Journal Articles: 95 results 

Teaching Avogadro's Hypothesis and Helping Students to See the World Differently Brett Criswell This article uses a model from educational psychologyChi's theory of ontological misclassificationto explain the source of students' difficulties in understanding Avogadro's hypothesis and provide a method to successfully teach this fundamental concept. Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1372.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Gases

Manual Data Processing in Analytical Chemistry: Linear Calibration Dora Melucci Most science students are familiar with Excel spreadsheets, but determining which of Excels statistical functions perform a calculation equivalent to a classical equation and calculating errors with Excel are not trivial exercises. Melucci, Dora. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1346.
Calibration 
Chemometrics 
Quantitative Analysis

Using Pooled Data and Data Visualization To Introduce Statistical Concepts in the General Chemistry Laboratory Robert J. Olsen This article describes how data pooling and visualization can be employed in the firstsemester general chemistry laboratory to introduce core statistical concepts such as central tendency and dispersion of a data set. Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 544.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots Joe Lee This article provides a theoretical and statistical justification for the necessity of monitoring a reaction to a substantial fraction of completion if integrated rate plots plots are to yield unambiguous orders. Lee, Joe. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 141.
Chemometrics 
Kinetics 
Rate Law

Concept Maps for General Chemistry Boyd L. Earl Two concept maps have been developed to represent the organization of the material in a firstsemester general chemistry course. By providing these maps to students and referring to them in class, it is hoped that the instructor can assist students in maintaining a grasp of the "big picture" during the progress of the course. Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1788.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Gases 
Molecular Properties / Structure 
Stoichiometry 
Periodicity / Periodic Table

Mustard Gas: Its PreWorld War I History Ronald J. Duchovic and Joel A. Vilensky A review of the history of the synthesis of mustard gas by 19th century European chemists highlights the increasing sophistication of the chemical sciences during this time. Duchovic, Ronald J.; Vilensky, Joel A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 944.
Applications of Chemistry 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Toxicology

Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation J. F. Ogilvie and M. B. Monagan The authors explain how the use of mathematical software improves the teaching and understanding of mathematics to and by chemistry students while greatly expanding their abilities to solve realistic chemical problems. Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 889.
Chemometrics 
Computational Chemistry 
Fourier Transform Techniques 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

The Origin of the s, p, d, f Orbital Labels William B. Jensen Traces the origins of the s, p, d, and f orbital labels. Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Spectroscopy

Predicting the Atomic Weights of the TransLawrencium Elements: A Novel Application of Dobereiner's Triads Sami A. Ibrahim Dobereiner's concept of triads remain useful for predicting the properties of the superheavy elements (113118) and for providing reasonable estimates of the atomic weights of all 16 translawrencium elements. Ibrahim, Sami A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1658.
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
MainGroup Elements 
Transition Elements

E = mc^{2} for the Chemist: When Is Mass Conserved? Richard S. Treptow Einstein's famous equation is frequently misunderstood in textbooks and popular science literature. Its correct interpretation is that mass and energy are different measures of a single quantity known as massenergy, which is conserved in all processes. Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1636.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Nuclear / Radiochemistry 
Theoretical Chemistry 
Thermodynamics

Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle Terry L. Meek and Leah D. Garner The dependence of bond type on two parameters, electronegativity difference (??) and average electronegativity (?av), is examined. It is demonstrated that ionic character is governed by the partial charges of the bonded atoms, and metallic character by the HOMOLUMO band gap. Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Covalent Bonding 
Metallic Bonding 
Ionic Bonding 
MainGroup Elements

Statistical Comparison of Data in the Analytical Laboratory Michael J. Samide In this article, an experiment designed to provide students with an experience involving statistical treatment of data is described. This experiment allows students to compare 11 different techniques for measuring specific volumes of water. Replicate measurements are taken for each technique and comparisons are made both within a data set and between different data sets. Through calculation of tvalues, students are able to draw conclusions about the precision and accuracy of these various techniques. Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1641.
Chemometrics

An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions Jonathan Mitschele Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English and metricunit thermometers. Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics 
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry

What's Been Happening to Undergraduate Mathematics David M. Bressoud An overview of some of the changes that have been occurring in undergraduate mathematics education; based on a workshop held by the Mathematical Association of America to determine what chemists expect their students to learn from undergraduate mathematics courses in terms of understanding, content, and use of technology. Bressoud, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 578.
Learning Theories 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Chemometrics

