TIGER

Journal Articles: 55 results
Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams  Ed Vitz
This series of demonstrations elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines using common laboratory materials and can be adapted for elementary through tertiary levels. The formation of fogs is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1385.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties  Robert M. Hanson, Patrick Riley, Jeff Schwinefus, and Paul J. Fischer
The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level.
Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1142.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation To Reinforce Student Understanding of Intermolecular Forces  Phillip R. Burkholder, Gordon H. Purser, and Renee S. Cole
This article presents a series of experiments incorporating molecular dynamics simulations which predict the motion of chemical species based on the application of empirical rules and a physical analysis of the forces that act between the species. These motions can then be shown in vivid graphical form.
Burkholder, Phillip R.; Purser, Gordon H.; Cole, Renee S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1071.
Computational Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Colorful Lather Printing  Susan A. S. Hershberger, Matt Nance, Arlyne M. Sarquis, and Lynn M. Hogue
Students explore the chemistry of polar and nonpolar substances and surfactants while marbling paper with shaving cream and food coloring.
Hershberger, Susan A. S.; Nance, Matt; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Hogue, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 608A.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties |
Surface Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Density Determination by Water Displacement and Flotation: An Introductory Experiment in Forensic Chemistry  Lisa A. Saccocio and Mary K. Carroll
An introductory lab experiment has been developed for a nonscience major course in forensic chemistry, designed to introduce students to basic chemical principles within the context of interesting problem-solving scenarios. Students explore two different methods of density analysis and discover the practical uses and limitations of each.
Saccocio, Lisa A.; Carroll, Mary K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1187.
Nonmajor Courses |
Forensic Chemistry |
Physical Properties
A Demonstration of Refractive Index Matching Using Isopropyl Alcohol and MgF2  Frederick C. Sauls
Isopropyl alcohol and magnesium fluoride have nearly identical refractive indices; thus a chip of MgF2 disappears when immersed in isopropanol.
Sauls, Frederick C. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1170.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Physical Properties |
Solids |
Materials Science
From "Greasy Chemistry" to "Macromolecule": Thoughts on the Historical Development of the Concept of a Macromolecule  Pedro J. Bernal
This paper presents a narrative about the historical development of the concept of a macromolecule. It does so to illustrate how the history of science might be used as a pedagogical tool to teach science, particularly to non-majors.
Bernal, Pedro J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 870.
Colloids |
Nonmajor Courses |
Polymerization |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment  Gerald R. Van Hecke, Kerry K. Karukstis, Hanhan Li, Hansford C. Hendargo, Andrew J. Cosand, and Marja M. Fox
This experiment features an investigative approach designed for the introductory science or engineering major and integrates concepts in the fields of chemistry, biology, and physics. Derived from faculty research interests, this novel experiment gives students the opportunity to draw conclusions from tests performed to illustrate the connection between molecular structure and macroscopic properties. The chemical synthesis of the compounds studied further enhances the connection between molecular structure and macroscopic physical properties. The results of two separate physical measurements, refractometry and absorption spectroscopy, are combined to calculate a microscopic, but very practical, property of chiral nematic liquids┬Łthe pitch of the helix formed in the liquid crystalline phase.
Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Li, Hanhan; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1349.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases |
Esters |
Physical Properties |
Physical Properties
Chemistry of Moth Repellents  Gabriel Pinto
A real-life example consisting of the study of the different substances used as moth repellents is presented to introduce students to miscellaneous topics such as sublimation, intermolecular forces, insecticides, and the effect of moths on clothes. A set of questions about the most common moth repellents, well known to students, is used to motivate them to understand several everday phenomena through chemistry concepts.
Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1321.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Consumer Chemistry
Potassium Hydroxide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of potassium hydroxide are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1304.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
N,N-Dimethylformamide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of N,N-dimethylformamide are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 632.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calcium  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for calcium.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 479.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chlorine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for chlorine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 186.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Mercury(II) Nitrate Monohydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for mercury(I) nitrate monohydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Purple or Colorless—Which Way Up? An Entertaining Solubility Demonstration  Trevor M. Kitson
Discrepant demonstration involving immiscible mixture of water colored with potassium permanganate and hexane.
Kitson, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 892.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Potassium Permanganate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium permanganate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Carbon Disulfide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for carbon disulfide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 735.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Graphite  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for graphite.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 379.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potassium Chromate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium chromate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1065.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Perchlorate: Chemical Laboratory Information Profile  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium perchlorate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 937.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Chlorate: Chemical Laboratory Information Profile  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium chlorate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 936.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory  John Hanson and Tim Hoyt
Investigation in which students must determine the identity of three unknown gases by developing their own tests.
Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 845.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 425.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Metals
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Petroleum Ether  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for petroleum ether.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1588.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
The Use of an Inexpensive Laser Pointer to Perform Qualitative and Semiquantitative Laser Refractometry  Amarílis de Vicente Finageiv Neder, Edgardo García, and Leonardo N. Viana
A simple, low-cost refractometry experiment designed for inexperienced students or use as a demonstration to estimate the refractive index of various liquids.
Neder, Amarílis de Vicente Finageiv; García, Edgardo; Viana, Leonardo N. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1481.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Liquids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Anhydride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic anhydride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1176.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
The Conductivity of Molten Materials  Monica E. Thomas, Audrey A. Cleveland, Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, and Michael R. Hall
Demonstrating the conductivity of molten ionic compounds; includes apparatus for demonstrating conductivity and suggested list of selected test materials and their melting points.
Thomas, Monica E.; Cleveland, Audrey A.; Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1052.
