha-phenylethanol are separated through adsorption chromatography.
Pine, Stanley H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 672.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Are solubilities and solubility products related?  Meites, Louis; Prode, J. S. F.; Thomas, Henry C.
The relation between solubilities and solubility products is far less intimate than is stated or implied by introductory texts and the ideas and calculations involved are too complex for presentation on the elementary level.
Meites, Louis; Prode, J. S. F.; Thomas, Henry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 667.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Acetamide as a solvent for freezing point depression and solubility experiments  Davis, Jeff C., Jr.
Suggests acetamide as a solvent for freezing point depression and solubility experiments.
Davis, Jeff C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 611.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
The dissolution of tin in solutions of iodine  Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F.
The progress of this reaction can be followed by the loss of weight of a tin disc.
Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 483.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Kinetics |
Gravimetric Analysis
Microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis and ion migration  Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V.
Ferric hydroxide and arsenious sulfide are separated using a 9-volt battery.
Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 436.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Colloids
Demonstration of chemical reaction via aerosol spray reagents  Stedman, Earl D.
Demonstrations of chemical reactions via aerosol spray reagents may include acid-base indicators and precipitation reactions.
Stedman, Earl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 377.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions
The nature of dissolved silver acetate  Ramette, Richard W.
This experiment is an attempt to identify the species of silver that exist in aqueous solutions of silver acetate.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 299.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Investigation of interaction in the Pb(NO3)2NaClmethanolwater system  Neidig, H. A.
The purpose of this investigation is to collect solubility data for lead(II) nitratesodium chloride methanolwater systems from which a microscopic model can be constructed and used to discuss the various types of interactions occurring.
Neidig, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 475.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Noncovalent Interactions
Enthalpies of formation of solid salts  Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T.
This investigation introduces the student to several important areas of thermochemistry, including enthalpies of neutralization, enthalpies of dissolution, enthalpies of formation, and Hess' Law.
Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 474.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Experimental approach to stoichiometry. In first-year chemistry at Northwestern  King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton
Presents five experiments in which students are given a minimal set of directions and a simply stated objective.
King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 464.
Stoichiometry |
Coordination Compounds |
Undergraduate Research |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Detection of chloride ion in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Summarizes and evaluates several published methods for detecting chloride ions in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 440.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) chloride  Guenther, William B.
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) from 8 M HCl solution is a simple method of separating iron from the other components of stainless steel alloys.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 277.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Column chromatography experiment using unknowns  Marmor, Solomon
Students are asked to separate an unknown mixture consisting of two colorless solids through column chromatography.
Marmor, Solomon J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 272.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Is the solubility product constant? Introductory experiment in solubility equilibrium  Goodman, Robert C.; Petrucci, Ralph H.
This article describes an experiment that employs the titration of lead nitrate solutions with potassium iodide solutions as a vivid and straightforward method of determining solubility product.
Goodman, Robert C.; Petrucci, Ralph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 104.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Solubility and pH Calculations (Butler, James N.)  Ramette, R. W.

Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A970.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Polar properties and solubility  Summerlin, Lee R.
Compares the solubility of iodine in layers of CCl4, water, and ether, all in the same container.
Summerlin, Lee R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A883.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A general chemistry experiment on clathrates  Sawyer, Albert K.
Students prepare one of two hydroquinone clathrates, one that traps methanol and another that traps hydrogen sulfide.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 661.
Separation Science
An inexpensive centrifuge for micro qualitative analysis  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Presents an inexpensive micro centrifuge.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Electrophoresis using thin layer materials  Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Thin layer materials prepared for chromatography are used for electrophoresis.
Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Test tube TLC  BeMiller, J. N.
Builds on several earlier articles regarding rapid demonstrations of thin-layer chromatography using test tubes.
BeMiller, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 608.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Solubility in mixed solvents: A radiochemistry experiment  Lochmuller, C.; Cefola, M.
This experiment illustrates the use of radioisotopes in a solubility measurement and demonstrates the effect of solvent dielectric on solubility.
Lochmuller, C.; Cefola, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 604.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chromatography  Saurer, J. M.
A stick of soft chalk is used to separate a cadmium and lead nitrate.
Saurer, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A535.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple demonstration of some precipitation and solubility effects  Matijevic, E.
Provides suggestions for research to accompany earlier published articles.
Matijevic, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A386.
Undergraduate Research |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Heat of precipitation  Clever, H. L.
Provides suggestions for research to accompany earlier published articles.
Clever, H. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A386.
Undergraduate Research |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Effect of chloride ion on precipitation of cadmium sulfide  O'Donnell, T. A.
Adding NaCl or KCl to suspended CdS causes the suspension to disappear.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A313.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Equilibrium
Precipitation from homogeneous solution  Gordon, L.; Salesin, E. D.
Suggests research questions based on an earlier published article.
Gordon, L.; Salesin, E. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A306.
Undergraduate Research |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH
The extraction of metals from ores  Keubel, A.
Provides suggestions for research based on earlier published articles.
Keubel, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A186.
Undergraduate Research |
Metals |
Separation Science
Clathrates: Compounds in cages  Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M.
Introduces clathrate compounds and examines some of their uses and applications.
Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 643.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
TLC separation of ink pigments  Druding, Leonard F.
The separation of inks into their component pigments was chosen for its simplicity in illustrating techniques and choice of solvent for thin layer chromatography; it also affords the student the opportunity to visually observe the course of the separation.
Druding, Leonard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 536.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
TLCVersatile tool  Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C.
Examines apparatus and techniques, lecture demonstrations, laboratory experiments and general applications associated with thin layer chromatography.
Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 531.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
The lighter lanthanides: A laboratory experiment in rare earth chemistry  Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C.
Presents a laboratory experiment designed to illustrate the separation and properties of the rare earths.
Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 433.
Transition Elements |
Separation Science
Thin layer chromatographic separation of leaf pigments: A rapid demonstration  Rollins, Charles
Eleven pigment spots can be detected from an extract of grass leaves by a rapid TLC separation on silicic acid.
Rollins, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 32.
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Separation of plant pigments by thin layer chromatography  Anwar, M. H.
Describes a lab activity to separate chloroplast pigments over a thin layer of silicic acid.
Anwar, M. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 29.
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
A compact light box  Barnard, Robert
Presents the design of a light box suitable for demonstrations involving solutions, precipitations, or any basic chemical reaction.
Barnard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A953.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Reactions
Solubility  Wheaton, Roger
Demonstrates the differential solubility of iodine in water and carbon terachloride.
Wheaton, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A953.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Ion-exchange papers  Sherma, Joseph A., Jr.
Demonstrates the separation of cobalt(II) and iron(III) using ion-exchange paper.
Sherma, Joseph A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Equilibria in ionic solutions  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
In conjunction with lectures on equilibria in electrolytic solutions, students perform a set of laboratory experiments in which they determine both the ionization constant of chloroacetic acid and the solubility of its silver salt.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 93.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Heat of precipitation: A general chemistry experiment  Clever, H. Lawrence
This heat of precipitation experiment is conducted in a simple calorimeter constructed by each student from an Erlenmeyer flask.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 470.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Contemporary analysis and the chemistry curriculum  Rogers, L. B.
Examines a variety of curricular issues regarding analytical chemistry.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 455.
Qualitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Radioisotope demonstration of common ion effect on solubility  Roig, E.; Rieckehoff, I. C.; Russo, G. S.; Curet, J. D.
This paper reports a direct demonstration of the effect of common ion concentration on the solubility of a uni-univalent salt, thallium(I) chloride.
Roig, E.; Rieckehoff, I. C.; Russo, G. S.; Curet, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 350.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Student experiment with filter paper electrophoresis  Garvin, James E.
The effect of electrical charge in determining some of the properties of amino acids and proteins can be simply and convincingly demonstrated to the student by means of filter paper electrophoresis.
Garvin, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 36.
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Electrochemistry
The separation of rare earths: A project for high school chemistry students  Powell, J. E.; Spedding, F. H.; James, D. B.
The separation of rare earths on an ion-exchange column is a very interesting and dramatic experiment to perform, since it represents the solution of one of the most formidable chemical separation problems confronting the inorganic chemist.
Powell, J. E.; Spedding, F. H.; James, D. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 629.
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Solubility of gold in mercury  Brown, John B.
Contrary to the statements found in many chemistry textbooks, gold is not appreciably soluble in mercury.
Brown, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 415.
Metals |
Precipitation / Solubility
Separating Nd from Pr: A laboratory experiment in ion exchange chromatography  Kauffman, George B.; Blank, Jerome S.
Presents a procedure for the separation of neodymium from praseodymium that in principle is applicable to all of the lanthanides.
Kauffman, George B.; Blank, Jerome S. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 156.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange |
Transition Elements
Determination of solubility: A laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P.
Students are required to determine the solubility of common salts at various temperatures by finding the temperature at which a solution of known composition is saturated.
Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 137.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Potentiometric measurements of equilibria: In general chemistry laboratory  Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr.
The authors describe an experiment in which the solubility product of silver chloride, the ionization constant of the silver-ammonia complex, and the ionization constant of acetic acid can be determined with one afternoon of work.
Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 496.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Separation of Ce144 from Pr144: A radiochemistry demonstration  Bradley, Arthur; Adamowicz, Michael
This demonstration/experiment involves the separation of two radioisotopes through filtration of an insoluble precipitate.
Bradley, Arthur; Adamowicz, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 136.
Isotopes |
Separation Science
Variation of the solubility product constant with ionic strength  Carmody, Walter R.
Describes the development of a demonstration of the constancy (under the right conditions) of the concentration solubility product and the effect of particle size on solubility, and an experiment for quantitatively demonstrating the effect of ionic strength on the concentration solubility product.
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 125.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Textbook errors: XX. Miscellanea No. 2  Mysels, Karol J.
Subjects considered include the meaning of "element," the solubility of phenol in carbonate solutions, and the change of vapor pressure with temperature.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 568.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Phenols |
Gases |
Liquids
Textbook errors: Guest column. The solubility product constants of the metallic sulfides  Waggoner, William H.
This report reviews direct and indirect methods for investigating the solubility of substances, including conductance, potentiometric, optical, equilibrium, and thermodynamic procedures.
Waggoner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 339.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Metals |
Conductivity
The analyst and the inconstant constants  Ringbom, Anders
Simple theories taught to freshmen often do not agree well with experimental data; the author examines the case of equilibrium constants and elaborates on a method of dealing with this problem.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 282.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Cation analysis by ion exchange for the course in qualitative analysis  Berend, Joan B.; Westcott, Livonia B.; Wiig, Edwin O.
Presents a procedure for the analysis of group III cations.
Berend, Joan B.; Westcott, Livonia B.; Wiig, Edwin O. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 68.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
A chromatographic chamber for the student laboratory  Wiggans, Donald S.
The construction of an effective chromatographic tank can be accomplished by means of two beakers.
Wiggans, Donald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 536.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The nature of chromatography  Cassidy, Harold G.
Provides a definition of chromatography and a description of gas chromatography.
Cassidy, Harold G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 482.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Demonstration of dynamic nature of ions using I131  Blake, Richard F.
This demonstration presents visual evidence of the ionic nature of solid salts and the dynamic equilibrium existing between dissolved and undissolved ions.
Blake, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 354.
Isotopes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
Textbook errors: III. The solubility of gases in liquids  Mysels, Karol J.
Rising temperature is generally said to reduce the solubility of gases in liquids, yet the facts disagree with any such generalization.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 399.
Gases |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
A chromatographic demonstration  Forss, David A.
Describes a chromatographic demonstration that does not really on flammable and odorous organic solvents.
Forss, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 306.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Letters to the editor  Wolf, Milton G.
The author extends his earlier suggestions regarding the collection of chlorine to hydrogen sulfide.
Wolf, Milton G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 387.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Apparatus for demonstrating paper chromatography  Baker, Philip S.
Presents a very simple and convenient arrangement for demonstrating paper chromatography.
Baker, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 237.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Solubility of silver salts in aqua ammonia  Johnson, Clyde R.
Examines two problems regarding the calculation of the solubility of a silver salt in aqua ammonia of a given concentration.
Johnson, Clyde R. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 205.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
Paper chromatography for students  Blackwell, R. Quentin
Describes a simple method whereby various mixtures can be separated using paper chromatography under a variety of conditions.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 614.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Reclaiming silver from silver chloride residues  Willbanks, Otto L.
A convenient method for accomplishing the conversion of silver chloride to silver is proposed that takes advantage of the fact that silver oxide is less soluble in concentrated base than is silver chloride.
Willbanks, Otto L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 347.
Laboratory Management |
Precipitation / Solubility
Introductory experiments in inorganic paper chromatography  Surak, John G.; Schlueter, Donald P.
Presents a simple, small-scale method of paper chromatography appropriate for a freshman qualitative-analysis class.
Surak, John G.; Schlueter, Donald P. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 144.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Some lecture demonstrations in general chemistry  Klemm, L. H.
Describes three demonstrations involving the atomistic nature of matter, the controlled experiment, and the solubility product.
Klemm, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 587.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
Experiments on radioactivity in the first course in college chemistry  Brown, Charles A.; Rochow, E. G.
Experiments described include the detection and measurement of radioactivity; comparing the penetrative power of beta and gamma radiation; separating thorium from uranium; and determining the half-life of iodine 128.
Brown, Charles A.; Rochow, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 521.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Separation Science
Oil and water emulsions. A lecture demonstration  Ignatia, Sister M.
Describes the production of oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions to illustrate concepts of solubility in a general chemistry setting.
Ignatia, Sister M. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 112.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility