TIGER

Journal Articles: 629 results
The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer  B. T. Arneson, S. R. Long, K. K. Stewart, and J. J. Lagowski
Presents details for adapting a diode array UVvis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubesfuge tubesas cuvettes. The fuge tubes also can serve as reaction vessels, which permits the ready study of chemical systems involving heterogeneous phases by eliminating the need for tedious separations.
Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1663.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Investigating the Stability of Benzoyl Peroxide in Over-the-Counter Acne Medications  Marina Canepa Kittredge, Kevin W. Kittredge, Melissa S. Sokol, Arlyne M. Sarquis, and Laura M. Sennet
Students use peroxide strips to investigate the stability of the benzoyl peroxide found in an over-the-counter acne medication when added to various solutions of water, ethanol, polyethylene glycol, and isopropyl myristate.
Canepa Kittredge, Marina; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1655.
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Nonmajor Courses |
Solutions / Solvents
Manual Data Processing in Analytical Chemistry: Linear Calibration  Dora Melucci
Most science students are familiar with Excel spreadsheets, but determining which of Excels statistical functions perform a calculation equivalent to a classical equation and calculating errors with Excel are not trivial exercises.
Melucci, Dora. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1346.
Calibration |
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
Helping Students Assess the Relative Importance of Different Intermolecular Interactions  Paul G. Jasien
A semi-quantitative model has been developed to estimate the relative effects of dispersion, dipoledipole interactions, and H-bonding on the normal boiling points for a series of simple, straight-chain organic compounds. Application of this model may be useful in addressing student misconceptions related to the additivity of intermolecular interactions.
Jasien, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1222.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties
Make a Match  Erika K. Jacobsen
Suggests using this month's JCE Classroom Activity in conjunction with the laboratory exercise that follows it.
Jacobsen, Erica K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1090.
Calibration |
Carbohydrates |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis
Measuring the Density of a Sugar Solution  Karen I. Peterson
This experiment addresses the concept of equipment calibration for reducing systematic error. Students prepare and measure the densities of sucrose solutions with simple glassware that has been calibrated using the density of water. By careful work, students can determine the density to within 0.5%. allowing accuracy to be a major component of the final grade.
Peterson, Karen I. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1089.
Calibration |
Carbohydrates |
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
[#97] The Sweeter Side of Density  Michael Davis and Charles Henry
Students determine the density of different sugar solutions and then devise a method for layering them in a graduated cylinder. Dyeing the solutions with food coloring results in a rainbow-colored, heterogeneous mixture.
Davis, Michael; Henry, Charles. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1088A.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation To Reinforce Student Understanding of Intermolecular Forces  Phillip R. Burkholder, Gordon H. Purser, and Renee S. Cole
This article presents a series of experiments incorporating molecular dynamics simulations which predict the motion of chemical species based on the application of empirical rules and a physical analysis of the forces that act between the species. These motions can then be shown in vivid graphical form.
Burkholder, Phillip R.; Purser, Gordon H.; Cole, Renee S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1071.
Computational Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
A Hand-Held Ammonia Fountain  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
A plastic juice bottle, filled with ammonia gas generated by combining aqueous ammonia and sodium hydroxide, provides a convenient demonstration of the ammonia fountain and gas solubility.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1063.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Resolving Spectral Lines with a Periscope-Type DVD Spectroscope  Fumitaka Wakabayashi
Describes the periscope-type of DVD spectroscope and demonstrates the numerical analysis of its emission and absorption spectra. This improved design allows one to observe and photograph visible spectra more easily and clearly than earlier models; it thus has the potential to be a cost-effective, powerful, and versatile tool for science education.
Wakabayashi, Fumitaka. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 849.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Simple Laboratory Experiment To Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter  Carlos E. Perles and Pedro L. O. Volpe
A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter.
Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 686.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stereochemistry
Using Pooled Data and Data Visualization To Introduce Statistical Concepts in the General Chemistry Laboratory   Robert J. Olsen
This article describes how data pooling and visualization can be employed in the first-semester general chemistry laboratory to introduce core statistical concepts such as central tendency and dispersion of a data set.
Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 544.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Using Hydrogen Balloons To Display Metal Ion Spectra  James H. Maynard
Describes a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products.
Maynard, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 519.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
Pennies and Eggs: Initiation into Inquiry Learning for Preservice Elementary Education Teachers  Donald J. Wink and Jeong Hye Hwang-Choe
Describes two labs incorporating the Science Writing Heuristic in a course for preservice students in elementary education. The first lab is a discovery activity involving the change in composition and mass of pennies in 1982; the second uses flotation methods to separate hard-boiled and uncooked eggs.
Wink, Donald J.; Hwang-Choe, Jeong Hye. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 396.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Investigating Students' Ability To Transfer Ideas Learned from Molecular Animations of the Dissolution Process  Resa M. Kelly and Loretta L. Jones
This study examines what features of the particulate nature of matter learned from viewing two animations of sodium chloride dissolution students would transfer to their descriptions of the participation of aqueous sodium chloride in a chemical reaction.
Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 303.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Constructivism
A Simple Experiment in the Separation of a Solid-Phase Mixture and Infrared Spectroscopy for Introductory Chemistry  Paul S. Szalay
In this guided-inquiry experiment, a two-component solid mixture of caffeine and ibuprofen is separated through a series of solution extractions and precipitations. The components are then analyzed using IR spectrophotometry to determine how effectively they were separated.
Szalay, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Kristen L. Cacciatore, Jose Amado, Jason J. Evans, and Hannah Sevian
Presents a novel first-year chemistry experiment that asks students to replicate procedures described in sample lab reports that lack essential information. This structure is designed to promote students' experimental design and data analysis skills as well as their understanding of the importance and essential qualities of written and verbal communication between scientists.
Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 251.
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots  Joe Lee
This article provides a theoretical and statistical justification for the necessity of monitoring a reaction to a substantial fraction of completion if integrated rate plots plots are to yield unambiguous orders.
Lee, Joe. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 141.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing  Set Seng, Masakazu Kita, and Reiko Sugihara
This article describes a high school classroom activity in which an acrylic fabric is used as the extraction medium in the analysis of detergent concentration rather than more harmful organic solvents. An handmade reflection photometer, assembled with inexpensive materials such as LED, PVC tube, and CdS sensor, is used to determine the detergent concentration.
Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1803.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Freezing Point of Milk: A Natural Way To Understand Colligative Properties  Mercedes Novo, Belén Reija, and Wajih Al-Soufi
Presents a laboratory experiment that illustrates the use of freezing point measurements to control milk quality and determine molecular weight.
Novo, Mercedes; Reija, Belén; Al-Soufi, Wajih. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1673.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup  David W. Ball
Explores the complex chemical composition of maple syrup.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1647.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Food Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Solutions / Solvents
The Chemical Composition of Honey  David W. Ball
Explores the complex chemical composition of honey.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1643.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Solutions / Solvents
The Penny Experiment Revisited: An Illustration of Significant Figures, Accuracy, Precision, and Data Analysis  Joseph Bularzik
In this general chemistry laboratory the densities of pennies are measured by weighing them and using two different methods to measure their volumes. The average and standard deviation calculated for the resulting densities demonstrate that one measurement method is more accurate while the other is more precise.
Bularzik, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1456.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Physical Properties
Determining the Pressure inside an Unopened Carbonated Beverage  Hans de Grys
Determining the pressure of carbon dioxide inside a sealed soft drink can represents a challenging student exercise. Several methods are discussed for solving the problem, including applying the ideal gas law, gas collection via water displacement, and Henry's law.
de Grys, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1117.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation  J. F. Ogilvie and M. B. Monagan
The authors explain how the use of mathematical software improves the teaching and understanding of mathematics to and by chemistry students while greatly expanding their abilities to solve realistic chemical problems.
Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 889.
Chemometrics |
Computational Chemistry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Physical Meaning of the Mathematical Formalism Present in Limiting Chemical Equations; Or, How Dilute Is Dilute?  C. Contreras-Ortega, N. Bustamante, J. L. Guevara, C. Portillo, and V. Kesternich
Proposes general mathematical formulations to offer students a better understanding of the real scope of scientific expressions dealing with limiting physical conditions, such as those concerning dilute and concentrated solutions and low and high temperatures and pressures.
Contreras-Ortega, C.; Bustamante, N.; Guevara, J. L.; Portillo, C.; Kesternich, V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 788.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Hydrophilic Inorganic Macro-Ions in Solution: Unprecedented Self-Assembly Emerging from Historical "Blue Waters"  Tianbo Liu, Ekkehard Diemann, and Achim Müller
The behavior of supramolecular structures in solution is different from that of simple ions, polymers, surfactant micelles, and colloids. New research involving polyoxometalates, which are fully hydrophilic but tend to self-associate into macro-ionic structures, may change our understanding of inorganic ionic solutions.
Liu, Tianbo; Diemann, Ekkehard; Müller, Achim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 526.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Colloids |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Physical Properties
Using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures To Determine the Vapor Pressure of a Volatile Liquid  Fred R. Hilgeman, Gary Bertrand, and Brent Wilson
This experiment, designed for a general chemistry laboratory, illustrates the use of Dalton's law of partial pressures to determine the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid.
Hilgeman, Fred R.; Bertrand, Gary; Wilson, Brent. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 469.
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Flame Emission Spectrometry in General Chemistry Labs: Solubility Product (Ksp) of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate  Frazier W. Nyasulu, William Cusworth III, David Lindquist, and John Mackin
In this general chemistry laboratory, flame emission spectrometry is used to determine the potassium ion concentration in saturated solutions of potassium hydrogen phthalate. From these data the solubility products, the Gibbs free energies of solution, the standard enthalpy of solution, and the standard entropy of solution are calculated.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Cusworth, William, III; Lindquist, David; Mackin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 456.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
More Thoughts on the Narra Tree Fluorescence  A. Ulises Acuña
The source of L. nephriticum and the substance responsible for the intense blue fluorescence in an earlier published demonstration may require further consideration.
Acuña, A. Ulises. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 231.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases
Effectiveness of a MORE Laboratory Module in Prompting Students To Revise Their Molecular-Level Ideas about Solutions  Lydia T. Tien, Melonie A. Teichert, and Dawn Rickey
This study investigates the effectiveness of a ModelObserveReflectExplain (MORE) laboratory module in prompting three different populations of general chemistry students to revise their molecular-level ideas regarding chemical compounds dissolved in water.
Tien, Lydia T.; Teichert, Melonie A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 175.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
pHantastic Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
Students easily extract a fluorescent substance from shavings of a wood called narra. The fluorescence is dramatically pH dependent and can be turned on and off repeatedly using commonly available acid and base solutions.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 768A.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Popcorn—What's in the Bag?  Marissa B. Sherman and Thomas A. Evans
Three independent activities explore microwave popcorn, the nature of the packaging, and the popcorn produced.
Sherman, Marissa B.; Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 416A.
Carbohydrates |
Nutrition |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Understanding Isotopic Distributions in Mass Spectrometry  Juris Meija
Offers a simple graphical tool for obtaining complex isotopic distributions.
Meija, Juris. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes |
Chemometrics
The Importance and Efficacy of Using Statistics in the High School Chemistry Laboratory  Paul S. Matsumoto
This paper describes some statistical concepts and their application to various experiments used in high school chemistry.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1649.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression  Ronald P. D'Amelia, Thomas Franks, and William F. Nirode
The work described herein uses differential scanning calorimetry to determine the molar mass of three unknowns (nonvolatile organic hydrocarbons) by freezing point depression.
D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1537.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Concentration Scales for Sugar Solutions  David W. Ball
Examines several special scales used to indicate the concentration of sugar solutions and their application to industry.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Food Science |
Solutions / Solvents
The Synthesis of Copper(II) Carboxylates Revisited  Kevin Kushner, Robert E. Spangler, Ralph A. Salazar, Jr., and J. J. Lagowski
Describes an electrochemical synthesis of copper(II) carboxylates for use in the general chemistry laboratory course for chemistry majors.
Kushner, Kevin; Spangler, Robert E.; Salazar, Ralph A., Jr.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1042.
Carboxylic Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
Transition Elements |
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis
Complexometric Titration of Aluminum and Magnesium Ions in Commercial Antacids. An Experiment for General and Analytical Chemistry Laboratories  Shui-Ping Yang and Ruei-Ying Tsai
A novel experiment for determining the total and individual aluminum and magnesium ion content in commercial antacids is described. This experiment is developed with three independent protocols based on complexometric direct and back titrations containing the concepts and usages of blocking, masking, buffer controls and metallic indicators.
Yang, Shui-Ping; Tsai, Ruei-Ying. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 906.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Consumer Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Fluorescence of Lignum nephriticum: A Flash Back to the Past and a Simple Demonstration of Natural Substance Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
This article describes a simple but visually striking demonstration of fluorescence from the aqueous extract of the tropical hardwood Pterocarpus indicus.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 765.
Acids / Bases |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Demonstration of Absorbance Using Digital Color Image Analysis and Colored Solutions  Shane K. Kohl, James D. Landmark, and Douglas F. Stickle
This article describes a simple experiment in which the principle of absorbance may be demonstrated using digital color image analysis.
Kohl, Shane K.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
What Happens When Chemical Compounds Are Added to Water? An Introduction to the Model–Observe–Reflect–Explain (MORE) Thinking Frame  Adam C. Mattox, Barbara A. Reisner, and Dawn Rickey
This article describes a laboratory designed to help students understand how different compounds behave when dissolved in water, and introduces the modelobservereflectexplain (MORE) thinking frame, an instructional tool that encourages students to connect macroscopic observations with their understanding of the behavior of particles at the molecular level.
Mattox, Adam C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 622.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
The Ultrasonic Soda Fountain: A Dramatic Demonstration of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solutions  John E. Baur and Melinda B. Baur
An ultrasonic bath is used to accelerate the rate at which carbonated beverages equilibrate with the atmosphere. The resulting fountain, which can reach heights in excess of 3 meters, is a dramatic demonstration of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Baur, John E.; Baur, Melinda B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 577.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility provides an animated, visual interpretation of the different solubilities of related salts based on simple entropy changes associated with dissolution: configurational disorder and thermal disorder.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 173.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Computational Chemistry
A New Java Animation in Peer-Reviewed JCE WebWare  William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
Just added to JCE WebWare, Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility uses a Java applet and Web browser to present an animated illustration of differences in the solubility of salts due to differences in the entropy of solvation.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 173.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Using Computer Simulations To Teach Salt Solubility. The Role of Entropy in Solubility Equilibrium  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Pairs of salts are discussed to illustrate the interpretation of their different behavior in water in terms of the fundamental concept of entropy. The ability of computer simulations to help improve students' understanding of these chemistry concepts is also examined.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 170.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Further Analysis of Boiling Points of Small Molecules, CHwFxClyBrz  Guy Beauchamp
Multiple linear regression analysis has proven useful in selecting predictor variables that could significantly clarify the boiling point variation of the CHwFxClyBrz molecules.
Beauchamp, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1842.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Authors: Know the Hazards, Please!  Anne K. Bentley, Mohammed Farhoud, Arthur B. Ellis, George C. Lisensky, Anne-Marie L. Nickel, and Wendy C. Crone
The MSDS for commercial Ni plating solution states that the product is regulated as toxic and contains ingredients that are known to cause cancer.
Bentley, Anne K.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C.; Nickel, Anne-Marie L.; Crone, Wendy C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1775.
Solutions / Solvents |
Toxicology |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
Authors: Know the Hazards, Please!  Jay A. Young
The article Template Synthesis and Magnetic Manipulation of Nickel Nanowires does not identify all of the important potential hazards involved; nickel compounds are known to be human carcinogens, and nickel and its compounds are mutagenic.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1775.
Solutions / Solvents |
Toxicology |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
Authors: Know the Hazards, Please!  Jay A. Young
The article Template Synthesis and Magnetic Manipulation of Nickel Nanowires does not identify all of the important potential hazards involved; nickel compounds are known to be human carcinogens, and nickel and its compounds are mutagenic.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1775.
Solutions / Solvents |
Toxicology |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
Sherlock Holmes and the Case of the Raven and the Ambassador's Wife: An Inquiry-Based Murder Mystery  Nathaniel Grove and Stacey Lowery Bretz
In the accompanying investigation, students help Sherlock Holmes solve the poisoning death of Holly Bernard-Schneider, the wife of the German ambassador to England. Hints are placed throughout the story to help students in their choice of experiments. These experiments include flame tests, qualitative analysis, molar mass determination using freezing point depression, and identification of crystal shapes. Though intended for use as a culminating activity, the unit can be easily modified to be used as separate modules throughout the course of the year.
Grove, Nathaniel; Bretz, Stacey Lowery. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1532.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Toys in the Classroom  Jerry L. Sarquis and Arlyne. M. (Mickey) Sarquis
The chemical principles behind Shrinky Dinks, Happy Birds, and Hand Boilers are described and suggestions for hands-on activities for students are given.
Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne. M. (Mickey). J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1450.
Solutions / Solvents
Improving Conceptions in Analytical Chemistry: ci Vi = cf Vf  Margarita Rodríguez-López and Arnaldo Carrasquillo Jr.
