TIGER

Journal Articles: 460 results
A Dramatic Classroom Demonstration of Limiting Reagent Using the Vinegar and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Reaction  Romklao Artdej and Tienthong Thongpanchang
This demonstration, appropriate for high school chemistry level and recommended for a large classroom presentation, is designed to illustrate the concept of limiting reagent via a series of experiments in which increasing amounts of sodium bicarbonate are added to a fixed amount of vinegar is fixed until the volume of carbon dioxide generated remains constant.
Artdej, Romklao; Thongpanchang, Tienthong. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1382.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Teaching Avogadro's Hypothesis and Helping Students to See the World Differently  Brett Criswell
This article uses a model from educational psychologyChi's theory of ontological misclassificationto explain the source of students' difficulties in understanding Avogadro's hypothesis and provide a method to successfully teach this fundamental concept.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1372.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases
Does the Addition of Inert Gases at Constant Volume and Temperature Affect Chemical Equilibrium?  João C. M. Paiva, Jorge Gonçalves, and Susana Fonseca
This article examines three approaches, leading to different conclusions, for answering the question "Does the addition of inert gases at constant volume and temperature modify the state of equilibrium?"
Paiva, João C. M.; Gonçalves, Jorge; Fonseca, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1133.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
A Hand-Held Ammonia Fountain  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
A plastic juice bottle, filled with ammonia gas generated by combining aqueous ammonia and sodium hydroxide, provides a convenient demonstration of the ammonia fountain and gas solubility.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1063.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
A Simple Penny Analysis  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
Describes a simple procedure for determining the zinc composition of U.S. pennies in which the penny zinc core is dissolved in acid and the evolved hydrogen gas is collected by water displacement.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 817.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Metals |
Stoichiometry
Flames Tests with Flair  Nicholas C. Thomas
When conducted in a suitable fume hood, spraying hydrogen-filled balloons with aqueous solutions of metal salts provides a simple and safe method for demonstrating flame tests.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 521.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals
Using Hydrogen Balloons To Display Metal Ion Spectra  James H. Maynard
Describes a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products.
Maynard, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 519.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
Scientific–Chemical Viewpoints Regarding Smoking: A Science Laboratory for All  Ron Blonder
This article describes a lab that examines the acidity of cigarette smoke as well as solid particles and vapor phase substances found therein, and simulates the effects of smoking on the lungs. The aim of this activity is to expose adolescents to the scientific aspects of smoking and the relevance of chemistry in everyday life.
Blonder, Ron. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 248.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Applications of Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
Similarity and Difference in the Behavior of Gases: An Interactive Demonstration  Guy Ashkenazi
A demonstration that concurrently exposes differences and similarities in the behavior of two different gases has been designed to bridge the gap between students' understanding at the algorithmicmacroscopic and conceptualmicroscopic levels.
Ashkenazi, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 72.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Learning Theories
Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on Teaching and Learning Phases of Matter and One-Component Phase Diagrams  Kemal Doymus
Describes a study whose objective was to determine the effects of cooperative learning (using the jigsaw method) on students' achievement in a general chemistry course.
Doymus, Kemal. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1857.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids
How Many Atomic Layers of Zinc Are in a Galvanized Iron Coating?   Shui-Ping Yang
This article describes a guided inquiry and problem solving experiment in which students use a novel gasometric assembly to determine the thickness and number of atomic layers of zinc coating on galvanized iron wires and nails.
Yang, Shui-Ping. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1792.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Rate Law
Gas Clathrate Hydrates Experiment for High School Projects and Undergraduate Laboratories  Melissa P. Prado, Annie Pham, Robert E. Ferazzi, Kimberly Edwards, and Kenneth C. Janda
Presents a procedure for preparing and studying propane clathrate hydrate. This experiment introduces students to this unusual solid while stimulating a discussion of the interplay of intermolecular forces, thermodynamics, and solid structure.
Prado, Melissa P.; Pham, Annie; Ferazzi, Robert E.; Edwards, Kimberly; Janda, Kenneth C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1790.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Concept Maps for General Chemistry   Boyd L. Earl
Two concept maps have been developed to represent the organization of the material in a first-semester general chemistry course. By providing these maps to students and referring to them in class, it is hoped that the instructor can assist students in maintaining a grasp of the "big picture" during the progress of the course.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1788.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Mapping of Environmental Samples across College Campuses  Kathleen L. Purvis-Roberts, Harriet P. Moeur, and Andrew Zanella
In this laboratory experiment, students take environmental samples (concentrations of nitrogen dioxide) and geospatial coordinates with a global position systems unit at various locations around campus, map their data on a geo-referenced map with geographical information systems software, and compare their results to those observed by governmental agencies.
Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Moeur, Harriet P.; Zanella, Andrew. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1691.
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Carbon Dioxide Fountain  Seong-Joo Kang and Eun-Hee Ryu
This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain that, unlike the traditional ammonia fountain, is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available.
Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Incomplete Combustion of Hydrogen: Trapping a Reaction Intermediate  Bruce Mattson and Trisha Hoette
In this demonstration, a hydrogen flame is played across the face of an ice cube and the combustion is quenched in an incomplete state. The resulting solution contains a stable side-product, hydrogen peroxide, whose presence can be verified with two simple chemical tests.
Mattson, Bruce; Hoette, Trisha. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1668.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates
A Fast Coulometric Estimation of Avogadro's Number  Nicholas C. Thomas
Using simple materials found in any high school or college laboratory, an electrochemical method of determining Avogadro's number is presented.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1667.
Electrochemistry |
Gases
The Use of Limits in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course  Paul S. Matsumoto, Jonathan Ring, and Jia Li (Lily) Zhu
This article describes the use of limits in topics usually covered in advanced placement or first-year college chemistry. This approach supplements the interpretation of the graph of an equation since it is usually easier to evaluate the limit of a function than to generate its graph.
Matsumoto, Paul S.; Ring, Jonathan; Zhu, Jia Li (Lily). J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1655.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Thermodynamics
Exception to the Le Châtelier Principle  Thomas R. Herrinton
Disagreement regarding an apparent exception to the Le Chtelier principle involving the effects of nonideality on the direction in which the ammonia synthesis reaction shifts upon addition of infinitesimal and finite quantities of nitrogen at constant pressure and temperature.
Herrinton, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1427.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Exception to the Le Châtelier Principle  Thomas R. Herrinton
Disagreement regarding an apparent exception to the Le Chatelier principle involving the effects of nonideality on the direction in which the ammonia synthesis reaction shifts upon addition of infinitesimal and finite quantities of nitrogen at constant pressure and temperature.
Herrinton, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1427.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Microscale Demonstration of the Paramagnetism of Liquid Oxygen with a Neodymium Magnet  Bruce Mattson
When a neodymium magnet is brought near a suspended glass tube containing a small amount of liquid oxygen, the tube is attracted to the magnet, demonstrating oxygen's paramagnetism. In larger quantities the blue color of liquid oxygen is readily observable.
Mattson, Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1296.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Gases |
Magnetic Properties |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Mentos and the Scientific Method: A Sweet Combination  Jack F. Eichler, Heather Patrick, Brenda Harmon, and Janet Coonce
Describes an inquiry-driven, collaborative exercise to investigate the cause of the fountain effect observed when Mentos candies are added to Diet Coke.
Eichler, Jack F.; Patrick, Heather; Harmon, Brenda; Coonce, Janet. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1120.
Gases |
Nonmajor Courses |
Physical Properties |
Student-Centered Learning
Determining the Pressure inside an Unopened Carbonated Beverage  Hans de Grys
Determining the pressure of carbon dioxide inside a sealed soft drink can represents a challenging student exercise. Several methods are discussed for solving the problem, including applying the ideal gas law, gas collection via water displacement, and Henry's law.
de Grys, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1117.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
"Concept Learning versus Problem Solving": Does Particle Motion Have an Effect?  Michael J. Sanger, Eddie Campbell, Jeremy Felker, and Charles Spencer
210 students were asked to answer a static, particulate-level, multiple-choice question concerning gas properties. Then they viewed an animated version of the question and answered the multiple-choice question again. The distribution of responses changed significantly after students viewed the animation.
Sanger, Michael J.; Campbell, Eddie; Felker, Jeremy; Spencer, Charles. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 875.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
What Are Students Thinking When They Pick Their Answer?  Michael J. Sanger and Amy J. Phelps
330 students were asked to answer a multiple-choice question concerning gas properties at the microscopic level and explain their reasoning. Of those who selected the correct answer, 80% provided explanations consistent with the scientifically accepted answer, while 90% of the students who picked an incorrect choice provided explanations with at least one misconception.
Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 870.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Qualitative Analysis
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Physical Meaning of the Mathematical Formalism Present in Limiting Chemical Equations; Or, How Dilute Is Dilute?  C. Contreras-Ortega, N. Bustamante, J. L. Guevara, C. Portillo, and V. Kesternich
Proposes general mathematical formulations to offer students a better understanding of the real scope of scientific expressions dealing with limiting physical conditions, such as those concerning dilute and concentrated solutions and low and high temperatures and pressures.
Contreras-Ortega, C.; Bustamante, N.; Guevara, J. L.; Portillo, C.; Kesternich, V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 788.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content  Susan L. Boyd
Presents ten puzzles to make chemistry more interesting while reinforcing important concepts.
Boyd, Susan L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 619.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures To Determine the Vapor Pressure of a Volatile Liquid  Fred R. Hilgeman, Gary Bertrand, and Brent Wilson
This experiment, designed for a general chemistry laboratory, illustrates the use of Dalton's law of partial pressures to determine the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid.
Hilgeman, Fred R.; Bertrand, Gary; Wilson, Brent. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 469.
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
An Inquiry-Based Chemistry Laboratory Promoting Student Discovery of Gas Laws  A. M. R. P. Bopegedera
This article describes a laboratory in which students discover the gas laws using Vernier sensors and Microsoft Excel.
Bopegedera, A. M. R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 465.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Physical Properties
Cp/Cv Ratios Measured by the Sound Velocity Method Using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology  Mario Branca and Isabella Soletta
The values ? = Cp /Cv (heat capacity at a constant pressure / heat capacity at constant volume) for air, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide were determined by measuring the velocity of sound through these gases at room temperature using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology.
Branca, Mario; Soletta, Isabella. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 462.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties
Where Did the Water Go? Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  James Brimhall and Sundar Naga
Boyles law (PV is constant) provides mathematical insight into the workings of pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from underground wells, including predictions of the quantities of available water resulting from different initial conditions of water tank systems.
Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 425.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases
Characterization of High Explosives and Other Energetic Compounds by Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling  John A. Bumpus, Anne Lewis, Corey Stotts, and Christopher J. Cramer
Four experiments suitable for use in the undergraduate instructional laboratory demonstrate the use of computational chemistry and molecular-modeling procedures to calculate selected physical and chemical properties of several high explosives and other energetic compounds.
Bumpus, John A.; Lewis, Anne; Stotts, Corey; Cramer, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 329.
Computational Chemistry |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Novel W-Tube for Microscale Experiments in Chemistry  H. O. Gupta
A simple W-tube is described to test for the presence or absence of a certain gas quickly and economically at the microscale level.
Gupta, H. O. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 321.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gases
Job's Analysis of the Range of the "Dalton Syringe Rocket"  Natalie Barto, Brandon Henrie, and Ed Vitz
An apparatus for safely igniting fuel gas/oxygen mixtures in a syringe and measuring the distance that the syringe is propelled is presented. The distance (range) is analyzed by the method of continuous variation (Job's Method) to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Barto, Natalie; Henrie, Brandon; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1505.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Stoichiometry
Teaching Physical Chemistry Experiments with a Computer Simulation by LabVIEW  A. Belletti, R. Borromei, and G. Ingletto
This article reports on a computer simulation developed with the software LabVIEW of the physical chemistry experiment regarding the vapor pressure measurements of a pure liquid as a function of temperature, as well as a system of data collecting that emphasizes the similarities between the virtual and real experiment.
Belletti, A.; Borromei, R.; Ingletto, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1353.
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Student-Centered Learning
Two "Gas-in-a-Bag" Reactions To Show the Predictive Power of the Relative AcidBase Strength Chart  Brett Criswell
Describes a demonstration in which two different pairs of solid chemicals mixed in two different Ziploc bags in the presence of a small quantities of water react to produce gases. Students are informed that the reactions are BrnstedLowry acidbase type reactions and must determine which member in each pair will act as the acid and which as the base.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1167.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Achieving Chemical Equilibrium: The Role of Imposed Conditions in the Ammonia Formation Reaction  Joel Tellinghuisen
The conditions under which chemical reactions occur determine which thermodynamic functions are minimized or maximized. This point is illustrated for the formation of ammonia in the ideal gas approximation using a numerical exercise.
Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1090.
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Chemistry of Electronic Gases  James R. Clark
The chemistry of electronic gases can be used in the classroom to provide many interesting examples of molecular structures, chemical reactions, periodic trends, and environmental chemistry.
Clark, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 857.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry
What Is Your Mental Picture of Ordinary Air?  Richard W. Ramette and Dale K. Haworth
Students differ widely in their conceptions about the nature of air.
Ramette, Richard W.; Haworth, Dale K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 834.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
Taming the Barking Dog  Ché Royce Seabourne, George Maxwell, and James Wallace
This demonstration brings Liebig's famous 19th-century demonstration headlong into the 21st century, using digital video footage and other novel media.
Seabourne, Ché Royce; Maxwell, George; Wallace, James. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 751.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
General Education and General Chemistry—Redux  Leslie S. Forster
This paper discusses the desirability of including non-technical general education topics in chemistry courses intended for science and engineering students.
Forster, Leslie S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 614.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Gases |
Learning Theories
Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  Alfonso Aranda and María del Prado Rodríguez
Introduces the basic considerations for managing pressurized fluids, mainly liquefied and compressed gases.
Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, María del Prado. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 93.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Gas Permeability of Polymers  Jee-Yon Lee
Undergraduate students can learn what causes the helium-inflated balloon to fall in a few days through the proposed experiment.
Lee, Jee-Yon. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1472.
