TIGER

Journal Articles: 82 results
A New "Bottom-Up" Framework for Teaching Chemical Bonding  Tami Levy Nahum, Rachel Mamlok-Naaman, Avi Hofstein, and Leeor Kronik
This article presents a general framework for bonding that can be presented at different levels of sophistication depending on the student's level and needs. The pedagogical strategy for teaching this model is a "bottom-up" one, starting with basic principles and ending with specific properties.
Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Kronik, Leeor. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1680.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Materials Science |
MO Theory |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Correlation of Binary Acid Strengths with Molecular Properties in First-Year Chemistry  Travis D. Fridgen
This article replaces contradictory explanations for the strengths of different binary acids in first-year chemistry textbooks with a single explanation that uses a BornHaber cycle involving homolyic bond dissociation energies, electron affinities, and ion solvation enthalpies to rationalize trends in the strengths of all binary acids.
Fridgen, Travis D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1220.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Forecasting Periodic Trends: A Semester-Long Team Exercise for Nonscience Majors  John Tierney
Teams of students in a course for nonscience majors identify trends among the properties of elements in the periodic table, use Excel to plot and produce best-fit equations to describe relationships among those properties, and apply the resulting formulas to predict and justify the properties of missing elements.
Tierney, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1215.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Nonmetals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Student-Centered Learning
Factors That Influence Relative Acid Strength in Water: A Simple Model  Michael J. Moran
The pKa's of diverse aqueous acids HA correlate well with the sum of two gas-phase properties: the HA bond-dissociation enthalpy and the electron affinity of the A radical. It is suggested that rather than bond strength alone or bond polarity, the sum of the enthalpies of these two steps is a fairly good indicator of relative acidity.
Moran, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 800.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals
Probing the Orbital Energy of an Electron in an Atom  James L. Bills
This article answers an appeal for simple theoretical interpretations of atomic properties. A theoretical snapshot of an atom, showing the screened nuclear charge and the electron to be ionized at its radius of zero kinetic energy, enables anyone to approximate its ionization energy.
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 473.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Trends in Ionization Energy of Transition-Metal Elements  Paul S. Matsumoto
Examines why, as the number of protons increase along a row in the periodic table, the first ionization energies of the transition-metal elements are relatively steady, but that for the main-group elements increases.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1660.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
A Program of Computational Chemistry Exercises for the First-Semester General Chemistry Course  Scott E. Feller, Richard F. Dallinger, and Paul Caylor McKinney
A series of 13 molecular modeling exercises designed for the first-semester general chemistry course is described. The modeling exercises, which are used as both prelecture explorations and postlecture problems, increase in difficulty and in student independence.
Feller, Scott E.; Dallinger, Richard F.; McKinney, Paul Caylor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 283.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
ORBITAL  Robert M. Hanson
Software that produces probability-based three-dimensional representations of the hydrogen atom and other single-electron systems.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 710.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Computational Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
ORBITAL  Robert M. Hanson
Software for producing probability-based three-dimensional representations of atomic orbitals of the hydrogen atom and other single-electron systems; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 109.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Computational Chemistry
Understanding and Interpreting Molecular Electron Density Distributions  C. F. Matta and R. J. Gillespie
A simple introduction to the electron densities of molecules and how they can be analyzed to obtain information on bonding and geometry.
Matta, C. F.; Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models  Lowe, John P.
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 429.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules CHwFxClyBrz: How Are They Related to Molecular Mass?  Michael Laing
Investigating the role of molecular mass in determining boiling points of small molecules.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
The Mole, the Periodic Table, and Quantum Numbers: An Introductory Trio  Mali Yin and Raymond S. Ochs
Suggestions for presenting and developing three key ideas in chemistry: the mole, the periodic table, and quantum numbers.
Yin, Mali; Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1345.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Screening Percentages Based on Slater Effective Nuclear Charge as a Versatile Tool for Teaching Periodic Trends  Kimberley A. Waldron, Erin M. Fehringer, Amy E. Streeb, Jennifer E. Trosky, and Joshua J. Pearson
Using charge shielding to identify and explain trends within the periodic table.
Waldron, Kimberley A.; Fehringer, Erin M.; Streeb, Amy E.; Trosky, Jennifer E.; Pearson, Joshua J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 635.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
Ionization Energies, Parallel Spins, and the Stability of Half-Filled Shells  Peter Cann
Three methods for explaining the decrease in first ionization energies between group V and group VI elements are described and commented upon. The quantum mechanical origin of the unhelpful concept of half-shell stability is explained in terms of exchange energy, for which the alternative term parallel spin avoidance factor is suggested. It is recommended that for pre-university students the simplest explanation, in terms of Coulombic repulsion between two electrons occupying the same orbital, is adopted: it involves fewer difficult concepts than the other explanations and its predictions are no less accurate.
Cann, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1056.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Genius of Slater's Rules  James L. Reed
With only a few modifications a procedure has been developed that yields the one-electron energies for atoms and ions with a level of detail very well suited for instruction in the structure and properties of atoms. It provides for the computation of very reasonable values for such properties as ionization energies, electron affinities, promotion energies, electronic transitions, and even XPS and ESCA spectra.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 802.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Experimental 4s and 3d Energies in Atomic Ground States  James L. Bills
A new definition is given for the effective charge Zf. HF orbital energies e4s and e3d are used in concert with I4s and I3d to answer four questions: Why does the 4s sublevel fill before 3d? Why is ionization easier for 4s than 3d? When 4s23dn has e3d < e4s, why doesn't 4s23dn -> 4s13dn+1? Why are Cr and Cu each 4s13dn+1 instead of 4s23dn?
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Deducing the Shell Model from Ionization Energies and the Use of Models in Introductory Chemistry  Ronald J. Gillespie, Richard S. Moog, and James N. Spencer
A major objection of Rioux and DeKock is the statement in the authors' earlier paper that electron repulsion is responsible for the relative ionization energies of H and He. The commentators work clearly shows that a quantum mechanical treatment of this problem reveals that kinetic energy considerations play a crucial role in these values. However, although their criticism is appropriate in the context of this more sophisticated QM treatment, it does not in any way invalidate the authors original paper, the goal of which was to provide a model, namely the shell model, for the electronic structure of atoms that is consistent with experimental ionization energies.
Gillespie, Ronald J.; Moog, Richard S.; Spencer, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 539.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Crucial Role of Kinetic Energy in Interpreting Ionization Energies  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
The experimental ratio of the ionization energies of H and He is 1.81. The authors show that it is not correct to interpret this ratio using a classical Coulombic potential energy model. Rather a quantum mechanical model is required in which both kinetic and potential energy play a role.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 537.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  R. J. Gillespie, J. N. Spencer, R. S. Moog
Rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Gillespie, R. J.; Spencer, J. N.; Moog, R. S. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  Eric Scerri
Errors and questionable rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Scerri, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron Affinities of the Alkaline Earth Metals and the Sign Convention for Electron Affinity  John C. Wheeler
It has been known since 1987, both theoretically and experimentally, that the ion Ca- is stable. It is now certain that Sr-, Ba-, and Ra- are also stable, and accurate values for the electron affinities of Ca-, Sr-, and Ba- have been determined. Recommended values for these electron affinities, in the units commonly employed in introductory texts and with the sign convention used here, are 2.37, 5.03, and 13.95 kJ/mol for Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively.
Wheeler, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 123.
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Concept Maps in Chemistry Education  Alberto Regis, Pier Giorgio Albertazzi, Ezio Roletto
This article presents and illustrates a proposed application of concept maps in chemistry teaching in high schools. Three examples of the use of concept maps in chemistry teaching are reported and discussed with reference to: atomic structure, oxidation-reduction and thermodynamics.
Regis, Alberto; Albertazzi, Pier Giorgio; Roletto, Ezio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1084.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
A Mnemonic Method for Assigning the Electronic Configurations of Atoms  Nerea Iza and Manuel Gil
An algorithm for determining electronic configurations.
Iza, Nerea; Gil, Manuel. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1025.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Moseley's Work on X-Rays and Atomic Number  C. W. Haigh
Explanation of the relationship between Moseley's work in determining atomic numbers, the spectrum of the hydrogen atom, the Bohr theory, and Slater's rules for screening constants.
Haigh, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1012.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Three-Dimensional Graphical Visualization of One-Electron Atomic Orbitals  Ramachandran, B.; Kong, P. C.
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Software to produce contour plots of atomic orbitals.
Ramachandran, B.; Kong, P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 406.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Where the Electrons Are  Barth, Roger
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Software for realistic modeling of electronic orbitals using contour plots of probability densities.
Barth, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 401.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Periodic Table of Atoms: Arranging the Elements by a Different Set of Rules  Treptow, Richard S.
The periodic table found in this paper is based on the properties of free gaseous atoms rather than atoms in a chemical environment.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1007.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
On Using Incomplete Theories as Cataloging Schemes: Aufbau, Abbau, and VSEPR  Tykodi, R. J.
How to restructure as cataloging schemes the aufbau and abbau procedures for obtaining the ground-state electronic structures of atoms and monatomic ions.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 273.
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Pictorial analogies VII: Quantum numbers and orbitals   Fortman, John J.
Quantum number n is related to the size of a house, l is related to the shape of a house, and m is compared to the direction the house is facing. Pictures are included.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 649.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity and atomic charge  Reed, James L.
Because electronegativity is such a fundamental concept, it should be continually developed in sophistication throughout the curriculum; considers the energy function, atomic charges, and chemical reactivities.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 785.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The correct interpretation of Hund's rule as applied to "uncoupled states" orbital diagrams  Campbell, Mark L.
The application of Hund's rule by general chemistry students is appropriate as long as Hund's rule is interpreted correctly.
Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 134.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
How to get more from ionization energies in the teaching of atomic structure  Mirone, Paolo
A wealth of experimental data could be exploited more extensively and profitably than what is presently done in the teaching of atomic structure.
Mirone, Paolo J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 132.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Periodic chart pedagogy  Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.
Questions based upon a hypothetical set of quantum numbers and their relationships; includes answers.
Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 759.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Keeping track of directions of atomic orbitals: A useful device in organic chemistry  Talaty, Erach R.
The usefulness of keeping track of the directions of atomic orbitals.
Talaty, Erach R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 655.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
Why the Daniell cell works!  Martins, George F.
The strength of bonds between atoms in metals, the relative ease of removing electrons from atoms, and the energy lowering of the attraction of water molecules for positive ions in solution all aid beginning student's understanding of why reactions occur.
Martins, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 482.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The nature of the chemical bond--1990: There are no such things as orbitals!  Ogilivie, J. F.
The author discusses the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the laws and theories, and the relationship of quantum-mechanics to atomic and molecular structure, as well as their relevance to chemical education.
Ogilivie, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 280.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Visualization of electron clouds in atoms and molecules  Douglas, John E.
110. Visualization of the electron orbital concept continues to challenge and intrigue chemical educators. [October and November 1989 Computer Series both inadvertently called number 107. Numbering restored by skipping 109 and calling January 1990 number 110.]
Douglas, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 42.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching the shapes of the hydrogenlike and hybrid atomic orbitals  Allendoerfer, Robert D.
The purpose of this article to show that, in this age of computer graphics, the "difficult to obtain" argument no longer has merit and to give an example of where the standard treatment gives insufficient attention to detail in describing the nodal surfaces of hybrid orbitals.
Allendoerfer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 37.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Transition metal configurations and limitations of the orbital approximation  Scerri, Eric R.
Points out a misconception concerning the "building up" of the transition elements and their first ionization energies that is reinforced by many chemistry texts.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 481.
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Principles of electronegativity Part I. General nature  Sanderson, R. T.
The concept of electronegativity has been modified, expanded, and debated. The concept can be used to help students gain valuable insights and understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between atomic structure and compound properties. This is the first in a series of articles that explores the important concept of electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 112.
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Periodic contractions among the elements: Or, on being the right size  Mason, Joan
Contraction across the row, irregularities in the build up of the periodic table, the second row anomaly relativistic contraction and expansion among the heavier elements, post-transition anomaly, periodicities of physicochemical properties.
Mason, Joan J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 17.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The ground state electronic structure for atoms and monoatomic ions  Tykodi, R. J.
The aufbau (build up) rule for neutral atoms and monatomic anions and the abbau (tear down) rule for monatomic cations.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 943.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The periodic table and electron configurations  Strong, Judith A.
This author shares her approach to having students learn electron configurations.
Strong, Judith A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 834.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Models to depict hybridization of atomic orbitals  Stubblefield, C. T.
Six models of hybridization: linear, trigonal, tetrahedral, planar, trigonal bipyrimidal, and octahedral.
Stubblefield, C. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 158.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds
Why teach the electron configuration of the elements are we do?  Millikan, Roger C.
Out of 106 elements in the table of electron configurations, there are 29 special cases - rules that only work 73% of the time seem hardly worth teaching.
Millikan, Roger C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Developing models: What is the atom really like?  Records, Roger M.
Using physical and computer models to illustrate historical changes in our view of the atom.
Records, Roger M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
A moir pattern analogy to electron motion  Bard, James R.
The optical illusion produced by this pattern may help students better understand the motion of electrons in atoms.
Bard, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Exchange stabilization and the variation of ionization energy in the pn and dn series  Blake, Antony B.
This article is concerned with two types of ionizations that are of special importance to chemists. The author's main purpose is to clarify current textbook interpretations of the peculiar decrease in ionization energy following completion of a half-filled p or d shell.
Blake, Antony B. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 393.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
Homemade models of the five d-atomic orbitals  Saieed, Alfred E.
Styrofoam shapes are used to represent the d-atomic orbitals.
Saieed, Alfred E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 805.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
How does the electron cross the node?  Johnsen, Russell H.; Lloyd, Winston D.
Confusion arises from the assumption that the electron is a particle, when the model that produces an orbital diagram assumes that the electron behaves as a wave.
Johnsen, Russell H.; Lloyd, Winston D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 651.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Lecture projectable atomic orbital cross-sections and bonding interactions  Shepherd, Rex E.
Models using small Styrofoam balls and slinky toys improve student understanding of covalent bonds.
Shepherd, Rex E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 317.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
What is oxidation?  Herron, J. Dudley
Why do most teachers continue to define oxidation and reduction in terms of a gain and loss of electrons rather than in terms of a change in oxidation number? [Debut]
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 51.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Model to illustrate bonding and symmetry of transition metal complexes  Betteridge, D.
Describes a physical model used to demonstrate the combination of atomic orbitals of the transition metal ion with those on surrounding ligands to give molecular orbitals.
Betteridge, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 824.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A.
(1) Suggestions for presenting the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales. (2) Why are 4s rather than 3d electrons involved in the first and second ionizations of the first row transition elements? - answer by Haight. (3) The basis for the mnemonic ordering of atomic orbitals. (4) What is a liquid-liquid membrane electrode? Is it the same as an ion-selective electrode? - answer by Rechnitz.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 444.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Membranes
Educational film loops on atomic and molecular structure  Wahl, Arnold C.; Blukis, Uldis
Describes six films dealing with fundamental principles of atomic and molecular structure.
Wahl, Arnold C.; Blukis, Uldis J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 787.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. I. New models of atomic structure  Luder, W. F.
Describes the electron repulsion theory of electron configuration and applies it to representative elements.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals
Electronegativities and group IVA chemistry  Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall
The teacher of inorganic chemistry should present the representative elements of group IVA and their properties as an intellectual and empirical form of investigation rather than as a mere collection of information.
Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 654.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Cardboard orbital domain models  Kapauan, A. F.
Describes the construction of orbital domain models from cardboard.
Kapauan, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 412.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic orbitals: Limitations and variations  Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas
The three most widely used methods of arriving at a set of atomic orbitals afford respective hydrogen-like orbitals, self-consistent field orbitals, and various analytical approximations such as the Slater or Morse orbitals, all of which may differ greatly in shape and size from each other.
Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
General chemistry exercise using atomic and molecular orbital models  Walker, Ruth A.
Styrofoam balls and pipecleaners are used to construct models designed to convey an understanding of the three-dimensionality of the electron distribution in the ground state atom and the effect of bonding on this distribution.
Walker, Ruth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 672.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Atomic orbital molecular models  Martins, George
Atomic orbital molecular models are constructed using molded white expanded polystyrene in the form of spheres and teardrops.
Martins, George J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 658.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Geometry of the f orbitals  Becker, Clifford
Presents physical models of the f orbitals.
Becker, Clifford J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 358.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simple model of the d orbitals  Douglas, Bodie E.
Presents a simple model of the d orbitals constructed from plastic sponges.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals  Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B.
Describes the determination of and illustrates contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals.
Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 256.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Three-dimensional models of atomic orbitals  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.
Using balloons to illustrate three-dimensional models of atomic orbitals.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Molecular models featuring molecular orbitals  Brumlik, George C.
Molecular models have been constructed that attempt to represent atomic and molecular orbitals as accurately as the current theories of valence and pertinent experimental evidence permit.
Brumlik, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 502.
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Principles of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Develops, through 25 statements, the basic principles of chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 382.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Atomic models in teaching chemistry  Sanderson, R. T.
Contains directions for constructing and using atomic models for instructional purposes.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure
An aid to teaching electronic configurations of atoms  Sanderson, R. T.
This simple shelving device uses styrofoam balls to represent electrons and effectively illustrates electron configurations.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 262.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dynamic projector display for atomic orbitals and the covalent bond  Thompson, H. Bradford
An overhead projector is used to display the combination of simple atomic orbitals to form hybrid and molecular orbitals.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 118.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
Teaching electron configurations  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Time can be saved and confusion avoided by developing a systematic chart of the elements based on the energy levels of atomic orbitals very early in the general college chemistry course.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 504.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Lone pair electrons  Fowles, Gerald W. A.
The lone pair electrons, whether in simple or hybrid orbitals, have profound effects on the properties of the molecule; these effects may be discussed as bond angles, dipole moments, bond energies and lengths, and coordination and hydrogen bonding.
Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals  Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C.
Since the theory of atomic and molecular orbitals has proven to be of such value in interpreting the data of inorganic chemistry, it is hoped that a new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals will be an aid to the further systematizing of chemical knowledge.
Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 69.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Orbital models  Fowles, Gerald W. A.
Constructing models of atomic and molecular orbitals from papier-mache.
Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 260.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Regularities among the representative elements: The "paired electron rule"  Condon, F. E.
If the oxidation states characteristic of various groups are correlated in terms of electron subshells, they become reasonable and logical rather than mere facts to be memorized.
Condon, F. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 651.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State