A common misconception related to analytical chemistry, which may be generalized as the failure to recognize and to account analytically for changes in substance density, is discussed. A cautionary example is made through the use of mass-based units of composition during volumetric dilution. The correct application of the volumetric dilution equation ci Vi = cf Vf is discussed. A quantitative description of the systematic error introduced by incorrect use of the volumetric dilution equation is also specified.
Rodríguez-López, Margarita; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1327.
Industrial Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Cross-Proportions: A Conceptual Method for Developing Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills  Elzbieta Cook and Robert L. Cook
This paper focuses attention on the cross-proportion (C-P) method of mathematical problem solving, which was once widely used in chemical calculations. We propose that this method regain currency as an alternative to the dimensional analysis (DA) method, particularly in lower-level chemistry courses. In recent years, the DA method has emerged as the only problem solving mechanism offered to high-school and general chemistry students in contemporary textbooks, replacing more conceptual methods, C-P included.
Cook, Elzbieta; Cook, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1187.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Student-Centered Learning
The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems  Paul S. Matsumoto
The traditional method to determine the equilibrium concentration of chemicals in a reaction, given the equilibrium constant and the initial concentration of chemicals in the reaction, involves the determination of the reaction quotient. This article will demonstrate that this step may be eliminated; thereby simplifying the algorithm to solve such problems. Such a reduction in the complexity of the algorithm may result in more students successfully being able to solve such problems.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 406.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Reaction to "The Concept of Ionic Strength Eighty Years after Its Introduction in Chemistry"  Leslie Glasser
Sastre de Vicente has recently published an excellent paper on the concept of ionic strength, detailing its empirical origin, its independent appearance in the theories of Debye and Hckel, its applications in solution chemistry and, most importantly, its interpretation as reflecting the extent to which a potential difference induces a charge density difference.
Glasser, Leslie. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 212.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Greener Approach for Measuring Colligative Properties  Sean M. McCarthy and Scott W. Gordon-Wylie
As a first step towards the greening of instructional laboratories, we present a new greener version of a laboratory procedure designed to measure colligative properties. The greener procedure substitutes the nontoxic, noncarcinogenic compounds stearic, myristic, lauric, and palmitic acids for the less benign aromatic compounds p-dichlorobenzene, benzil, biphenyl, naphthalene, and nitrotoluene. Achieving educational goals without the concomitant generation of chlorinated and aromatic wastes is shown here to be both possible and practical.
McCarthy, Sean M.; Gordon-Wylie, Scott W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 116.
Green Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Fatty Acids
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples. An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory  Christopher J. Pursell, Bert Chandler, and Michelle M. Bushey
This experiment can be done in a lab, as a "dry-lab", or as an in-class exercise. Students explore a number of basic separation topics and work with figures of merit for real and meaningful samples. We have adopted a strategy where students encounter various instruments and methods of analyses multiple times throughout the curriculum. The level of sophistication in the exposures increases with the experience level of the students. Through this repeated exposure students will gain a better and fuller understanding of these methods than they would with a single exposure to the technique in the analytical or instrumental laboratory.
Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1783.
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chemometrics |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Effect of Ionic Strength on the Solubility of an Electrolyte  Joan D. Willey
The theory of activity versus concentration is important in industrial, environmental, and biochemistry. The increase in solubility of an electrolyte in a solution of a second electrolyte with no common ions compared with pure water is not an easy concept to grasp because it seems to be counterintuitive. The simple experiment described here illustrates this principle visually and dramatically. Students attempt to dissolve CaSO42H2O (gypsum) in pure water and in 0.25 M NaCl.
Willey, Joan D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Statistical Comparison of Data in the Analytical Laboratory  Michael J. Samide
In this article, an experiment designed to provide students with an experience involving statistical treatment of data is described. This experiment allows students to compare 11 different techniques for measuring specific volumes of water. Replicate measurements are taken for each technique and comparisons are made both within a data set and between different data sets. Through calculation of t-values, students are able to draw conclusions about the precision and accuracy of these various techniques.
Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1641.
Chemometrics
Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base Equilibria  Harry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai
This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero.
Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Reaction to Why Do We Teach Equilibrium Calculations?  Stephen J. Hawkes
"Rigor" in introductory chemistry is often equated with quantitation. Consequently the understanding of chemical reactions and properties is obscured. This was illustrated by Stumpo who asked students to calculate ?E of a reaction, and then on another question on the same test asked a question aimed at its meaning. 77% of the students calculated correctly, but only 24% showed understanding of its meaning. The ability to calculate a number does not measure understanding of the number.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1265.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Reaction to Why Do We Teach Equilibrium Calculations?   Don L. Lewis
A recently published correspondence by Stephen J. Hawkes on teaching equilibrium calculations troubles me. Hawkes dismisses equilibrium calculations as mere algorithms, best deferred until the student can use computer programs. I find it difficult to believe that a computer program enhances understanding. From a chemists point of view, the equilibrium condition is a limit, a limit that (because of stochastic considerations) does not exist. It might be better to make the reaction quotient statement using < or > but the use of those relations is delayed until quantum mechanics.
Lewis, Don L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1265.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant: Author Reply  José E. Cortés-Figueroa
When technology is used to help with mathematical calculations, the emphasis must be on the concepts being learned rather than simply the procedures. In our approach we are attempting to help students learn more about the concept and also to attain data analysis skills they will need in the future.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant  Todd P. Silverstein
The authors use the graphing calculator to estimate the infinity reading from linearized kinetics data, and then they use linearized semi-log data to determine the first-order rate constant.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Effects of an Active Learning Environment: Teaching Innovations at a Research I Institution  Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo, DeeDee Allen, William F. Hunt, Joy Hutson, and Angela Pitts
This paper describes a new approach for teaching general chemistry that combines lecture and laboratory into one seamless session and incorporates instructional methods supported by research-based findings. The results of a study that compared two instructional formats, conventional passive lecture and the student-centered, highly collaborative format known as cAcL2 (concept Advancement through chemistry LabLecture), are also presented.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Allen, DeeDee; Hunt, William F.; Hutson, Joy; Pitts, Angela. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 441.
Chemometrics |
Student-Centered Learning
Well Wishes. A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  Mary M. Walczak and Juliette M. Lantz
This paper describes the use of a case study to teach introductory chemistry students the chemical principles of solution concentration (especially ppm) and dilution, aqueous redox reactions, and stoichiometric conversions between different solution species.
Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 218.
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Dipoles  Samuel H. Yalkowsky and Jennifer L. H. Johnson
Reply to comments on original article.
Yalkowsky, Samuel H.; Johnson, Jennifer L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Chemical Bonds  Roy W. Clark
Concerns over students confusing electrical and magnetic fields.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot  Edward Urbansky
Reply to comments on original article.
Urbansky, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Reaction order Ambiguity  Sue Le Vent
Integrated rate equations (for constant reaction volume) may be given in terms of relative reactant concentration, C (= concentration/initial concentration) and relative time, T (= time/half-life); in these forms, the equations are independent of rate constants and initial concentrations.
Le Vent, Sue. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Students' Understanding of Solution Chemistry Concepts  Tacettin Pinarbasi and Nurtaç Canpolat
This study examines undergraduates' understanding of some concepts in solution chemistry such as unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions; physical properties of solutions; and gas solubility. We suggest that the results can be utilized in research that develops teaching strategies to overcome students' misunderstanding.
Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Canpolat, Nurtaç . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1328.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals  Constantinos E. Efstathiou
SpecSpan is a utility program for Microsoft Windows that generates numerical data from printed spectra or other plots found as figures in text, chart recordings, or freehand drawings. SpecScan can process bitmap (.BMP) images of such figures and drawings. After a brief interaction with the user, it generates and exports numerical data as Excel (.XLS) or text (.TXT) files.
Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
From Our Peer-Reviewed Collection  William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peer-reviewed WebWare.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals  Constantinos E. Efstathiou
The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peer-reviewed WebWare.
Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
Two Linear Correlation Coefficients  Robert de Levie
In fitting data to a straight line, many calculators and computer programs display a linear correlation coefficient. Two types of linear correlation coefficients are discussed, one often useful in chemical calculations, the other usually not.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1030.
Chemometrics
Purple or Colorless—Which Way Up? An Entertaining Solubility Demonstration  Trevor M. Kitson
Discrepant demonstration involving immiscible mixture of water colored with potassium permanganate and hexane.
Kitson, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 892.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
A Simple Method for Determination of Solubility in the First-Year Laboratory  Heather D. Harle, Julia A. Ingram, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
Efficient means of determining the solubility of a solute using a Buchner-type funnel for filtration and an analytical balance to measure mass changes.
Harle, Heather D.; Ingram, Julia A.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 560.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Laboratory Management |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Solvent Extraction Using Safe and Commonly Available Materials To Demonstrate the Difference in Solubility of Two Mixed Solutes  Dante Gilbert L. de Leon and Armando M. Guidote Jr.
Solvent extraction using safe and commonly available materials to demonstrate the difference in solubility of two mixed solutes.
de Leon, Dante Gilbert L.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 436.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon  James G. Goll and Stacie L. Mundinger
Teaching chemistry using From the Earth to the Moon (an HBO original movie series).
Goll, James G.; Mundinger, Stacie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 292.
Electrochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Mole, Mole per Liter, and Molar: A Primer on SI and Related Units for Chemistry Students  George Gorin
A brief historical overview of the SI system, the concept of the mole and the definition of mole unit, the status of the liter in the metric and SI systems, and the meaning of molar and molarity.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 103.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Principal Species and pH in Acid–Base Solutions  Robert M. Hanson
Web page that allows one to determine the concentrations of principal species in a variety of solutions or mixtures of solutions; also allows a virtual titration.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1486.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions  Jonathan Mitschele
Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English- and metric-unit thermometers.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Three-Dimensional Model for Water  J. L. H. Johnson and S. H. Yalkowsky
Using Molymod spheres and magnets to simulate the structure and properties of water and aqueous systems.
Johnson, J. L. H.; Yalkowsky, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1088.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
LIMSport: Optimizing a Windows-Based Computer Data Acquisition and Reduction System for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Ed Vitz and Brenda P. Egolf
Project to develop a Windows/Excel data acquisition system for LIMSport (a mechanism for automatically acquiring data from a variety of sensors into a spreadsheet so that teachers and students only need spreadsheet skills to acquire and analyze data) and evaluate its effectiveness in promoting student learning.
Vitz, Ed; Egolf, Brenda P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1060.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Precision in Microscale Titration  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, and Zvi Szafran
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Precision in Microscale Titration  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Precision in Microscale Titration  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets  Peter de B. Harrington, Erin Kolbrich, and Jennifer Cline
Determining the acidity of three vinegar samples using multiplexed titrations and an MS Excel spreadsheet.
Harrington, Peter de B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 863.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts  Emilio Rodríguez and Miguel Angel Vicente
A 10-hour integrated experiment that covers all the inorganic chemistry topics in first-year chemistry and chemical engineering courses.
Rodríguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 486.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents
Nonlinear Fits of Standard Curves: A Simple Route to Uncertainties in Unknowns   Carl Salter and Robert de Levie
The problem of covariance in using calibration curves and a nonlinear least-squares procedure that permits a direct estimation of uncertainty without the need for covariance.
Salter, Carl; de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 268.
Chemometrics
Magnetic Stirring with the Stirring Bar Length Exceeding the Vessel Diameter  Kirk W. Payne, James M. Lucas, and Edmund J. Eisenbraun
Suggestions for effectively using magnetic stirring bars in test tubes.
Payne, Kirk W.; Lucas, James M.; Eisenbraun, Edmund J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 217.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Magnetic Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Some Unusual Applications of the "Error-Bar" Feature in Excel Spreadsheets  Kieran F. Lim
Paper demonstrating how the "error-bar" feature in Excel can be sued to produce high-quality graphs for university teaching, learning, and research.
Lim, Kieran F. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 135.
Chemometrics
Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UV-Sensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A-648B)  Jerry A. Bell
Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UV-sensitive beads.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Chemometrics
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  Myung-Hoon Kim
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Kim, Myung-Hoon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  David W. Miller
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Miller, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
Using Computer-Based Visualization Strategies to Improve Students' Understanding of Molecular Polarity and Miscibility  Michael J. Sanger and Steven M. Badger II
Study of how the use of visualization strategies associated with dynamic computer animations and electron density plots affect students' conceptual understanding of molecular polarity and miscibility.
Sanger, Michael J.; Badger, Steven M., II. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1412.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
The Purification of Water by Freeze-Thaw or Zone Melting  James Oughton, Silas Xu, and Rubin Battino
Quantitative investigation of the purification of slat water solutions through the process of partial freezing.
Oughton, James; Xu, Silas; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1373.
Conductivity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Analysis of Success in General Chemistry Based on Diagnostic Testing Using Logistic Regression  Margaret J. Legg, Jason C. Legg, and Thomas J. Greenbowe
Estimating the probability of succeeding in general chemistry based on diagnostic or placement exam scores.
Legg, Margaret J.; Legg, Jason C.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1117.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories |
Student / Career Counseling
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot!  Edward T. Urbansky
Using integrated rate plots to determine reaction order.
Urbansky, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 921.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
A Simple Method for Illustrating Uncertainty Analysis  Paul C. Yates
A fast and simple method for generating data for uncertainty analysis; includes statistical analysis and calculation of maximum probable error for a sample set of data.
Yates, Paul C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 770.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemistry Report. MAA-CUPM Curriculum Foundations Workshop in Biology and Chemistry, Macalester College, November 2-5, 2000  Norman C. Craig
Chemists list specific knowledge and skills in mathematics needed by chemistry students and indicate whether mathematicians or chemists should deliver the instruction; the course level of the instruction and the use of technological aids are also designated.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 582.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Learning Theories
What's Been Happening to Undergraduate Mathematics  David M. Bressoud
An overview of some of the changes that have been occurring in undergraduate mathematics education; based on a workshop held by the Mathematical Association of America to determine what chemists expect their students to learn from undergraduate mathematics courses in terms of understanding, content, and use of technology.
Bressoud, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 578.
Learning Theories |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
Floating Plastics: An Initial Chemistry Laboratory Experience  Enrique A. Hughes, Helena M. Ceretti, and Anita Zalts
Students prepare a series of solutions with gradually increasing densities. Then they are given plastic samples of known and unknown composition and they estimate the densities of the samples by observing in which solutions they float and in which they sink; these densities are used to identify the plastics.
Hughes, Enrique A.; Ceretti, Helena M.; Zalts, Anita. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 522.
Nonmajor Courses |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Understanding Solubility through Excel Spreadsheets  Pamela Brown
This article describes assignments related to the solubility of inorganic salts that can be given in an introductory general chemistry course. These assignments address the need for math, graphing, and computer skills in the chemical technology program by developing skill in the use of Microsoft Excel to prepare spreadsheets and graphs and to perform linear and nonlinear curve-fitting.
Brown, Pamela. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 268.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Simple Laboratory Experiment for the Determination of Absolute Zero  Myung-Hoon Kim, Michelle Song Kim, and Suw-Young Ly
A novel method that employs a remarkably simple and inexpensive apparatus and is based on the extrapolation of the volume of a given amount of dry air to zero volume after a volume of air trapped inside a 10-mL graduated cylinder is measured at various temperatures.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Michelle Song; Ly, Suw-Young. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Crystallization from a Supersaturated Solution of Sodium Acetate  Jamil Ahmad
An overhead projector demonstration is described, in which sodium acetate trihydrate crystallizes out from a supersaturated solution that has been poured on a transparency. When seeded with a crystal of the salt, crystallization starts, and its progress can be followed on the screen.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1446.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
How Can an Instructor Best Introduce the Topic of Significant Figures to Students Unfamiliar with the Concept?  Richard A. Pacer
The focus of this paper is how best to introduce the concept of significant figures so that students find it meaningful before a stage is reached at which they become turned off. The approach described begins with measurements students are already familiar with from their life experiences and involves the students as active learners.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1435.
Learning Theories |
Nonmajor Courses |
Chemometrics
SolEq: Solution Equilibria, Principles and Applications, Release 1
by SolEq Project Team: L. D. Pettit, K. J. Powell, and R. W. Ramette

  Marina C. Koether
29 tutorials with simulation, calculations, and graphs, on solution equilibria.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1414.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Pixel Conversion: A Simple Way to Extract Coordinates of Points from a Printed Graph  Christian Aymard and Randall B. Shirts
A very simple method is described for extracting the coordinates of points from printed graphs, student reports, or publications. One only needs a flatbed scanner and a desktop computer. This is a convenient and inexpensive alternative to the tedious traditional method using a ruler or to the more costly programs available commercially. A Windows program has been made available to perform the required operations.
Aymard, Christian; Shirts, Randall B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1230.
Chemometrics
Turbulent Motion in Ethyl Acetate-Water System  Jamil Ahmad
4 mL of ethyl acetate is added to 10 mL of water in a Petri dish. Within a minute or so, an image of turbulent motion appears on the screen, at first at a few centers that eventually organize themselves in a line. The image of the line of turbulence is quite striking and resembles a moving front of dancing flames.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1182.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Surface Science
Encouraging Meaningful Quantitative Problem Solving  Jeff Cohen, Meghan Kennedy-Justice, Sunny Pai, Carmen Torres, Rick Toomey, Ed DePierro, and Fred Garafalo
This paper describes the efforts of a group of teachers to help college freshman chemistry students and high school science students to improve their problem-solving skills. The presentation includes several sets of questions intended to elucidate ideas and to involve the reader in the process of reflecting upon his or her own problem-solving strategies.
Cohen, Jeff; Kennedy-Justice, Meghan; Pai, Sunny; Torres, Carmen; Toomey, Rick; DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1166.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
A Classroom Exercise in Sampling Technique  Michael R. Ross
A classroom hands-on demonstration has been developed that looks at the two important sampling considerations, sample size and non-homogeneous sample materials. This classroom activity makes use of readily available M&M candies for the sample size and NERDS for the non-homogeneous sample exercises.
Ross, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1015.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet Calculation of the Propagation of Experimental Imprecision  Robert de Levie
A spreadsheet is used to compute the propagation of imprecision, and a macro is described that will do this automatically.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 534.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Experimentation and Group Discussion as a Means of Determining Solubility Rules  Karen E. Stevens
An experimental method is presented that leads to the development of solubility rules. A set of experiments is performed as a class demonstration and then discussed in groups. As a result, a classification of all the ionic species present can be made in terms of their solubility.
Stevens, Karen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 327.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
An Introductory Laboratory Exercise on Solution Preparation: A Rewarding Experience  M. Rachel Wang
This exercise provides beginning students a firsthand experience in solution preparation. The format of the student handout promotes active learning in the laboratory by having text and questions interspersed among laboratory procedures. Students are motivated to prepare solutions for the fascinating Briggs-Rauscher oscillation reaction and the exercise involves a variety of situations commonly encountered in solution preparation.
Wang, M. Rachel. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 249.
Solutions / Solvents
Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment: Abstract of Issue 9907  N. Papadopoulos, A. T. Pitta, N. Markopoulos, M. Limniou, M. A. N. D. A. Lemos, F. Lemos, and F. G. Freire
Viscosity Measurement includes three virtual experiments: an Ostwald viscometer simulator, a falling-ball viscometer simulator, and a balance simulator for a simple determination of the density of a liquid. Each virtual experiment includes a corresponding theoretical section. Support from the program is sufficient to enable the students to carry out a virtual experiment sensibly and on their own.
Papadopoulos, Nikos; Pitta, A. T.; Markopoulos, N.; Limniou, M.; Lemos, M. A. N. D. A.; Lemos, F. M.; Freire, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1600.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
The Solubility of Ionic Solids and Molecular Liquids  C. Baer and Sheila M. Adamus
The solubilities of three ionic salts (NaCl, PbCl2, and KAl(SO4)2.12H2O) in water are measured at four temperatures. The concept of recrystallization is introduced as students cool a high-temperature solution and observe crystal formation. Spreadsheet calculations are performed with the group data, which are then graphed, and students observe the wide variance in solubility behavior for the three salts.
Baer, Carl; Adamus, Sheila M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1540.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents
Phosphate Buffers and Telephone Poles - A Useful Analogy with Limitations  Edwin S. Gould
A visual aid is presented to help general chemistry students establish the major phosphorus species in buffer solutions made from partial neutralizations of phosphoric acid and to estimate concentrations.
Gould, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1511.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles  Doris R. Kimbrough
Presented here is the application of Henry's law to the noise associated with "cracking" knuckles. Gases dissolved in the synovial fluid in joints rapidly come out of solution as the joint is stretched and pressure is decreased. This "cavitation" produces a characteristic noise.
Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1509.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
Authentic Research within the Grasp of High School Students  Annis Hapkiewicz
There are research questions to be explored that are within the experience of students. The research problem that is described arose when a colleague posed a question: "Will an ice cube melt faster in salt water or tap water?" The learning process describe could be duplicated in any chemistry classroom, and it can also serve as a framework for exploring other problems as they arise from everyday observations.
Hapkiewicz, Annis. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1212.
Solutions / Solvents
Predicting Acid-Base Titration Curves without Calculations  Dennis W. Barnum
In this paper a qualitative and systematic method for sketching titration curves is presented. Even the more complex cases such as salts or polyprotic acids and bases are treated just as easily as simple monoprotic acids. Having students predict the shape of titration curves from known equilibrium constants helps to focus attention on the general principles without distraction by the mathematics.
Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 938.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Do pH in Your Head  Addison Ault
Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 936.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Ammonia Can Crush  Ed Vitz
When a 12-oz aluminum soft drink can filled with ammonia or hydrogen chloride gas is inverted and dipped into water, the rapidly dissolving gas evacuates the can and the can is crushed before water can be drawn into it. This demonstrates, among other things, the remarkable strength of hydrogen bonds.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 932.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Hydrogen Bonding
Solution Conductivity Apparatus  Daniel T. Haworth, Mark R. Bartelt, and Michael J. Kenney
A solution conductivity apparatus is described that can be used to measure the relative conductivity of various solutions. The apparatus can be used as either a hand-held model employing a 10-element LED display or a lecture-hall demonstration model employing a 10-incandescent-lamp array.
Haworth, Daniel T.; Bartelt, Mark R.; Kenney, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements (the author replies)  Treptow, Richard S.
Relation between instrument resolution and skill.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements  Thomsen, Volker
The difference between instrument resolution and precision.
Thomsen, Volker J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
An Easy and Effective Classroom Demonstration of Population Distributions  Marjorie A. Jones
Using a simple experimental design and easily obtained materials, a classroom experiment was conducted to demonstrate normal-distribution behavior for a population. We used popcorn and a hot-air popper. Popped kernels were collected with time and data were plotted as popped kernels per time interval versus time. The data clearly showed a normal (Gaussian) distribution.
Jones, Marjorie A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 384.
Chemometrics
Effect of Sample Size on Sampling Error: An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  Joseph E. Vitt and Royce C. Engstrom
Students acquire samples of various size from a binary population, calculate the relative standard deviations for each sample size, and compare these results with those predicted by the binomial distribution. This experiment gives excellent agreement for the pooled student data, and the results show the expected decrease in sampling error as the sample size increases.
Vitt, Joseph E.; Engstrom, Royce C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 99.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay)  Scott White and George Bodner
CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations.
White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Temperature Scale Conversion as a Linear Equation: True Unit Conversion vs Zero-Offset Correction  Reuben Rudman
The equation used for the interconversion between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is in reality the general case of the straight-line equation (y = ax + b). This equation is the paradigm for many of the calculations taught in introductory chemistry.
Rudman, Reuben. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The Effects of Salts and Nonelectrolytes on the Solubility of Potassium Bitartrate: An Introductory Chemistry Discovery Experiment  Charles J. Marzzacco
An introductory chemistry discovery experiment on the effect of the presence of various solutes on the solubility of potassium bitartrate (KHT) is presented. Aqueous solutions of KCl, NaCl, MgSO4 and glucose with concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 0.10 M are saturated with KHT. The solubility of the KHT in these various solutions is determined by titration with standardized NaOH solution.
Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1628.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
Modeling Nuclear Decay: A Point of Integration between Chemistry and Mathematics  Kent J. Crippen and Robert D. Curtright
A four-part activity utilizing a graphing calculator to investigate nuclear stability is described. Knowledge acquired through the activity provides background for answering the societal question of using nuclear materials for energy production.
Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1434.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
A Cyclist's Guide to Ionic Concentration  Arthur M. Last
A simple analogy to help students understand ionic concentration is presented.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1433.
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Solubility equilibria are best taught qualitatively in introductory chemistry, leaving the calculations to higher level courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1179.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Oxygen vs Dioxygen: Diatomic/Monatomic Usage  Sharon, Jared B.
Using the name dioxygen for O2.
Sharon, Jared B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1089.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
There Seems To Be Uncertainty about the Use of Significant Figures in Reporting Uncertainties of Results  Julio F. Caballero and Delphia F. Harris
A cursory review of two journals indicates that uncertainties in experimental results are not consistently reported in the literature with the correct number of significant figures. The problem seems more frequent in computer generated results in both chemical education and research articles. Examples of published values with uncertainty inappropriately reported are included along with the appropriate rounding.
Caballero, Julio F.; Harris, Delphia F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 996.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements: A Tale of Four Graduated Cylinders  Richard S. Treptow
The concepts of precision and accuracy help students understand that uncertainty accompanies even our best scientific measurements. A model experiment can be used to distinguish the two terms. The experiment uses four graduated cylinders which give measurements of different accuracy and precision. Such terms as mean, range, standard deviation, error, and true value are defined through an illustration.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 992.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 2)  Midden, W. Robert
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Midden, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 1)  Guare, Charles J.
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Guare, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (3)  Rustad, Douglas
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Rustad, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (1)  Sykes, Robert M.
Standard procedures for determining and maintaining significant figures in calculations.
Sykes, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics
Percent Composition and Empirical Formula - A New View  George L. Gilbert
A new method of obtaining the empirical formula for a compound from its percent composition is proposed. The method involves the determination of a minimum molar mass for the compound based on the percentage of each element, obtaining the lowest common molar mass and using this data to calculate the integer values used in writing the empirical formula.
Gilbert, George L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 851.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Vapor Pressure Lowering by Nonvolatile Solutes  Gavin D. Peckham
This short article highlights a fundamental error that is entrenched in introductory chemistry textbooks. It is true that the addition of a nonvolatile solute causes a lowering in the vapor pressure of a solution. The error lies in attributing this vapor pressure lowering to the "blocking" of surface sites by nonvolatile particles. This is a totally fallacious argument for a number of reasons and the true explanation is to be found in the entropy changes that occur as a nonvolatile solute is added to a solution.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 787.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Production of Numerical Chemical Problems Using a Spreadsheet  Peter G. Hall
The use of spreadsheets for "personalized" assignments. These assignments take the form of printed chemical problems such that every student has different numerical data. The problem sets make a challenging student introduction to word processing and spreadsheet use.
Hall, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 243.
Chemometrics
The Real Reason Why Oil and Water Don't Mix  Todd P. Silverstein
Authors should remove from their textbooks the incorrect enthalpic/hydrogen-bond explanation for the hydrophobic effect. Because aspects of the correct entropic/clathrate "cage" explanation lie beyond the scope of introductory or organic chemistry courses, it may be wisest to omit any detailed physical explanation of the "like dissolves like" phenomenon.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 116.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The Source of the Cloud Produced upon Adding Dry Ice to Water  Manu Kohli, Rudy L. Luck, and Veka Ohtamaa
Explains why a cloud is produced by adding dry ice to water.
Kohli, Manu; Luck, Rudy L.; Ohtamaa, Veka. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 60.
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Demonstrating Heat Changes on the Overhead Projector with a Projecting Thermometer  Chinhyu Hur, Sally Solomon, and Christy Wetzel
Heat changes can be observed by using a culture dish and a thermometer that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector.
Hur, Chinhyu; Solomon, Sally; Wetzel, Christy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 51.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Chemistry Maths Book (by Erich Steiner)   C. Michael McCallum
The Chemistry Maths Book contains all the mathematical methods that 99% of chemists would need. Designed as a text for an actual Maths for Chemists course, it is laid out in a logical progression from simple (decimals, algebra, and functions) to the more complicated but no less important (matrix algebra, differential equations, and matrix eigenvalue problems). It seems well suited both for its stated purpose and as a "brush-up" book for undergraduates, graduate students, and others.
McCallum, C. Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1400.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
The Disappearing Liquid  H. D. Gesser and Ian Ward
Mixing ethanol and water in a volumetric flask results in a noticeable reduction in the volume of the mixture.
Gesser, H. D.; Ward, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1357.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Note on Covariance in Propagation of Uncertainty  Edwin F. Meyer
It is pointed out that whenever both the slope and the intercept are used in calculating a physical quantity from a linear regression, propagation of error must include the covariance as well as the variances. The point is illustrated with a calculation of the boiling point of water from the parameters of the lnP vs 1/T fit. If the covariance is omitted from the propagation of error, the estimate of uncertainty is unreasonably large.
Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1339.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet Applications in Chemistry Using Microsoft Excel by Dermot Diamond and Venita C. A. Hanratty  Jeffery A. Greathouse
Provides chemistry instructors with an introduction to Excel and its applications in chemistry.
Greathouse, Jeffery A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1279.
Chemometrics
MathBrowser: Web-Enabled Mathematical Software with Application to the Chemistry Curriculum, v 1.0  Jack G. Goldsmith
MathBrowser, a freeware web-enabled derivative of the MathCad mathematical software (MathSoft Inc., Cambridge, MA), is designed to reconcile the problem of how to distribute mathematically rich information over the WWW and to maintain interactivity for the end user.
Goldsmith, Jack G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1164.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
The reply: Ionization Constants  S. Roo, L. Vermeire, and C. Gorller-Walrand
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Roo, S.; Vermeire, L.; Gorller-Walrand, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Ionization Constants  Morris Bader
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Graham's Law and Perpetuation of Error  Stephen J. Hawkes
Grahams Laws of effusion and diffusion are used in recent articles for traditional experiments to which they do not in fact apply and for which they give the wrong answer.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1069.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Transport Properties
Removing Silicone Grease from Glassware  Thomas H. Lowry
A recent note described the use of 5% aqueous hydrofluoric acid for removing silicone grease residues from round-bottom flasks. A safer and more convenient alternative is a saturated solution of sodium hydroxide in ethanol.
Lowry, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 841.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
Stable Solutions for the Iodine Clock Reaction  George B. Kauffman and Charles R. Hall
Advanced preparation of solutions for the iodine clock reaction.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 616.
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents
A Quantitative Conductance Apparatus  Danny Burns and Don Lewis
Circuitry, electrode configuration and calibration procedures are described for a conductance device. An alternative construction of the circuit is given allowing computer capture of the instrument response.
Burns, Danny; Lewis, Don. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 570.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Apparatus for Fast Dilution  V. P. Boiko
An apparatus for fast dilution permitting unlimited dilution of the solution in the same vessel is described. This was achieved by using a siphon to remove part of the solution from the dilution vessel.
Boiko, V. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 439.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Rounding Numbers: Why the "New System" Doesn't Work  W. Robert Midden
This paper explains a correction to the rounding rule previously published in this Journal. The earlier article reported that the best way to round numbers is to always round up when the first digit dropped is 5. However, this will lead to accumulation of error when errors are averaged.
Midden, W. Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 405.
Chemometrics
Sensitivity to Experimental Parameters via Spreadsheets  B. R. Sundheim
In spreadsheet computations wherever the functional dependence of calculated results on experimental quantities is obscure, sensitivities may be obtained by testing the effects of variations in relevant inputs. An example is given where Hess' law is explored calorimetrically.
Sundhein, B. R. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 328.
Chemometrics
The Safe and Efficient Evaporation of a Solvent from Solution  Andrew R. Mahon
By inverting an ordinary 200-mL vacuum flask and pulling a steady current of air from the vacuum apparatus through it, any type of small container can be placed under it, allowing the solvent to be evaporated in a steady, mistake-free manner .
Mahon, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 246.
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
Home-Study Microlabs  Dietmar Kennepohl
This article presents the use of microscaled chemistry experiments for individual home study and how it can be incorporated into a course with traditional laboratory work.
Kennepohl, Dietmar. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 938.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Low-Cost Lateral Displacement Refractometer for Liquids: A Take-Home Student Experiment   V. Anantha Narayanan and Radha Narayanan
This article describes an experiment that uses a low-cost lateral displacement refractometer. The refractometer can be used in the home or laboratory by science students.
Narayanan, V. Anantha; Narayanan, Radha. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 784.
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Teaching Dilutions  Lloyd J. McElroy
Teaching the concepts of dilutions is facilitated by using the graphic presentations depicted in this article along with the conventional formulas.
McElroy, Lloyd J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 765.
Solutions / Solvents
Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in River and Bay Sediments: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Environmental Chemistry Using Capillary Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection  Susan E. Kegley, Kristen J. Hansen, and Kevin L. Cunningham
This paper briefly discusses the history of PCB use and provides guidelines for finding and evaluating PCB-contaminated sites as a way to interest students by showing them an application of chemistry to the "real world."
Kegley, Susan E.; Hansen, Kristen J.; Cunningham, Kevin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 558.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
All Positive Ions Give Acid Solutions in Water  Stephen J. Hawkes
The acidity of aqueous solutions of positive ions is never zero although many texts say incorrectly that most metals of Groups I and II and some others are not acidic.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH
Laser Pointer and the Tyndall Effect  Eugene Thomas
Laser pointers provide a convenient way to demonstrate the Tyndall effect to beginning students.
Thomas, Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 470.
Lasers |
Solutions / Solvents
The Teaching of Precipitation Equilibrium: A New Approach  Ana M. V. S. V. Cavaleiro
In this paper we present a simplified integrated approach to the calculation of the solubility in water of a salt, and the pH of the saturated solution, taking into account the acid-base reactions of the anion.
Cavaleiro, Ana M. V. S. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 423.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
Salts are Mostly Not Ionized  Stephen J. Hawkes
The popular assumption that all salts are totally ionized in aqueous solution is false. Moreover, it is approximated only by alkali metal salts and by salts of alkaline earth metals with high atomic numbers.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 421.
Ionic Bonding |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
Curve Fitting: An Alternative Approach to Analyzing Kinetic Data in Introductory Chemistry  Coleman, William F.
183. The availability of high quality software for performing nonlinear curve fitting on microcomputers allows students to take an alternative approach to data analysis, one that concentrates on functional forms that may be more natural than some of the algebraic machinations necessary to render relationships into linear forms. An example of the application of such an approach to the analysis of kinetic data is presented in this paper.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 243.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics
Evaluating Student Understanding of Solution Chemistry through Microscopic Representations  Kimberly Jo Smith and Patricia A. Metz
Misconceptions regarding acids and bases, acid strength, dissociation, diatomic elements, bonding, and aqueous solutions can interfere with subsequent learning and can persist beyond the undergraduate level These chemical concepts readily lend themselves to microscopic representations. Teaching strategies using these visual aids could explain the concept before applying the mathematics.
Smith, Kimberly Jo; Metz, Patricia A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 233.
Solutions / Solvents |
Learning Theories
Significant Figures in Graph Interpretation  Donald M. Graham
A means is derived for calculating the number of significant figures in the slope and intercept of an experimental linear graph. The method is based on the actual scatter in the points rather than on the nominal precision in the original data, and it can be used even by students who are mathematically fairly unsophisticated.
Graham, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 211.
Chemometrics
Using Quality Circles in General Chemistry  Kogut, Leonard S.
A second semester class in General Chemistry used a student Quality Circle to suggest methods to improve instruction in chemical equilibrium in solution.
Kogut, Leonard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 146.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Management of First-Year Chemistry Laboratories Using Spreadsheets  Collins, Frank E.; Williams, Charles W.
Use of spreadsheets to record, analyze, and assess experimental data.
Collins, Frank E.; Williams, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A182.
Chemometrics
Experimental Methods: An Introduction to the Analysis of Data (Kirkup, Les)  
Title of interest.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A72.
Chemometrics
Dimensional Analysis: An Analogy to Help Students Relate the Concept to Problem Solving  James R. McClure
Using dominoes to help students understand the conversion factor method of dimensional analysis.
McClure, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1093.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Crystallization of Supersaturated Sodium Acetate and the Temperature Dependence of the Autoionization Constant of Water  Joseph A. Pergler, Ronald O. Ragsdale, and Thomas G. Richmond
A procedure to qualitatively demonstrate the variation of the autoionization constant of water with temperature.
Pergler, Joseph A.; Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1027.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
Celsius to Fahrenheit--Quick and Dirty  Colin Hester
Simple algorithm for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature.
Hester, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1026.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
What Does It Mean?: Reflections on Concentration, Activity, and Electrode Potential  Pietro Lanza
Explanation of electrode potential and the mechanism of the electrode process for determining concentration.
Lanza, Pietro. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry
What's Present? Qualitative Analysis Problems in General Chemistry  Sidney Toby
Open-book, research-oriented, sample questions regarding qualitative analysis.
Toby, Sidney. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1008.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Descriptive Chemistry
Ammonia Fountain and Density Gradient Column   Miroslav Proksa
Demonstration combining the ammonia fountain with an acid-base indicator density column.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 931.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
The Use of Erythrosin B in Undergraduate Spectrophotometry Experiments   L. James Stock III
Substitution of a nontoxic food color for an originally used toxic chromium(VI) salt in a general chemistry, spectrophotometry experiment.
Stock, L. James, III. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 926.
Toxicology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
Those Baffling Subscripts  Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney
Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems.
Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
How to Determine the Best Straight Line  S. R. Logan
Consideration of situations in which the use of a least-squares regression is inappropriate.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 896.
Chemometrics
The Relationship between the Number of Elements and the Number of Independent Equations of Elemental Balance in Inorganic Chemical Equations  R. Subramanian, N.K. Goh, and L. S. Chia
The criterion for determining whether a chemical equation can be balanced fully by the algebraic technique and its application.
Subramaniam, R.; Goh, N. K.; Chia, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 894.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Multiple Burning Heaps of Color-- An Elegant Variation of a Flame Test  Eugene T. Smith
Making the ammonia fountain demonstration faster and more reliable using a common syringe.
Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 828.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
From Titration Data to Buffer Capacities: A Computer Experiment for the Chemistry Lab or Lecture  Roy W. Clark, Gary D. White, Judith M. Bonicamp, and Exum D. Watts
Provides titration curve data that students can plot and analyze using spreadsheets to develop student understanding of pH, derivatives, buffer capacity, and the behavior of dilute buffers; includes sample graphs and analysis.
Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D.; Bonicamp, Judith M.; Watts, Exum D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 746.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Osmotic Pressure and Electrochemical Potential--A Parallel   Rainer Bausch
Comparison of osmotic pressure and electrochemical potential.
Bausch, Rainer. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Membranes |
Transport Properties
Statistical Analysis Experiment for the Freshman Chemistry Lab   John C. Salzsieder
Procedure that provides sufficient data for statistical analysis by a freshman chemistry class.
Salzsieder, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 623.
Chemometrics
Buoyancy Programs; Viscosity of Polymer Solutions; Precision of Calculated Values  Bertrand, Gary L.
Software to simulate the determination of the density of solids; the preparation of polymer solutions and their time to flow through a viscometer; and a program to calculate the uncertainties of results given the input values.
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 492.
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Rapid Calculation for Preparing Solutions  Calero, Diego Lozano
Streamlined method for dilution calculations.
Calero, Diego Lozano J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 424.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
The MATCH Program: A Combined Mathematics and Chemistry Curriculum  Wink, Donald J.
A curriculum that integrates introductory chemistry with intermediate algebra.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 411.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet-Controlled Potentiometric Analyses  Mullin, Jerome; Marquardt, Michael
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Discussion of collecting experimental data on spreadsheets directly from laboratory instruments.
Mullin, Jerome; Marquardt, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 400.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics |
Potentiometry
REACT: Exploring Practical Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Calculations  Ramette, Richard W.
Description of REACT software to balance complicated equations; determine thermodynamic data for all reactants and products; calculate changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for a reaction; and find equilibrium conditions for the a reaction.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 240.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Measuring with a Purpose: Involving Students in the Learning Process  Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
Constructivist learning activities for helping students to understand measurement, significant figures, uncertainty, scientific notation, and unit conversions.
Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Constructivism
A Microscale Rotary Evaporator  Maynard, David F.
A simple roto-vap-type apparatus was developed for rapid removal of excess solvent in the microscale laboratory.
Maynard, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A272.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Introducing Spreadsheet Data Analysis in the First-Semester Laboratory  Bushey, Michelle M.
Massing a collection of pennies in order to introduce statistical concepts about small and large data sets as well as introduce students to the use of spreadsheets.
Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A90.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet Statistics  Simpson, John M.
Using computer spreadsheets to do statistical analysis on data.
Simpson, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A88.
Chemometrics
A Mini-Qualitative Organic Analysis Session  Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J.
The article describes a tested mini-scheme that works for selected unknowns and allows an instructor to introduce non-major students to a variety of functional group tests in a single laboratory session.
Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1088.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nonmajor Courses
Soda Water, Supercooling or Freezing Point Depression?  Brooker, Murray H.
Composition, preparation, properties, and behavior of soda water.
Brooker, Murray H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 903.
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Consumer Chemistry
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: Intermolecular Forces and Raoult's Law  Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas
Procedure that illustrates the liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of ideal and nonideal solutions.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 613.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Symbolic Algebra and Stoichiometry  DeToma, Robert P.
Applying symbolic algebra (instead of the factor-label method) to stoichiometry calculations.
DeToma, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 568.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Simple Laboratory Experiment Using Popcorn To Illustrate Measurement Errors  Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R.
This experiment focuses on the difference between accuracy and precision and demonstrates the necessity for multiple measurements of an experimental variable.
Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 519.
Chemometrics
Visual Demonstration of Solvent Polarities  Johnson, Dawn A.; Shaw, Roosevelt; Silversmith, Ernest F.
A solution that shows visible color differences as the solvent polarity is changed.
Johnson, Dawn A.; Shaw, Roosevelt; Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 517.
Solutions / Solvents
Hydrogen Peroxide Demo Curing the Brown Bottle-with-Black Cap Syndrome  Sae, Andy
Comparing the reactivity of 3%, 12%, and 27% H2O2 solution.
Sae, Andy J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 433.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Pictorial Analogies XI: Concentrations and Acidity of Solutions  Fortman, John J.
Visual analogies of the concentration of a solution, strength of a solution, super saturated solution, conjugate acid-base pairs, and inverse relationship between pH and [H+] and pOH and [OH-].
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 430.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Avoiding the Downstream Hazard in an Ionic Solubility Study  McSwiney, H. D.
Using potassium chlorate rather than potassium dichromate in an ionic solubility experiment for improved waste disposal.
McSwiney, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 329.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
A Joke Based on Significant Figures  Ruekberg, Ben
Joke to introduce significant figures.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 306.
Chemometrics
An Analogy To Illustrate Miscibility of Liquids  Thornton, Barry K.
Using inter-school rivalries to illustrate the concept of "like dissolves like".
Thornton, Barry K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 156.
Solutions / Solvents
Solving equilibria problems with a graphing calculator: A robust method, free of algebra and calculus   Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G.
The method of successive approximations is frequently introduced in freshman chemistry as a means for solving equilibrium equations. However, this often requires an understanding of calculus that is problematic for introductory chemistry students. An alternative method to solving such equations is to use graphic calculators to solve problems graphically.
Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A184.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Shell thickness of the copper-clad cent   Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R.
An exercise in determining the thickness of the copper layer of modern pennies presents the opportunities to combine good chemistry, instrumentation, simple curve fitting, and geometry to solve a simply stated problem.
Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1023.
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
Heat of solution of hydrogen chloride: A laboratory experiment  Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A.
A simple technique for measuring the heat of solution of HCl in water.
Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 955.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
How thick/thin is your mirror?  McCullough, Thomas; Bell, Lisa
When a student reported that his/her water film was 6 cm thick, these authors felt a review of significant figures and dimensional analysis may be in order.
McCullough, Thomas; Bell, Lisa J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 851.
Chemometrics
Measurement scales: Changing Celsius to Kelvin is not just a unit conversion   Nordstrom, Brian H.
The key to understanding the difference between Celsius and Kelvin lies in the different types of measurement scales. Students may have an easier time manipulating equations (such as gas laws) if they knew the difference between these scales.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 827.
Chemometrics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Statistical analysis of errors: A practical approach for an undergraduate chemistry lab: Part 1. The concepts  Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J.
A concise and practice-oriented introduction to the analysis and interpretation of measurement and errors.
Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 776.
Chemometrics
Determination of sugars in food products: Using HPLC and electrochemical detection at a Cu electrode  Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P.
This lab activity takes advantage of the fact that students' interest in a lab is increased when common life experiences are drawn upon.
Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 679.
Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Solutions / Solvents
Introducing probabilistic concepts in chemistry: The preparation of 10-24 M solution as a limiting case  de Vicente, M. Sastre
A straightforward dilution experiment that can be used as the starting point for establishing a link between chemistry and concepts of probability theory.
de Vicente, M. Sastre J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 674.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
The electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 2: Potentiometry and conductimetry  Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T.
Further applications of the multimeter in chemistry laboratories are discussed in this paper: potentiometry, reduction potentials and cell EMF, the Nerst equations, pH measurements, titration, conductimetry, and conduction of solutions.
Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 580.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Potentiometry
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-based program that has modules on significant figures, VSEPR structures, stoichiometry, and unit conversions.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 460.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A mole of M&M's   Merlo, Carmela; Turner, Kathleen E.
Engaging students by asking the question: How thick would the layer of M&M candies be if we covered the continental United States with a mole of these candies? Compare this to a mole of water.
Merlo, Carmela; Turner, Kathleen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 453.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
General chemistry lab time to learn solutions   Marino, Francis.
Concern over the number of upper-division students who come to lab unable to prepare solutions.
Marino, Francis. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 407.
Solutions / Solvents
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-like program that includes modules on significant figures, conversions, stoichiometry, and VSEPR structures.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 387.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Empirical formulas from atom ratios: A simple method to obtain the integer factors of a rational number  Weltin, E.
Most textbooks advise students to use a method tantamount to trial and error when they encounter a ratio in empirical formula calculations where it is not immediately apparent what the coefficients should be. The author describes a simple procedure that is an effective way to find the integer factors.
Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 280.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Polarity, miscibility, and surface tension of liquids   Silverstein, Todd P.
A very simple overhead projector demonstration using water and ethanol to give a dramatic visual illustration of cohesive and adhesive forces.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 253.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Measuring Avogadro's number on the overhead projector   Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu
A Petri dish filled with water and stearic acid dissolved in petroleum ether upon an overhead projector can be used to introduce the topic of Avogadro's number.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 252.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Using monetary analogies to teach average atomic mass   Last, Arthur M.; Webb, Michael J.
Some strategies to overcome the frequent problem novice students have with calculating average atomic mass.
Last, Arthur M.; Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 234.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Relative atomic mass and the mole: A concrete analogy to help students understand these abstract concepts   de Sanabia, Josefina Arce
Suggestions on how to improve student understandings of the mathematical idea of "ratio" to enhance conceptual understanding of this fundamental chemistry concept.
de Sanabia, Josefina Arce J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 233.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Concept learning versus problem solving: There is a difference   Nakhleh, Mary B.; Mitchell, Richard C.
Previous studies indicate that there is little connection between algorithmic problem solving skills and conceptual understanding. The authors provide some ways to evaluate students along a continuum of low-high algorithmic and conceptual problem solving skills. The study shows that current lecture method teaches students to solve algorithms rather than teaching chemistry concepts.
Nakhleh, Mary B.; Mitchell, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 190.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories |
Student-Centered Learning
Demonstration of the Common Ion Effect  Koubek, E.
KCl and HCl are used in this demonstration to describe the common ion effect and to show the difference between values Q and K.
Koubek, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
An Investigative Density Experiment   Samsa, Richard A.
A laboratory exercise about density that is engaging and allows students to use higher-level thinking skills and develop a plan to solve a problem.
Samsa, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 149.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
More on the Question of Significant Figures  Clase, Howard J.
Because so many students have a hard time understanding what significant figures are all about, this author developed a method using "?" to substitute for insignificant zeros. This helps many students finally grasp this convention.
Clase, Howard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 133.
Chemometrics
Equilibrium Calculator  Allendoerfer, Robert
The equilibrium calculator can calculate the equilibrium concentrations of all reagents in an arbitrary chemical reaction with as many as five reactants and products.
Allendoerfer, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 126.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A Short Cut Specific to the Preparation of 1 M Sodium Hydroxide  Ruekberg, Ben
In general chemistry, 1M of NaOH needs to be prepared often and without great concern for high purity of solution. The author provides a procedure.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 72.
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
Ideas of Equality and Ratio: Mathematical Basics for Chemistry and the Fallacy of Unitary Conversion   Ochiai, El-Ichiro.
The author argues against dimensional analysis (referred to as the "unitary conversion method" in this article) and champions the more elegant "ratio" or "equality" paradigms as a way to help students make sense of chemical equations and "de-algorithmize" chemical calculations at the introductory level.
Ochiai, El-Ichiro. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 44.
Chemometrics
Is Dimensional Analysis the Best We Have to Offer?  Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
Dimensional analysis is a unit based approach while the alternative, "method of equations" is a relations-based approach to solving mathematical problems. The author argues that quantitative chemistry involves relationships between quantities and not units, making the later method more pedagogically sound.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 40.
Chemometrics
Applying a simple linear least-squares algorithm to data with uncertainties in both variables  Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell
There are cases in which it is desirable to find an optimum linear least-squares fit to data with significant uncertainties in both the x and y variables.
Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A130.
Chemometrics
Ammonia balloon  Mattson, Bruce
Demonstrating ammonia's aqueous solubility using a container whose volume changes.
Mattson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1029.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Kinetic art through chemistry  Corkern, Walter H.; Holmes, L. H., Jr.; Higginbotham, N. A.
Ethanol / water solution + one drop of heptanol with dissolved dye produces fractal-like patterns.
Corkern, Walter H.; Holmes, L. H., Jr.; Higginbotham, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1025.
Solutions / Solvents |
Dyes / Pigments |
Alcohols
An hydrogen sulfide free analytical technique for cation analysis: The statistical approach  Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez
In this analysis the study of each cation was carried out independently without taking into account the other cations present in the solutions.
Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 934.
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Classroom experience: Using estimated answers in solving chemistry problems  Green, Michael E.; Garland, Denise A.
A textbook is described in which students solve all problems by estimation.
Green, Michael E.; Garland, Denise A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 898.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories
On the chemically impossible "other" roots in equilibrium calculations, II  Ludwig, Oliver G.
In a previous paper the author described, using mathematics accessible to students, how an equilibrium calculation leading to a quadratic equation may be shown to have but one "chemical" root. The present work extends this demonstration to some reactions leading to cubic equations.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 884.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Simple, inexpensive apparatus for sample concentration  Bruno, Thomas J.
An alternative to disadvantageous, commercial concentration apparatuses.
Bruno, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 837.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
The metric system  Mason, Lynn M.
Metric conversions commonly encountered in chemistry and biology, with tests over each lesson.
Mason, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Viscosity of polymer solutions  Bertrand, Gary L.
This program contains three components: "Density of Liquids", "Viscosity of Liquids", and "Viscosity of Polymer Solutions".
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Ammonia fountain improvements  Steadman, Ned
Suggestions to eliminate the excessive preparation time and questionable reliability of the classic ammonia fountain demonstration.
Steadman, Ned J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 764.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A demonstration of the molar volume of nitrogen gas  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
A graphic illustration and a calculation of the approximate molar volume of nitrogen gas.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Gases |
Chemometrics
Storing solar energy in calcium chloride  Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F.
Using common chemistry concepts to determine the feasibility of storing solar energy in calcium chloride hexahydrate.
Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A graphing activity to freshen up the laboratory  Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
A laboratory activity designed to address students' difficulties in interpreting data from graphs and tables.
Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 752.
Chemometrics
The Beer-Lambert law revisited: A development without calculus  Lykos, Peter
Development of the Beer-Lambert law without the use of calculus.
Lykos, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 730.
Solutions / Solvents
Like dissolves like: Dry gas  Greenberg, Fred H.
A demonstration of solubility by comparing gasoline additives containing methanol and isopropyl alcohol.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 654.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
First-year chemistry laboratory calculations on a spreadsheet  Edwards, Paul A.; McKay, J. Brian; Sink, Charles W.
140. A laboratory exercise to introduce students to the use of computers and spreadsheets.
Edwards, Paul A.; McKay, J. Brian; Sink, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 648.
Chemometrics
Simple soda bottle solubility and equilibria  Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C.
Using a bottle of selzter water and bromocresol green to demonstrate gas-liquid solubility (carbon dioxide in water).
Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
A mole of salt crystals-Or how big is the Avogadro number?  Hoyt, William.
Calculations designed to help students put the size of Avogadro's number into perspective.
Hoyt, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Solutions, anyone?  McCullough, Bro. Thomas
A simple, quick, and economical experiment which gives the student intimate hands-on contact with most quantitative measurements of solutions is described.
McCullough, Bro. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 293.
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
A simple but effective demonstration for illustrating significant figure rules when making measurements and doing calculations  Zipp, Arden P.
Students can be surprised and confused when different arithmetical operations are performed on experimental data, because the rules change when changing from addition to subtraction to multiplication or division. The following is a simple way to illustrate several aspects of these rules.
Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 291.
Chemometrics
An Ace reducing adapter for screw vials.  Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce.
Using this device, solvents contained in vials can be evaporated quickly without problems.
Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Do "likes dissolve likes"? An illustration of polar and nonpolar solvents   Bergquist, Wilbur
Here is a simple and colorful demonstration to help illustrate the nature of polar and nonpolar solvents.
Bergquist, Wilbur J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 158.
Solutions / Solvents
Principle of extraction of solute by solvent  Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna
Among the applications of Nernst's distribution law, the most important and interesting one is the extraction of a substance dissolved in one solvent by another solvent, the two solvents being partially miscible or immiscible.
Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 73.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
The effect of temperature on the solubility of gases in liquids  Alger, Donald B.
Of 13 current-edition general chemistry texts, 11 made errors regarding the topic of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Alger, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 62.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Spreadsheet titration of diprotic acids and bases  Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J.
133. Bits and pieces, 47. A spreadsheet and chart, set up using Excel, for showing titration curves of any diprotic acid or base is described.
Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 46.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Having fun with the metric system  Campbell, Mark L.
A puzzle adds some fun to the mundane treatment of the metric system.
Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1043.
Chemometrics
Some conundrums of chemical nomenclature  Quigley, Michael N.
When talking about chemistry, we use some awfully confusing terms that warrant scrutiny.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1009.
Chemometrics
The development of statistical concepts in a design-oriented laboratory course in scientific measuring  Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H.
This article offers a contribution to the development of curriculum that includes design and evaluation of measurements.
Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1005.
Chemometrics
Chemical equations are actually matrix equations  Alberty, Robert A.
Chemists tend to think that chemical equations are unique to chemistry and they are not used to thinking of chemical equations as the mathematical equations they in fact are. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the mathematical significance of chemical equations.
Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 984.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
KC? Discoverer: Exploring the properties of the chemical elements  Liebel, Michael
This software program allows users to explore a large number of properties of the elements. The program can find all elements associated with a certain property, graph numeric properties against other numeric properties, list elements, sort elements, and use the periodic table to select elements.
Liebel, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 956.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
A carbonate project introducing students to the chemistry lab  Dudek, Emily
A description of a first semester general chemistry laboratory that helps acquaint students with a large variety of chemistry laboratory procedures.
Dudek, Emily J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 948.
Chemometrics |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
The use of "marathon" problems as effective vehicles for the presentation of general chemistry lectures  Burness, James H.
A marathon problem is a long, comprehensive, and difficult problem that ties together many of the topics in a chapter and that is solved together by the instructor and students. Sample problems are included and advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 919.
Chemometrics
An SI mnemonic  Quigley, M. N.
A mnemonic to help remember the physical quantities associated with the nine base SI units.
Quigley, M. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 815.
Chemometrics
Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry  Finster, David C.
The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners.
Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
Demonstrations of interfacial phenomena   Prall, Bruce R.
Overhead projector demonstrations that illustrate the interfacial interactions of the following systems: 1) water and carbon tetrachloride, 2) copper wire and water, 3) 1-Octanol and water.
Prall, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 592.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Grafit  Lisensky, George C.
A data manipulation tool and plotting program useful at all levels of chemistry.
Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 587.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
Space-filling P-V-T models  Hilton, Don B.
Space-filling models help beginning students visualize the numerical aspects of the empirical gas laws.
Hilton, Don B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 496.
Gases |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Chemometrics
When figures signify nothing  Ahmad, Jamil
Significant figures in the "real world" set poor standards and confusing examples for chemistry students.
Ahmad, Jamil J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 469.
Chemometrics
Solving quadratic equations to the correct number of significant figures  Thomas, Rudolf
Presenting an application of the successive approximations method for solving quadratic or higher order expressions.
Thomas, Rudolf J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 409.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Is 8C equal to 50F?  Thompson, H. Bradford
A play, commentary, modest proposal, and a "less modest" proposal regarding calculations and significant figures.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 400.
Chemometrics
The effect of context on the translation of sentences into algebraic equations  Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J.
Assessing students in a one-semester preparatory chemistry course to see how well students understand proportional relationships.
Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 306.
Chemometrics
Chemical equilibrium: III. A few math tricks   Gordus, Adon A.
The third article in a series on chemical equilibrium that considers a few math "tricks" useful in equilibrium calculations and approximations.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 291.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chemical equilibrium: II. Deriving an exact equilibrium equation   Gordus, Adon A.
In this article appearing in a series on chemical equilibrium, authors consider how to derive a completely general equation for any chemical mixture.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 215.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A simple first-order consecutive rate reaction: A different method for its solution   Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
Power series methods should be used whenever possible in chemistry courses.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 180.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
A simple first-order consecutive rate reaction: A different method for its solution   Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania
A different way to present an equilibrium equation that appeared previously in this Journal.
Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 179.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Using a motor to demonstrate conductivity   Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria
The turning of a propeller identifies solutions of strong electrolytes.
Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 160.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Conductivity
Finding largest common factors and simplest integer ratios   Macomber, Roger S.
General chemistry students can ease some of their math-phobia with an exam question that deals with a familiar topic prior to putting these same mathematical principles into the context of chemistry.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 42.
Chemometrics
SEQS 3.0 Student Version Simultaneous Equation Solver (Tucker, Edwin E.)  Dierenfeldt, K.E.
SEQS 3.0 is a program of considerable versatility for solving sets of nonlinear simultaneous equations.
Dierenfeldt, K.E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A149.
Chemometrics
Density of antifreeze-water mixtures: A general chemistry experiment in compositional analysis  Flowers, Paul A.
Determining the composition of an antifreeze/water solution through density measurements.
Flowers, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1068.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis
A classroom experiment using the Pythagorean theorem in a discussion of the scientific method  Sauls, Frederic, C.
Experiment to verify the Pythagorean theorem as a means of introducing the importance of accurate measurements, accuracy and error.
Sauls, Frederic, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 958.
Nonmajor Courses |
Chemometrics
Accuracy of measurements and the U.S. Census  Gorin, George
Some aspects of taking the Census can help students to understand the problem of measurement error and the use of significant figures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 936.
Chemometrics
Lessons learned from Lord Rayleigh on the importance of data analysis  Larsen, Russell D.
Analysis of the data collected by Lord Rayleigh in association with his discovery of argon presented as a model for scientific inquiry.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 925.
Chemometrics |
Atmospheric Chemistry
ChemCalc: A scientific calculator  Allendoerfer, Robert D.
A scientific calculator program that can be used as a stand-alone or incorporated into other software written in BASIC.
Allendoerfer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 770.
Chemometrics
A straightforward derivation of stoichiometric mass relationships  Gorin, George
An alternative to the factor label method for solving stoichiometric mass relationship problems.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 762.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Teaching freezing point lowering  Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover
Using Le Chatelier's principle, the van't Hoff equation, and the empirical equation to explain the lowering of the freezing point caused by dissolving antifreeze in water.
Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 676.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A significant example: How many days in a century?  Lisensky, George
Calculating the number of days in a century can help clarify the subject of significant figures.
Lisensky, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 562.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A convenient method to recover the solvent from halogen-CCl4 mixtures  Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W.
An alternative to disposal and distillation which is easy to perform, allowing the solvent to be recovered and stored within one hour after the completion of the experiment is presented here.
Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 532.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
A simple apparatus for stirring solutions contained in submerged, sealed vessels  Grinstead, John H., Jr.; Sullivan, Jack M.
The authors designed an apparatus which can simultaneously stir the contents of several submerged flasks from readily available materials.
Grinstead, John H., Jr.; Sullivan, Jack M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 521.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Dynamic data storage in FORTRAN  Chung-Phillips, Alice
115. Bits and pieces, 44. The purpose of this article is to promote the use of dynamic storage allocation in FORTRAN to chemistry instructors and students in the present computing environment.
Chung-Phillips, Alice J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 500.
Chemometrics
Heat of solution and colligative properties: An illustration of enthalpy and entropy   Mundell, Donald W.
This demonstration provides a means for challenging the students to interpret some examples where both enthalpy and entropy are possible.
Mundell, Donald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 426.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
The growth of large single crystals  Baer, Carl D.
It is possible to obtain a wide range of nicely formed crystals utilizing solution methods and commonly available materials and apparatus.
Baer, Carl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 410.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
Solving quadratic equations  Brown, R. J. C.
A better technique than the quadratic equation for chemical equilibria is offered here.
Brown, R. J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 409.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Introduction to experiment design for chemists  Strange, Ronald S.
One purpose of this paper is to review basic concepts and terminology of experimental design, analysis of data, and optimization.
Strange, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 113.
Chemometrics
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach (the author replies)  Cardulla, Frank
There are other ways to teach problem solving, and they can produce competent, successful, and enthusiastic students.
Cardulla, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1066.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach  Gillette, Marcia L.
The classroom analogy Cardulla uses could be made much more meaningful if it were used to demonstrate the relation between what is obvious and what is not.
Gillette, Marcia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1065.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The acid-base package: A collection of useful programs for proton-transfer systems  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Four programs that deal with the types of acid-base calculations normally encountered in introductory and analytical chemistry courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Atlantic-Pacific sig figs  Stone, Helen M.
Examples of applications of significant figures in calculations.
Stone, Helen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 829.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
How to visualize Avogadro's number  van Lubeck, Henk
Three examples to help students visualize the size of a mole.
van Lubeck, Henk J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 762.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Significant figure rules for general arithmetic functions  Graham, D. M.
Rules for determining what happens to the number of significant figures as various types of mathematical operations are performed upon certain quantities.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 573.
Chemometrics
A stoichiometric journey  Molle, Brian
A story to help students overcome some of the difficulties they encounter in stoichiometry calculations.
Molle, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 561.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
An experiment on the molar solubility and solubility product of barium nitrate  Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse
A direct gravimetric method for determining a Ksp value.
Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 515.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gravimetric Analysis
Being a participant in the future  Parker, O. Jerry
Integrating computer technology into undergraduate chemistry courses.
Parker, O. Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 500.
Administrative Issues |
Chemometrics
The relationship between M-demand, algorithms, and problem solving: A neo-Piagetian analysis  Niaz, Mansoor
One of the most important implements developed by the neo-Piagetian theory is task analysis, that is, the evaluation of the M-demand of a problem. M-demand can be defined as: maximum number of steps that the subject must mobilize simultaneously in in the course of executing a task.
Niaz, Mansoor J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 422.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Significant Figures and Error Propagation  West, Allen C.
Schwartz is wrong to say that 125 mL +/- 5% means a systematic error of +/-5%.
West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 272.
Chemometrics
Accurate equations of state in computational chemistry projects  Allbee, David; Jones, Edward
101. This article presents one method that allows students to become familiar with the use of modern equations of state and also enhances their understanding of how computers can be used in the study and application of chemistry. [Includes "Editor's note: Changes in the computer series", by Lagowski, J. J., p. 226]
Allbee, David; Jones, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 226.
Applications of Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Visible spectrophotometric determination of the partition coefficient of methyl violet: A microscale extraction experiment  Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L.
This experiment is designed to demonstrate the principles of separation by solvent extraction, partition coefficient, and the construction and use of a Beer-Lambert standard curve.
Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 91.
Separation Science |
Chemometrics
Graphical analysis III (Vernier, David L.)  Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H.
Two reviews of a complete graphing tool suitable for high school and college applications with a wide range of operations varying in complexity.
Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A269.
Chemometrics
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program  Henderson, John
An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of least-squares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the least-squares calculation.
Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Chemical principles for the introductory laboratory, CHM 384 (Johnson, James F.)  Wegner, Carol
A comprehensive review of the title program which overviews basic techniques and concepts presented in introductory laboratory courses. Topics include: titration, equilibrium, Ksp, solubility, Beer's law, coordination complexes and first-order rates of reaction.
Wegner, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A47.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics
The determination of the concentrations of sugar solutions by laser refractometry  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Jelks, Vaughn; Hughes, Diane Landry
The purpose of this article is to describe a simple, semi-quantitative, analytical method for determining the approximate concentrations of sucrose solutions.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Jelks, Vaughn; Hughes, Diane Landry J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1007.
Lasers |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Teaching students to use algorithms for solving generic and harder problems in general chemistry  Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L.
This paper describes teaching strategies that help students improve their problem-solving skills.
Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 987.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
The effect of polarity on solubility   Cliche, Jean-Marie; Labbe, Benoit
A procedure for a demonstration of the effect of polarity on solubility and some follow-up questions for students.
Cliche, Jean-Marie; Labbe, Benoit J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 813.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Let's separate theories from calculations   Freilich, Mark B.
This author writes in a 'provocative opinion' article challenging the readers to think about heavily emphasizing 'thought problems' in chemistry and allowing students to master those before throwing calculations into the mix.
Freilich, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 442.
Chemometrics
An alternative to using the PV = nRT equation   Desmarais, George
This author shares his application of the factor-label method to solving gas problems which involves using the ideal gas constant as the starting point in the relationship.
Desmarais, George J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 392.
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
An interesting student chemistry project: Investigating Liesegang rings  Schibeci, Renato A.; Carlsen, Connie
This lab allows students not only exposure to content, but also an appreciation of the way in which scientists build their knowledge.
Schibeci, Renato A.; Carlsen, Connie J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 365.
Solutions / Solvents |
Geochemistry |
Metals
Avogadro's number: A perverse view  Lehman, Thomas A.
A way to think of Avogadro's number: take anything and double it 79 times.
Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 282.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Remember E = hv is correct only half of the time  Leo, Howard, R.
Reminder that the title equation (Planck) is not algebraically correct.
Leo, Howard, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 11.
Chemometrics |
Photochemistry
When oil and water do not mix  Trammell, Gary L.
An introduction to the physics and chemistry of interfaces and lipids, and reactions in micelles.
Trammell, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1022.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Micelles |
Lipids
Good numerical technique in chemistry: The quadratic equation  Thompson, H. Bradford
Texts commonly avoid examples with bad round-off problems or handle them by approximation; none of this is necessary, for simple techniques are available to handle quadratic equations easily and precisely.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1009.
Chemometrics
Reaction stoichiometry and suitable "coordinate systems"  Tykodi, R. J.
Methods for dealing with problems involving reactions stoichiometry: unitize and scale up, factor-label procedure, de Donder ratios, and titration relations.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 958.
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
A general approach for teaching hydrolysis of salts  Aquirre-Ode, Fernando
Proposes a general, rigorous, and relatively simple approach for the hydrolysis of 1-1 electrolytes.
Aquirre-Ode, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 957.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Modifications of some traditional demonstrations with liquids  Stedjee, Brian
Immiscible liquid pairs with similar indexes of refraction.
Stedjee, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 894.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Hard ways and easy ways  Schwartz, Lowell M.
Two examples of common general chemistry calculations and different approaches ("hard" and "easy") to solving them.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 698.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Solving limiting reagent problems (the author replies)  Kalantar, A. H.
Thanks for clarification and suggestion.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Solving limiting reagent problems  Skovlin, Dean O.
Uncertainty in the meaning of the term X.
Skovlin, Dean O. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Ksp determination of calcium sulfate  Masterman, David
A procedure to obtain the Ksp of a saturated solution of calcium sulfate in 10-20 minutes.
Masterman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 408.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Statistical evaluation of class data for two buret readings  Gordus, Adon A.
Data that serve to illustrate both random and systematic errors in measurements characteristic of titrations.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 376.
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Mole fraction revisited  Mancott, A.
This problem requires the use of algebraic reasoning to derive and solve a fraction linear equation based on the concept of moles and conservation of moles.
Mancott, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 320.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Simple determination of Henry's law constant for carbon dioxide  Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A.
With the aid of inexpensive pressure gauges available from automotive supply stores, the solubility of carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages or other solutions can be studied.
Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 260.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
The disappearing act: Teaching students to expect the unexpected  Kilner, Cary
A demonstration of Ksp in which a precipitate is formed and then disappears.
Kilner, Cary J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
An analogy for soluble and insoluble mixtures: Sand and magnetic iron filings  Garde, Ira Batra
Using mixtures of sand and iron filings as analogies for a soluble mixture of nonpolar substances, a soluble mixture of polar substances, and an insoluble mixture of a nonpolar and a polar substance.
Garde, Ira Batra J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 154.
Solutions / Solvents
Slopes of straight lines when neither axis is error free  Kalantar, A. H.
The iterative effective variance method is not reliable and its use is pedagogically unwise.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 28.
Chemometrics
A new road to reactions: Part III. Teaching the heat effect of reactions  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
This series of work summarizes the authors' work on the concept of chemical reactions as a teaching and learning problem.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 972.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
The length of a pestle: A class exercise in measurement and statistical analysis  O'Reilly, James E.
Too many students get through chemistry without acquiring a basic understanding and appreciation of the concepts of measurement science. The purpose of this report is to outline an extremely simple class exercise as a concrete paradigm of the entire process of making chemical measurements and treating data.
O'Reilly, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 894.
Chemometrics
Calculation of Madelung constants in the first year chemistry course  Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward
76. Bits and pieces, 31. A computer program aids in understanding the nature of the Madelung constants.
Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 840.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Chemometrics
The coming renaissance of descriptive chemistry  Zuckerman, J. J.
Inorganic chemistry is facing an identity crises.
Zuckerman, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 829.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Teaching significant figures using a learning cycle  Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L.
Can we teach significant figures in a way that will be better retained by our students? These authors propose a solution.
Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 786.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
SI and non-SI units of concentration: A truce?  Rich, Ronald L.
These authors examine whether a truce could be promoted by filling a chemical gap in the System Internationale with special attention on concentration.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 784.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A flowchart for dimensional analysis  Graham, D. M.
A flowchart to help students organize their thoughts when solving conversion problems.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 527.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Where did that number come from?   DeLorenzo, Ronald
With more careful labeling and handling of numbers, instructors can reduce the confusion students sometimes feel when watching problems being solved by the instructor on the board.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 514.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Factor-label: Another view   Maloy, Joseph T.
It is of interest to our students' academic development that we teach them the mathematical theory behind factor label approaches to problems solving.
Maloy, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 186.
Chemometrics
Unit basis a neglected problem-solving technique   Beichl, George J.
A technique that will prevent students from using ineffective problem-solving techniques such as dimensional analysis.
Beichl, George J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 146.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
On writing equations  Campbell, J.A.
The author presents a very direct approach to writing complicated equations without using a matrix approach.
Campbell, J.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 63.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Molecular size and Raoult's Law  Kovac, Jeffrey
An additional cause for deviations from Raoult's Law that is rarely, if ever, mentioned in freshman chemistry texts.
Kovac, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1090.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases
An interactive, screen-oriented, general linear regression program  Joshi, Bhairav D.
65. Bits and pieces, 26. Description of GSLINE, a program runs linear regressions.
Joshi, Bhairav D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1027.
Chemometrics
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 2. Elementary entities play their part  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
One of the problems that learners have to overcome when doing stoichiometry calculations is to learn how statements about elementary entities given by formulas and equations are related to statements about portions of substances as measured in the macroscopic world.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1021.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Pandemonium pesticide: A simple demonstration illustrating some fundamental chemical concepts  Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D.
Demonstration that uses large, visible particles to simulate calculations of atomic / molecular mass, percentage composition, and molecular formula.
Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 870.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 1. The special nature of quantity equations  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
Differences between operation on quantities and operation on numbers and how chemical quantities should be described mathematically.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 839.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Determination of molecular dimensions using monolayers: Another approach  McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D.
A preliminary activity to help students understand the concept and calculations of the determination of molecular dimensions using monolayers.
McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 795.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
The definition and symbols for the quantity called "molarity" or "concentration" and for the SI units of this quantity  Gorin, George
An alternative formulation for concentration and the SI units for this quantity.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 741.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Propagation of significant figures  Schwartz, Lowell M.
The rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 693.
Chemometrics
A different look at the solubility-product principle  Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr.
The progressive addition of Cl- to Ag+ yields an ion-product equal to Ksp at two different points.
Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 645.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Simple limewater maker  Prochaska, James F.
Uses gravity to separate the insoluble precipitate when preparing limewater.
Prochaska, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Working backwards is a forward step in the solution of problems by dimensional analysis  Drake, Robert F.
Solving chemistry calculations by determining the units of the desired answer and then working backwards using dimensional analysis.
Drake, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
"Chemistry" problems without chemical terminology  Ciereszko, Leon S.
Three questions analogous to percentage composition and Charles' law calculations.
Ciereszko, Leon S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 402.
Chemometrics
Derivation of the ideal gas law  Levine, S.
Derivation of the ideal gas law from a thermodynamic influence.
Levine, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 399.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations  Berger, Selman A.
Two examples of using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations.
Berger, Selman A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Problem-solving skills in chemistry made easier  Fast, Kenneth V.
Step-by-step format for performing common calculations in chemistry.
Fast, Kenneth V. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A convenient device to demonstrate statistically based sampling error in a particulate mixture  Reid, R. S.
Apparatus to demonstrate statistically based sampling error using a mixture of colored beads.
Reid, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 252.
Chemometrics
Why isn't my rain as acidic as yours?  Zajicek, O. T.
Calculating of pH values of acid rain and comparisons to uncontaminated samples.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 158.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Change in concentration with time  Umland, Jean B.
Shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 153.
Solutions / Solvents |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Aqueous hydrogen peroxide: Its household uses and concentration units  Webb, Michael J.
Includes some simple weight / volume calculations and their answers.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 152.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Limiting reagent problems made simple for students  Kalantar, A. H.
Method for determining the limiting reagent among three or more reactants.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 106.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Five Avogadro's number problems  Todd, David
Five problems involving Avogadro's number.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 76.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Graphical Analysis, Review II (Dice, David R.)  Sievers, Dennis
A computerized program that generates graphs of empirical data.
Sievers, Dennis J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A324.
Chemometrics
Graphical Analysis, Review I (Dice, David R.)  Palmer, Glenn E.
A computerized program that generates graphs of empirical data.
Palmer, Glenn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A323.
Chemometrics
The Elements of Style in Chemistry, A Computer-assisted Instruction Supported Text (Beatty, James W.; Beatty, James J.)  Crawford, Victor A.
Intended to support students who have trouble solving important types of problems in chemistry.
Crawford, Victor A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A27.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
An alternative method for the determination of pKa  Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario
Determining pKa from the titration curve of a weak acid or base.
Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1067.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A new meaning of the terms acid and base hydrolysis  Milic, Nikola B.
Suggestions for distinguishing between solvation, hydration, and solvolysis, and hydrolysis reactions that produce hydroxo and protonated complexes.
Milic, Nikola B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1066.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The insolubility of "soluble" barium nitrate  Reinstein, Jesse
The unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid.
Reinstein, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The effect of polarity on solubility  Nordstrom, Brian H.
Students observe that iodine dissolves readily in 1,1,1-trichloroethane but not water.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1009.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Water / Water Chemistry
Modeling hypersaline lake "turn-over"  Sprague, Gary
Modeling saline lake inversions with a saturated salt solution in a beaker.
Sprague, Gary J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 956.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A perspective on solubility rules  Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl
Four solubility rule generalizations useful for introducing solubility.
Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 885.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The nine-bottle experiment revisited  Finholt, James E.
Students are challenged to design solutions appropriate for the "nine-bottle" experiment.
Finholt, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 849.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The goals of teaching solution equilibrium  Ruda, Paul T.
Using and making relevant the concepts of solution equilibrium.
Ruda, Paul T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Why teach solution equilibrium?  Butler, James N.
What are the most important aspects of solution equilibrium to teach at the elementary level?
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Uncertainty analysis by the "worst case" method  Gordon, Roy; Pickering, Miles; Bisson, Denise
A new method of uncertainty propagation that is in many ways superior to the traditional manipulation of absolute and relative uncertainty.
Gordon, Roy; Pickering, Miles; Bisson, Denise J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 780.
Chemometrics
An analogy for solubility: Marbles and magnets  Kjonaas, Richard A.
Using marbles and magnets to illustrate solubility and insolubility.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 765.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Solubility of mercury  Sisler, Harry H.
The statement "mercury is soluble in both polar and non-polar liquids" is misleading.
Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 566.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The factor-label method: Is it all that great?  Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David
The development of reasoning skills in chemistry is better achieved by postponing the introduction of the factor-label method.
Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 522.
Chemometrics
The solubility of NiSO46H2O  Pacer, Richard A.
Approaches the position of equilibrium from both unsaturated and supersaturated solutions.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 467.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The murky pool  Perkins, Robert
Using the reaction of aqueous silver nitrate with aqueous sodium sulfide to illustrate how one can correlate the terms soluble and insoluble with solubility product constants.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The useless tea kettle  Perkins, Robert
If a 2.5 L kettle contains 125 g of calcium carbonate (boiler scale), how many times would the kettle have to be filled with distilled water to remove all of the deposits given the Ksp of calcium carbonate?
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical storage of solar energy using an old color change demonstration  Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G.
The results of a student research project that could be used as an experiment to illustrate the potential of hydrates salts for solar energy storage.
Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 252.
Photochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The density of solids  Burgess, Dale
Using density measurements as an opportunity to discuss experimental procedures, error, and significant figures.
Burgess, Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 242.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
An analogy for the leveling effect  Macomber, Roger S.
Analogy to help students understand the leveling effect of certain solvents.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 128.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Teaching factor-label method without sleight of hand  Garrett, James M.
As an aid in teaching the factor-label method, the author has developed a rather simple card game involving the matching of symbols and colors.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 962.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Determination of ammonia in household cleaners: an instrumental analysis experiment  Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven
This popular experiment describes a procedure that is easily modified to determine quantitatively such analytes as ammonia in solution.
Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 765.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents
Reflections upon mathematics in the introductory chemistry course  Goodstein, Madeline P.
It is the purpose of this paper to call attention to the lack of mathematical competence by chemistry students and to invite consideration of one conceptual scheme which may be used to unify the mathematical approach.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 665.
Chemometrics |
Gases
On the chemically impossible "other" roots in equilibrium problems  Ludwig, Oliver G.
Students often have a hard time knowing when to disregard equilibrium roots that are too large or are negative. The author suggests a convincing proof that helps students understand how the relationship between the conceptual and mathematical.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 547.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Empirical pKb and pKa for nonmetal hydrides from periodic table position  Bayless, Philip L.
The equation in this article was developed by the author. It estimates the aqueous pKa for certain acids to an average deviation of 0.1pK unit for those with experimentally determined values and agrees with experimentally determined values, and as well as with estimates for those too weak or too strong to be measured.
Bayless, Philip L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 546.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Association of ions and fractional crystallization: a general chemistry experiment  Scaife, Charles W. J.; Dubs, Richard L.
The experiment in this article has been used in laboratories for non science majors and for inorganic chemistry. In both cases students attain a good understanding of what it taking place, how the various procedures affect actual concentrations of ions present, and why particular salts crystallize under certain conditions whereas others do not.
Scaife, Charles W. J.; Dubs, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 418.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
Solubility and Ksp of calcium sulfate: a general chemistry laboratory experiment  Sawyer, Albert K.
The experiment shared in this note can be used to accompany lectures on solubility or chemical equilibrium.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 416.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
The use of the Warnier-Orr program design method in the preparation of general chemistry tutorials   Hach, Edwin E., Jr.
39. In this article, a modified Warnier-Orr approach is illustrated for a computer tutorial involving ideal gas calculations.
Hach, Edwin E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 348.
Gases |
Chemometrics
The spilled can of paint   Perkins, Robert
The writer describes a problem for students to work out in order to better understand units of conversion.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The liquid silver parade   Perkins, Robert
The activity described in this note is useful in illustrating how small atoms are to students.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Titration calculations- a problem-solving approach  Waddling, Robin E. L.
This author shares a strategy for helping students who might be struggling with understanding how to calculate and understand titration data.
Waddling, Robin E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 230.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
A novel classification of concentration units  MacCarthy, Patrick
Concentration units can be a source of confusion for students. This article presents a treatment on this topic that may help students understand the differences between these units.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 187.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Mass spectral analysis of halogen compounds   Holdsworth, David K.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A pocket calculator can be programmed to decide and display the halogen combination in a molecular-ion cluster by examination of the (M+2)/M or (X+2)/X percentage values.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 103.
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry
A pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations   Guida, Wayne C.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A description of a pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations .
Guida, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 101.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
A practical application of molality  Penrose, John F.
The stoichiometry problem related in this note captures student interest.
Penrose, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 63.
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Does the N-solution problem measure student proficiency?  Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles
An investigation to determine if the commonly used, N-solution, qualitative identification laboratory assessment problem assesses students' knowledge of descriptive chemistry.
Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1032.
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Data generation in the classroom  Blanco, Luis H.
A pendulum device for generating data for statistical analysis.
Blanco, Luis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1028.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Partition coefficients - A lecture demonstration  Newton, Thomas A.
The extraction of aqueous solutions of indophenol and its sodium salt with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The estimation of Avogadro's number using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer  Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III
Results and calculations using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer in estimating Avogadro's number.
Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 751.
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Chemical equation balancing: A general method which is quick, simple, and has unexpected applications  Blakley, G. R.
Using matrices to solve mathematical equations and balance chemical equations. From "The Goals of General Chemistry - A Symposium."
Blakley, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 728.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
On the use of intravenous solutions to teach some principles of solution chemistry  Shapiro, Irwin L.
A series of laboratory periods are devoted to the chemistry of intravenous solution in a one-semeter course for nursing students.
Shapiro, Irwin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 725.
Solutions / Solvents |
Nonmajor Courses |
Medicinal Chemistry
Mathematics in data analysis: An introduction  Wang, Taitzer
The meaning of simple mathematical equations are described in a perspective that, for some reasons, many beginning students do not seem to be able to obtain from reading textbooks on the subject.
Wang, Taitzer J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 592.
Chemometrics
Recurrent difficulties: Solving quantitative problems  Kramers-Pals, H.; Lambrechts, J.; Wolff, P. J.
Investigating the process students use to solve quantitative problems using a think aloud strategy.
Kramers-Pals, H.; Lambrechts, J.; Wolff, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 509.
Chemometrics
Notes from physics journals  Smith, Douglas D.
Solution with an index of refraction that matches that of Pyrex glass and a reverse cartesion diver.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 243.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Remedial mathematics for the introductory chemistry course: The "CHEM. 99" concept  Bohning, James J.
An approach that is aimed specifically at mathematical deficiencies and based on the premise that the deductive reasoning process that accompanies basic mathematical technique is crucial for a meaningful comprehension of general chemistry principles.
Bohning, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 207.
Chemometrics
A demonstration model for immiscibility  Hoffman, A. B.
Uses Magic Sand to demonstrate various solubility principles.
Hoffman, A. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A simple, effective introduction to the Beer-Lambert relationships  Bowman, Leo H.
Demonstrates the realities of light absorbing phenomenon.
Bowman, Leo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents
Buffers  Gold, Marvin
A demonstration based on buffer calculations.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Calculation of statistical thermodynamic properties  Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B.
25. Bits and pieces, 9. A computer program for the calculation of specific heat, entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of polyatomic molecules.
Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 131.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
CAI Programs in BASIC and an associated MATH subroutine  Anderson, Robert Hunt
25. Bits and pieces, 9. Four BASIC programs involving basic calculations and mathematical problems in chemistry.
Anderson, Robert Hunt J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 129.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Basic mathematics for beginning chemistry (Goldish, Dorthoy M.)  Ellison, Herbert R.

Ellison, Herbert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, A65.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Think   Wheeler, S. J., James D.
Students have an easy enough time crunching numbers, but it is alarming how little they understand the concepts behind the numbers. Students should not be making remarks such as, "If they keep changing how they write the problems, how am I supposed to know how to solve them?"
Wheeler, S. J., James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1004.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
More "quickies"  Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some quick, challenging questions that cover various areas of chemistry.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 994.
X-ray Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Small things and large numbers   Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some challenging solubility problems are featured in this note.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 962.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Ksp made simple  Buss, Donald E.
Students often have a hard time understanding solubility products conceptually. The author provides appropriate questions that can better scaffold understanding.
Buss, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 958.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Superlative problems  Akers, Hugh A.; Akers, Gwyn E.
The data in the Guinness Book of World Records holds great potential for fun, interesting chemistry exercises.
Akers, Hugh A.; Akers, Gwyn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 795.
Chemometrics
Balancing complex redox equations by inspection   Kolb, Doris
A step-by-step walk through of the inspection process for balancing equations.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 642.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A statistical note on the time lag method for second-order kinetic rate constants  Schwartz, Lowell M.
A clever method for finding second-order kinetic rate constants by using a time lag method that avoids direct measurement of the end point reading P(infinity) can easily be programmed.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 588.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A mathematics readiness test for prospective chemistry students  Weisman, Rence L.
A mathematics readiness test is prepared to determine whether students have the minimum competency necessary to succeed in chemistry.
Weisman, Rence L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 564.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
How big is Avogadro's number (or how small are atoms, molecules and ions)  Fulkrod, John E.
Calculating the volume occupied by Avogadro's number of drops of water helps students understand the magnitude of this quantity while giving them practice at using scientific notation and the metric system.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 508.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Pressure and the exploding beverage container   Perkins, Robert R.
The question in this article is an extension of exploding pop bottles to illustrate the balancing of a chemical equation, enthalpy, stoichiometry, and vapor pressure calculations, and the use of the Ideal Gas Equation. The question is aimed at the first-year level student.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 363.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
A specific heat analogy  McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC
An analogy for helping students to understand the concepts of specific heat and heat transfer problems.
McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 896.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Sweet heat  O'Connor, Rod
What would be the net enthalpy change for the complete combustion of 5.00 g of glucose at body temperature?
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 889.
Carbohydrates |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Teaching and learning problem solving in science. Part I: A general strategy  Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; Kramers-Pals, H.
A systematic approach to solving problems and on designing instruction where students learn this approach.
Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; Kramers-Pals, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 882.
Chemometrics
Empirical formulas - A ratio problem  Knox, Kerro
A problem involving an analogy between ratios of boys to girls given their average weights and percentage composition of the class by weight.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 879.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Solubility and complex ion equilibria of silver(I) species in aqueous solution  Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred
The sequential formation of precipitates and complex ions is used to demonstrate how the solubility of silver(I) compounds is related to Ksp values.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
An acid or a base?  Uriarte, Richard J.
Does a diluted acid remain acidic?
Uriarte, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 806.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Mole fraction analogies  DeLorenzo, Ron
An analogy to help students solve concentration problems.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 733.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents
Carbon tetrachloride substitute  Wynn, Charles M.
Substitution of n-hexane for carbon tetrachloride.
Wynn, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 728.
Toxicology |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
Dissociation of a weak acid  Ladd, M. F. C.
An earlier treatment of the equilibrium of a weak acid in water gives, for certain ranges of concentration, significantly incorrect results.
Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Experiments for display (Corridor demonstration)  Letcher, T. M.; Orchard, S. W.
The effect of heat on the color of cobalt(II) chloride water-alcohol solution. Refluxing solutions of different compositions.
Letcher, T. M.; Orchard, S. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 667.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Significant figures: Removing the zero mystique  Treptow, Richard S.
Zeros are significant if they appear before a number takes on size or as stand-ins for unknown digits.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 646.
Chemometrics
Apple dunking  O'Connor, Rod
Question regarding the ratio between ions of p-nitrophenylhydrazone in reducing the pH of basic effluent.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 598.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH |
Industrial Chemistry
Whatever became of significant figures? The trend toward numerical illiteracy  Anderlik, Barbara
How does one persuade students, when working with physical measurements, to part with excess digits and become numerically literate.
Anderlik, Barbara J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 591.
Chemometrics
An illustration to demonstrate the smallness of molecules  Kingston, David W.
An exercise in dimensional analysis.
Kingston, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 506.
Chemometrics
Cobalt complexes in equilibrium  Ophardt, Charles E.
This equilibrium illustrates the application of LeChatelier's principle to concentration effects.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 453.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Correlating Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures by the "unit calculus"  Gorin, George
Deriving the mathematical relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 350.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Illustrating chemical concepts through food systems: Introductory chemistry experiments  Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S.
Illustrating the vaporization of liquids, reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration using foods.
Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 312.
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Colloids |
Acids / Bases
Adopting SI units in introductory chemistry  Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.
Conventions associated with SI units, conversion relationships commonly used in chemistry, and a roadmap method for solving stoichiometry problems.
Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 303.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Adding another dimension to dimensional analysis  DeLorenzo, Ronald
Adding words to typical dimensional analysis work to improve understanding and communication.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 302.
Chemometrics
Qualitative analysis, without sulfide ion, of selected cations  Rathnamma, Dasara V.
Qualitative analysis of selected 11 cations can be accomplished without the use of sulfide.
Rathnamma, Dasara V. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 287.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Appetizing colloids  Riley, John T.
Two examples of colloidal dispersions: the formation of foam upon mixing a solution of aluminum sulfate with a solution of egg albumin and sodium bicarbonate, and the formation of a gel upon mixing ethanol with a saturated solution of calcium acetate.
Riley, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 153.
Colloids |
Solutions / Solvents
Crystallization of sodium acetate  Hiegel, Gene A.
Procedure for preparing a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate and crystallizing it.
Hiegel, Gene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
"To sink or swim"  O'Connor, Rod
A problem regarding the maximum water hardness that can be permitted in a swimming pool if it is desired to avoid calcite formation given the carbonate ion concentration. [Debut]
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 151.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
On the misuse of Le Châtelier's principle for the prediction of the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts  Bodner, George M.
Explores why Le Châtelier's principle often fails to predict the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 117.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Significant digits: Numbers and their logarithms  Clever, H. Lawrence
The number of digits to report in a base 10 logarithm is an unresolved problem for many students.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 824.
Chemometrics |
pH
Travelling Waves of Chemical Activity in the Zaikin-Zhabotinskii-Winfree Reagent  Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T.
An overhead projector demonstration.
Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 754.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The physically meaningful solution of the quadratic equation  Levy, Mel; Byers, Larry D.
Shows that the potential ambiguity of two unequal but physically meaningful roots never arises.
Levy, Mel; Byers, Larry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Chemometrics
Calculators in freshman chemistry - An alternative view  Gold, Marvin
There is a serious negative aspect to allowing freshmen use of calculators in chemistry.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Chemometrics
The precipitation of ferrous hydroxide: A lecture demonstration  Lau, O. W.
This demonstration can illustrate such topics as the solubility of ionic compounds, electrode potentials of transition elements and their modification by formation of either an insoluble compound of a complex ion, and mixed valence compounds.
Lau, O. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 474.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Determination of solution enthalpy: An easy and simple method  Karunakaran, K.
A method that does not involve the preparation and analysis of saturated solutions at different temperatures.
Karunakaran, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Management
Formation and dissolution of precipitates  Nogar, N. S.; Jalenak, W. A.
Using the scattering of a laser beam to detect the presence of particles suspended in solution.
Nogar, N. S.; Jalenak, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 267.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Lasers
Measurement errors: A lecture demonstration  Munn, Robert J.
A lecture demonstration to realistically discuss precision, accuracy, averaging, data rejection, and significant digits.
Munn, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 267.
Chemometrics
How many significant digits in 0.05C?  Power, James D.
Textbooks abound with erroneous examples, such as 33F = 0.56C.
Power, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Calculators, slide rules, and significant figures  McCullough, Thomas, CSC
Using a slide rule to help students understand the concept of significant figures before using a calculator.
McCullough, Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Chemometrics
Intuitive and general approach to acid-base equilibrium calculations  Felty, Wayne L.
The purpose of this paper is to show that the usual intuitive approach used in general chemistry can be readily extended without introduction of additional, sophisticated concepts to give the general, exact expression and to point out the pedagogical advantage of its use.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Pressure calculations   Schultz, Charles W.
This question requires students to be able to distinguish two kinds of pressure: Boyles law pressure of gas (that depends on volume) from the equilibrium vapor pressure above a liquid (that does not).
Schultz, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 515.
Gases |
Chemometrics
Colorimetric analysis for salicylate in urine: An experiment for nursing chemistry  Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A.
The iron-salicylate system provides a chemistry experiment is described here and is suitable for students majoring in nursing.
Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 464.
Nonmajor Courses |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Balancing an atypical redox equation  Carrano, S. A.
The author presents a particularly tricky redox problem and walks readers through a solution.
Carrano, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 382.
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Chemical predictions from pKa values  Hassanali, A.
The problem presented here develops student understanding of both pKa calculations and organic acids.
Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 378.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Teaching the method of successive approximations  Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R.
The purpose of this papers is to help the teacher show the student why basic methods of successive approximations work, how they may be applied, and under what conditions it will be successful.
Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 376.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Collision theory  Myers, Richard S.
The question presented here can be employed in general or physical chemistry courses.
Myers, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 243.
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
A pre-general chemistry course for the underprepared student  Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse
Outline and evaluation of a course in chemical problem solving.
Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 730.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Case of the unlabeled bottles  Smith, Douglas D.
Students are to determine the contents of a series of unlabelled bottles.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 701.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical equilibrium: Analogies that separate the mathematics from the chemistry  DeLorenzo, Ronald A.
Demonstrates that the mathematics of chemical equilibria are not difficult, particularly when put in a non-chemical context.
DeLorenzo, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 676.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Another look at our teaching methods. Pros and cons of the silent demonstration  Woodburn, John H.
Analysis of a "silent demonstration" involving the formation of a precipitate and why the demonstration may or may not have been effective in helping students understand the intended concept.
Woodburn, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 627.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
On significant figures  MacCarthy, Patrick
Illustrating the decrease in uncertainty that accompanies an increase in significant figures.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 578.
Chemometrics
Simple classroom experiment on uncertainty of measurement  Sen, B.
This activity demonstrates several aspects regarding the statistical treatment of data.
Sen, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 468.
Chemometrics
Silver ion in water purification: A follow-up  Quane, Denis
Applying a previous idea on the possible use of silver ion in water purification to teaching the concept of Ksp.
Quane, Denis J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 381.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Hydrogen bonding and heat of solution  Friedman, Norman
An experiment that clearly illustrates the role of hydrogen bond formation and its effect on the heat of solution.
Friedman, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 248.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Selective solubility: "Like dissolves like"  Smith, Wayne L.
Azobenzene is a better analog of DDT than iodine in demonstrating the pesticide's solubility in fatty tissue.
Smith, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 228.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Lipids
Simple practical lab test for freshman students  Jones, Mark M.
Uses the preparation of a solution of designated molarity as a test of student competence; the solution is evaluated using its optical density.
Jones, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 178.
Solutions / Solvents
Calculators and significant figures  Satek, Larry C.
A demonstration on the topic of significant figures and random errors.
Satek, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 177.
Chemometrics
On mole fractions in equilibrium constants  Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K.
Proposes a hybrid equilibrium constant for use in introductory chemistry courses.
Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 151.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical equilibrium  Burke, Barbara A.
Demonstrates the equilibrium between blue CuSO4 and green K2(CuBr4) on an overhead projector.
Burke, Barbara A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Flashy solutions  Riley, John T.
Demonstrations using universal indicator.
Riley, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
Cookbook dimensional analysis  DeLorenzo, Ronald
Frequently, teachers will hear, "...it looks easy when you do it..." when teaching dimensional analysis. This teacher advises others on a way to help students gain self-efficacy with this problem solving-strategy.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 633.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A criterion for the simple approximation in dissociation equilibria  Leffler, Amos J.
The author demonstrates quantitative criterion for the assumption that permits the neglect of the amount of dissociated species in the denominator of the dissociation equation.
Leffler, Amos J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 460.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
The solubility of CaSO4: An ion exchange-complexometric titration experiment for the freshman laboratory  Koubek, Edward
This lab may be used to introduce the student to two important areas of chemistry with the added advantage that one method serves as a direct check on the other.
Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 254.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Ion Exchange
Antichap lipstick and nonbonded interactions. A nonscience majors laboratory experience  Most, Clark, Jr.
A laboratory with real life applications helps nonscience majors learn about solubility.
Most, Clark, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 194.
Solutions / Solvents |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Chromatography on chalk  Wollrab, Adalbert
Describes how a variety of mixtures can be separated using a piece of chalk.
Wollrab, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 809.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Solutions / Solvents
Ksp experiment: The solubility product for barium hydroxide  Reynolds, John P.
Two procedures for determining the solubility product of barium hydroxide and the effect of temperature on Ksp.
Reynolds, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 521.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Compact compacts  Bier, C. J.; Schiller, Joseph E.; Hengeveld, Frank W.; Smith, Herbert L.; Karnes, John P.
Exercises in distillation and the law of multiple proportions; the "Men and Molecules" radio program; and assessing solution concentrations.
Bier, C. J.; Schiller, Joseph E.; Hengeveld, Frank W.; Smith, Herbert L.; Karnes, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 519.
Solutions / Solvents
A logic diagram for teaching stoichiometry  Tyndall, John R.
Presents a diagram that the author found helpful in teaching the fundamentals of stoichiometry.
Tyndall, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 492.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Maximizing profits in equilibrium processes  Rish, Ronald J.
Provides the student with an example in which both chemical principles and calculus are applied to a realistic industrial situation where profits are a must.
Rish, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 441.
Equilibrium |
Industrial Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Molar solubility calculations and the control equilibrium  Chaston, S. H. H.
The Control-Equilibrium method uses as its starting point a precise procedure for obtaining the equilibrium that accounts for the bulk of the decomposition of starting materials.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 206.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Illustrating large and small numbers. A problem for the birds  Sattler, Louis
A calculation designed to illustrate the relative size of Avogadro's number. The solution from p. 181 is reproduced in this PDF.
Sattler, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 180.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
FeSCN2+ - A computer aid to the CHEM Study experiment  McCall, Arthur J., Jr.
A Fortran program assists in making the calculations that accompany investigation of the iron(III)thiocyanate equilibrium system.
McCall, Arthur J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 118.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Discussion: Mathematics in the first-year chemistry course  Richter, G. P.
Report of the Third Biennial Conference on Chemical Education and the Second Centennial of Chemistry Celebration.
Richter, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 19.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Chemometrics
A spectrophotometric determination of fluoride adapted for the freshman laboratory  Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W.
In this experiment the student determines the fluoride ion concentration of a sodium fluoride solution, which they can do with high precision and accuracy.
Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 680.
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy
Demonstration of solubility of "immiscible" fluids  Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E.
Demonstrating that hexane is miscible in water.
Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 724.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A computer program for heat of combustion calculations  Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol
A computer program is available for converting raw combustion data to the standard state energy of combustion.
Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 486.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
The equilibrium between a solid solution and an aqueous solution of its ions  Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I.
It is the purpose of this paper to present the equations that describe the equilibrium between solid solutions and their ions and to outline methods for their derivation.
Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 415.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A quick scored item analysis for objective tests  Stokes, Jimmy C.; Strickland, James F., Jr.
Analyzing test data with students in the classroom.
Stokes, Jimmy C.; Strickland, James F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 354.
Chemometrics
Selected properties of selected solvents  Nilles, George P.; Schuetz, Robert D.
Selected properties of fifty common solvents.
Nilles, George P.; Schuetz, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 267.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Dissolved oxygen determination  Berger, Toby E.
Details regarding the cited procedure.
Berger, Toby E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 160.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Notes on determination of dissolved oxygen  Sommers, Raymond A.
Simplifications in the referenced procedure that make it more suitable for the introductory laboratory.
Sommers, Raymond A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 160.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Problem solving for chemistry (Peters, Edward I.)  Fiekers, Bernard A., S. J.

Fiekers, Bernard A., S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A491.
Chemometrics
Chemical calculations (Benson, Sidney W.)  Melgaard, Kennett G.

Melgaard, Kennett G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A98.
Chemometrics
Significant digits in logarithm-antilogarithm interconversions  Jones, Donald E.
Most textbooks are in error in the proper use of significant digits when interconverting logarithms and antilogarithms.
Jones, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 753.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A "relevant" first experiment for freshman chemistry laboratory  Macomber, Roger S.
This activity involves popping corn and introduces students to the processes of observation and inference as well as the use of the analytical balance and gravimetric procedure.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 714.
Chemometrics
Definition of standard states  Lukens, David C.
A suggested sequence of definitions for the standard state.
Lukens, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 654.
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
An interactive program for teaching pH and logarithms  Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J.
A computer program written in APL for teaching students logarithms and pH calculations.
Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 571.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Dissolved oxygen. A relevant experiment for the introductory laboratory  Stagg, William R.
Students measure the dissolved oxygen content of water from several natural sources as well as the change in solubility with temperature.
Stagg, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 427.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
The two-place logarithm table. An aid to understanding and use of logarithms  Freiser, Henry
Presents a two-place logarithm table that serves to aid the understanding and use of logarithms.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 325.
Chemometrics
A visual demonstration of preferential absorption  Folster, Harry G.
The preferential absorption of one solute from a mixture of solutes can be demonstrated by a simple and inexpensive technique in which the separation is visually evident.
Folster, Harry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 322.
Transport Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Solubility of lead bromide in nitrate media. A study of ionic interactions  Cooper, J. N.
Students are asked to determine, as a class, the solubility of lead bromide at a fixed temperature in solutions covering a range of known sodium nitrate concentrations.
Cooper, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 282.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Density gradients in chemistry teaching  Miller, P. J.
Outlines experiments in which a density gradient may be used to advantage, including the analysis of organic compounds, aqueous solutions, binary mixtures of organic compounds, solids, and solvent extractions.
Miller, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 278.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Precipitation of lead chromate from homogeneous solution. A lecture demonstration or laboratory experiment  Ramette, Richard W.
Both the "conventional precipitation" and the precipitation from homogeneous solution are done simultaneously so that the striking differences in chemistry, appearance, and precipitate produced can be compared.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 270.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Density of a binary mixture. A classroom or laboratory exercise  Feinstein, H. I.
Provides a hypothetical problem in the density of a binary mixture.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 111.
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Using alligation alternate to solve composition problems  Mancott, Anatol
Problems involving the composition of mixtures may be solved by using the relatively obscure method of "alligation alternate" in lieu of the standard algebraic procedure with no loss in accuracy; includes five examples.
Mancott, Anatol J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 57.
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Isotopes
The effervescence of ocean surf  Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
A pure liquid will not foam, but all true solutions will, as dictated by the fundamental concepts of surface thermodynamics enunciated by Gibbs.
Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Entropy Makes Water Run Uphill - in Trees  Stevenson, Philip E.
Explains how Sequoias over 300 feet tall can draw water up to their topmost leaves.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 837.
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Plant Chemistry |
Membranes |
Transport Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Miscellanea No. 6  Eberhardt, W. H.
A collection of clarified, underemphasized, and misunderstood topics, including cell electromotive force and disproportionate reactions; partially miscible liquids and upper consolute temperatures; enthalpy and free energy of formation; and magnetic moment.
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
Audio taped explanations of freshman experimental calculations  Harrison, Aline M.
The authors have found audio tapes to be effective replacements for live, in-lab explanations of experimental calculations.
Harrison, Aline M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 826.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Management
SI units in physico-chemical calculations  Norris, A. C.
This article demonstrates how the adoption of SI units affects some of the more important physico-chemical calculations found at the undergraduate level.
Norris, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 797.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Size of a molecule. Or what's in a shape?  Demchik, Michael J.; Demchik, Virginia C.
The authors describe an experiment which helps students understand why oleic acid is essentially insoluble in water.
Demchik, Michael J.; Demchik, Virginia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 770.
Lipids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Fatty Acids
Polywater. A lesson and opportunity in science  Christian, P. A.; Berka, L. H.
The authors present an intriguing observation and offer outlines of some possible studies that can be undertaken in any adequately equipped high school or college chemistry laboratory.
Christian, P. A.; Berka, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 667.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Beginning chemistry can be relevant  Corwin, James F.
The continuing criticism offered by students of the science that the present day courses are not relevant to contemporary problems. This can be answered in part by a laboratory program based on environmental problems.
Corwin, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 522.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Acid-base reaction parameters  Freiser, Henry
The author demonstrates how the combined algebraic graphical approach can be extended to acid-base titration curve calculations as well as to buffer and sharpness index formulation.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 809.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Grading the copper sulfide experiment  Novick, Seymour
The author recommends a more liberal analysis in grading the copper sulfide experiment.
Novick, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Chemical exponentialism for beginners  Larson, G. Olof
Presents a method for introducing and reviewing exponential mathematical operations.
Larson, G. Olof J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 693.
Chemometrics
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
A demonstration experiment on partial molar volumes  Coch, Juan A.; Lopez, Valentin
The partial molar volume of trichloroacetic acid can be determined by measuring the increase in volume when TCA is dissolved in water at constant temperature and pressure.
Coch, Juan A.; Lopez, Valentin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 270.
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
Hydrolysis of sodium carbonate  Nakayama, F. S.
Presents a procedure for obtaining the ion concentrations of the various component species produced by the hydrolysis of sodium carbonate.
Nakayama, F. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 67.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
pH
Component concentrations in solutions of weak acids  Goldish, Dorothy M.
presents a new approach to teaching the subject of weak acid equilibria and its associated calculations.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 65.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
pH
Essential Math for the Sciences: Algebra, Trigonometry, and Vectors (Beiser, Arthur)  Reuland, Donald J.

Reuland, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A899.
Chemometrics
Potentiometric determination of solubility product constants: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
This paper describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 857.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Diffusion of potassium permanganate as a lecture demonstration  Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E.
Dropping crystals of potassium permanganate into a tall column of water leads to the slow dissolution and diffusion of the potassium permanganate throughout the column over a semester's time.
Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 758.
Transport Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Solutions / Solvents |
Liquids
Volkswagen versus the hummingbird  Nebbia, Giorgio
Questions the cited (046-07-0455) thermodynamic calculations.
Nebbia, Giorgio J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 701.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
LTE.  Crocker, Roger
The author points out that the objections raised to his earlier work are academic.
Crocker, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
LTE. Algebra and chemical equations  Copley, George Novello
The author questions the mathematic validity of the cited work.
Copley, George Novello J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Fuel conversion in transport phenomena  Gerlach, E. R.
Calculations comparing the fuel efficiency of a hummingbird with that of a Volkswagen.
Gerlach, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 455.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Circular slide rule conversion of pH to [H+]  Grimm, Larry C.
This short note discusses the use of a circular slide rule to convert pH to [H+].
Grimm, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 22.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Le Chtelier's principle  Melott, Adrian L.
Adding a strong base to aqueous ammonia causes gaseous ammonia to be released.
Melott, Adrian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A519.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hazardous chemicals data  National Fire Protection Association
Explains aspects of chemical hazard data and presents hazards associated with acetaldehyde.
National Fire Protection Association J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A115.
Chemometrics |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Management
Mole fraction versus molality  Creak, G. Alan
Mole fractions are not always unambiguous when used in the context of ionic solutions.
Creak, G. Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 622.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Le Chtelier and ionic equilibria  Ringbom, Anders
When s solution contains several weak acids, the squares of the separately calculated hydrogen ion concentrations of all weak acids in the solution are additive.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 442.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Chlorine trifluoride.  Steere, Norman V.
Summarizes the hazards associated with chlorine trifluoride.
Steere, Norman V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1057.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Management
Group 1. The Alkali Metals C. The Copper Group  Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert
Demonstrations include electroplating copper, Fehling's test, the silver mirror (Ag+ + tartrate), insoluble silver salts, photo-film + hypo, hypo fixer + silver coin, and a solution of gold in aqua-regia.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1005.
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Metals
Dissociation of weak acids and bases at infinite dilution  Stock, D. Irwin
It is all too easy to forget that in a solution of infinite dilution the solvent itself is ionized to an extent governed by its ionization constant, and that the concentration of its ions will appear in the expression for the dissociation constant of the solute.
Stock, D. Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 764.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The significance of significant figures  Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E.
This paper is an attempt to clarify some of our ideas about numerical data, measurements, mathematical operations, and significant figures.
Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 232.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Are solubilities and solubility products related?  Meites, Louis; Prode, J. S. F.; Thomas, Henry C.
The relation between solubilities and solubility products is far less intimate than is stated or implied by introductory texts and the ideas and calculations involved are too complex for presentation on the elementary level.
Meites, Louis; Prode, J. S. F.; Thomas, Henry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 667.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Acetamide as a solvent for freezing point depression and solubility experiments  Davis, Jeff C., Jr.
Suggests acetamide as a solvent for freezing point depression and solubility experiments.
Davis, Jeff C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 611.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
The dissolution of tin in solutions of iodine  Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F.
The progress of this reaction can be followed by the loss of weight of a tin disc.
Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 483.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Kinetics |
Gravimetric Analysis
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
Discarded "IV" bottles are useful  Ostrander, Charles
Discarded "IV" bottles are useful for dispensing solutions and reduce the chances of contamination.
Ostrander, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 379.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Simple two-dimensional magnetic disc models of ionic liquids  Angell, C. A.; Gruen, D. M.
Modeling ionic liquids using magnetic, elastomer-bonded materials capable of floating on water.
Angell, C. A.; Gruen, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 194.
Molecular Modeling |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents
Potential hazards involved in using dimethyl sulfoxide  Buckley, Alan
Solutions of compounds in DMSO can present particular hazards.
Buckley, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 674.
Solutions / Solvents
Statistical analysis of data in the general chemistry laboratory  Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F.
Students are asked to analyze data collected with respect to determinations of Dumas molecular weight, equivalent weight of a metal, equivalent weight of an acid, and molecular weight by freezing point depression.
Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 564.
Chemometrics
Notes on experiments for introductory college chemistry  
A brief set of notes regarding the complex salt [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2, the Guoy balance, Avogadro's number, and the stoichiometry of a mixture.
J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 495.
Coordination Compounds |
Magnetic Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents
Solvent effect on the keto-enol equilibrium of acetoacetic ester  Lockwood, Karl L.
The purpose of the investigation is to introduce students to some of the factors that influence an equilibrium constant.
Lockwood, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 481.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
Relationship of enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
The primary objectives of this investigation are to relate enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy using Hess' Law and to acquaint students with Born-Haber type energy cycles.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 473.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Experimental approach to stoichiometry. In first-year chemistry at Northwestern  King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton
Presents five experiments in which students are given a minimal set of directions and a simply stated objective.
King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 464.
Stoichiometry |
Coordination Compounds |
Undergraduate Research |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Detection of chloride ion in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Summarizes and evaluates several published methods for detecting chloride ions in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 440.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution  Krause, Richard E.
This short note describes a simple method for the preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution.
Krause, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 426.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
A temperature-independent concentration unit  Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr.
Describes a new system of concentration, termed molicity by the authors.
Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 420.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves  Emery, Allan R.
Describes the development of a computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Emery, Allan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 131.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Teaching ionic equilibrium: Use of log chart transparencies  Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus
The use of graphical methods brings the problem of significance of various terms in complicated expressions into proper focus. Furthermore, a pictorial representation permits the student to see at a glance how the concentrations of various species in a system at equilibrium change with conditions.
Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 35.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Solubility and pH Calculations (Butler, James N.)  Ramette, R. W.

Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A970.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Problem solving in chemistry (Tilbury, Glen)  Whitney, Richard M.

Whitney, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A532.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Operator formalism in dimensional analysis  Musulin, Boris
Describes another approach to dimensional analysis.
Musulin, Boris J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 622.
Chemometrics
The Carnot cycle and Maxwell's relations  Nash, Leonard K.
Maxwells equations can be derived from nothing more than the Carnot cycle and the deployment of the simplest plane geometry.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 368.
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Beer's law without calculus  Pinkerton, Richard C.
There is no good reason for using calculus in the presentation of Beer's law.
Pinkerton, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 366.
Chemometrics
A method of visual representation of three dimensional functions  Lemlich, Arthur; Zinsser, Hans H.
Lego blocks are used to visually represent three-dimensional functions.
Lemlich, Arthur; Zinsser, Hans H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 165.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Float method for the analysis of solutions  Osburn, J. O.
Presents suggestions for investigations to accompany and earlier published article.
Osburn, J. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A538.
Solutions / Solvents
A simple demonstration of some precipitation and solubility effects  Matijevic, E.
Provides suggestions for research to accompany earlier published articles.
Matijevic, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A386.
Undergraduate Research |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Precipitation from homogeneous solution  Gordon, L.; Salesin, E. D.
Suggests research questions based on an earlier published article.
Gordon, L.; Salesin, E. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A306.
Undergraduate Research |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH
An amperometric-kinetic experiment emphasizing the importance of error treatment  Young, J. A.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Young, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Chemical calculations (Benson, Sidney W.)  Masterton, William L.

Masterton, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 499.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A compact light box  Barnard, Robert
Presents the design of a light box suitable for demonstrations involving solutions, precipitations, or any basic chemical reaction.
Barnard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A953.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Reactions
Basic mathematics of science and engineering (Wood, Reuben E.)  Rosenberg, Robert M.

Rosenberg, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A60.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Balancing ionic equations by the method of undetermined coefficients  Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H.
Describes a mathematical method for balancing chemical equations.
Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Electrolytic conductivity: A demonstration experiment  Thomas, William B.
Describes a simple method of measuring electrolytic conductivity based on Ohm's law.
Thomas, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 531.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Float method for the analysis of solutions  Osburn, James O.; Choi, Il C.
Describes a simple procedure for making precise and reproducible concentration measurements through the thermal equilibrium float method.
Osburn, James O.; Choi, Il C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 578.
Solutions / Solvents
A simple method for finding slopes  Hoare, James P.
Describes a simple method for determining the tangent at any point on a given curve using a solid glass rod.
Hoare, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 570.
Chemometrics
An approach to complex equilibrium problems  Butler, James N.
Presents an approach to equilibrium problems that sets up enough equations relating the various concentrations present to define the system completely and then makes approximations that simplify the equations.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 141.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Determination of solubility: A laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P.
Students are required to determine the solubility of common salts at various temperatures by finding the temperature at which a solution of known composition is saturated.
Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 137.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Letters to the editor  Hall, Arthur C.
The molality-molarity paradox presented in an earlier article is artificial rather than apparent.
Hall, Arthur C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 584.
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A molality-molarity paradox?  Toby, Sidney
The author points out that there seems no obvious reason why molality could not equal molarity in a solution whose density is less than unity.
Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 230.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Initial ratio of reactants to give, at equilibrium, a maximum yield of products  Haslam, E.
Derivation of the initial ratio of reactants to give, at equilibrium, a maximum yield of products.
Haslam, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 471.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
An exact titration equation  Bolie, Victor W.
The purpose of this paper is to show the development of a titration equation for a precipitation reaction which is exact in the mathematical sense.
Bolie, Victor W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 449.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Undergraduate Research
Radioactive decay calculations without calculus  Guenther, William B.
Presents a method for half-life calculations that does not rely on the use of calculus.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Solution of problems in chemistry  Trousdale, Everett A.
Presents a method for analyzing and solving mole calculations.
Trousdale, Everett A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 299.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Textbook errors: XIII. The nature of ionic and molecular species in sulfuric acid  Brubaker, Carl H., Jr.
Addresses misconceptions regarding the strength of sulfuric acid and the nature of ionic and molecular species present in solution.
Brubaker, Carl H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 325.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Dimensional analysis of chemical laws and theories  Benfey, O. Theodore
The dimensional analysis of the kinetic theory and organic structural theory.
Benfey, O. Theodore J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 286.
Chemometrics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
On the second order rate equation  Said, Abdel S.
Presents a derivation of the rate equation of a second order reaction.
Said, Abdel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 251.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Chemometrics
A formula for indirect gravimetry  Fiekers, B. A.
Derivation of a formula for indirect gravimetry and application to a sample problem.
Fiekers, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 575.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
A graphical method for determining the order of homogeneous reactions  Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James
Provides a review of classical kinetics, derivation of the reaction order equation, and the determination of reaction order using a graph provided.
Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 542.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
A device for demonstrating conductivity of solutions  Eiseman, Fred B., Jr.
An apparatus has been developed that makes it possible to demonstrate the conductivities of solutions without destroying, transferring, or contaminating them
Eiseman, Fred B., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 445.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents
The experimental determination of an error distribution  Nelson, Lloyd S.
Discusses an experiment in which students are asked to the average deviation and probable errors in their measurements.
Nelson, Lloyd S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 126.
Chemometrics
Textbook errors: III. The solubility of gases in liquids  Mysels, Karol J.
Rising temperature is generally said to reduce the solubility of gases in liquids, yet the facts disagree with any such generalization.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 399.
Gases |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Pocket slide rule for pH calculations  Pitzer, Edgar C.
A pocket slide rule may be used for direct conversion from hydrogen-ion activity to pH, or vice versa, without the need for arithmetical computation.
Pitzer, Edgar C. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 300.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance  Stacy, Irving F.
Provides a mathematical analysis for finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance.
Stacy, Irving F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
A general equation for approximate hydronium ion calculations  Drenan, James W.
Presents a general equation for simplifying calculations of the hydronium ion.
Drenan, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Proper place problems  MacKenzie, Scott
A mathematical analysis of evaluating problems in which students are asked to place items in the correct order.
MacKenzie, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 428.
Chemometrics
A log table for pH problems  Condon, Francis E.
Provides a readily remembered log table suitable for computing pH from hydronium-ion concentration and the reverse.
Condon, Francis E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 323.
pH |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters to the editor  Weaver, Elbert C.
Acknowledges and corrects an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Wescott, Emery N.
Points out an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Wescott, Emery N. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 101.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Mathematical chemistry  Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David
Examines some of the challenges involved in the design of a course in mathematics suitable for undergraduate chemists.
Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 570.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
A procedure for solving equilibrium problems  Boyd, Robert Neilson
A procedure for solving equilibrium problems is illustrated through several sample problems.
Boyd, Robert Neilson J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 198.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Keeping properties of certain volumetric solutions  Durham, Barbee William
Presents a table listing the storage time and stability of various standard solutions.
Durham, Barbee William J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 387.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Management