A Simple Laboratory Experiment for the Determination of Absolute Zero MyungHoon Kim, Michelle Song Kim, and SuwYoung Ly A novel method that employs a remarkably simple and inexpensive apparatus and is based on the extrapolation of the volume of a given amount of dry air to zero volume after a volume of air trapped inside a 10mL graduated cylinder is measured at various temperatures. Kim, MyungHoon; Kim, Michelle Song; Ly, SuwYoung. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238.
Gases 
Physical Properties 
Chemometrics

No, the Molecular Mass of Bromobenzene Is Not 157 amu: An Exercise in Mass Spectrometry and Isotopes for Early General Chemistry Steven M. Schildcrout Even with no background in bonding and structure, students can successfully interpret the output of a modern research instrument. They learn to identify an isotope pattern, assign chemical formulas to ions giving mass spectral peaks, calculate an average atomic weight (for bromine) from measured isotopic abundances, and write balanced equations for ion fragmentation reactions. Schildcrout, Steven M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1433.
Isotopes 
Mass Spectrometry 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Molecular Properties / Structure

Pixel Conversion: A Simple Way to Extract Coordinates of Points from a Printed Graph Christian Aymard and Randall B. Shirts A very simple method is described for extracting the coordinates of points from printed graphs, student reports, or publications. One only needs a flatbed scanner and a desktop computer. This is a convenient and inexpensive alternative to the tedious traditional method using a ruler or to the more costly programs available commercially. A Windows program has been made available to perform the required operations. Aymard, Christian; Shirts, Randall B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1230.
Chemometrics

Encouraging Meaningful Quantitative Problem Solving Jeff Cohen, Meghan KennedyJustice, Sunny Pai, Carmen Torres, Rick Toomey, Ed DePierro, and Fred Garafalo This paper describes the efforts of a group of teachers to help college freshman chemistry students and high school science students to improve their problemsolving skills. The presentation includes several sets of questions intended to elucidate ideas and to involve the reader in the process of reflecting upon his or her own problemsolving strategies. Cohen, Jeff; KennedyJustice, Meghan; Pai, Sunny; Torres, Carmen; Toomey, Rick; DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1166.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Chemometrics

Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy. Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
NMR Spectroscopy 
Qualitative Analysis 
Separation Science 
Student / Career Counseling

Chemistry of the Heaviest ElementsOne Atom at a Time Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee A 75year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years. Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography 
Instrumental Methods 
Isotopes 
Nuclear / Radiochemistry 
Separation Science 
Descriptive Chemistry 
Enrichment / Review Materials 
Atomic Properties / Structure

CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay) Scott White and George Bodner CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations. White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Stoichiometry

Temperature Scale Conversion as a Linear Equation: True Unit Conversion vs ZeroOffset Correction Reuben Rudman The equation used for the interconversion between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is in reality the general case of the straightline equation (y = ax + b). This equation is the paradigm for many of the calculations taught in introductory chemistry. Rudman, Reuben. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 2) Midden, W. Robert Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Midden, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 1) Guare, Charles J. Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Guare, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (3) Rustad, Douglas Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Rustad, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (1) Sykes, Robert M. Standard procedures for determining and maintaining significant figures in calculations. Sykes, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics

Percent Composition and Empirical Formula  A New View George L. Gilbert A new method of obtaining the empirical formula for a compound from its percent composition is proposed. The method involves the determination of a minimum molar mass for the compound based on the percentage of each element, obtaining the lowest common molar mass and using this data to calculate the integer values used in writing the empirical formula. Gilbert, George L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 851.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Experimental 4s and 3d Energies in Atomic Ground States James L. Bills A new definition is given for the effective charge Zf. HF orbital energies e4s and e3d are used in concert with I4s and I3d to answer four questions: Why does the 4s sublevel fill before 3d? Why is ionization easier for 4s than 3d? When 4s23dn has e3d < e4s, why doesn't 4s23dn > 4s13dn+1? Why are Cr and Cu each 4s13dn+1 instead of 4s23dn? Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure

Production of Numerical Chemical Problems Using a Spreadsheet Peter G. Hall The use of spreadsheets for "personalized" assignments. These assignments take the form of printed chemical problems such that every student has different numerical data. The problem sets make a challenging student introduction to word processing and spreadsheet use. Hall, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 243.
Chemometrics

A Note on Covariance in Propagation of Uncertainty Edwin F. Meyer It is pointed out that whenever both the slope and the intercept are used in calculating a physical quantity from a linear regression, propagation of error must include the covariance as well as the variances. The point is illustrated with a calculation of the boiling point of water from the parameters of the lnP vs 1/T fit. If the covariance is omitted from the propagation of error, the estimate of uncertainty is unreasonably large. Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1339.
Chemometrics

Spreadsheet Applications in Chemistry Using Microsoft Excel by Dermot Diamond and Venita C. A. Hanratty Jeffery A. Greathouse Provides chemistry instructors with an introduction to Excel and its applications in chemistry. Greathouse, Jeffery A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1279.
Chemometrics

Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computergenerated threedimensional models of electron density distributions. Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories 
Computational Chemistry 
Molecular Modeling 
Quantum Chemistry 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Covalent Bonding 
Ionic Bonding 
Noncovalent Interactions

Sensitivity to Experimental Parameters via Spreadsheets B. R. Sundheim In spreadsheet computations wherever the functional dependence of calculated results on experimental quantities is obscure, sensitivities may be obtained by testing the effects of variations in relevant inputs. An example is given where Hess' law is explored calorimetrically. Sundhein, B. R. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 328.
Chemometrics

Those Baffling Subscripts Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems. Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

From Titration Data to Buffer Capacities: A Computer Experiment for the Chemistry Lab or Lecture Roy W. Clark, Gary D. White, Judith M. Bonicamp, and Exum D. Watts Provides titration curve data that students can plot and analyze using spreadsheets to develop student understanding of pH, derivatives, buffer capacity, and the behavior of dilute buffers; includes sample graphs and analysis. Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D.; Bonicamp, Judith M.; Watts, Exum D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 746.
Acids / Bases 
pH 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis 
Chemometrics

Where the Electrons Are Barth, Roger 173. Bits and pieces, 53. Software for realistic modeling of electronic orbitals using contour plots of probability densities. Barth, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 401.
Atomic Properties / Structure

Symbolic Algebra and Stoichiometry DeToma, Robert P. Applying symbolic algebra (instead of the factorlabel method) to stoichiometry calculations. DeToma, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 568.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

A Simple Laboratory Experiment Using Popcorn To Illustrate Measurement Errors Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R. This experiment focuses on the difference between accuracy and precision and demonstrates the necessity for multiple measurements of an experimental variable. Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 519.
Chemometrics

AnswerSheets Cornelius, Richard Review of a spreadsheetbased program that has modules on significant figures, VSEPR structures, stoichiometry, and unit conversions. Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 460.
VSEPR Theory 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

AnswerSheets Cornelius, Richard Review of a spreadsheetlike program that includes modules on significant figures, conversions, stoichiometry, and VSEPR structures. Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 387.
VSEPR Theory 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Empirical formulas from atom ratios: A simple method to obtain the integer factors of a rational number Weltin, E. Most textbooks advise students to use a method tantamount to trial and error when they encounter a ratio in empirical formula calculations where it is not immediately apparent what the coefficients should be. The author describes a simple procedure that is an effective way to find the integer factors. Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 280.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Applying a simple linear leastsquares algorithm to data with uncertainties in both variables Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell There are cases in which it is desirable to find an optimum linear leastsquares fit to data with significant uncertainties in both the x and y variables. Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A130.
Chemometrics

Analogical demonstrations Fortman, John J. By illustrating an analogy with a visual demonstration, a student is aided in both understanding and remembering a lesson. Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 323.
Physical Properties 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Amino Acids 
Proteins / Peptides 
Acids / Bases

Spreadsheet titration of diprotic acids and bases Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. 133. Bits and pieces, 47. A spreadsheet and chart, set up using Excel, for showing titration curves of any diprotic acid or base is described. Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 46.
Acids / Bases 
Chemometrics 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Chem 1 concept builder (Lower, Steve with Instructional Software) Hair, Sally R. A review of a software package designed for tutorial and drill. Hair, Sally R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A19.
Acids / Bases 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Stoichiometry 
Atomic Properties / Structure

Chemical equations are actually matrix equations Alberty, Robert A. Chemists tend to think that chemical equations are unique to chemistry and they are not used to thinking of chemical equations as the mathematical equations they in fact are. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the mathematical significance of chemical equations. Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 984.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry Finster, David C. The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners. Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Chemometrics 
Descriptive Chemistry

The effect of context on the translation of sentences into algebraic equations Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J. Assessing students in a onesemester preparatory chemistry course to see how well students understand proportional relationships. Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 306.
Chemometrics

There are no such things as orbitalsAct two! Simons, Jack What is the role of molecular orbital theory in chemistry instruction? Simons, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 131.
MO Theory 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Quantum Chemistry

Finding largest common factors and simplest integer ratios Macomber, Roger S. General chemistry students can ease some of their mathphobia with an exam question that deals with a familiar topic prior to putting these same mathematical principles into the context of chemistry. Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 42.
Chemometrics

The acidbase package: A collection of useful programs for protontransfer systems Hawkes, Stephen J. Four programs that deal with the types of acidbase calculations normally encountered in introductory and analytical chemistry courses. Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 830.
Acids / Bases 
Chemometrics

Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard) Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more. Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Equilibrium 
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Stoichiometry 
Physical Properties 
Acids / Bases 
Covalent Bonding

Unit basis a neglected problemsolving technique Beichl, George J. A technique that will prevent students from using ineffective problemsolving techniques such as dimensional analysis. Beichl, George J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 146.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

On writing equations Campbell, J.A. The author presents a very direct approach to writing complicated equations without using a matrix approach. Campbell, J.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 63.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 2. Elementary entities play their part Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley One of the problems that learners have to overcome when doing stoichiometry calculations is to learn how statements about elementary entities given by formulas and equations are related to statements about portions of substances as measured in the macroscopic world. Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1021.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations Berger, Selman A. Two examples of using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations. Berger, Selman A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Problemsolving skills in chemistry made easier Fast, Kenneth V. Stepbystep format for performing common calculations in chemistry. Fast, Kenneth V. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept Ihde, John The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut] Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Molecular Properties / Structure 
Periodicity / Periodic Table

The Elements of Style in Chemistry, A Computerassisted Instruction Supported Text (Beatty, James W.; Beatty, James J.) Crawford, Victor A. Intended to support students who have trouble solving important types of problems in chemistry. Crawford, Victor A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A27.
Enrichment / Review Materials 
Chemometrics

The factorlabel method: Is it all that great? Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David The development of reasoning skills in chemistry is better achieved by postponing the introduction of the factorlabel method. Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 522.
Chemometrics

Should orbitals be xrated in beginning chemistry courses? Bent, Henry A. Memorizing orbital rules helps students earn credits in science without knowing what science is. Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 421.
Atomic Properties / Structure

Reflections upon mathematics in the introductory chemistry course Goodstein, Madeline P. It is the purpose of this paper to call attention to the lack of mathematical competence by chemistry students and to invite consideration of one conceptual scheme which may be used to unify the mathematical approach. Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 665.
Chemometrics 
Gases

A pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations Guida, Wayne C. 37. Bits and pieces, 14. A description of a pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations . Guida, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 101.
pH 
Acids / Bases 
Chemometrics

A unified approach to the study of chemical reactions in freshman chemistry Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. An approach that aims to provide students with the background that will enable them to make reasonable predictions as to the likely products of a chemical reaction. Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 377.
Reactions 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Oxidation State 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Periodicity / Periodic Table

CAI Programs in BASIC and an associated MATH subroutine Anderson, Robert Hunt 25. Bits and pieces, 9. Four BASIC programs involving basic calculations and mathematical problems in chemistry. Anderson, Robert Hunt J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 129.
Chemometrics 
Enrichment / Review Materials

A mathematics readiness test for prospective chemistry students Weisman, Rence L. A mathematics readiness test is prepared to determine whether students have the minimum competency necessary to succeed in chemistry. Weisman, Rence L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 564.
Chemometrics 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics

Teaching and learning problem solving in science. Part I: A general strategy Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; KramersPals, H. A systematic approach to solving problems and on designing instruction where students learn this approach. Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; KramersPals, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 882.
Chemometrics

Empirical formulas  A ratio problem Knox, Kerro A problem involving an analogy between ratios of boys to girls given their average weights and percentage composition of the class by weight. Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 879.
Chemometrics 
Molecular Properties / Structure

Dissociation of a weak acid Ladd, M. F. C. An earlier treatment of the equilibrium of a weak acid in water gives, for certain ranges of concentration, significantly incorrect results. Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Acids / Bases 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students Burness, James H. Question suitable for a takehome type of exam. Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases 
Solutions / Solvents 
Stoichiometry 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Adopting SI units in introductory chemistry Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. Conventions associated with SI units, conversion relationships commonly used in chemistry, and a roadmap method for solving stoichiometry problems. Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 303.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Electronegativity, bond energy, and chemical reactivity Myers, R. Thomas The Pauling electronegativity concept can be used to help rationalize several kinds of chemical reactions. Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 711.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Covalent Bonding 
Reactions

Empirical formulas Ryan, Dennis P. This question forces one to duplicate the line of reasoning used by Dalton in his initial formulation of atomic weights; it tests for the ability to deduce atomic sizes and to calculate empirical formulas. Ryan, Dennis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 528.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Periodicity / Periodic Table

The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions Kolb, Doris A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism. Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Reactions

A pregeneral chemistry course for the underprepared student Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse Outline and evaluation of a course in chemical problem solving. Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 730.
Enrichment / Review Materials 
Chemometrics

But if atoms are so tiny... Kolb, Doris Reviews the atomic theory, the laws of chemical combination, atomic weight scales, Avogadro's hypothesis, the development of the mass spectrograph, the meaning of atomic weight, and the difference between mass and weight in answering the question "If atoms are so small, how can we know how much they weigh?" [Debut] Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 543.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
KineticMolecular Theory 
Mass Spectrometry

Grading the copper sulfide experiment Novick, Seymour The author recommends a more liberal analysis in grading the copper sulfide experiment. Novick, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Interpretation of oxidationreduction Goodstein, Madeline P. Presents an interpretation of the oxidation number system based upon the electronegativity principle, thus removing the adjective "arbitrary" frequently found in the descriptions of oxidation number. Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 452.
Oxidation / Reduction 
Oxidation State 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Reactions

The mole again! Haack, N. H. Discusses the definition of the mole. Haack, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 324.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Stoichiometry 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

LTE. Crocker, Roger The author points out that the objections raised to his earlier work are academic. Crocker, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

LTE. Algebra and chemical equations Copley, George Novello The author questions the mathematic validity of the cited work. Copley, George Novello J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Contour diagrams for relativistic orbitals Szabo, Attila The purpose of this article is to amplify an earlier JCE article regarding taking pictorial representations of atomic orbitals too literally. Szabo, Attila J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 678.
Atomic Properties / Structure

Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A. (1) Suggestions for presenting the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales. (2) Why are 4s rather than 3d electrons involved in the first and second ionizations of the first row transition elements?  answer by Haight. (3) The basis for the mnemonic ordering of atomic orbitals. (4) What is a liquidliquid membrane electrode? Is it the same as an ionselective electrode?  answer by Rechnitz. Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 444.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Transition Elements 
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Electrochemistry 
Ion Selective Electrodes 
Membranes

Anticipating "valences" from electron configurations Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. Describes a procedure for predicting "valences" from electron configurations that works well for most metals. Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 689.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Metals 
Transition Elements

The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. I. New models of atomic structure Luder, W. F. Describes the electron repulsion theory of electron configuration and applies it to representative elements. Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Covalent Bonding 
Metals

General chemistry exercise using atomic and molecular orbital models Walker, Ruth A. Styrofoam balls and pipecleaners are used to construct models designed to convey an understanding of the threedimensionality of the electron distribution in the ground state atom and the effect of bonding on this distribution. Walker, Ruth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 672.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Molecular Modeling 
Molecular Properties / Structure 
Covalent Bonding

Problem solving in chemistry (Tilbury, Glen) Whitney, Richard M.
Whitney, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A532.
Chemometrics 
Enrichment / Review Materials

Atomic orbital molecular models Martins, George Atomic orbital molecular models are constructed using molded white expanded polystyrene in the form of spheres and teardrops. Martins, George J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 658.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
MO Theory

The science study series. Volumes 12 and 18 Kieffer, William F.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 588.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Nuclear / Radiochemistry 
Water / Water Chemistry

The shape of the 2p and related orbitals Cohen, Irwin Some texts mistake graphs of the angular variation of the 2p and related wave functions for actual geometric descriptions of these orbitals. Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 20.
Atomic Properties / Structure

Valence: A laboratory exercise for general chemistry Sanderson, R. T. In this exercise, each student carefully examines each of a set of thirteen different atomic models with different valence configurations, writing down certain pertinent observations and independentlyreasoned conclusions about them. Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 261.
Atomic Properties / Structure

A schematic representation of valence Sanderson, R. T. This paper describes a new chart representing the valence structure of atoms; by studying this chart, with the help of a few simple rules, students of elementary chemistry can acquire a useful understanding of chemical combination. Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 541.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Enrichment / Review Materials 
Transition Elements 
Metals 
Nonmetals

Solution of problems in chemistry Trousdale, Everett A. Presents a method for analyzing and solving mole calculations. Trousdale, Everett A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 299.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Dimensional analysis of chemical laws and theories Benfey, O. Theodore The dimensional analysis of the kinetic theory and organic structural theory. Benfey, O. Theodore J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 286.
Chemometrics 
KineticMolecular Theory

Regularities among the representative elements: The "paired electron rule" Condon, F. E. If the oxidation states characteristic of various groups are correlated in terms of electron subshells, they become reasonable and logical rather than mere facts to be memorized. Condon, F. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 651.
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Oxidation State

