TIGER

Journal Articles: 97 results
The Correlation of Binary Acid Strengths with Molecular Properties in First-Year Chemistry  Travis D. Fridgen
This article replaces contradictory explanations for the strengths of different binary acids in first-year chemistry textbooks with a single explanation that uses a BornHaber cycle involving homolyic bond dissociation energies, electron affinities, and ion solvation enthalpies to rationalize trends in the strengths of all binary acids.
Fridgen, Travis D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1220.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Forecasting Periodic Trends: A Semester-Long Team Exercise for Nonscience Majors  John Tierney
Teams of students in a course for nonscience majors identify trends among the properties of elements in the periodic table, use Excel to plot and produce best-fit equations to describe relationships among those properties, and apply the resulting formulas to predict and justify the properties of missing elements.
Tierney, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1215.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Nonmetals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Student-Centered Learning
Guitar Strings as Standing Waves: A Demonstration  Michael Davis
This demonstration uses an acoustic guitar to produce three unique harmonic vibrations, each of which is representative of a standing wave and illustrates the concept of quantization.
Davis, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1287.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The Origin of the s, p, d, f Orbital Labels  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the s, p, d, and f orbital labels.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Spectroscopy
Do the Series in the Hydrogen Atom Spectrum Ever Overlap?  David W. Ball
Addresses the question, do the series in the hydrogen atom spectrum ever overlap?
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 883.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Factors That Influence Relative Acid Strength in Water: A Simple Model  Michael J. Moran
The pKa's of diverse aqueous acids HA correlate well with the sum of two gas-phase properties: the HA bond-dissociation enthalpy and the electron affinity of the A radical. It is suggested that rather than bond strength alone or bond polarity, the sum of the enthalpies of these two steps is a fairly good indicator of relative acidity.
Moran, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 800.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals
Probing the Orbital Energy of an Electron in an Atom  James L. Bills
This article answers an appeal for simple theoretical interpretations of atomic properties. A theoretical snapshot of an atom, showing the screened nuclear charge and the electron to be ionized at its radius of zero kinetic energy, enables anyone to approximate its ionization energy.
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 473.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Are Some Elements More Equal Than Others?  Ronald L. Rich
Presents a new periodic chart with 18 columns but no interruptions of atomic numbers at Lanthanum or Actinum, and no de-emphasis of elements 57-71 or 89-103 by seeming to make footnotes of them. It shows some elements more than once in order to illuminate multiple relationships in chemical behavior.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Inner Transition Elements |
Main-Group Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Trends in Ionization Energy of Transition-Metal Elements  Paul S. Matsumoto
Examines why, as the number of protons increase along a row in the periodic table, the first ionization energies of the transition-metal elements are relatively steady, but that for the main-group elements increases.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1660.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Einstein Revisited  Leonard Fine
Examines Einstein's contributions to chemistry, particularly his work on the photoelectric effect, molecular dimensions, and Brownian motion.
Fine, Leonard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1601.
Quantum Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Revisiting the Electric Pickle Demonstration  Michelle M. Rizzo, Tracy A. Halmi, Alan J. Jircitano, Martin G. Kociolek, and Jerry A. Magraw
The electric pickle demonstration has long been used to explore the atomic emission of sodium ions, which emit a brilliant yelloworange glow. The emission from other metal ions including lithium, potassium, strontium, and barium can also be demonstrated by pickling cucumbers with the corresponding chloride salt.
Rizzo, Michelle M.; Halmi, Tracy A.; Jircitano, Alan J.; Kociolek, Martin G.; Magraw, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 545.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals
"We Actually Saw Atoms with Our Own Eyes". Conceptions and Convictions in Using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope in Junior High School  Hannah Margel, Bat-Sheva Eylon, and Zahava Scherz
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the feasibility and potential contribution of using the STM as a learning tool in junior high school (JHS) to support instruction about the particulate nature of matter.
Margel, Hannah; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 558.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Learning Theories |
Student-Centered Learning |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Program of Computational Chemistry Exercises for the First-Semester General Chemistry Course  Scott E. Feller, Richard F. Dallinger, and Paul Caylor McKinney
A series of 13 molecular modeling exercises designed for the first-semester general chemistry course is described. The modeling exercises, which are used as both prelecture explorations and postlecture problems, increase in difficulty and in student independence.
Feller, Scott E.; Dallinger, Richard F.; McKinney, Paul Caylor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 283.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The "Dissing" of Niels Bohr  Andrew R. Peterson
Contributions made by Bohr to the Periodic Law.
Peterson, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 33.
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The KLM-Shell Labels  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader's inquiry, this column traces the origins of the K, L, M labels for the shells of the Bohr atom.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 996.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Place of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Periodic Table  William B. Jensen
Explanation for why the zinc group belongs with the main group elements; includes several versions of periodic tables.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 952.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Understanding and Interpreting Molecular Electron Density Distributions  C. F. Matta and R. J. Gillespie
A simple introduction to the electron densities of molecules and how they can be analyzed to obtain information on bonding and geometry.
Matta, C. F.; Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
Semiconductor Nanocrystals: A Powerful Visual Aid for Introducing the Particle in a Box  Tadd Kippeny, Laura A. Swafford, and Sandra J. Rosenthal
Using semiconductor nanocrystals as a means for connecting lecture content in quantum mechanics, inorganic, and general chemistry to real-world technological problems.
Kippeny, Tadd; Swafford, Laura A.; Rosenthal, Sandra J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1094.
Quantum Chemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Applications of Chemistry
Simple Measurement of Magnetic Susceptibility with a Small Permanent Magnet and a Top-Loading Electronic Balance  Yoshinori Itami and Kozo Sone
Measuring magnetic susceptibility of solid transition metal salts using a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-handle device.
Itami, Yoshinori; Sone, Kozo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1002.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Magnetic Properties |
Transition Elements |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models  Lowe, John P.
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 429.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Mendeleev-Seaborg Periodic Table: Through Z = 1138 and Beyond  Paul J. Karol
Extending the periodic table to very large atomic numbers and its implications for the organization of the periodic table, consideration of relativistic effects, and the relative stability of massive and supermassive atomic nuclei.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 60.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Astrochemistry
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules CHwFxClyBrz: How Are They Related to Molecular Mass?  Michael Laing
Investigating the role of molecular mass in determining boiling points of small molecules.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Lewis Structures in General Chemistry: Agreement between Electron Density Calculations and Lewis Structures  Gordon H. Purser
The internuclear electron densities of a series of X-O bonds (where X = P, S, or Cl) are calculated using quantum mechanics and compared to Lewis structures for which the formal charges have been minimized; a direct relationship is found between the internuclear electron density and the bond order predicted from Lewis structures in which formal charges are minimized.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 981.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Quantum Chemistry
Screening Percentages Based on Slater Effective Nuclear Charge as a Versatile Tool for Teaching Periodic Trends  Kimberley A. Waldron, Erin M. Fehringer, Amy E. Streeb, Jennifer E. Trosky, and Joshua J. Pearson
Using charge shielding to identify and explain trends within the periodic table.
Waldron, Kimberley A.; Fehringer, Erin M.; Streeb, Amy E.; Trosky, Jennifer E.; Pearson, Joshua J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 635.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
Ionization Energies, Parallel Spins, and the Stability of Half-Filled Shells  Peter Cann
Three methods for explaining the decrease in first ionization energies between group V and group VI elements are described and commented upon. The quantum mechanical origin of the unhelpful concept of half-shell stability is explained in terms of exchange energy, for which the alternative term parallel spin avoidance factor is suggested. It is recommended that for pre-university students the simplest explanation, in terms of Coulombic repulsion between two electrons occupying the same orbital, is adopted: it involves fewer difficult concepts than the other explanations and its predictions are no less accurate.
Cann, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1056.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
A Framework for Presenting the Modern Atom  James J. Leary and Tadd C. Kippeny
A flow chart is presented that summarizes major empirical and theoretical accomplishments that contributed to the modern view of the atom. A chronology is included to show the time dependence of the various contributions. Suggestions are made about how this chart can be used in a variety of contexts as a framework for discussing science as a process.
Leary, James J.; Kippeny, Tadd C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1217.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Genius of Slater's Rules  James L. Reed
With only a few modifications a procedure has been developed that yields the one-electron energies for atoms and ions with a level of detail very well suited for instruction in the structure and properties of atoms. It provides for the computation of very reasonable values for such properties as ionization energies, electron affinities, promotion energies, electronic transitions, and even XPS and ESCA spectra.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 802.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
The Ubiquitous Metaphors of Chemistry Teaching  Herbert Beall
The understanding and the confusion resulting from any scientific metaphor thus have to be considered when it is used. For example, a common chemical metaphor for the electron distribution about an atom is a cloud. Some of the entailments of this metaphor are apt, such as the diffuse nature of a cloud. Others, such as the ability of a cloud to evaporate, are not appropriate.
Beall, Herbert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 366.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Gravity of the Situation  Damon Diemente
This article presents a few calculations demonstrating that gravitational attraction between atoms is many orders of magnitude weaker than the gravitational attraction between Earth and an atom, and that the gravitational attraction between two ions is many orders of magnitude weaker than the electromagnetic attraction between them.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 55.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
How Good Is the Quantum Mechanical Explanation of the Periodic System?  Eric R. Scerri
The use of quantum mechanics, or more specifically, orbitals and electronic configurations in teaching general chemistry is now such a widespread trend that it would be utterly futile to try to reverse it. Moreover, orbitals and configurations have been extremely useful in providing a theoretical framework for the unification of a multitude of chemical facts.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1384.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Experimental 4s and 3d Energies in Atomic Ground States  James L. Bills
A new definition is given for the effective charge Zf. HF orbital energies e4s and e3d are used in concert with I4s and I3d to answer four questions: Why does the 4s sublevel fill before 3d? Why is ionization easier for 4s than 3d? When 4s23dn has e3d < e4s, why doesn't 4s23dn -> 4s13dn+1? Why are Cr and Cu each 4s13dn+1 instead of 4s23dn?
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Deducing the Shell Model from Ionization Energies and the Use of Models in Introductory Chemistry  Ronald J. Gillespie, Richard S. Moog, and James N. Spencer
A major objection of Rioux and DeKock is the statement in the authors' earlier paper that electron repulsion is responsible for the relative ionization energies of H and He. The commentators work clearly shows that a quantum mechanical treatment of this problem reveals that kinetic energy considerations play a crucial role in these values. However, although their criticism is appropriate in the context of this more sophisticated QM treatment, it does not in any way invalidate the authors original paper, the goal of which was to provide a model, namely the shell model, for the electronic structure of atoms that is consistent with experimental ionization energies.
Gillespie, Ronald J.; Moog, Richard S.; Spencer, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 539.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Crucial Role of Kinetic Energy in Interpreting Ionization Energies  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
The experimental ratio of the ionization energies of H and He is 1.81. The authors show that it is not correct to interpret this ratio using a classical Coulombic potential energy model. Rather a quantum mechanical model is required in which both kinetic and potential energy play a role.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 537.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
News from Online: Photons and Lasers  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Online resources related to light and lasers.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 526.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  R. J. Gillespie, J. N. Spencer, R. S. Moog
Rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Gillespie, R. J.; Spencer, J. N.; Moog, R. S. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  Eric Scerri
Errors and questionable rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Scerri, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron Affinities of the Alkaline Earth Metals and the Sign Convention for Electron Affinity  John C. Wheeler
It has been known since 1987, both theoretically and experimentally, that the ion Ca- is stable. It is now certain that Sr-, Ba-, and Ra- are also stable, and accurate values for the electron affinities of Ca-, Sr-, and Ba- have been determined. Recommended values for these electron affinities, in the units commonly employed in introductory texts and with the sign convention used here, are 2.37, 5.03, and 13.95 kJ/mol for Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively.
Wheeler, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 123.
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Concept Maps in Chemistry Education  Alberto Regis, Pier Giorgio Albertazzi, Ezio Roletto
This article presents and illustrates a proposed application of concept maps in chemistry teaching in high schools. Three examples of the use of concept maps in chemistry teaching are reported and discussed with reference to: atomic structure, oxidation-reduction and thermodynamics.
Regis, Alberto; Albertazzi, Pier Giorgio; Roletto, Ezio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1084.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Quantum Analogies on Campus  Ngai Ling Ma
By using examples drawn from daily life of students, simple analogies are used to illustrate a few quantum concepts which include: wave function, quantum numbers, states, degeneracy of states, transitions, selection rules, probability and probability density, operators and wave-particle dualism.
Ma, Ngai Ling. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1016.
Quantum Chemistry
Moseley's Work on X-Rays and Atomic Number  C. W. Haigh
Explanation of the relationship between Moseley's work in determining atomic numbers, the spectrum of the hydrogen atom, the Bohr theory, and Slater's rules for screening constants.
Haigh, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1012.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Where the Electrons Are  Barth, Roger
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Software for realistic modeling of electronic orbitals using contour plots of probability densities.
Barth, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 401.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity and atomic charge  Reed, James L.
Because electronegativity is such a fundamental concept, it should be continually developed in sophistication throughout the curriculum; considers the energy function, atomic charges, and chemical reactivities.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 785.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The nature of the chemical bond - 1992  Pauling, Linus
Commentary on errors in an earlier article on the nature of the chemical bond.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 519.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Analogical demonstrations   Fortman, John J.
By illustrating an analogy with a visual demonstration, a student is aided in both understanding and remembering a lesson.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 323.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases
Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry  Finster, David C.
The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners.
Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
The disco analogy   Battino, Rubin
A fantastic idea in helping students visualize the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 285.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
How to get more from ionization energies in the teaching of atomic structure  Mirone, Paolo
A wealth of experimental data could be exploited more extensively and profitably than what is presently done in the teaching of atomic structure.
Mirone, Paolo J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 132.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Simulation of Rutherford's experiment  Bishop, Carl B.
Apparatus and procedure to simulate Rutherford's classic gold foil experiment.
Bishop, Carl B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 889.
Atomic Properties / Structure
How do electrons get across nodes? A problem in the interpretation of the quantum theory  Nelson, P. G.
Suggested responses to the question "How do electrons get across nodes?".
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 643.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Why the Daniell cell works!  Martins, George F.
The strength of bonds between atoms in metals, the relative ease of removing electrons from atoms, and the energy lowering of the attraction of water molecules for positive ions in solution all aid beginning student's understanding of why reactions occur.
Martins, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 482.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The nature of the chemical bond--1990: There are no such things as orbitals!  Ogilivie, J. F.
The author discusses the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the laws and theories, and the relationship of quantum-mechanics to atomic and molecular structure, as well as their relevance to chemical education.
Ogilivie, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 280.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The historic atom: From d to q  Smith, Richard
A Styrofoam model of the atom that has been used to show middle and high school students the historical development of the atomic model.
Smith, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 637.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Principles of electronegativity Part I. General nature  Sanderson, R. T.
The concept of electronegativity has been modified, expanded, and debated. The concept can be used to help students gain valuable insights and understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between atomic structure and compound properties. This is the first in a series of articles that explores the important concept of electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 112.
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Periodic contractions among the elements: Or, on being the right size  Mason, Joan
Contraction across the row, irregularities in the build up of the periodic table, the second row anomaly relativistic contraction and expansion among the heavier elements, post-transition anomaly, periodicities of physicochemical properties.
Mason, Joan J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 17.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle: An application to the shell structure of atoms and orbit descriptions of molecules  Hartcourt, Richard D.
A further novel use of the uncertainty principle to deduce the 2n2 shell occupancy rule for atoms.
Hartcourt, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1070.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Hydrogen atom spectrum using an AA spectrophotometer  Douglas, John; von Nagy Felsobuki, Ellak I.
Using an AA spectrophotometer to measure the Balmer series of the hydrogen atom spectrum.
Douglas, John; von Nagy Felsobuki, Ellak I. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 552.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The periodic table and electron configurations  Strong, Judith A.
This author shares her approach to having students learn electron configurations.
Strong, Judith A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 834.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Updating the atomic theory in general chemistry  Whitman, Mark
Presents a descriptive overview of the recent achievements that have furthered the understanding of atomic structure to provide instructors with the background necessary to enhance their classroom presentations.
Whitman, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 952.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Presenting the Bohr atom  Haendler, Blanca L.
A more significant consideration of the role of the Bohr theory in the development of quantum mechanics would have many benefits for introductory and advanced chemistry classes.
Haendler, Blanca L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 372.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Developing models: What is the atom really like?  Records, Roger M.
Using physical and computer models to illustrate historical changes in our view of the atom.
Records, Roger M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Exchange stabilization and the variation of ionization energy in the pn and dn series  Blake, Antony B.
This article is concerned with two types of ionizations that are of special importance to chemists. The author's main purpose is to clarify current textbook interpretations of the peculiar decrease in ionization energy following completion of a half-filled p or d shell.
Blake, Antony B. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 393.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958): A brief anecdotal biography   Festa, Roger R.
A brief biography about one of quantum mechanics' most important intellectual contributors.
Festa, Roger R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 273.
Quantum Chemistry
Chemical aspects of Bohr's 1913 theory  Kragh, Helge
The chemical content of Bohr's 1913 theory has generally been neglected in the treatises on the history of chemistry; this paper regards Bohr as a theoretical chemist and discusses the chemical aspects of his atomic theory.
Kragh, Helge J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 208.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
Particles, waves, and the interpretation of quantum mechanics  Christoudouleas, N. D.
A brief description of the conceptual basis of quantum mechanics and the Copenhagen interpretation.
Christoudouleas, N. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 573.
Quantum Chemistry
What is oxidation?  Herron, J. Dudley
Why do most teachers continue to define oxidation and reduction in terms of a gain and loss of electrons rather than in terms of a change in oxidation number? [Debut]
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 51.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
The spectrum of atomic lithium. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Miller, Kenneth J.
The author gives a background on the theory and experimental procedure for the spectrum of atomic lithium.
Miller, Kenneth J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 805.
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Line spectrum demonstration for the large lecture hall  Driscoll, Jerry A.
The undergraduate's learning experience with quantum mechanics and Bohr's theory can be greatly enhanced by the presentation of a line spectrum demonstration, but these are often hard to see in large lecture halls. The authors present a physical arrangement of an apparatus that can be easily assembled to allow for easier student viewing in a lecture-hall situation.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 97.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
The stability of the hydrogen atom  Rioux, Frank
The Kimball-Neumark-Kleiss model of the atom is conceptually correct, requires only simple mathematics, and clearly explains the stability of the hydrogen atom.
Rioux, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Transparent 3-D models of electron probability distributions  McClellan, A. L.
The authors describe transparent, three-dimensional models in which regions of high electron probability seem to float in space, without definite boundaries and with the "internal" variations of probability density clearly visible.
McClellan, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A new way of presenting atomic orbitals  Linnett, J. W.; Bordass, W. T.
Uses three-dimensional contour diagrams to plot and illustrate electron distributions and atomic orbitals.
Linnett, J. W.; Bordass, W. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 672.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The periodic systems of D. I. Mendeleev and problems of nuclear chemistry  Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter
Examines the acquisition and identification of new chemical elements and the structure of the eighth period of the periodic table.
Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 406.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals
Contour diagrams for relativistic orbitals  Szabo, Attila
The purpose of this article is to amplify an earlier JCE article regarding taking pictorial representations of atomic orbitals too literally.
Szabo, Attila J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 678.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Basic concepts in quantum mechanics (Kompaneyets, Alexander)  Bent, Henry A.

Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A80.
Quantum Chemistry
The use of tables of data in teaching: The students discover laws about ionization potentials  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Students are asked to see what they can discover in a table of ionization potentials of the elements like that presented in most general chemistry textbooks.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 468.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Mathematics for scientists. Mathematical methods in the physical sciences. Mathematics for quantum chemistry (Bak, Thor A.; Lichtenberg, Jonas; Boas, Mary L.; Anderson, Jay Martin)  Moore, Walter J.

Moore, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 246.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantum Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. I. New models of atomic structure  Luder, W. F.
Describes the electron repulsion theory of electron configuration and applies it to representative elements.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals
Electronegativities and group IVA chemistry  Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall
The teacher of inorganic chemistry should present the representative elements of group IVA and their properties as an intellectual and empirical form of investigation rather than as a mere collection of information.
Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 654.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Atomic orbitals: Limitations and variations  Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas
The three most widely used methods of arriving at a set of atomic orbitals afford respective hydrogen-like orbitals, self-consistent field orbitals, and various analytical approximations such as the Slater or Morse orbitals, all of which may differ greatly in shape and size from each other.
Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The structure of atoms (Lagowski, J. J.)  Cohen, Irwin

Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 178.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Domain representations of orbitals  Adamson, Arthur W.
Presents orbital domains and physical models to represent them as a more accurate way of visualizing atoms.
Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 140.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Behavior of electrons in atoms: Structure, spectra, and photochemistry of atoms (Hochstrasser, Robin M.)  Gregory, N. W.

Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 62.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals  Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B.
Describes the determination of and illustrates contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals.
Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 256.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The language of quantum mechanics  Maybury, Robert H.
Presents background material for teaching students important concepts regarding quantum mechanics that forms the basis of much of chemistry.
Maybury, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 367.
Quantum Chemistry
Energy level diagrams and extranuclear building of the elements  Keller, R. N.
Simplified diagrams showing the approximate order of electronic energy levels in atoms and mnemonic devices to aid in predicting electronic configurations for atoms are often misleading with respect to the actual energy of binding of the electrons in atoms and ions of the transition elements.
Keller, R. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 289.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The science study series. Volumes 12 and 18  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 588.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
The shape of the 2p and related orbitals  Cohen, Irwin
Some texts mistake graphs of the angular variation of the 2p and related wave functions for actual geometric descriptions of these orbitals.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 20.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic models in teaching chemistry  Sanderson, R. T.
Contains directions for constructing and using atomic models for instructional purposes.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A periodic table: The "Aufbauprinzip" as a basis for classification of the elements  Longuet-Higgins, H. C.
This note recommends a presentation of the periodic table designed to show as directly as possible how the place of an element in the table is related to the electronic structure of the atom.
Longuet-Higgins, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 30.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic models for a beginning course in college chemistry  Dodson, Vance H.
Describes a simple, three-dimensional models illustrating the fundamental parts of the atom.
Dodson, Vance H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 529.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals  Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C.
Since the theory of atomic and molecular orbitals has proven to be of such value in interpreting the data of inorganic chemistry, it is hoped that a new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals will be an aid to the further systematizing of chemical knowledge.
Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 69.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The periodic table: The 6d-5f mixed transition group  Coryell, Charles D.
With relatively few modifications, the Bohr-type periodic table presented by Glocker and Popov can be made to reflect more instructively the rather complex relationships obtained in the neighborhood of the 4f or gadolinium transition group and, more importantly, in the 6d-5f sequence extending from actinium through the region of uranium and the synthetic earths to element 103.
Coryell, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 62.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Valency and the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I.
Presents a modification of the Bohr-Thomsen-Akhumov periodic table stressing patterns to found among the rare earth elements.
Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 212.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure