TIGER

Journal Articles: 166 results
A New "Bottom-Up" Framework for Teaching Chemical Bonding  Tami Levy Nahum, Rachel Mamlok-Naaman, Avi Hofstein, and Leeor Kronik
This article presents a general framework for bonding that can be presented at different levels of sophistication depending on the student's level and needs. The pedagogical strategy for teaching this model is a "bottom-up" one, starting with basic principles and ending with specific properties.
Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Kronik, Leeor. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1680.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Materials Science |
MO Theory |
Noncovalent Interactions
Ionic Blocks  Richard S. Sevcik, Rex Gamble, Elizabet Martinez, Linda D. Schultz, and Susan V. Alexander
"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery.
Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1631.
Ionic Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Stoichiometry
Exploring Solid-State Structure and Physical Properties: A Molecular and Crystal Model Exercise  Thomas H. Bindel
This laboratory allows students to examine relationships among the microscopicmacroscopicsymbolic levels using crystalline mineral samples and corresponding crystal models. The exercise also reinforces Lewis dot structures, VSEPR theory, and the identification of molecular and coordination geometries.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 822.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
VSEPR Theory |
Lewis Structures |
Physical Properties
Reply to More on CIO and Related Radicals  Mark Kobrak and Warren Hirsch
We thank Prof. Jensen for bringing Dr. Linnetts work on oxygenhalogen diatomics to our attention. We were not aware that quartet theory had been applied in this way.
Kobrak, Mark; Hirsch, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 783.
Ionic Bonding
More on ClO and Related Radicals  William B. Jensen
The novel Lewis structure for the ClO radical and other related 13e isoelectronic species presented by Hirsch and Kobrak is identical to that proposed by Linnett over 40 years ago for the same species on the basis of his well-known double-quartet approach to Lewis structures.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 783.
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Free Radicals
A-DNA and B-DNA: Comparing Their Historical X-ray Fiber Diffraction Images  Amand A. Lucas
This paper provides a comparative explanation of the structural content of the diffraction diagrams of A-DNA and B-DNA that facilitated the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953. This analysis is supported a method that simulates both A-DNA and B-DNA X-ray images optically.
Lucas, Amand A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 737.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
Crystals / Crystallography |
X-ray Crystallography |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Using Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals To Understand Crystallography   Stephanie A. Bosse and Nikolaus M. Loening
Describes a simple experiment that uses micrometer-sized latex spheres to form two-dimensional colloidal crystals. Diffraction patterns formed by passing a laser beam through these crystals reveal their symmetry and allow the determination of the size of the particles that make up the crystal.
Bosse, Stephanie A.; Loening, Nikolaus M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 93.
Colloids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Lasers |
X-ray Crystallography
Use of the Primitive Unit Cell in Understanding Subtle Features of the Cubic Close-Packed Structure  John A. Hawkins, Linda M. Soper, Jeffrey L. Rittenhouse, and Robert C. Rittenhouse
Examines the pedagogical advantages in presenting the primitive rhombohedral unit cell as a means of helping students to gain greater insight into the nature of the cubic close-packed structure.
Hawkins, John A.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L.; Rittenhouse, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 90.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Metals |
Solids
Stuffed Derivatives of Close-Packed Structures  Bodie E. Douglas
Examines a variety of stuffed silica crystal structures in terms of the close-packing of one set of atoms or ions (P sites) with other atoms or ions in tetrahedral (T) or octahedral (O) sites and filled or partially filled layers in the regular pattern, PTOT.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1846.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Materials Science |
Metals |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids
Fabrication and Analysis of Photonic Crystals  Dean J. Campbell, Kylee E. Korte, and Younan Xia
Presents a set of laboratory experiments designed to explore aspects of nanoscale chemistry by constructing and spectroscopically analyzing thin films of photonic crystals. Topics covered include crystallization and diffraction.
Campbell, Dean J.; Korte, Kylee E.; Xia, Younan. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1824.
Crystals / Crystallography |
X-ray Crystallography
Calcium Carbonate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of calcium carbonate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1102.
Ionic Bonding |
Laboratory Management
Predicting the Stability of Hypervalent Molecules  Tracy A. Mitchell, Debbie Finocchio, and Jeremy Kua
In this exercise, students use concepts in thermochemistry such as bond energy, ionization potentials, and electron affinities to predict the relative stability of two hypervalent molecules (PF5 and PH5) relative to their respective non-hypervalent counterparts.
Mitchell, Tracy A.; Finocchio, Debbie; Kua, Jeremy. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 629.
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Known-to-Unknown Approach To Teach about Coulomb's Law  P. K. Thamburaj
Analogies from life experiences help students understand the relationships between the quantities involved in Coulomb's law, which in turn help them understand the influence of charge and ionic size on lattice energy, melting points, and solubility of ionic solids.
Thamburaj, P. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 438.
Ion Exchange |
Physical Properties |
Ionic Bonding
Effectiveness of a MORE Laboratory Module in Prompting Students To Revise Their Molecular-Level Ideas about Solutions  Lydia T. Tien, Melonie A. Teichert, and Dawn Rickey
This study investigates the effectiveness of a ModelObserveReflectExplain (MORE) laboratory module in prompting three different populations of general chemistry students to revise their molecular-level ideas regarding chemical compounds dissolved in water.
Tien, Lydia T.; Teichert, Melonie A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 175.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
Titration of a Solid Acid Monitored By X-Ray Diffraction  Keenan E. Dungey and Paul Epstein
Presents a solid-state laboratory in which students react fixed amounts of zirconium phosphate with increasing equivalents of NaOH(aq). From X-ray diffraction patterns, students calculate the interplanar spacings before and after the reaction. The spacings increase until the molar equivalence point is reached, indicating incorporation of the sodium ion into the crystal.
Dungey, Keenan E.; Epstein, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 122.
Acids / Bases |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
X-ray Crystallography |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Powder Diffraction Simulated by a Polycrystalline Film of Spherical Colloids  Dean J. Campbell and Younan Xia
This article describes a simple way to demonstrate powder diffraction in a classroom setting using a dry film of spherical colloids on a glass substrate.
Campbell, Dean. J.; Xia, Younan. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1638.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
X-ray Crystallography |
Materials Science
What Happens When Chemical Compounds Are Added to Water? An Introduction to the Model–Observe–Reflect–Explain (MORE) Thinking Frame  Adam C. Mattox, Barbara A. Reisner, and Dawn Rickey
This article describes a laboratory designed to help students understand how different compounds behave when dissolved in water, and introduces the modelobservereflectexplain (MORE) thinking frame, an instructional tool that encourages students to connect macroscopic observations with their understanding of the behavior of particles at the molecular level.
Mattox, Adam C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 622.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Filling in the Hexagonal Close-Packed Unit Cell  Robert C. Rittenhouse, Linda M. Soper, and Jeffrey L. Rittenhouse
The illustrations of the hcp unit cell that are used in textbooks at all levels and also in crystallography and solid-state reference works are incomplete, in that they fail to include fractions of middle layer atomic spheres with centers lying outside of the unit cell.
Rittenhouse, Robert C.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 175.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Metals |
Solids
Sherlock Holmes and the Case of the Raven and the Ambassador's Wife: An Inquiry-Based Murder Mystery  Nathaniel Grove and Stacey Lowery Bretz
In the accompanying investigation, students help Sherlock Holmes solve the poisoning death of Holly Bernard-Schneider, the wife of the German ambassador to England. Hints are placed throughout the story to help students in their choice of experiments. These experiments include flame tests, qualitative analysis, molar mass determination using freezing point depression, and identification of crystal shapes. Though intended for use as a culminating activity, the unit can be easily modified to be used as separate modules throughout the course of the year.
Grove, Nathaniel; Bretz, Stacey Lowery. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1532.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment  Gerald R. Van Hecke, Kerry K. Karukstis, Hanhan Li, Hansford C. Hendargo, Andrew J. Cosand, and Marja M. Fox
This experiment features an investigative approach designed for the introductory science or engineering major and integrates concepts in the fields of chemistry, biology, and physics. Derived from faculty research interests, this novel experiment gives students the opportunity to draw conclusions from tests performed to illustrate the connection between molecular structure and macroscopic properties. The chemical synthesis of the compounds studied further enhances the connection between molecular structure and macroscopic physical properties. The results of two separate physical measurements, refractometry and absorption spectroscopy, are combined to calculate a microscopic, but very practical, property of chiral nematic liquidsthe pitch of the helix formed in the liquid crystalline phase.
Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Li, Hanhan; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1349.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases |
Esters |
Physical Properties |
Physical Properties
Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle  Terry L. Meek and Leah D. Garner
The dependence of bond type on two parameters, electronegativity difference (??) and average electronegativity (?av), is examined. It is demonstrated that ionic character is governed by the partial charges of the bonded atoms, and metallic character by the HOMOLUMO band gap.
Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
An Excel Spreadsheet for a One-Dimensional Fourier Map in X-ray Crystallography  William Clegg
A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, available online and from the author, is described. It calculates and graphically displays a one-dimensional electron density for a crystal structure and provides a convenient visual aid in the teaching of X-ray crystallography, particularly at the undergraduate level.
Clegg, William. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 908.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
X-ray Crystallography
Paper-and-Glue Unit Cell Models  James P. Birk and Ellen J. Yezierski
Templates for a variety of unit cells that can be copied, cut out, and assembled.
Birk, James P.; Yezierski, Ellen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 157.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling
Salt Crystals—Science behind the Magic  Charles F. Davidson and Michael R. Slabaugh
Discussion of sodium chloride and factors that influence the shape of the crystals it forms.
Davidson, Charles F.; Slabaugh, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 155.
Consumer Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Solids
Periodic Table Live! 3rd Edition: Abstract of Special Issue 17  Nicholas B. Adelman, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, Alton J. Banks, John C. Kotz, William R. Robinson, and Susan Young
CD-ROM containing an interactive journey through the periodic table; includes information about each element, biographies of discoverers, videos of reactions, sources and uses, macro and atomic properties, and crystalline structures.
Adelman, Nicholas B.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Banks, Alton J.; Kotz, John C.; Robinson, William R.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1487.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solid State Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography
Triboluminescent Crystals from the Microwave Oven  Bruce W. Baldwin and David M. Wilhite
Procedure for producing triboluminescent crystals in a microwave oven.
Baldwin, Bruce W.; Wilhite, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1344.
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry
Crystal Models Made from Clear Plastic Boxes and Their Use in Determining Avogadro's Number  Thomas H. Bindel
Construction and use of unit cell / crystal lattice models made from clear plastic boxes.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 468.
Crystals / Crystallography |
X-ray Crystallography |
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Modeling
The Conductivity of Molten Materials  Monica E. Thomas, Audrey A. Cleveland, Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, and Michael R. Hall
Demonstrating the conductivity of molten ionic compounds; includes apparatus for demonstrating conductivity and suggested list of selected test materials and their melting points.
Thomas, Monica E.; Cleveland, Audrey A.; Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1052.
Conductivity |
Metals |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
JCE Classroom Activity: Out of "Thin Air": Exploring Phase Changes  John J. Vollmer
This Activity illustrates sublimation/deposition with para-dichlorobenzene (mothballs) and evaporation/condensation with water.
Vollmer, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 488A.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Physical Properties |
Solids |
Gases
Crystallization from a Supersaturated Solution of Sodium Acetate  Jamil Ahmad
An overhead projector demonstration is described, in which sodium acetate trihydrate crystallizes out from a supersaturated solution that has been poured on a transparency. When seeded with a crystal of the salt, crystallization starts, and its progress can be followed on the screen.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1446.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
A Picture Is Worth 1000 Words: The BLT in Teaching Crystal Structure  Arthur M. Lesk
In explaining descriptions of crystals, many authors have emphasized the idea that Nature makes crystals, but human beings draw unit cell boundaries. The accompanying figure contains a useful classroom demonstration to drive this point home.
Lesk, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1423.
Crystals / Crystallography
Experimental Demonstration of Isomorphism  J. Kamenícek and M. Melichárek
The effect of isomorphism may be demonstrated in two ways, using alums: by preparation of mixed crystals with various ratios of components, and by deposition of the second phase on the surface of the initial crystal. The experiments are described.
Kamencek, Jir; Melichrek, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 623.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
Cubic Unit Cell Construction Kit  Bruce Mattson
This article provides plans for the construction of a student-interactive cubic unit cell model kit. Plans allow for the kit to be constructed on any scale. The kit is used in classroom activities or by students working alone or in small groups to construct the entire family of cubic lattices.
Mattson, Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 622.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling
Ionic Crystals: A Simple and Safe Lecture Demonstration of the Preparation of NaI from Its Elements  Zelek S. Herman
A simple and safe classroom demonstration showing the production of sodium iodide (NaI) crystals from elemental sodium and elemental (molecular) iodine is presented. The demonstration, which is quite impressive, naturally fits into the discussion of ionic bonding and the alkali halide crystals.
Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 619.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
Kixium Monolayers: A Simple Alternative to the Bubble Raft Model for Close-Packed Spheres  Keenan E. Dungey
This model focuses on the two-dimensional sheets, which are spontaneously formed from cereal pieces. The structure of the cereal rafts can be presented with an overhead projector.
Dungey, Keenan E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 618.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry
Preparation and Analysis of Multiple Hydrates of Simple Salts  Richard W. Schaeffer, Benny Chan, Shireen R. Marshall, Brian Blasiole, Neetha Khan, Kendra L. Yoder, Melissa E. Trainer, and Claude H. Yoder
A laboratory project in which students prepare a series of hydrates of simple salts and then determine the extent of hydration of the product(s); provides a good introduction to the concepts of solubility, saturation, recrystallization, relative compound stability, and simple gravimetric analysis.
Schaeffer, Richard W.; Chan, Benny; Marshall, Shireen R.; Blasiole, Brian; Khan, Neetha; Yoder, Kendra L.; Trainer, Melissa E.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 509.
Stoichiometry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Reply to Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding  Smith, Derek W.
Coulombic vs molecular orbital models for explaining the molecular shapes of ionic molecules.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 445.
Ionic Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding  Sacks, Lawrence J.
Coulombic vs molecular orbital models for explaining the molecular shapes of ionic molecules.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 445.
Ionic Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Correction to Using Overhead Projectors to Simulate X-ray Diffraction Experiments.  Dragojlovic, Veljko
Correction to Figure 1 [1999, 76, 1240-1241]
Dragojlovic, Veljko J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Crystals / Crystallography |
X-ray Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Using Overhead Projector to Simulate X-ray Diffraction Experiments  Veljko Dragojlovic
A demonstration to simulate X-ray diffraction experiments can be performed using an overhead projector. As a classroom activity, the spacing between the lines of a grating or, once the spacing is known, the wavelength of diffracted light can be calculated.
Dragojlovic, Veljko. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1240.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
X-ray Crystallography
The Crystallization Clinic-A TA Orientation Exercise  Marjorie Kandel
Our orientation exercise for TAs in the organic laboratories is a Crystallization Clinic, and the main feature is a contest. Each TA has a different unknown solid to recrystallize. The products are judged by the students in the organic lab courses. Beauty of the crystals is the single criterion. The contest serves to refresh the TAs' technique and to give them empathy with the beginning students.
Kandel, Marjorie. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 67.
TA Training / Orientation |
Learning Theories |
Crystals / Crystallography
An Alternative Framework for Chemical Bonding  William R. Robinson
Recent, qualitative research in science education has uncovered many nave or incorrect ideas about aspects of science commonly held by students and others at all levels. This article discusses how misconceptions can cluster and compound.
Robinson, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1074.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
An Inexpensive Kit for Constructing Models of Crystals  Michael Laing
This simple kit comprises five trays, each of 25 square wells, and a lid. It can be used to construct primitive cubic, FCC, BCC, diamond, zinc blende, NaCl, CsCl, rutile, fluorite, perovskite structures. The trays are square tissue culture Petri dishes (multiwell plates). Atoms are represented by glass marbles.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 795.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Use of Pom Pons To Illustrate Cubic Crystal Structures  Susan G. Cady
Transposing the textbook illustrations into three dimensional structures is difficult for some students. This transitions is easier if a three dimensional model is available for examination. Several 3D models are cited. A quick to assemble, inexpensive, colorful, and durable alternative to these models and styrofoam balls is the use of olefin pom pons.
Cady, Susan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 794.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Using Physics Principles in the Teaching of Chemistry  Warren Gulden
Chemistry and physics may be separate subjects, but that should not prohibit the use of physics in a chemistry course. When this is done, students can use traditional physics principles or laws for the purpose of understanding chemistry better.
Gulden, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 771.
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Electrochemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Salts are Mostly Not Ionized  Stephen J. Hawkes
The popular assumption that all salts are totally ionized in aqueous solution is false. Moreover, it is approximated only by alkali metal salts and by salts of alkaline earth metals with high atomic numbers.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 421.
Ionic Bonding |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
Crystallization of Supersaturated Sodium Acetate and the Temperature Dependence of the Autoionization Constant of Water  Joseph A. Pergler, Ronald O. Ragsdale, and Thomas G. Richmond
A procedure to qualitatively demonstrate the variation of the autoionization constant of water with temperature.
Pergler, Joseph A.; Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1027.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Window on the Solid State  William R. Robinson and Christopher P. Saari
Student tutorial and lecture demonstration software illustrating the structures and unit cells of metals.
Robinson, W. R. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 814.
Metals |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
Bond Energy Data Summarized  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
A periodic table that summarizes a variety of bond energy information.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 423.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
A Quantitative van Arkel Diagram  Jensen, William B.
Using van Arkel diagrams to schematically represent relationships between ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 395.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Cubic and Related Structures of Many Types of Crystals: A Single Illuminated Model  Rich, Ronald L.
Instructions for constructing a three-dimensional, lighted model to illustrate the positions of atoms in many different crystalline structures.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 172.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Geochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Better Crystal for Crystal Analysis  Ali, Saqib; Danish, M.; Mazhar, M.
Technique for quickly and successfully growing air-sensitive crystals.
Ali, Saqib; Danish, M.; Mazhar, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 61.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Laboratory Management
Tetrahedral Geometry Made Simple  Woolf, A. A.
Technique for evaluating the geometry of tetrahedral close packing using right-angled triangles and trigonometry.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 19.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography
Mechanical Properties of Metals: Experiments with Steel, Copper, Tin, Zinc, and Soap Bubbles  Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Penn, Rona L.; Lisensky, George C.; Stone, Donald S.
Annealing, hardening, and tempering of metals; using bubbles to model the crystalline structure of metals.
Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Penn, Rona L.; Lisensky, George C.; Stone, Donald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 254.
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Crystals / Crystallography
Visualization of the Abstract in General Chemistry  Paselk, Richard A.
A series of software programs for beginning chemistry, including a series of modules addressing the fundamental phenomena associated with bonding, the microscopic phenomena underlying commonly observed systems, and a reference periodic table.
Paselk, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 225.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Classifying Substances by Electrical Character: An Alternative to Classifying by Bond Type  Nelson, P. G.
An alternative classification of substances based on their electrical properties.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 24.
Conductivity |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Semiconductors
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chlorine reaction: A student experiment at the microscale level   Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T.
This lab offers a way to integrate the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other valuable instrumental methods.
Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Experiments illustrating metal-insulator transitions in solids  Keller, Steven W.; Mallouk, Thomas E.
Experiments and demonstrations to expose undergraduate students to electronic properties of solids.
Keller, Steven W.; Mallouk, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 855.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Semiconductors |
MO Theory |
Materials Science
The Caltech chemistry animation project   Lewis, Nathan S.
Animations are being produced on subjects such as: atomic and molecular orbitals, lattices, VSPER, nucleophilic substitution, stereochemistry, sigma and pi bonding, and many more.
Lewis, Nathan S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 739.
Stereochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
MO Theory |
Crystals / Crystallography
Electronegativity and bond type: I. Tripartate separation  Sproul, Gordon D.
As a unifying concept of bonding, electronegativity has been widely applied but gets only a limited treatment in most general chemistry texts.
Sproul, Gordon D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 531.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrochemistry
Inexpensive laboratory experiments on crystal growth of water soluble substances in gel media   Rastogi, R. P.; Das, Ishwar; Pushkarna, Anal; Sharma, Archana; Jaiswal, Kiran; Chand, Sudha
The authors describe their investigation into a variety of systems that exhibit different types of morphology when allowed to grow in thin films of solutions containing a denser matrix such as agar-agar or PVA polymer.
Rastogi, R. P.; Das, Ishwar; Pushkarna, Anal; Sharma, Archana; Jaiswal, Kiran; Chand, Sudha J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A47.
Crystals / Crystallography
The microscale organic laboratory: A very simple method of filtration and recrystallization   Laporterie, A.
The following inexpensive system can be used to perform filtration, washing and crystallization without the loss of product in an organic lab.
Laporterie, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A42.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Crystals / Crystallography
Who's in charge?   Perry, William D.; Vogel, Glenn C.
This paper attempts to clarify what chemists mean when they talk about ionic charges, partial charges, oxidation numbers, and formal charges.
Perry, William D.; Vogel, Glenn C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 222.
Ionic Bonding |
Oxidation State
Microstate  York, Richard
Microstate allows experimentation with a simulated crystal that is viewed as a set of loosely coupled harmonic oscillators.
York, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 130.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics
A demonstration of hexagonal close-packed and cubic close-packed crystal structures   Foote, John D.; Blanck, Harvey F.
The advantage of the models in this demonstration is that they are not static, they show dynamically that spheres prefer HCP and CCP arrangements.
Foote, John D.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 777.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Direct visualization of Bragg diffraction with a He-Ne laser and an ordered suspension of charged microspheres  Spencer, Bertrand H.; Zare, Richard N.
Bragg diffraction from colloidal crystals proves to be an excellent teaching tool. Only modest equipment and lab skill are needed to produce a diffraction pattern to provide students with an in-depth understanding of what ordered structure is and how it can be probed by diffraction techniques.
Spencer, Bertrand H.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 97.
X-ray Crystallography |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Lasers |
Materials Science
The optical transform: Simulating diffraction experiments in introductory courses  Lisensky, George C.; Kelly, Thomas F.; Neu, Donald R.; Ellis, Arthur B.
Using optical transforms to prepare slides with patterns that will diffract red and green visible light from a laser.
Lisensky, George C.; Kelly, Thomas F.; Neu, Donald R.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 91.
X-ray Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Lasers |
Materials Science
ATOMS - Atomic Structure Display (Dowty, Eric)  Jacobson, Robert A.
The intent of this program is to provide a ready means of displaying structures of molecules, polymers and/or crystals.
Jacobson, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A163.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography
The growth of large single crystals  Baer, Carl D.
It is possible to obtain a wide range of nicely formed crystals utilizing solution methods and commonly available materials and apparatus.
Baer, Carl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 410.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
How to use crystallographic information in teaching first-year chemistry   Bevan, D. J. M.; Taylor, M. R.; Rossi, M.
These authors describe material appropriate for inclusion in a first-year chemistry lecture course. This article stresses how basic chemical principles have been derived from crystallographic results. A potential instructor need not have crystallographic training to incorporate these lectures.
Bevan, D. J. M.; Taylor, M. R.; Rossi, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 477.
X-ray Crystallography |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A very rapidly growing silicate crystal  Phillips, Donald B.
The extremely rapid growth of this crystal is made even more dramatic when shown by an overhead projector.
Phillips, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 453.
Crystals / Crystallography
A multi-topic problem for general chemistry   Burness, James H.
A 'marathon' problem which requires specific knowledge in several areas while requiring that the student recognize how these areas are related.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 145.
Stoichiometry |
Transport Properties |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Crystals / Crystallography
Preparation of a simple thermochromic solid  Van Oort, Michiel J. M.
An easy, dramatic, and effective laboratory introduction to solid-solid phase transitions, thermochromism, and color changes associated with changes in ligand coordination suitable for undergraduate students in physical and general chemistry.
Van Oort, Michiel J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 84.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Thermodynamics
Fractal structures obtained by electrodeposition of silver at an air-water interface  Ligon, Woodfin V., Jr.
Growing dendritic crystals of silver
Ligon, Woodfin V., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1053.
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
The chemical bond  DeKock, Roger L.
Overview of the chemical bond; considers ionic bonds, covalent bonds, Lewis electron dot structures, polar molecules and hydrogen bonds, and bonding in solid-state elements.
DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 934.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Solid State Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Physical and chemical properties  Boschmann, Erwin
A series of overhead demonstrations regarding physical and chemical properties.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 891.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Gases
Rock candy in a cellophane bag: A demonstration of pervaporation  Ciereszko, Leon S.
Growing large crystals in a dialysis bag.
Ciereszko, Leon S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 804.
Consumer Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Allotropes and polymorphs  Sharma, B. D.
Definitions and examples of allotropes and polymorphs.
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 404.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Using NASA and the space program to help high school and college students learn chemistry. Part II. The current state of chemistry in the space program  Kelter, Paul B.; Snyder, William E.; Buchar, Constance S.
Examples and classroom applications in the areas of spectroscopy, materials processing, and electrochemistry.
Kelter, Paul B.; Snyder, William E.; Buchar, Constance S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 228.
Astrochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Is the theoretical emperor really wearing any clothes?   Sanderson, R. T.
The author asserts that general chemistry material both pushes material of doubtful value and omits material that is useful to many.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 845.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Calculation of Madelung constants in the first year chemistry course  Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward
76. Bits and pieces, 31. A computer program aids in understanding the nature of the Madelung constants.
Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 840.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Chemometrics
Teaching an introductory course in qualitative analysis in order to enhance learning general chemistry  Shamai, Ruth; Stavy, Ruth
These two authors have found that qualitative analysis is an excellent way for concrete operational thinkers to become formal thinkers.
Shamai, Ruth; Stavy, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 707.
Qualitative Analysis |
Learning Theories |
Metals |
Ionic Bonding
Crystal model kits for use in the general chemistry laboratory  Kildahl, Nicholas K.; Berka, Ladislav, H.; Bodner, George M.
This paper describes dynamic crystal models which were developed independently at the Worcester Polytech institute and Purdue University.
Kildahl, Nicholas K.; Berka, Ladislav, H.; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 62.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry
A model to illustrate the brittleness of ionic and metallic crystals  Birk, James P.
Uses magnetic strips to explain the difference in brittleness between ionic and metallic solids.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 667.
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Metals |
Physical Properties |
Crystals / Crystallography
Crystal growth in gels  Suib, Steven L.
Several experiments involving crystal growth in aqueous silicate gels (PbI2, Cu, HgI2, and calcite).
Suib, Steven L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 81.
Crystals / Crystallography
Composition of gas hydrates. New answers to an old problem  Cady, George H.
The author provides a discussion on nonstoichiometric crystalline solids as they deserve attention in elementary chemistry courses because they are interesting and increasingly important. Laboratory activities are included.
Cady, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 915.
Stoichiometry |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Association of ions and fractional crystallization: a general chemistry experiment  Scaife, Charles W. J.; Dubs, Richard L.
The experiment in this article has been used in laboratories for non science majors and for inorganic chemistry. In both cases students attain a good understanding of what it taking place, how the various procedures affect actual concentrations of ions present, and why particular salts crystallize under certain conditions whereas others do not.
Scaife, Charles W. J.; Dubs, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 418.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
Crystal systems and general chemistry  Sharma, B. D.
Definitions of each crystal system from the point of minimum symmetry inherent in each crystal system.
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 742.
Crystals / Crystallography
Some simple AX and AX2 structures  Wells, A. F.
Examines three of the simplest crystalline structures, that of sodium chloride, rutile, and fluorite.
Wells, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 630.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
A needed replacement for the customary description of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Description of and encouragement to use an alternative to the covalent / ionic model for chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 376.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Graphic display of molecular structures from crystallographic data  Keat, Rodney
25. Bits and pieces, 9. PROJECT-X is a program that translates X-ray crystallographic data into orthographic projections.
Keat, Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 128.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling
Lemon meringue pie  Smith, Douglas D.
The chemistry and physics of lemon meringue pie.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 60.
Gases |
Ionic Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Proteins / Peptides
"Holey" crystals!   Feinstein, H. I.
Nonstoichiometric compounds have a range of composition, often exhibit unusual color, luster, fluorescence, and semi-conductance. This makes them fascinating compounds for student study.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 638.
Stoichiometry |
Semiconductors |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Physical Properties |
Isotopes
Crystals and X-rays: A demonstration  Julian, Maureen M.
A lecture hall demonstration on crystals and X-rays using a mirror ball.
Julian, Maureen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 737.
X-ray Crystallography |
Crystals / Crystallography
A 3-dimensional animated videocassette on the unit cell  Gelder, J. I.; Liu, C. F.; O'Donnell, T. J.
This 7.5 minute videocassette introduces the macroscopic properties of crystals as they relate to the regularity of the crystalline lattice and shows the relationship between the extended lattice and the cubic cell.
Gelder, J. I.; Liu, C. F.; O'Donnell, T. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 590.
Crystals / Crystallography
Crystallization of sodium acetate  Hiegel, Gene A.
Procedure for preparing a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate and crystallizing it.
Hiegel, Gene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Travelling Waves of Chemical Activity in the Zaikin-Zhabotinskii-Winfree Reagent  Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T.
An overhead projector demonstration.
Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 754.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The chemistry of glass  Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.
Definition of glass, natural glass, the early history of glass, the composition of different types of glass, chemically modified glasses, and modern glass forming.
Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 604.
Applications of Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
A model to illustrate the infinite nature of a crystalline compound  Kennard, C. H. L.
A model to illustrate the infinite and periodic nature of face-centered cubic crystalline compounds.
Kennard, C. H. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
Growing salt crystals  Smith, Douglas D.
Tips for growing large crystals of NaCl.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 552.
Crystals / Crystallography
Chemical symbolism and the solid state. A proposal  Jensen, William B.
A proposed symbolism for representing the solid state.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 277.
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Some structural principles for introductory chemistry  Wells, A. F.
Unit cells in repeating patterns and descriptions of simple structures.
Wells, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 273.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Freshman-level chemistry shapes the nuclear power industry  Plumb, Robert C.; Bridgman, W. B.; Wilbur, Leslie C.
Applying the modeling of a crystalline lattice to the changes occurring in a nuclear reactor.
Plumb, Robert C.; Bridgman, W. B.; Wilbur, Leslie C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 523.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Solid state labs: The bubble raft  McCormick, P. D.
Method for producing bubble rafts and experiments for using them to demonstrate the properties of crystals.
McCormick, P. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 521.
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Unit cells  Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L.
An easy way to construct of have students construct a unit cell in three dimensions.
Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 509.
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
Construction of a tetrahedron packing model: A puzzle in structural chemistry  Schweikert, William W.
Proposes the assembly of a tetrahedrally shaped packing model as a game or puzzle for students.
Schweikert, William W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 501.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids
Keep chemistry simple!  Pearson, W. B.
High borides are an excellent example of simplistic geometry.
Pearson, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 391.
Crystals / Crystallography
Models for simple, close-packed crystal structures  Mann, A. W.
This paper describes some simple crystallographic models made from styrofoam balls.
Mann, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 652.
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Rapid crystal growth and supersaturation demonstrated with guanidine trichloroacetate  Young, Keith E.
A solution of guanidine trichloroacetate quickly produces long, needle-like crystals when a seed crystal is added.
Young, Keith E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A644.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility
Quartz geodes  Plumb, Robert C.; Krauskopf, Konrad B.
Discusses the geochemistry behind the natural formation of quartz geodes.
Plumb, Robert C.; Krauskopf, Konrad B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 763.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Geochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Demonstration of close-packing phenomena  Birnbaum, Edward R.
Relies in layers of styrofoam balls and an overhead projector for illustrating close-packed structure.
Birnbaum, Edward R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 674.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Demonstration of 2-dimensional crystal lattice  Morrison, James D.; Driscoll, Jerry A.
A laser passing through wire cloth produces a characteristic interference pattern.
Morrison, James D.; Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 558.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Heat of hydration  Dannhauser, Walter
A commonly published experiment can be expanded so that students may obtain the enthalpy of the reaction between anhydrous salts and water.
Dannhauser, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 329.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
13 demonstrations, including electrophoresis, electrolysis, corrosion inhibition, endothermic and exothermic reactions, crystals and crystallization, reactions with sodium, and the kinetics of H2O2 decomposition.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A387.
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Kinetics
Benzoic acid tree  Chen, Philip S.
Benzaldehyde undergoes autoxidation to benzoic acid by air, particularly upon exposure to light; the white benzoic acid is caused to form a crystalline tree on twisted pipe cleaners.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Ionic versus covalent bonding  Goldish, Dorothy M.
Ionic sodium chloride dissolves in water but covalent benzyl chloride does not.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A497.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Construction and use of atomic and molecular models (Bassow, H.)  Martins, George

Martins, George J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 623.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
A three-dimensional model of dendritic structure  Olsen, Robert C.
A simple procedure for growing dendritic crystals in a gel that may serve as a model of dendritic structure.
Olsen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 496.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Wooden models of asymmetric structures  Nye, Martin J.
Wooden blocks are cut to represent molecules of a pair of enantiomers, and are constructed so that they may be readily stacked together to show crystal structure.
Nye, Martin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 175.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Crystals / Crystallography
Group VI. The sulfur family. A. Members: S, Se, Te. B. Elemental sulfur  Alyea, Hubert N.; Rogers, Crosby U.
Sulfur from H2S + SO2, rhombic and prismatic sulfur.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Rogers, Crosby U. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A836.
Crystals / Crystallography
Carbon and its inorganic compounds. A. Carbon   Alyea, Hubert N.; Frick, Charlotte; Colo, August J.
Demonstrations include to crystalline structure of diamond vs. graphite and the absorption of tars, dyes, ammonia, and benzene on carbon.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Frick, Charlotte; Colo, August J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A225.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Gases
Pictorial representation of the Fourier method of x-ray crystallography  Waser, Jurg
It is possible to gain an understanding of the Fourier method with the aid of diagrams.
Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 446.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
X-ray Crystallography |
Crystals / Crystallography
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Crystal models  Olsen, Robert C.
This short note illustrates a model designed to demonstrate the number of particles in a crystal that can be assigned to a unit cell.
Olsen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 728.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
Metals |
Metallic Bonding
The nature of " ionic" solids: The coordinated polymeric model  Sanderson, R. T.
The author discusses and questions the validity of considering some solids as purely ionic and offers the coordinated polymeric model as a plausible alternative.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 516.
Solids |
Ionic Bonding
The teaching of crystal geometry in the introductory course  Livingston, R. L.
It is the purpose of this paper to outline an approach to the teaching of crystal structure at the elementary level that will prepare the student for more advanced work in this field or that could be used as the beginning in a more advanced course.
Livingston, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 376.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
States of matter (Continued). D. Solid state  Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A.
Demonstrations include writing with alum crystals, the rate of crystallization and crystal size, purification by crystallization, growing salol crystals in a polarizer, growing crystal blossoms, the melting point of eutectic (salol + benzophenone) and butectic (p-toluidine + a-naphthol), sublimation of organic substances (methyl oxalate), and the pseudo-sublimation of naphthalene.
Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A241.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Solids
Energy B. Heat energy   Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the heat of crystallization (sodium acetate and Na2S2O3[5H2O]), heat of formation (ZnCl2), heat of hydration (CaO and CuSO4), heat of neutralization, heat of solvation (alcohols), evaporation of ether and methyl chloride, and heat of solution (NH4NO3).
Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1079.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility
Crystals: Their Role in Nature and in Science (Bunn, Charles)  Templeton, David H.

Templeton, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A550.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Relationship of enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
The primary objectives of this investigation are to relate enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy using Hess' Law and to acquaint students with Born-Haber type energy cycles.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 473.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
8-Hydroxyquinaldine crystals  Phillips, J. P.; Faller, J. W.
The crystallization of 8-hydroxyquinaldine by the natural; evaporation of a saturated benzene solution at room temperature produces very large crystals.
Phillips, J. P.; Faller, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 328.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. III. Chemical implications of inner-shell electrons  Bent, Henry A.
While a study of atomic core sizes might seem to hold little promise of offering interesting insights into the main body of chemical theory, it is demonstrated here that from such a study emerges a picture of chemical bonding that encompasses as particular cases covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 302.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Miniature scale models  Beevers, C. A.
Describes examples of molecular models constructed from steel rods and methyl methacrylate balls.
Beevers, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 273.
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
Lattice energy and chemical prediction: Use of the Kapustinskii equations and the Born-Haber cycle  Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
It is clear that the Kapustinskii method of estimating the lattice energy from ionic radii, together with subsequent application of the Born-Haber cycle, has proved to be extremely useful in inorganic chemistry.
Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 204.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Demonstration notes: Monoclinic sulfur crystals  Skyle, Sture
Suggests turpentine as a solvent for sulfur from which the sulfur may be recrystallized in the prismatic or monoclinic form.
Skyle, Sture J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Crystals / Crystallography
A classical electrostatic view of chemical forces  Jaffe, H. H.
This paper reviews the different types of forces involved in the formation of chemical compounds, solids and liquids.
Jaffe, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 649.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Crystals, minerals and chemistry  McConnell, Duncan; Verhoek, Frank H.
Considers stoichiometry and isomorphism, isomorphic substitutions, coupled substitution, the substitution of anions, and oxygen atoms per unit cell.
McConnell, Duncan; Verhoek, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 512.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Geochemistry |
Stoichiometry
Some models of close packing  Sime, Rodney J.
Presents models constructed from styrofoam balls and connected with toothpicks.
Sime, Rodney J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 61.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Standard ionic crystal structures  Gehman, William G.
Examines the topics of cubic and hexagonal closest packed atom lattices; interstice lattices; standard crystal structures of type MaXb; standard CCP and HCP crystal structures; and deviations from ideal closest packing.
Gehman, William G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 54.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Solid State Chemistry
Demonstrations of simple bonding using magnets  Baker, Wilbur L.
Demonstrates a variety of bonding using iron washers, magnets, and steel balls.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 131.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Paper-made crystal models  Komuro, Yasuyuki; Sone, Kozo
Three-dimensional models of a number of simple ionic crystals are constructed from a box and pieces of cellophane.
Komuro, Yasuyuki; Sone, Kozo J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 580.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Principles of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Develops, through 25 statements, the basic principles of chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 382.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Models for demonstrating electronegativity and "partial charge"  Sanderson, R. T.
Describes a three-dimensional set of atomic models arranged periodically to illustrate trend in electronegativity and the use of molecular models to illustrate important concepts in general chemistry.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 507.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nonmetals
Hollow lantern slides illustrating crystal structure  Kenney, Malcolm E.; Skinner, Selby M.
The structure of simple crystals can be illustrated by enclosing a layer of bearing balls in a hollow lantern slide and projecting the shadow pattern.
Kenney, Malcolm E.; Skinner, Selby M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 495.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Crystal models  Slabaugh, W. H.
Describes the production of crystal models made of Plexiglass.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 288.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Chemical geometryApplication to salts  Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Winnerman, Anne
It is the purpose of this article to illustrate how one may delve rather deeply into some aspects of crystal structure that are of special interest chemically without becoming involved in the symbology and semantic complexities of conventional crystallography.
Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Winnerman, Anne J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 578.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Permanent packing type crystal models  Kenney, Malcolm E.
Crystal models made of styrofoam balls are more durable if packed in clear plastic boxes.
Kenney, Malcolm E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 513.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Letters  Fisher, D. Jerome
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Donohue, Jerry
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Face-centered cube and cubical close-packing  Barnett, E. De Barry
Instructions for the construction of simple models designed to illustrate the face-centered cube and cubical close-packing.
Barnett, E. De Barry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 186.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Letters to the editor  Fisher, D. Jerome
The author comments on definitions of crystal systems.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 259.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A new type of crystal model  Westbrook, J. H.; DeVries, R. C.
Describes the design and construction of a crystal model in which the positions of atoms are represented by colored lights that can be lit to illustrate various structures.
Westbrook, J. H.; DeVries, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 220.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Some simple solid models  Campbell, J. A.
Describes the use of hard spheres to illustrate a variety of concepts with respect solids, including closest packing and the effects of temperature and alloying.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 210.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling
Construction of crystal models from styrofoam spheres  Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Bassow, Herbert
Presents a method for constructing crystal models from styrofoam spheres using a specialized aluminum jig.
Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Bassow, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 99.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids
Textbook errors: X. The classification of crystals  Mysels, Karol J.
The classification of crystals into several systems (e.g., cubic, tetragonal, orthorombic) is generally based in textbooks on a consideration of crystal axes, particularly their relative lengths and direction; this approach usually gives correct assignments but occasionally leads to an error.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 40.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Growing crystals: A survey of laboratory methods  Fehlner, Francis P.
The purpose of this article is to provide basic information and readily available references for anyone wishing to begin the production of crystals.
Fehlner, Francis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 449.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A chart of chemical compounds based on electronegativities  Yeh, Ping-Yuan
This short note presents a chart of chemical compounds based on the relative electronegativities of the elements.
Yeh, Ping-Yuan J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 134.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
The electron as an element  Ramsay, W.
Reprint of a short article examining the bonding of sodium and chlorine.
Ramsay, W. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 2.
Ionic Bonding
Cork-ball experiments on crystalline and molecular structure  Davidson, Norman
Cork balls and pins are used to construct models of crystalline and molecular structures.
Davidson, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 249.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Large crystals of monoclinic sulfur  Wolf, Milton G.
Presents a procedure for producing large crystals of monoclinic sulfur through crystallization from olive oil.
Wolf, Milton G. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 427.
Crystals / Crystallography