Gases |
Transport Properties
Gas Permeability of Polymers  Bruno Lunelli
The recent article, Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts To Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon, proposes a model of permeation untenable and in contradiction with correct statements present in the same text and consequently does not consider the material of which the investigated balloons are made.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1471.
Gases |
Transport Properties
Gas Permeability of Polymers  Bruno Lunelli
By studying a number of soft drinks with color but with or without phosphoric acid, the authors have determined that the required 20-fold dilution required in the Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks is not to dilute the color but merely to place the sample within the calibration range of the analysis.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1471.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Transport Properties
The Fizz-Keeper: A Useful Science Tool  John P. Williams, Sandy Van Natta, and Rebecca Knipp
The Fizz-Keeper is well suited for a great variety of pressure-based activities.
Williams, John P.; Van Natta, Sandy; Knipp, Rebecca. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1454.
Applications of Chemistry |
Colloids |
Gases
Balloon—Toy of Many Colors  Kathryn R. Williams
Balloon-related articles previously published in JCE describe gas law experiments and demonstrations, large-scale molecular models, demonstrations of reaction rates and stoichiometry, hydrogen-filled balloon explosions, and miscellaneous laboratory uses.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1448.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
VSEPR Theory
A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air  Dan Xiao, Lianzhi Lin, Hongyan Yuan, Martin M. F. Choi, and Winghong Chan
This article describes the use of a passive sampler for detecting and collecting nitrogen dioxide, NO2, in ambient air. This device is based on microporous PTFE membranes that allow air samples to diffuse through and subsequently react with an absorbing reagent solution. The absorbance value of this reagent is proportional to the NO2 concentration in ambient air. It has been successfully applied to determine the NO2 concentrations in various sampling sites.
Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1231.
Calibration |
Membranes |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Coordination Compounds |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses |
Quantitative Analysis
A Note on Dalton's Law: Myths, Facts, and Implementation  Ronald W. Missen and William R. Smith
The treatment of Dalton's law for gas mixtures commonly includes the improper designation "Dalton's law of partial pressures", rather than the correct "Dalton's law of additivity of (pure component) pressures". It also identifies the pure component pressure as the partial pressure, although these are only numerically equal for a mixture of ideal gases. The situation is clarified by examination of an appropriate statement of the law and definitions, eventually in operational form with reference to mixtures of nonideal gases.
Missen, Ronald Wi.; Smith, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1197.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Some Insights Regarding a Popular Introductory Gas Law Experiment  Ed DePierro and Fred Garafalo
This paper alerts readers to a potential source of error in one approach to the Dumas method as it is often practiced in introductory chemistry laboratories. The room-temperature vapor pressures of volatile compounds that might be considered as unknowns for the experiment lead to determined molar masses that are too low. The greater the vapor pressure of the compound, the lower the determined molar mass will be, when compared to the accepted value.
DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1194.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Steel Wool and Oxygen: A Look at Kinetics  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
An experimental method is described to study the kinetics of the reaction of the iron in steel wool with molecular oxygen. A calculator-based data collection system is used with an oxygen gas sensor to determine the order of the reaction with respect to oxygen. Using the graphical method, students determine that the reaction follows first-order kinetics with respect to oxygen.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1065.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Greenhouse Gases and Non-gray Behavior  J. C. Jones
Greenhouse gases feature in many courses in applied chemistry as well as in courses on environmental science, atmospheric chemistry, and so on. We hear a great deal about such matters from the media. A more classical topic which first-year chemistry students will learn about in the physical chemistry component of their program is the black body concept and the StefanBoltzmann law. Recently in teaching about greenhouse gases to MSc students I have thought of a link between the topical and classical matters that is pedagogically interesting and might be of value to others teaching in this subject area.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 837.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts To Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon  Jee-Yon Lee, Hee-Soo Yoo, Jong Sook Park, Kwang-Jin Hwang, and Jin Seog Kim
In developing this laboratory, our initial motivation for the analysis of gases in a balloon was to answer simple and basic questions, such as, Why does a helium-charged balloon left in the air always drop in a few days? Is leakage of helium the only cause of the drop? What is the composition of the gas in the balloon when it falls after deflation? Students were intrigued by these questions, too, as they analyzed the variation over time in the composition in a balloon inflated with helium. Using the concepts of partial pressure and chemical potential, the laboratory experiment described effectively investigates the diffusion process and the behavior of gas molecules for teaching these concepts in general and physical chemistry.
Lee, Jee-Yon; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Park, Jong Sook; Hwang, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Jin Seog. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 288.
Transport Properties |
Gases |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis
The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
A new detection method is applied to a classic experiment in which gaseous atmospheric oxygen in a test tube is reacted with the iron in steel wool to produce rust. A gas pressure sensor interfaced to a calculator-based data collection system was used to measure the percent of oxygen in the air as the reaction proceeded. The results from the calculator-based experiment were compared to the results from a more traditional water-measurement experiment. The average percent of oxygen obtained using the calculator system was 19.4  0.4%.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 286.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber  Curtis J. Czerwinski and Tanya J. Cordes
While several lecture demonstrations are possible using methane-filled balloons, it is often inconvenient to prepare these balloons since the pressure from standard laboratory and lecture hall gas nozzles is too low. As a solution to this problem, a methane balloon inflation chamber, prepared from a translucent 3.5-gallon pail and an aspirator or house-vacuum, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for inflating balloons in laboratories or lecture halls. Prepared in this way, methane-filled balloons can be used to demonstrate the effects of vacuum, the lifting power of low-density gases, and the explosive combustion of methane.
Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 248.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
On the Buoyancy of a Helium-Filled Balloon  John E. Harriman
It is shown by expansion of the exponential in the barometric formula that the forces due to pressure acting on a balloon are of the form (PV/RT)Mg and that results agree with those suggested by Archimedes principle. Einstein's equivalence principal provides an answer to what balloons will do in an accelerated car.
Harriman, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 246.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Physical Properties
Campbell's Rule for Estimating Entropy Changes  Norman C. Craig
I am pleased that Campbells rule for estimating entropy changes in gas-consuming and gas-producing chemical reactions has attracted immediate interest.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1571.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Campbell's Rule for Estimating Entropy Changes  William B. Jensen
In a recent article Norman Craig has proposed the rule-of-thumb that the approximate value of the entropy of reaction is related to the net moles of gas consumed or generated in the reaction .
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1570.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Construction of a Small-Scale and Low-Cost Gas Apparatus  Lise Kvittingen and Richard Verley
This article describes how to construct an apparatus for gas production from disposable polyethene pipets and polypropene microcentrifuge tubes. Heat is used to form the plastics into appropriate shapes. A stand from floral wire is also presented. The assembly has an open interface and is possible to modify. This construction suits various grades and curricula and can easily be integrated into different topics.
Kvittingen, Lise; Verley, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1339.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Gases
Water in the Atmosphere  Joel M. Kauffman
None of eight college-level general chemistry texts gave a mean value for water in the atmosphere, despite its being the third most prevalent constituent at about 1.5% by mass as vapor and about 2% if clouds and ice crystals are included. The importance of water as a greenhouse gas was omitted or marginalized by five of the eight texts. An infrared spectrum of humid air was determined to demonstrate that water vapor, because of its higher concentration, was more absorptive than carbon dioxide. The cooling effect of clouds, or other influences on the Earth's albedo, were not mentioned in most of the texts. These pervasive errors should be corrected in new or future editions of textbooks.
Kauffman, Joel M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1229.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
Mass Spectrometry for the Masses  Jared D. Persinger, Geoffrey C. Hoops, and Michael J. Samide
In this article, we describe an experiment for an introductory chemistry course that incorporates the use of mass spectrometry for sample analysis. Several different air samples are collected that represent various chemical processes, and the composition of the air sample is predicted on the basis of known chemical principles. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer is used to analyze these samples, and the relative quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and argon are calculated. On the basis of the data, the hypothesized sample composition is validated.
Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1169.
Mass Spectrometry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Gases
Chemistry and Song: A Novel Way To Educate and Entertain  Cory C. Pye
In this article, a novel way of teaching chemistry is presented that uses contemporary music and chemical lyrics to educate.
Pye, Cory C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 507.
Gases
Bringing History to the Classroom: Spoofs about Problems in Obtaining Research Grants  Sidney Toby
This article is a spoof on the History of Science and consists of four skits depicting the difficulties famous men and women in science might have had in fictional interviews while seeking funding for their research.
Toby, Sidney. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 503.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Women in Chemistry |
Administrative Issues
The Decomposition of Zinc Carbonate: Using Stoichiometry To Choose between Chemical Formulas  Stephen DeMeo
To determine which formula corresponds to a bottle labeled "zinc carbonate", students perform qualitative tests on three of zinc carbonate's decomposition products: zinc oxide, carbon dioxide, and water. Next students make quantitative measurements to find molar ratios and compare them with the coefficients of the balanced chemical equations. This allows the correct formula of zinc carbonate to be deduced.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 119.
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Quantitative Analysis
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Dean J. Campbell
Additional safety considerations and a CO2 rocket car.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Edward G. Senkbeil
Description of a similar demonstration and additional safety considerations.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Edward G. Senkbeil
Description of a similar demonstration and additional safety considerations.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Carbon Dioxide Flooding: A Classroom Case Study Derived from Surgical Practice  Robert C. Kerber
The surgical opening in open-heart surgery is often flooded with carbon dioxide gas to avoid air embolisms when the heart is closed and restarted. This practice can be used in chemistry courses to illustrate concepts of gas density, solubility, and acidbase equilibria, including buffering.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1437.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry
Why Does a Helium-Filled Balloon "Rise"?  Richard W. Ramette
The article is a lighthearted, conversational exploration of the microscopic basis for Archimedes principle. The principle is discussed in terms of molecular collisions and density gradients in a gravitational field.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1149.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Physical Properties
Decomposition Kinetics of Hydrogen Peroxide: Novel Lab Experiments Employing Computer Technology  Dorota A. Abramovitch, Latrice K. Cunningham, and Mitchell R. Litwer
Using a sensor to measure changes in the pressure of oxygen produced by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide as a means of analyzing this reaction and factors that affect its rate.
Abramovitch, Dorota A.; Cunningham, Latrice K.; Litwer, Mitchell R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 790.
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Kinetics
The Universal Gas Constant R  William B. Jensen
Answers the question "Why is the universal gas constant represented by the letter R?" [Debut]
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 731.
Gases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Bubble Stripping To Determine Hydrogen Concentrations in Ground Water: A Practical Application of Henry's Law  Daniel M. McInnes and Don Kampbell
Applying Henry's law to determine the concentration of hydrogen in ground water as a means of identifying possible contamination by chlorinated organic compounds.
McInnes, Daniel M.; Kampbell, Don. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 516.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood  Benjamin P. Huddle and Joseph C. Stephens
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbon monoxide in blood using the Conway diffusion method.
Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 441.
Gases |
Toxicology |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry
Stoichiometry of the Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid  Venkat Chebolu and Barbara C. Storandt
Using a pressure sensor to measure the production of hydrogen by a reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.
Chebolu, Venkat; Storandt, Barbara C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 305.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Reactions
Incomplete Combustion with Candle Flames: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment in the First-Year Chemistry Lab  Joseph MacNeil and Lisa Volaric
Investigating a burning candle as an introduction to incomplete combustion, thermodynamics, kinetics, and gas chromatography.
MacNeil, Joseph; Volaric, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 302.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Gas Chromatography
A Novel Microscale Gas Generator  Jinhua Wang, Zaisheng Lu, and Changcun Zhao
Design of a microscale gas generator.
Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Zaisheng; Zhao, Changcun. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 181.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory  John Hanson and Tim Hoyt
Investigation in which students must determine the identity of three unknown gases by developing their own tests.
Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 845.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties
A Simple Experiment for the Determination of Molecular Weights of Gases Lighter Than Air  Van T. Lieu and Gene E. Kalbus
A simple method for the determination of molecular weights of gases lighter than air.
Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 473.
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Just Breathe: The Oxygen Content of Air   JCE Editorial Staff
Students estimate the percent oxygen (volume) in air using steel wool in a test tube that is inverted in a beaker of water. Oxygen in the trapped air reacts with iron to form rust, and the water level rises inside the test tube; within 30-45 minutes, the majority of oxygen is consumed.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 512A.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Sink or Swim: The Cartesian Diver  K. David Pinkerton
Cartesian divers are a quick and simple way to illustrate relationships among pressure, volume, temperature, and buoyancy. The Activity could be used in connection with the concepts of gases and liquids and discussions of Boyle's, Charles's, and the ideal gas laws.
Pinkerton, K. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 200A.
Gases |
Physical Properties
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  Myung-Hoon Kim
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Kim, Myung-Hoon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  David W. Miller
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Miller, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Experiencing and Visualizing the First Law of Thermodynamics: An In-Class Workshop  Pamela Mills, William V. Sweeney, and Waldemar Cieniewicz
A handheld device that illustrates the concepts of heat, work, energy transfer, and thermodynamic path.
Mills, Pamela; Sweeney, William V.; Cieniewicz, Waldemar. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1360.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Determination of the Universal Gas Constant, R. A Discovery Laboratory  David B. Moss and Kathleen Cornely
Discovery laboratory in which groups of students collect oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen gas over water and determine the value of the universal gas constant, R, using the ideal gas law.
Moss, David B.; Cornely, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1260.
Gases
"Experiment with a Candle" without a Candle  Dusan Krnel and Sasa A. Glazar
Drawing water up into an inverted container without using the candle to demonstrate that the popular explanation for this phenomenon is flawed.
Krnel, Dusan; Glazar, Sasa A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 914.
Gases
An Alcohol Rocket Car--A Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Dean J. Campbell
Burning methanol in a wheeled milk jug.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 910.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 5: Indirect H2S Remediation  J. G. Ibanez
Experiment to introduce students in general chemistry, environmental chemistry, or electrochemistry to the concept of indirect electrolysis, its application in environmental remediation schemes, the role of a mediator, and the application of redox chemistry concepts.
Ibanez, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 778.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A Simple Laboratory Experiment for the Determination of Absolute Zero  Myung-Hoon Kim, Michelle Song Kim, and Suw-Young Ly
A novel method that employs a remarkably simple and inexpensive apparatus and is based on the extrapolation of the volume of a given amount of dry air to zero volume after a volume of air trapped inside a 10-mL graduated cylinder is measured at various temperatures.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Michelle Song; Ly, Suw-Young. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Disappearing-Reappearing Rabbit Trick: A New Twist to an Old Liquid Nitrogen Demonstration  Elaine K. Haub
A magic hat with a suitable container inserted holds the liquid nitrogen. Instead of a regular balloon, I use a balloon animal in the shape of a rabbit. The rabbit "disappears" as it is lowered into the hat and "reappears" when it is removed from the hat.
Haub, Elaine K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 46.
Gases
JCE Classroom Activity: Out of "Thin Air": Exploring Phase Changes  John J. Vollmer
This Activity illustrates sublimation/deposition with para-dichlorobenzene (mothballs) and evaporation/condensation with water.
Vollmer, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 488A.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Physical Properties |
Solids |
Gases
Using a Computer Animation to Improve Students' Conceptual Understanding of a Can-Crushing Demonstration   Michael J. Sanger, Amy J. Phelps, and Jason Fienhold
This paper reports some of the misconceptions that were identified from these students' explanations. As a result of these misconceptions, a computer animation depicting the chemical processes occurring in the can-crushing demonstration was created.
Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.; Fienhold, Jason. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1517.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
A Novel Experiment for Fast and Simple Determination of the Oxygen Content in the Air  Metodija Najdoski and Vladimir M. Petrusevski
The reaction between nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen is used for determination of the oxygen content in the air. The nitrogen dioxide thus produced is dissolved in water. The volume decrease of the gas enables quick and accurate enough determination of the O2 content. The results of 20 measurements give %O2 = 21.04  0.63.
Najdoski, Metodija; Petrusevski, Vladimir M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1447.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Determination of the Oxygen Content of Air  Per Christian Braathen
Determining the oxygen content of air using vinegar and steel wool.
Braathen, Per Christian. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1410.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis
Interpretation of Second Virial Coefficient  Vivek Utgikar
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Utgikar, Vivek. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Potentiometric Determination of CO2 Concentration in the Gaseous Phase: Applications in Different Laboratory Activities  Eduardo Cortón, Santiago Kocmur, Liliana Haim, and Lydia Galagovsky
The first lab comprises the calibration of a CO2 potentiometric detector with gas mixtures. The CO2 and CO2-free air required for the gaseous samples are produced in the lab by an inexpensive and simple apparatus. In the second lab, the CO2 potentiometric device is used to measure CO2 uptake and release during different metabolic processes.
Cortón, Eduardo; Kocmur, Santiago; Haim, Liliana; Galagovsky, Lydia. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1188.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Metabolism
A New Approach to Teaching Introductory Science: The Gas Module  Pamela Mills, William V. Sweeney, Robert Marino, and Sandra Clarkson
A lecture/laboratory module about the behavior of gases that is designed to expose students to the process of scientific discovery, not to teach the gas laws per se. The topic of gases is only the medium used to illustrate other important aspects of physical science: how to process experimental data and reduce it to symbolic mathematical relationships, how to evaluate the reliability of experimental data, and how to view the relationship between experimental data and scientific models.
Mills, Pamela A.; Sweeney, William V.; Marino, Robert; Clarkson, Sandra. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1161.
Gases
Paradoxes, Puzzles, and Pitfalls of Incomplete Combustion Demonstrations  Ed Vitz
Paper is burned in a closed container containing sufficient oxygen to consume all the paper. Paradoxically, the flame expires while half of the paper remains. This demonstrates that thermodynamics or stoichiometry is insufficient to explain everyday chemical processes, and that kinetics is often necessary. The gases in the container are analyzed by GC before and after combustion, and the results are examined in detail.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1011.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry
Letters  
Points out that solid NaHSO3 does not exist.
Tudela, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 830.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates
Illustrating Thermodynamic Concepts Using a Hero's Engine  Pedro L. Muiño and James R. Hodgson
A modified Hero's engine is used to illustrate concepts of thermodynamics and engineering design suitable for introductory chemistry courses and more advanced physical chemistry courses. This demonstration is suitable to illustrate concepts like gas expansion, gas cooling through expansion, conversion of heat to work, interconversion between kinetic energy and potential energy, and feedback mechanisms.
Muio, Pedro L.; Hodgson, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 615.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
News from Online: The Power of the Voice  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Useful online chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 299.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Gases
Gas Me Up, or, A Baking Powder Diver  Henry R. Derr, Tricia Lewis, and Bretton J. Derr
In this procedure, a pipet that repeatedly submerges and rises to the surface in a tub of water is produced from a beral pipet and baking powder. The procedure works well in outreach activities with children aged 4 to 40 and beyond.
Derr, Henry R.; Lewis, Tricia; Derr, Bretton J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 171.
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Determination of the Fundamental Electronic Charge via the Electrolysis of Water  Brittany Hoffman, Elizabeth Mitchell, Petra Roulhac, Marc Thomes, and Vincent M. Stumpo
In an illuminating experiment suitable for secondary school students, a Hoffman electrolysis apparatus is employed to determine the fundamental electronic charge. The volume and pressure of hydrogen gas produced via the electrolysis of water during a given time interval are measured.
Hoffman, Brittany; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Roulhac, Petra; Thomes, Marc; Stumpo, Vincent M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 95.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles  Doris R. Kimbrough
Presented here is the application of Henry's law to the noise associated with "cracking" knuckles. Gases dissolved in the synovial fluid in joints rapidly come out of solution as the joint is stretched and pressure is decreased. This "cavitation" produces a characteristic noise.
Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1509.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
An Inexpensive Microscale Method for Measuring Vapor Pressure, Associated Thermodynamic Variables, and Molecular Weight  Jason C. DeMuro, Hovanes Margarian, Artavan Mkhikian, Kwang Hi No, and Andrew R. Peterson
Existing methods for measuring vapor pressure are too expensive or not quantitative enough for chemistry classes in secondary schools. Our method measures the vapor pressure inside a bubble trapped in a graduated microtube made from a disposable 1-mL glass pipet.
DeMuro, Jason C.; Margarian, Hovanes; Mkhikian, Artavan; No, Kwang Hi; Peterson, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1113.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes  John J. Fortman, Andrea C. Rush, and Jennifer E. Stamper
The explosion or burning of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and isopropanol in large small-necked bottles when ignited with a match has been studied with respect to the nature of the alcohol, temperature, concentration dilutions with water, oxygen concentration, plastic versus glass bottles, and salts added for color.
Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1092.
Gases |
Alcohols
Relative Humidity  R. Bruce Martin
Daily we hear reports of relative humidity, yet most students remain unfamiliar with its import. This short article defines and describes the concept at several levels. A new, general interest, isobaric plot directly indicates the dependence of relative humidity on temperature.
Martin, R. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1081.
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Nonmajor Courses |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
A More Dramatic Container to Crush by Atmospheric Pressure  Robert D. Meyers and Gordon T. Yee
The familiar demonstration of collapsing a can by filling it with water vapor and then sealing it and allowing it to cool is improved by performing it with a 20-L steel solvent drum instead.
Meyers, Robert D.; Yee, Gordon T. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 933.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Ammonia Can Crush  Ed Vitz
When a 12-oz aluminum soft drink can filled with ammonia or hydrogen chloride gas is inverted and dipped into water, the rapidly dissolving gas evacuates the can and the can is crushed before water can be drawn into it. This demonstrates, among other things, the remarkable strength of hydrogen bonds.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 932.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Hydrogen Bonding
The Persistence of the Candle-and-Cylinder Misconception  James P. Birk and Anton E. Lawson
There is a persistent misconception that when a lighted candle is supported in a container of water and a closed cylinder is lowered over the candle, the candle is extinguished after a time by complete consumption of the oxygen in the cylinder, with a volume change corresponding to the amount of oxygen in the air. This misconception has appeared in the literature periodically for many years. Here, we present a number of experiments that refute this misconception.
Birk, James P.; Lawson, Anton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 914.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions
The Methane Balloon  Walter H. Corkern and Elvin Hughes Jr.
The objectives are (i) to describe a novel method of inflating a balloon with methane, (ii) to show that methane is lighter than air, and (iii) to demonstrate the flammability of methane.
Corkern, Walter H.; Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 794.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Both Nylon and PET Fibers Burn Continuously under Atmospheric Conditions  Shouei Fujishige, Nagako Maebashi, and Mizue Miyauchi
In contrast to the descriptions in many textbooks, it was confirmed by taking two series of photographs that both nylon and PET fibers burn continuously even after the ignition flame has been removed. The photographs also show that a small spherical fire ball forms and occasionally leaves from the flame.
Fujishige, Shouei; Maebashi, Nagako; Miyauchi, Mizue. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 793.
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Gases |
Laboratory Management
Pressure and Stoichiometry  Charles E. Roser and Catherine L. McCluskey
This experiment determines the stoichiometry of the reaction of a carbonate or hydrogen carbonate and HCl by measuring the pressure of the CO2 produced using a Vernier pressure sensor, TI CBL interface, and a TI-82/83 graphing calculator. Various amounts of the carbonate are reacted with a constant amount of HCl.
Roser, Charles E.; McCluskey, Catherine L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 638.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football  William D. Bare and Lester Andrews
A class demonstration and cooperative learning activity in which the ideal gas law is applied to determine the volume of a football is described. The mass of an air-filled football is recorded at two or more pressures, and students are asked to use these data to solve problems involving the volume, pressure, and mass of the football and the molecular weight of the gas in the ball.
Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 622.
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry
Alka Seltzer Poppers: An Interactive Exploration  A. M. Sarquis and L. M. Woodward
This experiment illustrates concepts concerning the pressure-volume relationship of gases, solubility relationships of both gases and solids in liquids relative to temperature, the kinetics of the reaction of Alka Seltzer in water, and acid-base chemistry.
Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Woodward, L. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 385.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure  M. Dale Alexander
The ammonia smoke fountain demonstration utilizes a modification of the apparatus used in the standard ammonia fountain. The modification allows for the introduction of hydrogen chloride gas into a flask of ammonia rather than water. The flow rate of hydrogen chloride gas into the flask in the smoke fountain is not constant, but periodic; that is, the smoke puffs from the end of the tube. This unexpected behavior elicits an interesting thermodynamic explanation.
Alexander, M. Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 210.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The Fizz Keeper, a Case Study in Chemical Education, Equilibrium, and Kinetics  Reed Howald
The chemistry of the loss of carbonation from carbonated beverages on storage is considered. Increasing the pressure of CO2(g) will restore carbonation, but an increase in pressure adding air should not affect the equilibria. It can and does, however, affect the kinetics-the rate at which a new equilibrium is established. Thus the Fizz Keeper is effective for storage of resealed pop containers for hours, but not for periods of weeks or months.
Howald, Reed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 208.
Transport Properties |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
On the Surface: Mini-Activities Exploring Surface Phenomena  
Activities listed can be used to introduce surface tension and surface area when discussing liquids and gases.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 176A.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Gases |
Kinetics
A Precise Method for Determining the CO2 Content of Carbonate Materials  Donald L. Pile, Alana S. Benjamin, Klaus S. Lackner, Christopher H. Wendt, and Darryl P. Butt
The design and use of a buret apparatus for CO2 gas capture and mass determination are described. The derivation of a comprehensive equation to determine the CO2 mass and percent carbonation of the material is outlined. Experimental factors such as temperature and pressure, including elevation effects, and apparatus parameters are discussed and incorporated into one general equation.
Pile, Donald L.; Benjamin, Alana S.; Lackner, Klaus S.; Wendt, Christopher H.; Butt, Darryl P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1610.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis
Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration  Sally Solomon, Maria Oliver-Hoyo, and Chinhyu Hur
A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described.
Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1581.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates |
Toxicology
Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles  Patrick Kavanah and Arden P. Zipp
The construction and use of a new device to study gases is described. The device, which is made from a plastic soda bottle and an automobile tire valve, can be used to demonstrate that air has mass, find the mass of the "evacuated" device, determine the molar mass of air and other gases, investigate the pressure-volume relationship, and build a cloud chamber.
Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1405.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Best of Chem 13 News  Kathy Thorsen
A variety of suggestions for instructional activities in introductory chemistry from Chem 13 News.
Thorsen, Kathy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1368.
Microscale Lab |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood  John Fredericks
An inexpensive transparent fume hood can be constructed from a clear-plastic two-liter soft drink bottle that is cut just above the base. A length of vacuum tubing is secured to the opening of the bottle using black electrical tape. The tubing is then connected to a water aspirator.
Fredericks, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1299.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Chemistry in the Public Domain (the author replies)  Toby, Sidney
Mixtures of ammonia-air can be explosive.
Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1087.
Gases
Chemistry in the Public Domain  Odom, John L.
Mixtures of ammonia-air and methylene chloride-air can be explosive.
Odom, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1087.
Gases
Experimentally Determining the Molar Mass of Carbon Dioxide Using a Mylar Balloon  Barbara Albers Jackson and David J. Crouse
The molar mass of carbon dioxide was experimentally determined using a Mylar balloon. Mylar balloons are lightweight, have a fixed definite volume, and require minimal additional pressure for inflation. Using the Ideal Gas Equation, the number of moles of air in the balloon was calculated.
Jackson, Barbara Albers; Crouse, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 997.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Thermal Physics (and Some Chemistry) of the Atmosphere  Stephen K. Lower
An exploration of how the temperature of the atmosphere varies with altitude can serve as a useful means of illustrating some important principles relating to the behavior of gases and to the absorption and transformation of radiant energy.
Lower, Stephen K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 837.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
Vapor Pressure Lowering by Nonvolatile Solutes  Gavin D. Peckham
This short article highlights a fundamental error that is entrenched in introductory chemistry textbooks. It is true that the addition of a nonvolatile solute causes a lowering in the vapor pressure of a solution. The error lies in attributing this vapor pressure lowering to the "blocking" of surface sites by nonvolatile particles. This is a totally fallacious argument for a number of reasons and the true explanation is to be found in the entropy changes that occur as a nonvolatile solute is added to a solution.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 787.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Why Does Helium Have 92% of the Lifting Power of Hydrogen if It Has Twice the Density?  David W. Ball
The answer to the question "Why Does Helium Have 92% of the Lifting Power of Hydrogen if It Has Twice the Density?" is discussed.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 726.
Gases |
Physical Properties
A Simplified Determination of Percent Oxygen in Air  Chin-Hsiang Fang
A simple, safe, and rapid experiment for determining the percent of oxygen in air is given.
Fang, Chin-Hsiang. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 58.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A Modified Hydrogen/Oxygen Balloon Demonstration  Ian J. McNaught
Using a ratio of 1:2 volumes of hydrogen and oxygen for balloons as instead of a 2:1 ratio for safety.
McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 52.
Gases |
Reactions
On Laboratory Work  Dave Olney
Suggestions for maximizing learning in the laboratory.
Olney, Dave. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1343.
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Microscale Lab
Formation and Dimerization of NO2 A General Chemistry Experiment  April D. Hennis, C. Scott Highberger, and Serge Schreiner*
A general chemistry experiment which illustrates Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes. Students are able to determine the partial pressures and equilibrium constant for the formation and dimerization of NO2. The experiment readily provides students with data that can be manipulated with a common spreadsheet.
Hennis, April D.; Highberger, C. Scott; Schreiner, Serge. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1340.
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Graham's Law and Perpetuation of Error  Stephen J. Hawkes
Grahams Laws of effusion and diffusion are used in recent articles for traditional experiments to which they do not in fact apply and for which they give the wrong answer.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1069.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Transport Properties
Kinetics Studies in a Washing Bottle  John Teggins and Chris Mahaffy
The kinetics of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide using iodide ion in aqueous solution is studied in sealed completely-filled washing bottles.
Teggins, John; Mahaffy, Chris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 566.
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases
A U-Tube Experiment To Discover the Curve in Boyle's Law  Thomas G. Richmond and Amy Parr
A discovery-style experiment is described to enable introductory chemistry students to determine the pressure versus volume behavior of a gas over a wide pressure range to "discover" Boyle's Law.
Richmond, Thomas G.; Parr, Amy. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 414.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Boyle's Law Experiment  Don L. Lewis
Student-conducted experiments over a range of pressures from about 14 psi to about 120 psi can safely and accurately be made utilizing a 60 ml syringe and an ordinary bathroom scale. No pressure gauge is required and no value for initial pressure in the syringe (near atmospheric pressure) need be assumed.
Lewis, Don L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 209.
Gases
Egg in the Bottle (2)  Moran, Michael
The cause of the pressure drop in the bottle is due to the cooling of high-temperature gases.
Moran, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A189.
Gases
Egg in the Bottle (1)  DeLorenzo, Ronald
The cooling of gas and the condensation of water vapor must be considered in addition to the loss of oxygen in reducing the pressure inside the glass bottle.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A188.
Gases
The Use of PTFE Membranes for the Construction of Semimicroscale Gas Reactors  Schallies, Michale; Schnelle, Hans-Otto; Kunze, Klaus
The membranes are employed to separate reaction compartments, where gas-evolving reactions take place, from solutions of reagents needed for qualitative or quantitative determinations of the gases. The PTFE membranes allow free flow of gases while they prevent the passage of water.
Schallies, Michale; Schnelle, Hans-Otto; Kunze, Klaus J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A128.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Four Programs for Windows: Abstract of Volume 4D, Number 2: Alkanes in Motion  Jae Hyun Kim
Alkanes in Motion depicts the molecular motion of hydrocarbons in the gas phase. Four animations from the collection are presented here. These four animations consist of two animations each of hexane and octadecane, one animation calculated to show translational motion and one to show vibrational motion.
Kim, Jae Hyun. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1079.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Gases
Notes on Vapor Pressure Equilibria Measurements  Albert G. Krieger, John W. Henderson
Freshman students at our institution use manometers and 24/40 ground-glass distillation apparatus (abandoned by our organic chemistry classes) to measure boiling points at reduced pressures. We have found that the availability of state-of-the-art equipment need not limit the ability to teach and demonstrate fundamental principles
Krieger, Albert G.; Henderson, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1039.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Oxygen from Hydrogen Peroxide: An Experimental Modification  James H. Burness
This paper describes a simple modification to the generation of oxygen gas experiment which eliminates the need for a pencil coated with petroleum jelly and dry yeast. This elimination not only prevents falling pieces of yeast from prematurely starting the reaction, but at the same time makes the reaction faster and simplifies cleanup.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 851.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Microscale Lab
Interactive Computer Visualization in the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum  Victoria M. Bragin
This project explores the use of technological innovations to facilitate learning in introductory chemistry courses by those with a poor academic background, while also challenging those prepared to master the curriculum.
Bragin, Victoria M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 747.
Gases |
Rate Law |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry
SIRS: Simulations and Interactive Resources, III  Martin, John S.
Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) are designed to support interactive lectures in introductory chemistry. This third issue of SIRs includes five new SIRs as well as updated and final versions of all previously published SIRs.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 722.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Relative rates of effusion through punctured balloons  Deese, William C.; Washburn, Anna Marie
A simple method of demonstrating relative rates of gaseous effusion which requires no corrosive chemicals or glassware is reported here.
Deese, William C.; Washburn, Anna Marie J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 540.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Rate Law
A Novel Approach to Teaching Electrochemical Principles  Paul Krause and Jerry Manion
To demonstrate that work may be done by a chemical reaction, a reaction producing a gas is carried out in a large, closed syringe. As the gas is generated, the syringe plunger is forced out.
Krause, Paul; Manion, Jerry. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 354.
Reactions |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
The Chemistry behind the Air Bag: High Tech in First-Year Chemistry  Andreas Madlung
The chemical process of air bag deployment provides practical applications of gas laws and stoichiometric equations appropriate for use in first-year chemistry.
Madlung, Andreas. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 347.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
The Solubility of Gases in Liquids  L. H. Holmes, Jr.
This short article addresses the solubility of gases in liquids. It describes the confusion that appears in some general chemistry textbooks concerning the qualitative dependence of solubility on temperature for gases and offers an opinion on the subject.
Holmes, L. H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 143.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases |
Liquids
Small-Scale Experiments Involving Gas Evolution  Brouwer, H.
Apparatus for measuring very small volume changes of gases and several experimental procedures involving the evolution of gases.
Brouwer, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A100.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab
A Simple and Convenient Microscale Procedure for Investigation of Charles' Law  Snyder, Donald M.
Experimental procedure for establishing temperature/volume relationship for a gas and determining the value of absolute zero using very simple equipment; includes sample data and analysis.
Snyder, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A98.
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Microscale Lab
Dynamite Demo?  Dale D. Clyde
Caution for boiling-water-with-ice demonstration.
Clyde, Dale D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1130.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases
Entertaining Chemistry  John F. Elsworth
"A Volcanic Serpent" (ammonium dichromate), "A Homemade Hydrogen Rocket", and "Johnny's Saga in Chemistry" (sulfuric acid + calcium carbonate) demonstrations.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1128.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
The Environmental Chemistry of Trace Atmospheric Gases  William C. Trogler
Information regarding the composition of trace gases in the Earth's atmosphere, changes in these amounts, their sources, and potential future impact on the environment.
Trogler, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 973.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
A Systematic Experimental Test of the Ideal Gas Equation for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Luis H. Blanco and Carmen M. Romero
A series of experiments that study all the gas laws in an integrated fashion.
Blanco, Luis H.; Romero, Carmen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 933.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Ammonia Fountain and Density Gradient Column   Miroslav Proksa
Demonstration combining the ammonia fountain with an acid-base indicator density column.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 931.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
Multiple Burning Heaps of Color-- An Elegant Variation of a Flame Test  Eugene T. Smith
Making the ammonia fountain demonstration faster and more reliable using a common syringe.
Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 828.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
More Chemistry in a Soda Bottle: A Conservation of Mass Activity  Daniel Q. Duffy, Stephanie A. Shaw, William O. Bare, and Kenneth A. Goldsby
Conservation of mass activity using vinegar and baking soda in a 2-L soda bottle.
Duffy, Daniel Q.; Shaw, Stephanie A.; Bare, William D.; Goldsby, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 734.
Reactions |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
Kinetic Theory of Gases   Kathleen Cornely-Moss
Sample questions to test student understanding of the kinetic theory of gases.
Cornely-Moss, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 715.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
The Tube-in-Tube Solution for Gas Generation  Arnaiz, Francisco J.
Simple apparatus using a magnetic stir bar for adding a liquid reactant to a solid when the volume of the gas produced by the reaction must be determined.
Arnaiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 572.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Transferable Gas Container (TGC): Improving the Balloon Inert Atmosphere Technique  Bohac, Andrej
Apparatus for transferring inert gases using toy balloon and rubber tubing.
Bohac, Andrej J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 263.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: The Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressure  Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H.
Gas chromatography experiment that allows the discovery of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of a pure liquid; includes sample data and analysis.
Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 258.
Gases |
Liquids |
Gas Chromatography
Charles' Law of Gases: A Simple Experimental Demonstration  Petty, John T.
Experimental procedure for demonstrating Charles' law.
Petty, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 257.
Gases
A liquid-phase diffusion experiment  Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W.
Substituting liquid-phase diffusion of various aqueous ions for classic gas-phase diffusion of HCL and NH4Cl to illustrate Graham's Law of Diffusion; sample data and analysis included.
Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 244.
Transport Properties |
Gases
A Charles' Law Experiment for Beginning Students  Rockley, Mark G.; Rockley, Natalie L.
Experimental procedure and simple apparatus for illustrating Charles' Law and determining absolute zero; sample data and analysis are included.
Rockley, Mark G.; Rockley, Natalie L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 179.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Journey around a Phase Diagram  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
This paper deals in depth with questions that arise from phase diagrams in an introductory level chemistry course.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1052.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
Soda Water, Supercooling or Freezing Point Depression?  Brooker, Murray H.
Composition, preparation, properties, and behavior of soda water.
Brooker, Murray H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 903.
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Consumer Chemistry
A New Quantitative Pressure-Volume Experiment Based on the "Cartesian Diver"  Thompson, Judith U. S.; Goldsby, Kenneth A.
Modified Cartesian Diver to illustrate qualitatively and quantitatively the inverse, nonlinear relationship between gas pressure and volume.
Thompson, Judith U. S.; Goldsby, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 801.
Gases
Dynamic Computer Simulation of the Motion of Gas Molecules  Turner, Dean E.
165. Bits and pieces, 52. A program that simulates the motion of gas particles and illustrates the effects of temperature, mass, and volume.
Turner, Dean E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 784.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Simulations and Interactive Resources  Martin, John S.
12 Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) including Periodic Table Displays, Electron Orbits and Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Barometers and Manometers, Vapor Pressure, Ideal Gas Behavior, Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction, Approach to Equilibrium, The Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Titration Curves, Electrochemical Cells, and Rate of Reaction.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 667.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Rate Law
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: Intermolecular Forces and Raoult's Law  Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas
Procedure that illustrates the liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of ideal and nonideal solutions.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 613.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Demonstrating Simultaneous Boiling and Freezing (2)  Ellison, Mike
Simple method of demonstrating simultaneous boiling and freezing of water using reduced pressure.
Ellison, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 536.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Demonstrating Simultaneous Boiling and Freezing (1)  Hiza, Mark R.
Simple method of demonstrating simultaneous boiling and freezing of water using reduced pressure.
Hiza, Mark R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 536.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Solubility of CO2: A Variation of the Experiment Measuring Standard Molar Volume of a Gas  Koster, David F.; Trimble, Russell F.
Carbon dioxide is formed in a molar volume experiment and the difference between the expected and actual volume of the gas is used to determine its solubility.
Koster, David F.; Trimble, Russell F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 528.
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Collapsing Containers  Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin
Using plastic containers instead of metal containers in air pressure demonstrations.
Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 514.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Equilibrium Vapor Pressures: Comparing Pressures Obtained Using a Classical Method with Those from a Laboratory-Computer Interface  Berka, L. H.; Kildahl, N. K.; Bergin, S. J.; Burns, D. S.
Comparing vapor pressures of nitrogen using a glass syringe with those from a Chempac laboratory / computer interfacing system.
Berka, L. H.; Kildahl, N. K.; Bergin, S. J.; Burns, D. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 441.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A Simple Demonstration of Charles's Law  Szczepanski, Nadine
Heating an Erlenmeyer flask with a balloon stretched over its mouth.
Szczepanski, Nadine J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 433.
Gases
Computer-interfaced apparatus to study osmosis and diffusion   Fox, John N.; Hershman, Kenneth; Peard, Terry
Two experiments that lend themselves particularly well to computer interfacing dealing with osmosis and gas diffusion.
Fox, John N.; Hershman, Kenneth; Peard, Terry J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A258.
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Pictorial analogies IX: Liquids and their properties   Fortman, John J.
Liquids on the molecular level, surface tension, and vapor pressure are explained through visual analogies of a class reunion and movie patrons.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 881.
Liquids |
Gases |
Surface Science
A simple demonstration of the law of combining volumes   DuPre, Donald B.
This demonstration is based on the reaction of two volumes of nitric oxide reacting with one volume of molecular oxygen to produce two volumes of nitrogen dioxide.
DuPre, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 849.
Gases
Measurement scales: Changing Celsius to Kelvin is not just a unit conversion   Nordstrom, Brian H.
The key to understanding the difference between Celsius and Kelvin lies in the different types of measurement scales. Students may have an easier time manipulating equations (such as gas laws) if they knew the difference between these scales.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 827.
Chemometrics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Proper glove box etiquette   Roper, Gerald C.
Author defends his activity to a critique raised in an earlier letter in this Journal.
Roper, Gerald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 520.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Proper glove box etiquette   Senn, Peter.
Additional considerations for an activity that appeared in this Journal in June, 1991 page 508.
Senn, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 519.
Gases
To bubble or not to bubble: Demonstrating Boyle's law   Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Holmes, L. H., Jr.
A simple demonstration to introduce pressure.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Holmes, L. H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 492.
Gases
An efficient and inexpensive device for measurement of gas volume  Lieu, Van T.
Diagram and description of a device for measuring gas volume that yields good results.
Lieu, Van T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 420.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
How vacuum cleaners pick up paper: Demonstrating the relationship between air pressure and vacuums   Neils, Thomas L.
A demonstration to introduce the study of air pressure in general chemistry.
Neils, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 327.
Gases
Revealing the secret of the Arctic bomb   Pearson, Earl F.
Arctic bombs and hurricanes can appear to be contradictory to gas law concepts commonly taught to chemistry students. While these phenomena can be explained as applications of simple gas laws, the explanations can be more effective if an apparent contradiction is drawn between students' understanding and the observed pressure-temperature relationship in these two examples.
Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 315.
Gases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Sulfur Hexafluoride: Classroom Uses for an Unusual Compound  Sullivan, Dan M.
A profile of one of the heaviest known gases and its possible safe uses in the classroom.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 100.
Gases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
LIMSport (II): Use of the Interfaced Balance for Pressure Measurements, Streamlined Syntheses, and Titrations  Vitz, Ed
145. LIMSport facilitates direct acquisition of data from a variety of sensors into a spreadsheet.. This article explores the use of LIMSport in understanding gas laws.
Vitz, Ed J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 63.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods
Atmospheric smog analysis in a balloon using FTIR spectroscopy: A novel experiment for the introductory laboratory   Amey, Ralph L.
The author has developed a simple experiment that examines and identifies some of the components of Los Angeles air by FTIR spectroscopy using an inexpensive toy balloon as a sample gas cell.
Amey, Ralph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A148.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gases
Gas reactions in plastic bags: Relating laboratory observations to the atomic-molecular model  Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M.
Carrying out chemical reactions in Ziplock bags to investigate a variety of chemical concepts.
Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1026.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Determining the thermal expansion coefficient of gases  Lehmann, Jochen K.
The authors improved the design of the apparatus and extended the experimental task on a recently published experiment for determining the zero point of the absolute temperature scale.
Lehmann, Jochen K. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 943.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Demonstrating the conservation of matter: A trilogy of experiments   Martin, David; Russell, Randy D.; Thomas, Nicholas C.
Three related demonstrations involving calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid explore the conservation of matter.
Martin, David; Russell, Randy D.; Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 925.
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Equipment for gas law experiments  Hennings, David G.
Using the plastic bottles sold with popcorn as leveling bulbs.
Hennings, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 773.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A demonstration of the molar volume of nitrogen gas  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
A graphic illustration and a calculation of the approximate molar volume of nitrogen gas.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Gases |
Chemometrics
Hot and cold running methane  Stamm, Daniel M.
A series of interesting demonstrations involving liquid nitrogen.
Stamm, Daniel M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 762.
Gases
A modern vapor pressure apparatus based on the isoteniscope.  Van Hecke, Gerald R.
Equipment used for vapor pressure measurements that eliminates use of a mercury manometer.
Van Hecke, Gerald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 681.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids
Like dissolves like: Dry gas  Greenberg, Fred H.
A demonstration of solubility by comparing gasoline additives containing methanol and isopropyl alcohol.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 654.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Fast molecular motion  Knox, Kerro
A demonstration that shows that molecules do indeed move very fast and over long distances in a short time when nothing is in the way.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 574.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Simple soda bottle solubility and equilibria  Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C.
Using a bottle of selzter water and bromocresol green to demonstrate gas-liquid solubility (carbon dioxide in water).
Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
The kinetic molecular theory and the weighing of gas samples  Brenner, Henry C.
How is it possible to weigh gas samples since the molecules are constantly moving around and not always in contact with the floor of the container?
Brenner, Henry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 558.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Physical Properties
Simple analogies in general chemistry.  McCullough, Thomas.
Great Plains Indians and Dalton's Law; bullets, BB's, and the photoelectric effect; and high velocity bullets and high frequency light.
McCullough, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 543.
Gases |
Photochemistry
Pressure determinations using open-end manometers.  Desmarais, George.
Method to increase students' understanding of and ability to quantify the level changes in a mercury manometer.
Desmarais, George. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 498.
Gases
A simple generator for common gases at atmospheric pressure  Elsworth, John F.
The current high cost of either a Kipps generator for producing hydrogen sulfide in the undergraduate laboratory, or of the bottled gas, led the writer to construct a simple, economical and efficient generator for use in a laboratory fitted with an efficient fume hood.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 419.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Gas chamber stoichiometry   Hunter, Norman W.; Wilkins, Curtis C.; Pearson, Earl F.
Most students know that HCN is used in gas chambers, they may not know however that HCN is produced in the burning of carpets, draperies, clothing and other textiles made of polyacrylonitrile.
Hunter, Norman W.; Wilkins, Curtis C.; Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 389.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry
Accumulation of methane from a landfill in Georgia homes: Extrapolation to Bunsen burner safety  Mauldin, Robert F.
This environmental example serves well to demonstrate the potential danger inherent in the buildup of natural gas vapors that can occur in the laboratory when Bunsen burners are not respected.
Mauldin, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 350.
Gases
Vapor pressure demonstrations using a butane lighter  Delumyea, R. Del
The concept of the change of state of matter and particularly the volatitlity of liquids is an important concept taught in introductory chemistry courses.
Delumyea, R. Del J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 321.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An "egg-splosive" demonstration.  Becker, Robert.
The following demonstration uses an egg to demonstrate the explosive power of a combustible gaseous mixture.
Becker, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 229.
Gases
Demonstrations with red cabbage indicator   Fortman, John J.; Stubbs, Katherine M.
This paper extends the use of the red cabbage extract into demonstrations that illustrate the acidic or basic nature of solutions of gases and gives suggestions for modifications to project the beautiful range of colors and shades for better viewing in large lecture halls.
Fortman, John J.; Stubbs, Katherine M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 66.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Gases
Syringe gas generators   Alyea, Hubert N.
Poisonous gases can be generated safely in a plastic syringe without their escaping into the classroom.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 65.
Gases
Does a one-molecule gas obey Boyle's law?  Rhodes, Gail
Because the kinetic molecular theory provides a plausible explanation for the lawful behavior of gases, it should be treated in enough depth to show students that the theory accounts for all of the important aspects of ideal gas behavior.
Rhodes, Gail J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 16.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Sunto di un curso di filosofia chimica (Cannizzaro, Stanislao)  Kauffman, George B.
A review of a book that includes original correspondence regarding Avogadro's hypothesis.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A266.
Gases
Use of liquid oxygen to support combustion   Sullivan, Dan M.
Production, procedure, and safety of demonstrations involving liquid nitrogen in order to demonstrate: Charles' Law, production and properties of liquid oxygen, effects of concentration on reactions and reaction rates, liquefaction and boiling of oxygen kindling temperature, reactions between substances in two different states of matter, and comparison of partial and complete combustion.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1036.
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Advice from Allied Health faculty to chemistry faculty  Dever, David F.
Finding out what the different health professions would like to see from undergraduate chemistry programs.
Dever, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 763.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nutrition |
Vitamins |
Gases
Inexpensive gas law apparatus  Garrett, D. D.; Banta, M. C.; Arney, B. E.
The apparatus described in this paper avoids the problems associated with mercury as well as eliminating the friction problems usually encountered with the disposable syringes having rubber plunger tips.
Garrett, D. D.; Banta, M. C.; Arney, B. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 667.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Soap bubble respirometry  Cummins, Ken
Using the soap bubble respirometer to measure the vapor pressure of hexane over a temperature range.
Cummins, Ken J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 617.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Space-filling P-V-T models  Hilton, Don B.
Space-filling models help beginning students visualize the numerical aspects of the empirical gas laws.
Hilton, Don B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 496.
Gases |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Chemometrics
Overhead projection of Graham's law of gaseous diffusion  Epp, Dianne N.
Demonstration of gaseous diffusion through the combination of NH3 and HCl to produce NH4Cl.
Epp, Dianne N. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1061.
Gases |
Transport Properties
Graham's law: Defining gas velocities  Kenney, Tom
Three alternatives for defining gas velocities.
Kenney, Tom J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 871.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
A miniature hot air balloon and Charles's law  Deese, William C.
Heating the air in a tissue paper balloon using a Merker burner and flying it up and down a guided wire in the classroom.
Deese, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 672.
Gases
A visual demonstration of Raoult's law  Wilson, Archie S.
Reducing the vapor pressure of bromine by adding chloroform.
Wilson, Archie S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 598.
Gases |
Equilibrium
A convenient method to prepare ammonia and hydrogen chloride gases  Thomas, Nicholas C.
The reagents and materials required should be available in most schools and colleges and provide an economical alternative when commercial cylinders of these gases are unavailable.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 431.
Gases |
Laboratory Management
Improvements to demonstration of vapor pressure (author response)  Richardson, W. S.
The incorporation of a calculation using the ideal gas law as suggested by Hambly is a welcomed improvement.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 278.
Gases
Improvements to demonstration of vapor pressure   Hambly, Gordon F.
The author is offering some improvements to a recent publication on the "Demonstration of Vapor Pressure."
Hambly, Gordon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 278.
Gases
Further studies on concept learning versus problem solving  Pickering, Miles
Are there two kinds of students, some who possess an ability to do conceptual problems and some who can do mathematical problems without molecular understanding?
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 254.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Concept learning versus problem solving: Revisited  Sawrey, Barbara A.
A student's ability to solve a numerical problem does not guarantee conceptual understanding of the molecular basis of the problem.
Sawrey, Barbara A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 253.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Gases
A simple apparatus to demonstrate differing gas diffusion rates (Graham's law)  Keller, Philip C.
The apparatus described in this note dramatically demonstrates relative diffusion rate effects for common gases like methane and carbon dioxide.
Keller, Philip C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 160.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A precise determination of absolute zero  Strange, Ronald S.; Lang, Frank T.
Excellent extrapolations to absolute zero can be obtained for dry air using a simple apparatus constructed from an Erlenmeyer flask, an oil manostat and a plastic syringe.
Strange, Ronald S.; Lang, Frank T. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1054.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The ideal gas law at the center of the sun  Clark, David B.
Applying the ideal gas law to conditions found at the center of the sun.
Clark, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 826.
Gases |
Astrochemistry
High-efficiency condenser for low-boiling liquids and gases  Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.
Constructing a high-efficiency condenser for low-boiling liquids and gases using a 2 L plastic bottle.
Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 786.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
A microscale study of gaseous diffusion   Epp, Dianne N.; Lyons, Edward J.; Brooks, David W.
The following microscale experiment compares qualitatively the rates of diffusion in air of chlorine molecules and ammonia molecules.
Epp, Dianne N.; Lyons, Edward J.; Brooks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 436.
Gases |
Microscale Lab
Preparation and cleaning of low-cost plastic manometers  Pollnow, Gilbert F.
The author has developed an improved unbreakable manometer.
Pollnow, Gilbert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 333.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Questions from a can of Pepsi  Mitchell, Tony
A can of Pepsi can be the starting point of countless chemistry questions that students can relate to. The author encourages other instructors to think about helping students understand chemistry as it relates to contemporary society.
Mitchell, Tony J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1070.
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Metals
Determination of the universal gas constant  Lebman, Thomas A.; Harms, Gwen
An experiment for the calculation of R using R-PV/nT.
Lebman, Thomas A.; Harms, Gwen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 811.
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry to the rescue (a calculation challenge)   Ramette, Richard W.
Presentation of a question that would be suitable for a take-home exam or a problem set in a general or analytical chemistry course.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 800.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Soap bubbles and precipitate membranes: Two historical semipermeability experiments adapted for teaching purposes  Nicolini, Nicoletta; Pentella, Antonio
These demonstrations are based on the historical experiments that established our understanding of semipermeability and osmosis.
Nicolini, Nicoletta; Pentella, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 614.
Gases |
Surface Science |
Transport Properties |
Electrochemistry
Interfacial phenomena   Anwander, Alberto E.; Grant, Richard P. J. S.; Letcher, Trevor M.
The interfaces between liquids, and liquids and gases, have a number of possible permutations that lead to exotic phenomenon such as antibubbles, floating drops, boules, polyaphrons, and hanging air bubbles. The authors give directions for demonstrating these in the classroom or lab.
Anwander, Alberto E.; Grant, Richard P. J. S.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 608.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Will that pop bottle really go pop? An equilibrium question  Deamer, David W.; Selinger, Benjamin K.
These authors challenge a claim that appeared in the journal *New Scientist* regarding carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages and equilibrium.
Deamer, David W.; Selinger, Benjamin K. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 518.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Equilibrium
An alternative to using the PV = nRT equation   Desmarais, George
This author shares his application of the factor-label method to solving gas problems which involves using the ideal gas constant as the starting point in the relationship.
Desmarais, George J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 392.
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A metal bar to demonstrate one atmosphere   Meloan, Clifton E.
This demonstration helps students gain a more intuitive understanding of units of pressure.
Meloan, Clifton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 69.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chem Lab Simulations 1: Titrations and Chem Lab Simulations 2: Ideal Gas Law (Gelder, John)  Zemke, Warren T.
Computer programs intended to serve as introductions for students before actual experimentation in the laboratory.
Zemke, Warren T. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A57.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Gases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Science Volume 4 - Physics / Chemistry Chemical Elements (Minnesota Educational Computing Corporation)  Hartman, Kenneth A.
Six programs, three relating to solubility products, two on gas laws, and a Milliken Oil Drop Experiment.
Hartman, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A26.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Musical molecular weights revisited  Augustine, Frederick B.
A simple way of comparing the propagation of sound in two different gases.
Augustine, Frederick B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1053.
Gases |
Physical Properties
An inexpensive device for projecting, measuring, and moving gas  Wojt, Richard
Using disposable plastic syringes to generate, measure, move, and dry gases.
Wojt, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1052.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Two fundamental constants  McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D.
Experiment to produce accurate values for both the absolute zero of temperature and the gas constant.
McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 999.
Gases
A Charles's Law/vapor pressure apparatus  Hall, Philip K.
A simple apparatus to illustrate either Charles's law gas expansion of the vapor pressure created by liquids.
Hall, Philip K. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 969.
Gases |
Liquids
Demonstration of vapor pressure  Richardson, W. S.
Demonstrating the vapor pressure of several different materials using a water manometer.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 968.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Physical and chemical properties  Boschmann, Erwin
A series of overhead demonstrations regarding physical and chemical properties.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 891.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Gases
Charles's law: Students develop their own procedure  Rose, Diane
Students are asked to write their own procedure and execute it in the lab.
Rose, Diane J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 712.
Gases
An indicating rupture disk for gas cylinders  Bruno, Thomas J.
A device to allow a determination of the approximate condition of the rupture disk in compressed gas cylinders.
Bruno, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 557.
Gases |
Laboratory Management
Control of variables and the conservation of matter  Giachino, Gary G.
Demonstrates the conservation of matter, but its main value lies in its illustration of the need to control variables and the difficulty this may entail - particularly if a variable is "hidden"; uses a burning candle in a glass flask.
Giachino, Gary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 353.
Gases
A safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2  Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin
Design, construction, and use of a safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2.
Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 347.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
Simple determination of Henry's law constant for carbon dioxide  Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A.
With the aid of inexpensive pressure gauges available from automotive supply stores, the solubility of carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages or other solutions can be studied.
Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 260.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Annotating reaction equations  Tykodi, R. J.
Annotating aqueous solution reactions fosters recognition of the fundamental reaction categories; ready recognition of a reaction type is the first step toward understanding the "whys and wherefores" inherent in the reaction.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 243.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Carbon dioxide: Its principal properties displayed and discussed  Bent, Henry A.
The principal properties of carbon dioxide demonstrated and discussed.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 167.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
A useful balloon demonstration: Pressure difference behavior  Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A.
The authors contribute an interesting variant on the 'crushed can' experiment. [typo: first author's middle initial should be E.]
Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 629.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Gas cans and gas cubes: Visualizing Avogadro's Law   Bouma, J.
The author shares a strategy for making gas laws "visible" for students.
Bouma, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 586.
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Is volume conserved?: A first general chemistry experiment  Olmsted, John, III.
The author presents an experiment that introduces students to scientific methodology, affords practice in the essential laboratory skill of management, and illustrates some fundamental chemical relationships without requiring any chemical sophistication.
Olmsted, John, III. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 538.
Gases
Chemical knowledge versus conventional "wisdom"   Steffel, Margaret J.
A question about the physical properties of gases that rewards students with some knowledge of aviation.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 317.
Gases
TRS-80 Chemistry Lab, Volume 1, Review II (Hallgren, Richard C.)  Beck, James D.
Programs covering the kinetic theory, Charles' law, Boyle' law, titration, and solubility.
Beck, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A106.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
TRS-80 Chemistry Lab, Volume 1, Review I (Hallgren, Richard C.)  Rowe, Frederick J.
Programs covering the kinetic theory, Charles' law, Boyle' law, titration, and solubility.
Rowe, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A105.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Molecular size and Raoult's Law  Kovac, Jeffrey
An additional cause for deviations from Raoult's Law that is rarely, if ever, mentioned in freshman chemistry texts.
Kovac, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1090.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases
Le Châtelier's Principle  Knox, Kerro
Question involving effect of increasing the pressure on the N2 + 3H2 <=> 2NH3 system.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 863.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Interstellar chemistry  Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A.
Surveys some of the features that characterize interstellar chemistry, particularly the composition of the interstellar medium and the nature of the changes that occur there.
Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 832.
Astrochemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Why teach the gas laws?  Davenport, Derek A.
Justification for teaching the gas laws.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 505.
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Why do we teach gas laws?  Roe, Robert, Jr.
Justification for teaching the gas laws.
Roe, Robert, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 505.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Measuring the atomic or molecular mass of a gas with a tire gauge and a butane lighter fluid can  Bodner, George M.; Magginnis, Lenard J.
Also demonstrating the mass of air and the dependence of the pressure of a gas on the mass of the sample.
Bodner, George M.; Magginnis, Lenard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 434.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Gases
Derivation of the ideal gas law  Levine, S.
Derivation of the ideal gas law from a thermodynamic influence.
Levine, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 399.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
A simplified Dumas flask  Hadley, Fred J.
Using glass tubing as a simple Dumas flask.
Hadley, Fred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 268.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
A gas kinetic explanation of simple thermodynamic processes  Waite, Boyd A.
Proposes a simplified, semi-quantitative description of heat, work, and internal energy from the viewpoint of gas kinetic theory; both heat and work should not be considered as forms of energy but rather as different mechanisms by which internal energy is transferred from system to surroundings.
Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 224.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics
Invisible water: A gas density demonstration  Maciel, Richard P.
Demonstrating the density of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (TTE), whose density is about six times that of air.
Maciel, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 153.
Gases |
Physical Properties
What a smell!  Perkins, Robert
How many molecules of vanillin are necessary in order to smell it anywhere within the Goodyear Airship hangar?
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 384.
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Cooking with chemistry  Grosser, Arthur E.
Two demonstrations involving cooking eggs and suggestions for many more examples of cooking that illustrate important principles of chemistry. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 362.
Food Science |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Diffusion of gases - Kinetic molecular theory of gases  Schlecht, K. D.
Changing the pressure inside a container with a porous surface through the diffusion of hydrogen or helium.
Schlecht, K. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 251.
Gases |
Transport Properties |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
The density and apparent molecular weight of air  Harris, Arlo D.
Simple procedure for determining the density and apparent molecular weight of air.
Harris, Arlo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 74.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Gas laws and gas behavior  Schmuckler, Joseph S.
A collection of activities from past issues of the Journal and The Science Teacher.
Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 73.
Gases
Enduring distributions that deny Boltzmann  Nash, Leonard K.
Examines two practical steady- state distributions: the atmosphere and its lapse rate and the ocean and its vertical quasi-uniformity.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 22.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
Boyle's law experiment  Hermens, Richard A.
This experiment regarding Boyle's law adheres to qualifications which allow the experiment to be meaningful to the students, is safe and simple to perform, low in cost, easy to set up and maintain, obtains reproducible results, and is capable of being performed in a reasonable length of time.
Hermens, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 764.
Gases
Reflections upon mathematics in the introductory chemistry course  Goodstein, Madeline P.
It is the purpose of this paper to call attention to the lack of mathematical competence by chemistry students and to invite consideration of one conceptual scheme which may be used to unify the mathematical approach.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 665.
Chemometrics |
Gases
NH4HC03: a stimulant for learning  Richards, R. Ronald
Students, professors, and the literature have all been confused by the unusual dissociation equilibrium of NH4HCO3.
Richards, R. Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 555.
Equilibrium |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases
The use of the Warnier-Orr program design method in the preparation of general chemistry tutorials   Hach, Edwin E., Jr.
39. In this article, a modified Warnier-Orr approach is illustrated for a computer tutorial involving ideal gas calculations.
Hach, Edwin E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 348.
Gases |
Chemometrics
An effective demonstration of some properties of real vapors  Metsger, D. Scott
The apparatus described in this article has been found by the authors to be the most effective in vividly illustrating the behavior of a nearly ideal gas to first year chemistry students.
Metsger, D. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 67.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Solids
What's in the air? How much is too much? Measurement of toxic gases, vapors, and particulates - Limits of exposure  Freifeld, Milton
Methods for measuring organic vapors, various compounds and particulates in laboratory atmospheres and criteria for safe levels.
Freifeld, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, A351.
Gases |
Toxicology
Boyle's law and the monster marshmallow  Broniec, Rick
Evacuating the air surrounding a marshmallow with a vacuum pump.
Broniec, Rick J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 974.
Gases
Vapor pressure apparatus for general chemistry  Long, Joseph W.
A simple apparatus for collecting vapor pressure data; relies on a mercury manometer.
Long, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 933.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Collapsing can  Sands, Richard D.
Demonstrates the solubility of ammonia gas in water.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Boyle's law - A different view  Sharma, B. D.
For a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature the energy of the gas is fixed and independent of its pressure and volume.
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 827.
Gases
The titration of air with nitric oxide: An application of Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes in a general chemistry experiment  Everett, Kenneth G.
Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes is demonstrated through the reaction between NO and the oxygen in air.
Everett, Kenneth G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 802.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
The use of a filmstrip projector to present a critical point demonstration  Nyquist, H. LeRoy
A demonstration to illustrate the concepts of critical temperature and critical pressure.
Nyquist, H. LeRoy J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 522.
Gases |
Liquids
A simple experiment for determining vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of water  Levinson, Gerald S.
It is possible to determine the vapor pressure of water using only a tall beaker, a graduated cylinder, and a thermometer.
Levinson, Gerald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 337.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Entropy and its role in introductory chemistry  Bickford, Franklin R.
The concept of entropy as it applies to phase changes.
Bickford, Franklin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 317.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Cinema, flirts, snakes, and gases  Hartwig, Dcio R.; Filho, Romeu C. Rocha
Explaining the kinetic behavior of gases through several analogies.
Hartwig, Dcio R.; Filho, Romeu C. Rocha J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 295.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Notes from physics journals  Smith, Douglas D.
Solution with an index of refraction that matches that of Pyrex glass and a reverse cartesion diver.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 243.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
The ammonia fountain-an implosion danger  Kauffman, George B.
Flat-bottomed flasks should never be used in the ammonia-fountain demonstration.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 80.
Gases
Lemon meringue pie  Smith, Douglas D.
The chemistry and physics of lemon meringue pie.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 60.
Gases |
Ionic Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Proteins / Peptides
A practical Solvay process experiment  McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M.
This note features practical augmentation to the Solvay process experiment.
McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1035.
Gases |
Separation Science
Pressure and the exploding beverage container   Perkins, Robert R.
The question in this article is an extension of exploding pop bottles to illustrate the balancing of a chemical equation, enthalpy, stoichiometry, and vapor pressure calculations, and the use of the Ideal Gas Equation. The question is aimed at the first-year level student.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 363.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Spectacular gas density demonstration using methane bubbles   Snipp, Robert; Mattson, Bruce; Hardy, Winters
An unforgettable demonstration of the relative densities of gases can be performed by creating giant methane bubbles with the aid of a small funnel and toy soap bubble solution.
Snipp, Robert; Mattson, Bruce; Hardy, Winters J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 354.
Physical Properties |
Gases
Balloons and the teaching of chemistry  Dewhurst, F.; Dewhurst, F. R.
Balloons are a remarkably useful tool for the chemical educationalist. Balloons can not only provide cheap, safe, and easy-to-use alternatives to more complex and costly equipment, but also they can be used as effective teaching aids to demonstrate principles of structural chemistry.
Dewhurst, F.; Dewhurst, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 44.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Gases and their behavior  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 885.
Gases
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Properly opening a beer can and Boyle's law  DeLorenzo, Ron
Why tapping the side of a can or bottle can reduce spray when opening.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 601.
Gases
Bicarbonate in Alka-Seltzer: A general chemistry experiment  Peck, Larry; Irgolic, Kurt; O'Connor, Rod
Determining the percentage bicarbonate ion by mass in Alka-Seltzer.
Peck, Larry; Irgolic, Kurt; O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 517.
Quantitative Analysis |
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases
PV work demonstration (Corridor demonstration)  Koubek, E.
A hallway demonstration regarding the work done in pulling out a piston on display.
Koubek, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 374.
Gases
A Charles' law demonstration rehatched  Markow, Peter G.
Modifications to simplify the "Egg in a Bottle" demonstration.
Markow, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 307.
Gases
A chemistry lesson at Three Mile Island  Mammano, Nicholas J.
Teaching principles of general chemistry through references made to the nuclear incident at Three Mile Island.
Mammano, Nicholas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 286.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Pressure measuring devices and pressure calculations  Schultz, Charles W.
A question requiring an understanding of the principle of operation of pressure gauges.
Schultz, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 285.
Gases
The solution: "Derivation of the ideal gas law"  Bosch, Warren L.; Crawford, Crayton M.; Gensler, Walter J.; Haim, Albert; Levine, Ira N.; Linde, Peter F.; Salzsieder, John C.; Silberszye, Waldemar; Viehland, Larry A.; Waser, Jurg
A response to the misinterpretations that appeared in the referenced article regarding the gas laws.
Bosch, Warren L.; Crawford, Crayton M.; Gensler, Walter J.; Haim, Albert; Levine, Ira N.; Linde, Peter F.; Salzsieder, John C.; Silberszye, Waldemar; Viehland, Larry A.; Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 201.
Gases
Balloon balance thermometer: A lecture demonstration of Charles' Law  Carney, G. D.; Kern, C. W.
The balloon-balance thermometer makes use of air as a thermometric fluid, a water bath as the thermometric vessel, and the readings of a triple beam balance as a thermometer scale.
Carney, G. D.; Kern, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 823.
Gases
The gases of life  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Considers the topics of diffusion, oxygen transport through the lungs, oxygen in arterial blood, and CO2 transfer.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 748.
Gases |
Transport Properties |
Equilibrium
Lecture demonstration of vanishing meniscus in vapor liquid transition  Duus, H. C.
Shows how the interface between vapor and liquid propane vanishes.
Duus, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 614.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The problem: "Derivation of the ideal gas law"  Vaitkunas, John J.
Outline for a lesson on gases, and suggestions for approaches to the ideal gas law.
Vaitkunas, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 530.
Gases
The variation of vapor pressure with temperature  Davenport, Derek A.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan
Comparing the pressure of three cans of lighter fluid at different temperatures.
Davenport, Derek A.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 474.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Ga(U)Ge pressure and absolute pressure  Davenport, Derek A.
Air is progressively removed from a test tube; the pressure inside is measured using a standard tire-pressure gauge that is found to read atmospheric pressure when the test tube is fully evacuated.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 322.
Gases
Boyle's law  Davenport, Derek A.
Increasing weights are placed on a sealed syringe, compressing the air inside, and increasing weights pull the plunger from a held syringe, expanding the air inside. In both cases, plots of "P" vs. V are recorded.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 322.
Gases
An experiment oriented approach to teaching the kinetic molecular theory  Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.
A series of experiments designed to illustrate the kinetic molecular theory and the differences between solids, liquids, and gases.
Wiseman, Frank L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 233.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Solids |
Liquids |
Nonmajor Courses
Participatory lecture demonstrations  Battino, Rubin
Examples of participatory lecture demonstrations in chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, the kinetic-molecular theory, Henry's law, electronic energy levels in atoms, translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of molecules, and organic chemistry.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 39.
Chromatography |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A discovery experiment. CO2 soap bubble dynamics  Millikan, Roger C.
Students often make a choice of major based upon the view of a subject that they derive from the beginning course. Rare are the chemistry courses that provide the excitement and chance for discovery, while providing a basic understanding of chemistry. This article describes an experiment that does provide such an opportunity.
Millikan, Roger C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 807.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Surface Science
An Exercise with Boyle's law  Moeller, Michael B.
A procedure for doing a demonstration of Boyles' law.
Moeller, Michael B. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 584.
Gases
Bubble pressure and volume. A demonstration experiment  Christian, Sherril D.; Enwall, Eric
An interesting phenomenon which illustrates several important principles, is the dependence of the size of a soap bubble on pressure. The subject is introduced to the class by the black box experiment presented in this article.
Christian, Sherril D.; Enwall, Eric J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 536.
Gases |
Surface Science
Pressure calculations   Schultz, Charles W.
This question requires students to be able to distinguish two kinds of pressure: Boyles law pressure of gas (that depends on volume) from the equilibrium vapor pressure above a liquid (that does not).
Schultz, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 515.
Gases |
Chemometrics
Teaching the method of successive approximations  Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R.
The purpose of this papers is to help the teacher show the student why basic methods of successive approximations work, how they may be applied, and under what conditions it will be successful.
Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 376.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Acid-base reactions in the gaseous state (an illustrative experiment)   Corso, C. R.; De Oliveira, J. E.
Instructions for a simple method that demonstrates acid-base reactions in the gaseous state.
Corso, C. R.; De Oliveira, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 244.
Acids / Bases |
Gases
General chemistry-pressure measurement   Steffel, Margaret J.
This question allows students to demonstrate the understanding of the operation of barometers and vapor pressure at a freshman level.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 102.
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Molar volumes: Microscopic insight from macroscopic data  Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan
The molar volumes of the alkali metal halides; molar volumes of binary hydrogen compounds; molar volumes of the first transition series; molar volumes of the lanthanoids and actinoids; molar volumes of the carbon family; molar volumes of isotopically related species; aquated ions and ions in aqueous solution.
Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 93.
Inner Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Transition Elements |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Isotopes
Gasoline vapor: An invisible pollutant  Stephens, Edgar R.
An apparatus and procedure to demonstrate the substantial contribution vaporized gasoline makes to hydrocarbon pollution.
Stephens, Edgar R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 682.
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Ultraviolet absorption of ozone  Driscoll, Jerry A.
A demonstration of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation by ozone.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 675.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
309-314. Six questions involving practical applications of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 437.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Toxicology |
Alcohols |
Gases |
Natural Products
Ideal and non-ideal gases. An experiment with surprise value  Chirpich, Thomas P.
Compares the behavior of an ideal gas (air) with a non-ideal gas (water vapor) as they are cooled from 100C to room temperature.
Chirpich, Thomas P. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 378.
Gases
Great spray can debate  Bassow, Herb
A curriculum scenario that takes the problems raised by the technological, economic, and political contexts of the fluorocarbon controversy as its point of focus.
Bassow, Herb J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 371.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry
Simplified Boyle's Law demonstration  Miller, Daniel W.
Placing a sealed syringe in bell jar attached to a vacuum pump and reading the volume of air inside the syringe at various reduced pressures.
Miller, Daniel W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 245.
Gases
Le Chtelier's principle: A laboratory exercise  Friedman, Frederica
Le Chtelier's principle can be demonstrated by showing that water can boil at temperatures below 100C due to reduced vapor pressure.
Friedman, Frederica J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 236.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry
3 [Three] basketballs = 1 [one] mole of ideal gas at STP  Jardine, Fred H.
The volume of three basketballs = one mole of ideal gas at STP.
Jardine, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 112.
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Lab safety: The case of the errant cylinder   Ozaruk, N.
The anchoring of compressed gas cylinders to keep them from being knocked over, with the accompanying possibility of breaking off the valve, is an accepted safe practice. However, there has been some skepticism as to what would have happened if a cylinder valve was knocked off. The author shares a vivid description that appeared in the National Safety Council Chemical Section Newsletter. Also: a high school safety rules booklet; a hazardous materials safety booklet; and wall charts on Laboratory Techniques and Laboratory Safety.
Ozaruk, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
A computer program for calculation of boiling points at sub- and super-atmospheric pressures  Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David
An interactive program has been written in Fortran IV for the IBM 370/125 which will compute the boiling points of organic compounds at a range of pressures.
Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
A computer program for calculation of boiling points at sub- and super-atmospheric pressures  Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David
An interactive program has been written in Fortran IV for the IBM 370/125 which will compute the boiling points of organic compounds at a range of pressures.
Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Ideal gas laws. Experiments for general chemistry  Deal, Walter J.
Several gas-law experiments designed to verify the relationship PV = constant at constant temperature and to calculate the gas constant R.
Deal, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 405.
Gases
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
188-192. Five biochemistry related questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 390.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Nutrition
Hydrocarbon combustion equilibria in first-year chemistry  Davidson, Scott
An article describing a way to extend the study of multiple equilibria to gaseous systems is available on request.
Davidson, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 387.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Some people love 22.4 (letter 2)  Haight, G. P.
Disagreement with statements in the cited article.
Haight, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 204.
Gases
Some people love 22.4 (letter 1)  Schweikert, William W.
Disagreement with statements in the cited article.
Schweikert, William W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 204.
Gases
A simple gas chromatograph for teaching purposes  Wollrab, Adalbert
A simple apparatus for demonstrating the separation of a mixture of pentane and hexane gas.
Wollrab, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 200.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Gases
Effective insect fogging - The origin of sea breezes - Hot air balloons  Plumb, Robert C.
Three applications of the changes in pressure or volume of a gas when its temperature is changed.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 104.
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry
Properties of air-A freshman chemistry lecture demonstration  Schultz, C. W.
A simple yet dramatic lecture demonstration can help tie together concepts of oxygen chemistry, combustion, gas properties and rates of reactions.
Schultz, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 751.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
A Dalton's law experiment for students in the health sciences  Feigl, Dorothy M.
The number of students who take an introductory chemistry course in preparation for the health sciences is increasing. This note is an illustration of Dalton's law of partial pressures adapted to demonstrate the ability of the lungs to effect the removal of excess dioxide from the body.
Feigl, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 273.
Gases |
Biophysical Chemistry
The extent of reaction as a unifying basis for stoichiometry in elementary chemistry  Garst, John F.
The author uses a more approachable symbol for "moles rxn per liter". The author outlines this approach with some examples.
Garst, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 194.
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Lecture experiment: A quantitative illustration of LeChatelier's principle  Nelson, D. L.; Ginns, E. I.; Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.
A short experiment involving the popular gaseous nitrogen dioxide system has been developed into a lecture demonstration which quantitatively illustrates the behavior of a homogeneous gas-phase equilibrium under conditions of varying temperature and pressure.
Nelson, D. L.; Ginns, E. I.; Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 721.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Computer-enhanced laboratory experience. An example of a totally integrated approach  Davis, Leslie N.; Coffey, Charles E.; Macero, Daniel J.
A gas law experiment (Boyle's Law) adapted to make use of computer assisted instruction.
Davis, Leslie N.; Coffey, Charles E.; Macero, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 711.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
A Charles' Law experiment using a balloon or a plastic bag  Murdock, Howard D.; Hawthorne, Robert M., Jr.
A general chemistry experiment that demonstrates Charles' Law clearly, quickly, and relatively quantitatively.
Murdock, Howard D.; Hawthorne, Robert M., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 528.
Gases
CO2 snow  Fernelius, W. Conard
Method for producing CO2 "snow."
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 466.
Laboratory Management |
Gases
Scuba diving and the gas laws  Cooke, E. D.; Baranowski, Conrad
Three illustrations of physical-chemical principles drawn from scuba diving.
Cooke, E. D.; Baranowski, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Footnote to the house heating exemplum  Plumb, Robert C.; Campbell, J. A.
Offers a simple proof regarding an earlier column.
Plumb, Robert C.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Six questions requiring an application of chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 281.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Lipids |
Gases |
Electrochemistry
Commercial gas replaces hydrogen in general chemistry laboratory  Ehlert, Thomas C.
Methane can be used in place of hydrogen to reduce metal oxides.
Ehlert, Thomas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 162.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Metals
The determination of dissolved oxygen by the Winkler method. A student laboratory experiment  McCormick, Patrick G.
This method is based on the reaction between oxygen and a suspension of manganese(II) hydroxide in a strongly alkaline solution.
McCormick, Patrick G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 839.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Seven questions requiring an application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 831.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Metals
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Seven questions requiring the application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 769.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Astrochemistry
Demonstrating Avogadro's hypothesis with the molecular dynamics simulator  Young, Jay A.; Plumb, Robert C.
The Molecular Dynamics Simulator simulate closely the behaviors predicted by the mathematical descriptions of the kinetic molecular theory.
Young, Jay A.; Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 709.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Student flowmeters and an air pollution experiment  Kohn, Harold W.
Using glass wool as an absorbent for atmospheric contaminants and three simple devices for measuring flow rates of gases.
Kohn, Harold W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 643.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Eight questions requiring the application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 624.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
Dissolved oxygen. A relevant experiment for the introductory laboratory  Stagg, William R.
Students measure the dissolved oxygen content of water from several natural sources as well as the change in solubility with temperature.
Stagg, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 427.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Determination of the molar volume of a gas at standard temperature and pressure. A lecture demonstration  Zaborowski, Leon M.
Using massed balloons of measured and corrected volume to determine the molar volume of a gas at standard temperature and pressure.
Zaborowski, Leon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 361.
Gases
The effervescence of ocean surf  Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
A pure liquid will not foam, but all true solutions will, as dictated by the fundamental concepts of surface thermodynamics enunciated by Gibbs.
Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Visualization of the atomic absorption of mercury vapor by use of a fluorescent screen  Argauer, Robert J.; White, Charles E.
Presents a demonstration to visualize the presence of metallic mercury vapor.
Argauer, Robert J.; White, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 27.
Toxicology |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Gas Laws, Equilibrium, and the Commercial Synthesis of Nitric acid. A Simple Demonstration  Alexander, M. Dale
This demonstration of the commercial production of nitric acid uses a simple apparatus to illustrate a number of basic chemical concepts, including Le Chatelier's principle.
Alexander, M. Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 838.
Synthesis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Tire Inflation Thermodynamics  Plumb, Robert C.; Connors, John J.
Explains why inflating a tire with a hand pump heats the air being pumped into the tire.
Plumb, Robert C.; Connors, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 837.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Bag-assembly for gas experiment  Gregory, Michael
An improved bag-assembly has been devised for use with the Chem Study Experiment, "The Weights of Equal Volumes of Gases."
Gregory, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 796.
Gases
Concept of empirical temperature for introductory chemistry  Ander, Paul
This presentation is used in a freshman course prior to the discussion of the empirical gas laws for dilute gases, i.e., Boyle's Charles', Dalton's etc.,
Ander, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 325.
Gases
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion  Johnson, Joseph E.
Modifications or additions to previously published demonstration.
Johnson, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A439.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases |
Transport Properties |
Coordination Compounds
Improvement in a Charles' law capillary tube experiment for introductory chemistry laboratory  Sawyer, Albert K.
Improving a Charles' law capillary tube experiment for the determination of absolute zero by using a volume-temperature measurement at about -80C using a dry ice/acetone cooling mixture.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 573.
Gases
Prolonging death (in apples)  Plumb, Robert C.
Using controlled atmosphere storage to prolong the freshness of vegetables and fruits after they have been harvested.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 518.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases
An improvement of the vapor density experiment in the general chemistry course  Seiwald, Robert; Gruhn, Thomas; Gorman, Mel
Suggests adding Rhodamine B to the liquid phase to make it highly visible.
Seiwald, Robert; Gruhn, Thomas; Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 390.
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Cloud Caps on High Mountains  Stevenson, Philip E.
The formation of cloud caps on high mountains illustrates cooling in an adiabatic expansion and the change in vapor pressure of a liquid with temperature.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 272.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
A lecture-laboratory experiment in gas-liquid partition chromatography  McKay, Edward S.; Vasers, Alise
After being introduced to the chromatographic process in lecture, each student is given a copy of a chromatogram of an unknown mixture and asked to identify its composition and the concentration of each component.
McKay, Edward S.; Vasers, Alise J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 239.
Gases |
Liquids |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
The snowmaking machines  Plumb, Robert C.
Illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 176.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Sea-lab experiment  Plumb, Robert C.
Illustrating the principles of the kinetic theory of gases.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 175.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Chemical principles exemplified  Plumb, Robert C.
Introduction to a new series, containing "exempla" (brief anecdotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles). [Debut]
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 175.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Photochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Thermal decomposition of water by the use of the Nernst glower  Glaser, John O.
Relies on a Nernst glower to decompose water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen gas.
Glaser, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A497.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Baby bottles and elementary chemistry  Davenport, D. A.
Presents several experiments that rely on baby bottles, including Charles' Law expansion, vapor pressure of volatile liquids, molecular weights of volatile liquids, and closed-atmosphere experiments.
Davenport, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 878.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Liquids |
Oxidation / Reduction
An inexpensive vacuum and gas handling system for the freshman laboratory  Zuehlke, R. W.; Cartier, P. G.
Presents an inexpensive vacuum and gas handling system for the freshman laboratory.
Zuehlke, R. W.; Cartier, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 874.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
A pseudo-Charles law experiment to teach vapor pressure concepts  Sinclair, Dean L.
This deliberately deceptive experiment impresses upon students the basic ideas of vapor pressure and illustrates the scientific method.
Sinclair, Dean L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 814.
Gases
An improved equivalent weight apparatus  Brown, Oliver L.
Presents an improved apparatus for the reaction of weighed samples of metals with hydrochloric acid and the measurement of the volume of hydrogen evolved.
Brown, Oliver L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals |
Laboratory Management |
Reactions |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
The noble gases and the periodic table: Telling it like it was  Wolfenden, John H.
It is instructive to discover that many great scientists have reported erroneous observations as well as mistaken interpretations of experimental data.
Wolfenden, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 569.
Gases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Friday experiments  Bissey, Jack E.
Provides data on an unknown gas and asks readers to determine if it is ideal, as well as its molecular weight and chemical formula.
Bissey, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 497.
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The thermal decomposition of 2,5-dihydrofuran vapor: An experiment in gas kinetics  Rubin, Jay A.; Filseth, Stephen V.
Describes an experiment designed to illustrate manipulations with a vacuum system and the conduct of kinetic measurements.
Rubin, Jay A.; Filseth, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 57.
Kinetics |
Gases
Effect of shock on CS2 vapor  Viswanathan, Arcot
An explosive shock separates CS2 into its constituent elements.
Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A901.
Gases |
Separation Science
The heat of compression  Gachic, L.
Demonstrates the heat generated when a gas is compressed.
Gachic, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A569.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Carbon and its inorganic compounds. C. Carbon dioxide   Colo, August J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrates the production of CO2 from dry ice and limestone and acid.
Colo, August J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A326.
Gases |
Synthesis
Carbon and its inorganic compounds. B. Carbon monoxide   Colo, August J.
Demonstrates the formation of carbon monoxide.
Colo, August J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A326.
Gases |
Synthesis
Carbon and its inorganic compounds. A. Carbon   Alyea, Hubert N.; Frick, Charlotte; Colo, August J.
Demonstrations include to crystalline structure of diamond vs. graphite and the absorption of tars, dyes, ammonia, and benzene on carbon.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Frick, Charlotte; Colo, August J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A225.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Gases
Apparatus for determining vapor density  Uglum, K. L.; Carson, L. M.; Riley, R. V.
Presents a simplified vapor-density experiment suitable for use as a freshman demonstration or an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment.
Uglum, K. L.; Carson, L. M.; Riley, R. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 203.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
A simple vacuum apparatus for lecture experiments  Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H.
Describes a simple vacuum apparatus and examples of its use in lecture situations.
Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 742.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Transport Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John
(1) Is the mole a number or a weight? (2) Is there an easy way to locate a compound by volume and page in Beilstein? (3) What are the stages evident in a gas discharge tube as the pressure of the gas and the voltage are changed? - answer by Bolte
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 718.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Gases
An apparatus for the investigation of Graham's law of effusion  Rice, Laurence A.; Chang, James C.
Modification of an earlier apparatus for the investigation of Graham's law of effusion and its applications.
Rice, Laurence A.; Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 676.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Transport Properties |
Gases
Structure units: Aids in the interpretation of chemical reactions  Strong, Laurence E.
the proposal to define structure units as generators of the various properties of a substance has a considerable advantage over the usual definition of a structure unit as the endpoint of some prescribed scheme of subdivision.
Strong, Laurence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 51.
Learning Theories |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
The range of validity of Graham's Laws  Kirk, A. D.
It is the purpose of this article to discuss effusion, diffusion, and some related processes and to outline the range of validity of Graham's law.
Kirk, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 745.
Gases |
Transport Properties
Graham's Laws of diffusion and effusion  Mason, E. A.; Kronstadt, Barbara
The purpose of this article is to review Graham's laws of diffusion and effusion, offer simple but essentially correct theoretical explanations for both laws, and to present experiments on the diffusion law.
Mason, E. A.; Kronstadt, Barbara J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 740.
Transport Properties |
Gases
Accurate measurement of gas volumes by a soap-film method  Hello, O.
The measurement of small gas volumes can be greatly improved by using the soap-film apparatus described in this article.
Hello, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 568.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Analysis for nitrite by evolution of nitrogen: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Bartlett, J. Kenneth
This experiment involves analysis for the sodium nitrite content of a sodium nitrite-sodium chloride mixture by decomposition to nitrogen while heating in the presence of ammonium chloride solution.
Bartlett, J. Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 475.
Gases
Capillary tube experiments for introductory chemistry laboratory  Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian
Describes the use of a capillary tube to determine how vapor changes with temperature.
Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 387.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Charles' Law: A general chemistry experiment  Haworth, Daniel T.
This paper describes an apparatus that can be used to determine the value of absolute zero.
Haworth, Daniel T. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 353.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An experimental approach to the ideal gas law  Breck, W. G.; Holmes, F. W.
It is possible to introduce to students the equation of state, PV = nRT, by an experimental method that demonstrates that PV/T remains constant for a given amount of gas.
Breck, W. G.; Holmes, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 293.
Gases
Teaching kinetic molecular theory by the factor change method  Koons, Lawrence F.
Develops the "factor change method" for teaching kinetic molecular theory and presents examples of its application.
Koons, Lawrence F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 288.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
The critical temperature: A necessary consequence of gas non-ideality  Pilar, F. L.
Illustrates in a non-mathematical fashion that any gas composed of mutually interacting particles of finite volume must exhibit a critical temperature.
Pilar, F. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 284.
Gases
VII - Combustion and flame  Anderson, Robbin C.
Presents and describes an extensive bibliography on the study of combustion and flames.
Anderson, Robbin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 248.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
The relationship between Avogadro's Principle and the Law of Gay-Lussac  Feifer, Nathan
Teaching Avogadro's Principle as an explanation of the phenomena described by Gay-Lussac's Law gives the instructor an opportunity to stress some of the basic assumptions in chemistry and to highlight the logic implicit in Avogadro's reasoning.
Feifer, Nathan J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 411.
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Constant rate gas generator  Asakura, Shizuo
By reversing the usual procedure of a Kipp generator and dropping the liquid reagent onto the solid, a constant flow of gas may be obtained.
Asakura, Shizuo J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 203.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
IV - Isoelectronic systems  Bent, Henry A.
A detailed consideration of the principles of isoelectric systems.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 170.
Gases |
Nonmetals |
Covalent Bonding
Compressed gas cylinders and cylinder regulators used in laboratories  Pinney, George
Presents safety guidelines regarding the use of compressed gas cylinders and cylinder regulators in laboratories.
Pinney, George J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A976.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
Kinetic energies of gas molecules  Aherne, John C.
The graph representing the distribution of kinetic energy among the molecules of a gas found in many textbooks is incorrect.
Aherne, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 655.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Determination of Avogadro's number by Perrin's law  Slabaugh, W. H.
The experimental procedure for determining Avogadro's number by the Perrin method includes preparing a monodisperse colloid, ascertaining the mass of the particles, and making an accurate count of the number of particles at two points in the equilibrated colloid.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 471.
Stoichiometry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Colloids
A gas scrubber for eliminating noxious vapors  Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C.
Presents an apparatus for preventing the escape of undesirable materials into the air.
Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 136.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Thermal expansion of gases  Barnard, W. Robert
Liquid nitrogen is poured over an inflated balloon.
Barnard, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A139.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Mysels, Karol J.
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 677.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Bauman, Robert
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Bauman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 676.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Kokes, Richard J.
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Kokes, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 675.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Bauman, Robert
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Bauman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 675.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
"Compounds" (?) of the noble gases prior to 1962  Chernick, Cedric L.
Reviews past efforts to generate compounds of the noble gases.
Chernick, Cedric L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 185.
Nonmetals |
Gases
The chemistry of the noble gases  Hyman, Herbert H.
Summarizes the chemistry of the noble gases and their bond-forming abilities.
Hyman, Herbert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 174.
Gases |
Main-Group Elements |
Covalent Bonding
Work of compressing an ideal gas  Bauman, Robert P.
In formulating examples of compression problems there should be an explicit statement that the process is reversible, or at least slow.
Bauman, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 102.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Demonstration notes: Oxygen in air  Glanz, Joseph
Explains that the popular method of demonstrating the percentage volume of oxygen in air is fraut with errors.
Glanz, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Demonstration notes: Fog formation  Benson, John E.
Suggests a modification to producing a cloud in a jar.
Benson, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Letters to the editor  Caughlan, Charles N.
Calls attention to another article suggesting the use of hypodermic syringes to verify Boyle's law.
Caughlan, Charles N. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Gases
Hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry experiments. Part 2. General chemistry experiments  Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N.
Presents a variety of experiments that make use of hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry.
Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry
Letters  Frigerio, Norman A.; Trotter, Phillip J.
Disposable plastic syringes are found to be more suitable than glass ones to demonstrate P, V, T relationships.
Frigerio, Norman A.; Trotter, Phillip J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 594.
Gases
Some aspects of chemical kinetics for elementary chemistry  Benson, Sidney W.
The author suggests greater efforts to address the issue of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in introductory chemistry.
Benson, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 321.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
A simple gas law apparatus  Carter, K. N.
The apparatus presented here can be used to verify the ideal gas law, determine the vapor pressure of water at an elevated temperature, or determine the number of moles of dry air under two different sets of conditions for comparison.
Carter, K. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 302.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Dalton's law of partial pressures  Dutton, Frederic B.
Demonstrates that breaking a sealed ampule of ether in a closed system increases the pressure inside that system.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A545.
Gases |
Ethers
An improved gas generator for elementary chemistry  Thiessen, G. W.; Hall, M.
Describes a small-scale adaptation of the Lassieur generator that provides a self-controlled evolution of gas from solid and liquid reagents.
Thiessen, G. W.; Hall, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 19.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A reagent bottle for dispensing insoluble gases  Bixby, Louis W.
This apparatus can be used to generate hydrogen and oxygen collected through water displacement.
Bixby, Louis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 430.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Kinetic molecular theory from a jukebox  Easley, W. K.; Powers, Glenn F.
Uses dancers to various styles of music as an analogy for differences between the atomic and molecular motions in solids, liquids, and gases.
Easley, W. K.; Powers, Glenn F. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 302.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Vapor pressure determination: An elementary experiment  Radley, Edward T.
The approximate vapor pressure of low boiling liquids may be estimated by measuring the increase in length of an air column trapped between two short columns of mercury in a uniform diameter tube.
Radley, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 35.
Gases
Vapor density apparatus for general chemistry laboratory  Masterton, W. L.; Williams, T. R.
Presents the design of an apparatus that eliminates errors due to absorption and evaporation in the determination of molecular weights of volatile liquids.
Masterton, W. L.; Williams, T. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 528.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Determination of vapor pressure: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden
Provides a method for obtaining good vapor pressure measurements using simple equipment.
Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 494.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A test tube automatic gas generator  Alpern, D. K.
A simple design for an automatic gas generator can be used to produce common gases such as hydrogen from zinc and hydrochloric acid.
Alpern, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 302.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
The hydrogen organ  Eddy, Robert D.
The hydrogen organ can be used to demonstrate a variety of physical and chemical properties.
Eddy, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 256.
Gases
Textbook errors: XX. Miscellanea No. 2  Mysels, Karol J.
Subjects considered include the meaning of "element," the solubility of phenol in carbonate solutions, and the change of vapor pressure with temperature.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 568.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Phenols |
Gases |
Liquids
A temperature sensitive stirring rod: Liquefaction of NO2 as a student experiment  Eddy, Robert D.; Scholes, Samuel R., Jr.
NO2 is generated from Pb(NO3)2 and collected, condensed, and sealed in a hollow stirring rod, which is then observed in hot, cool, and cold water.
Eddy, Robert D.; Scholes, Samuel R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 527.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Some demonstrations with the overhead projector  Keenan, C. W.
This paper describes the construction and use of demonstration apparatus to be used in conjunction with an overhead projector.
Keenan, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 36.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Transport Properties
Textbook errors: Guest column. XII: The lubricating properties of graphite  Lavrakas, Vasilis
The presentation of the correct lamellar structure of graphite is generally followed in textbooks by an erroneous statement that the lubricating properties of graphite are due to the easy slippage between layers.
Lavrakas, Vasilis J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 240.
Solids |
Gases
Letters to the editor  Saxena, Satish Chandra
The author offers a restatement of Avogadro's law.
Saxena, Satish Chandra J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 188.
Gases |
Stoichiometry
A simple Charles law experiment  Damerell, V. R.
This simple procedure allows students to produce a satisfactory verification of Charles' law.
Damerell, V. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 534.
Gases
Textbook errors: III. The solubility of gases in liquids  Mysels, Karol J.
Rising temperature is generally said to reduce the solubility of gases in liquids, yet the facts disagree with any such generalization.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 399.
Gases |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Le Châtelier's principle and the equilibrium constant  Miller, Arild J.
Many students of chemistry have difficulty in understanding how the position of equilibrium in a gaseous reaction can change when the pressure is altered, in accordance with Le Châtelier's principle, without causing a corresponding variation in the equilibrium constant.
Miller, Arild J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 455.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Gases
Letters to the editor  Wolf, Milton G.
The author extends his earlier suggestions regarding the collection of chlorine to hydrogen sulfide.
Wolf, Milton G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 387.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Determination of the density of oxygen gas  Fiekers, B. A.
The "Oxybomb," a small cartridge of compressed oxygen, is used for determining the density of oxygen gas in laboratory or lecture.
Fiekers, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 139.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Letters to the editor  Lash, M. E.
The author clarifies the definition of critical temperature, which is often stated uncritically in textbooks.
Lash, M. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Wolf, Milton G.
The results of collecting chlorine through the displacement of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium chloride.
Wolf, Milton G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 48.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases
The kinetic structure of gases  Slabaugh, W. H.
Describes a model that illustrates the kinetic properties of gases and ii use to demonstrate the effect of temperature changes on the motion of gas particles.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 68.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Gas-collection bottles  Shumaker, Earl
Recommends making gas-collection bottles community property in the laboratory to save space in students' storage drawers.
Shumaker, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 229.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Support for compressed gas cylinders  Young, Roland S.; Snaddon, R.
Describes the use of rubber suction discs to secure compressed gas cylinders.
Young, Roland S.; Snaddon, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 528.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
Letters  de Milt, Clara
The author calls for a mnemonic device to assist students in learning the gas laws and points out the omission of Graham's law from a recent textbook.
de Milt, Clara J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 115.
Gases