Conductivity |
Metals |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Acid (glacial)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic acid (glacial).
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 721.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Carboxylic Acids
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: n-Hexane  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for n-hexane.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 587.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Floating Plastics: An Initial Chemistry Laboratory Experience  Enrique A. Hughes, Helena M. Ceretti, and Anita Zalts
Students prepare a series of solutions with gradually increasing densities. Then they are given plastic samples of known and unknown composition and they estimate the densities of the samples by observing in which solutions they float and in which they sink; these densities are used to identify the plastics.
Hughes, Enrique A.; Ceretti, Helena M.; Zalts, Anita. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 522.
Nonmajor Courses |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
An Experiment to Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
This experiment, which is a modified version of the traditional iodine clock reaction, allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reactants, and activation energies. It also lets students discover that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having a lower activation energy.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1714.
Catalysis |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Teaching Distillation Knowledge: A Video Film about Distillation Bridging a Gap Between Theory and Practice  Martin J. Goedhart, Hanno van Keulen, Theo M. Mulder, Adri H. Verdonk, and Wobbe De Vos
The authors observed that first year students hardly used their knowledge of phase theory in the design and performance of distillations. They therefore developed a video in which they confront students with the boiling properties of liquid mixtures.
Goedhart, Martin J.; van Keulen, Hanno; Mulder, Theo M.; Verdonk, Adri H.; De Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 378.
Learning Theories |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment  John M. Risley
Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell.
Risley, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1181.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Consumer Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Nonmajor Courses |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Phenols
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
Suspension of Drops of a Liquid in a Column of Water  Ahmad, Jamil
Procedure for producing drops of a liquid suspended in the middle of a column of another liquid, giving the illusion of violating Archimedes' principle.
Ahmad, Jamil J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 178.
Physical Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Melting Point Depression Activity Using Two Inorganic Substances  DeMeo, Stephen
Measuring melting point depression using iodine and sulfur.
DeMeo, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 796.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Determination of Number-Average Molecular Weight: A Polymer Experiment for Lower-Division Chemistry Students  Williams, Kathryn R.; Bernier, Ulrich R.
Procedure to determine the number-average molecular weight of a polymer.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Bernier, Ulrich R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 265.
Physical Properties
Analogical demonstrations   Fortman, John J.
By illustrating an analogy with a visual demonstration, a student is aided in both understanding and remembering a lesson.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 323.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases
Densities and miscibilities of liquids and liquid mixtures   Franz, David A.
A sequence of demonstrations that lend themselves to quantitative calculations regarding density.
Franz, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 594.
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Density of antifreeze-water mixtures: A general chemistry experiment in compositional analysis  Flowers, Paul A.
Determining the composition of an antifreeze/water solution through density measurements.
Flowers, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1068.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis
Buoyancy programs  Bertrand, Gary L.
Simulates experimental measurements of the density of solids, liquids, and mixtures of liquids.
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 922.
Physical Properties
Questions from a can of Pepsi  Mitchell, Tony
A can of Pepsi can be the starting point of countless chemistry questions that students can relate to. The author encourages other instructors to think about helping students understand chemistry as it relates to contemporary society.
Mitchell, Tony J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1070.
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Metals
Which will evaporate first?  Stenmark, Allan
The evaporation rate of various short-chain alcohols and diethyl ether are compared.
Stenmark, Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 351.
Physical Properties |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols |
Ethers
Classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Part I. Molecular structure and molecular mass  Rodriguez, F.; Mathias, L. J.; Kroschwitz, J.; Carraher, C. E., Jr.
Suggestions for models and techniques to illustrate the structure of polymers, copolymers, molecular mass, osmotic pressure, light scattering, and dilute solution viscosity.
Rodriguez, F.; Mathias, L. J.; Kroschwitz, J.; Carraher, C. E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 72.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Invisible water: A gas density demonstration  Maciel, Richard P.
Demonstrating the density of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (TTE), whose density is about six times that of air.
Maciel, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 153.
Gases |
Physical Properties
The commonness of the phenomenon of azeotropy  Kurtyka, Zdzislaw M.
The opinion that azeotropy is a rarely encountered phenomenon is not justified and should be abandoned.
Kurtyka, Zdzislaw M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 366.
Physical Properties
Diphenyl ether. A versatile substance for laboratory demonstrations  Cases, Jaime C.
The purification, properties, and uses of diphenyl ether in a variety of demonstrations.
Cases, Jaime C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 420.
Ethers |
Solid State Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds
Density gradients in chemistry teaching  Miller, P. J.
Outlines experiments in which a density gradient may be used to advantage, including the analysis of organic compounds, aqueous solutions, binary mixtures of organic compounds, solids, and solvent extractions.
Miller, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 278.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Density of a binary mixture. A classroom or laboratory exercise  Feinstein, H. I.
Provides a hypothetical problem in the density of a binary mixture.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 111.
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Computer simulation of experimental data  Shwendeman, R. H.
This note describes some of the techniques in programming used to generate a sufficient variety of experimental data to provide each student with his own set of numbers for analysis in conjunction with the demonstration laboratory.
Shwendeman, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 665.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Gas Chromatography
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
Melting point depression  Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam
The eutectic temperature of the piperonal / resorcinol system is well below room temperature.
Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A413.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The carbon-12 scale of atomic masses  Labbauf, Abbas
Examines the concept of atomic weight and the rise and coexistence of the oxygen and carbon scales of atomic mass.
Labbauf, Abbas J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 282.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discusses differences between mass and weight.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 275.
Physical Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols