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Journal Articles: 87 results
Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties  Robert M. Hanson, Patrick Riley, Jeff Schwinefus, and Paul J. Fischer
The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level.
Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1142.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Physical Chemistry: Thermodynamics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 694 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340911 (paper). $49.95

Physical Chemistry: Statistical Mechanics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 292 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340850 (paper). $44.95

Physical Chemistry: Kinetics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 169 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340898 (paper). $44.95

Physical Chemistry: Quantum Mechanics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 481 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340874 (paper). $44.95

  John Krenos
Metiu has created a significant set of volumes on undergraduate physical chemistry. The integration of Mathematica and Mathcad workbooks into the four texts provides instructors with an attractive new option in teaching.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 206.
Quantum Chemistry |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Configurational Entropy Revisited  Frank L. Lambert
Positional entropy should be eliminated from general chemistry instruction and replaced by emphasis on the motional energy of molecules as enabling entropy change.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1548.
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Mass-Elastic Band Thermodynamics: A Visual Teaching Aid at the Introductory Level  William C. Galley
Demonstrations of five spontaneous isothermal processes involving the coupling of a mass and elastic band and arising from combinations of enthalpy and entropy changes are presented and then dissected. Analogies are drawn between these processes and common spontaneous molecular events such as chemical reactions and phase transitions.
Galley, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1147.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
"Mysteries" of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics  Rubin Battino
Over the years the subject of thermodynamics has taken on an aura of difficulty, subtlety, and mystery. This article discusses common misconceptions and how to introduce the topic to students.
Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Edward F. Duhr, Allison S. Soult, John G. Maijub, and Fitzgerald B. Bramwell
The procedure for Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom! can lead to watch glass breakage and thereby a fire hazard.
Duhr, Edward F.; Soult, Allison S.; Maijub, John G.; Bramwell, Fitzgerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Give Them Money: The Boltzmann Game, a Classroom or Laboratory Activity Modeling Entropy Changes and the Distribution of Energy in Chemical Systems  Robert M. Hanson and Bridget Michalek
Described here is a short, simple activity that can be used in any high school or college chemistry classroom or lab to explore the way energy is distributed in real chemical systems and as an entry into discussions of the probabilistic nature of entropy.
Hanson, Robert M.; Michalek, Bridget. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 581.
Equilibrium |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Using Computer Simulations To Teach Salt Solubility. The Role of Entropy in Solubility Equilibrium  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Pairs of salts are discussed to illustrate the interpretation of their different behavior in water in terms of the fundamental concept of entropy. The ability of computer simulations to help improve students' understanding of these chemistry concepts is also examined.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 170.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Microscopic Description of Le Châtelier's Principle  Igor Novak
The analysis based on microscopic descriptors (energy levels and their populations) is given that provides visualization of free energies and conceptual rationalization of Le Châtelier's principle. The misconception "nature favors equilibrium" is highlighted.
Novak, Igor. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1190.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
The q/T Paradox: Which "Contains More Heat", a Cup of Coffee at 95°C or a Liter of Icewater?  Ed Vitz and Michael J. Schuman
In this demonstration, heat is removed from 10 cm3 of water at ~95C and 42 cm3 of water at ~0C by adding each to a measured sample of liquid nitrogen. The heat removed from the water boils the N2(l), and the quantity of liquid nitrogen that is evaporated by boiling is determined. The quantity of heat that was absorbed is calculated from the heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen and found to be about 10,000 J in the case of the hot water and 25,000 J in the case of the icewater.
Vitz, Ed; Schuman, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 856.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Let's Drive "Driving Force" Out of Chemistry  Norman C. Craig
"Driving force" is identified as a misleading concept in analyzing spontaneous change. Driving force wrongly suggests that Newtonian mechanics and determinism control and explain spontaneous processes. The usefulness of the competition of ?H versus ?S in discussing chemical change is also questioned. Entropy analyseswhich consider the contributions to the total change in entropyare advocated.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 827.
Natural Products |
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
A Pedagogical Simulation of Maxwell's Demon Paradox  D. López and C. Criado
Teaching thermodynamics from the microscopic point of view can help students develop an intuitive understanding of its concepts. This program simulates, at the microscopic level, two gas chambers with an opening between them. The program allows students or their instructors to set up simulations that illustrate the thermodynamics and statistical behavior of the system. The user determines the basis for whether the demon permits or denies passage of particles through the opening using information from the microscopic level, such as specific particle velocity. Students can track and analyze how this affects particle distribution, thermal equilibrium, relaxation time, diffusion, and distribution of particle velocities.
López, D.; Criado, C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1679.
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Teaching Entropy Analysis in the First-Year High School Course and Beyond  Thomas H. Bindel
A 16-day teaching unit is presented that develops chemical thermodynamics at the introductory high school level and beyond from exclusively an entropy viewpoint referred to as entropy analysis. Many concepts are presented, such as: entropy, spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics, qualitative and quantitative entropy analysis, extent of reaction, thermodynamic equilibrium, coupled equilibria, and Gibbs free energy. Entropy is presented in a nontraditional way, using energy dispersal.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1585.
Thermodynamics
Using Science Fiction To Teach Thermodynamics: Vonnegut, Ice-nine, and Global Warming  Charles A. Liberko
When covering the topic of thermodynamics at the introductory level, an example from Kurt Vonnegut, Jr's, fictional novel, Cat's Cradle, is used to take what the students have learned and apply it to a new situation.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 509.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Rubber Bands, Free Energy, and Le Châtelier's Principle  Warren Hirsch
Using a rubber band to illustrate Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy.
Hirsch, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 200A.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Energy as Money, Chemical Bonding as Business, and Negative ΔH and ΔG as Investment   Evguenii I. Kozliak
Analogy for explaining the sign (+ or -) of ?H, ?G, and ?S to introductory students.
Kozliak, Evguenii I. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1435.
Nonmajor Courses |
Thermodynamics
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
H Is for Enthalpy, Thanks to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and Alfred W. Porter  Irmgard K. Howard
Origin of the word enthalpy.
Howard, Irmgard K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 697.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Chemically Relevant Model for Teaching the Second Law of Thermodynamics  Bryce E. Williamson and Tetsuo Morikawa
Presentation of a chemically relevant model that exemplifies many aspects of the second law: reversibility, path dependence, and extrapolation in terms of electrochemistry and calorimetry.
Williamson, Bryce E.; Morikawa, Tetsuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 339.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Disorder--A Cracked Crutch for Supporting Entropy Discussions  Frank L. Lambert
Arguments against using disorder as a means of introducing and teaching entropy.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 187.
Thermodynamics
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
A Simplified Method for Measuring the Entropy Change of Urea Dissolution. An Experiment for the Introductory Chemistry Lab  Charles A. Liberko and Stephanie Terry
Guided inquiry to determine values for changes in enthalpy, Gibb's free energy, and entropy for the dissolution of urea in water.
Liberko, Charles A.; Terry, Stephanie. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1087.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Stories to Make Thermodynamics and Related Subjects More Palatable  Lawrence S. Bartell
Collection of anecdotes regarding the history and human side of chemistry.
Bartell, Lawrence S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1059.
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Applications of Chemistry
Understanding Electrochemical Thermodynamics through Entropy Analysis  Thomas H. Bindel
This discovery-based activity involves entropy analysis of galvanic cells. The intent of the activity is for students to discover the fundamentals of electrochemical cells through a combination of entropy analysis, exploration, and guided discovery.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1031.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Ionic Crystals: A Simple and Safe Lecture Demonstration of the Preparation of NaI from Its Elements  Zelek S. Herman
A simple and safe classroom demonstration showing the production of sodium iodide (NaI) crystals from elemental sodium and elemental (molecular) iodine is presented. The demonstration, which is quite impressive, naturally fits into the discussion of ionic bonding and the alkali halide crystals.
Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 619.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
Boerhaave on Fire  Damon Diemente
This article offers a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 42.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Entropy, Disorder, and Freezing  Brian B. Laird
It is argued that the usual view that entropy is a measure of "disorder" is problematic and that there exist systems at high density, for which packing considerations dominate, where a spatially ordered state has a higher entropy than a disordered one.
Laird, Brian B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1388.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
Shuffled Cards, Messy Desks, and Disorderly Dorm Rooms - Examples of Entropy Increase? Nonsense!  Frank L. Lambert
Simply changing the location of everyday macro objects from an arrangement that we commonly judge as orderly to one that appears disorderly is a "zero change" in the thermodynamic entropy of the objects because the number of accessible energetic microstates in any of them has not been changed.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1385.
Nonmajor Courses |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Why Don't Things Go Wrong More Often? Activation Energies: Maxwell's Angels, Obstacles to Murphy's Law  Frank L. Lambert
The micro-complexity of fracturing utilitarian or beautiful objects prevents assigning a characteristic activation energy even to chemically identical artifacts. Nevertheless, a qualitative EACT SOLID can be developed. Its surmounting is correlated with the radical drop in human valuation of an object when it is broken.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 947.
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Thermodynamics
The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving  Robert Q. Thompson
Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 532.
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Applications of Chemistry
A Brief History of Thermodynamics Notation  Rubin Battino, Laurence E. Strong, Scott E. Wood
This paper gives a brief history of thermodynamic notation for the energy, E, enthalpy, H, entropy, S, Gibbs energy, G, Helmholtz energy, A, work, W, heat, Q, pressure, P, volume, V, and temperature, T. In particular, the paper answers the question, "Where did the symbol S for entropy come from?"
Battino, Rubin; Strong Laurence E.; Wood, Scott E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 304.
Thermodynamics
In Defense of Thermodynamics - An Animate Analogy  Sture Nordholm
In order to illustrate the deepest roots of thermodynamics and its great power and generality, it is applied by way of analogy to human behavior from an economic point of view.
Nordholm, Sture. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 273.
Thermodynamics
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity  Raymond S. Ochs
Despite the importance of thermodynamics as the foundation of chemistry, most students emerge from introductory courses with only a dim understanding of this subject.
Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 952.
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories |
Equilibrium
Determination of Heats of Fusion: Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry for the AP Chemistry Course   Susan M. Temme
Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in AP chemistry.
Temme, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 916.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Teaching Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamics in Undergraduate General Chemistry Classes  Anil C. Banerjee
Discussion of the conceptual difficulties experienced by undergraduates when dealing with equilibrium and thermodynamics, along with teaching strategies for dealing with these difficulties.
Banerjee, Anil C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 879.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Rubber Elasticity: A Simple Method for Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties  Byrne, John P.
A modified triple-beam balance that uses an optical lever to detect small changes in the length of a stretched rubber band.
Byrne, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 531.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Heat and Work are Not "Forms of Energy"   Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.
Heat and work are processes by which the internal energy of a system is changed. The title reflects a common misconception used by students and instructors.
Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 103.
Thermodynamics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
With Clausius from energy to entropy  Baron, Maximo
Examination of entropy following the route taken by Clausius.
Baron, Maximo J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1001.
Thermodynamics
Two multipurpose thermochemical experiments for general chemistry  Wentworth, R. A. D.
Two multipurpose thermochemical experiments are described in this paper.
Wentworth, R. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1022.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics should be built on energy-not on heat and work  Barrow, Gordon M.
This author looks closely at the concepts of heat, work, energy, and the laws of thermodynamics to back up his title argument.
Barrow, Gordon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 122.
Thermodynamics
The entropy of dissolution of urea  Pickering, Miles
This experiment combines colorimetric techniques, thermochemical techniques, some volumetric work, and actual measurements of entropy.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 723.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics of the rhodamine B lactone zwitterion equilibrium: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G.
An experiment to derive thermodynamic values from a thermochromic equilibrium that uses a commercially available dye, attains equilibrium rapidly, and employs a simple, single-beam spectrophotometer.
Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 362.
Thermodynamics |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium
Thermodynamics and the bounce  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
Explaining the bouncing of a rubber ball using the laws of thermodynamics.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 43.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and reactions in the dry way  Tykodi, Ralph J.
In dealing with reactions in the dry way, we can actually "see" in detail the workings of the thermodynamic machinery responsible for moving the reaction in the spontaneous direction. This note presents ideas at the general chemistry level.
Tykodi, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 107.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Constant properties of systems: A rationale for the inclusion of thermodynamics in a high school chemistry course  Schultz, Ethel L.
Using the zinc / copper system to illustrate how the thermodynamic functions can be introduced gradually and naturally into a course of study.
Schultz, Ethel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 228.
Thermodynamics
A gas kinetic explanation of simple thermodynamic processes  Waite, Boyd A.
Proposes a simplified, semi-quantitative description of heat, work, and internal energy from the viewpoint of gas kinetic theory; both heat and work should not be considered as forms of energy but rather as different mechanisms by which internal energy is transferred from system to surroundings.
Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 224.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics
Further reflections on heat  Hornack, Frederick M.
Confusion regarding the nature of heat and thermodynamics.
Hornack, Frederick M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 869.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermodynamic changes, kinetics, equilibrium, and LeChatelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
A series of demonstrations in which water in beakers and the flow of water between beakers is used to represent the components of an exothermic chemical reaction and the flow and quantity of thermal energy involved in chemical changes.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 804.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Entropy and its role in introductory chemistry  Bickford, Franklin R.
The concept of entropy as it applies to phase changes.
Bickford, Franklin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 317.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Paradigms and paradoxes  Campbell, J. A.
Examines the commonly held tenets "systems tend to a minimum potential energy," "the entropy of a shuffled deck of cards is greater than that of a new deck," and "energy is the ability to do work."
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 41.
Thermodynamics
Why thermodynamics should not be taught to freshmen, or who owns the problem?  Battino, Rubin
Thermodynamics should not be taught to freshmen - there are better things to do with the time.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 520.
Thermodynamics
What thermodynamics should be taught to freshmen, or what is the goal?  Campbell, J. A.
The great majority of students in first-year college courses must try to work problems involving changes in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs Free Energy.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 520.
Thermodynamics
Entropy and rubbery elasticity  Nash, Leonard K.
Thermodynamic analysis of the polymeric molecules of rubber.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 363.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Statistical Mechanics
Teaching about "why do chemical reactions occur": Gibbs free energy  Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S.
Approaching the topic of Gibbs free energy from the student's prior experience in algebra and geometry, it is possible to construct a proof that should enable students to explain the derivation of G = H - TS.
Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 757.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Lecture table experimental demonstration of entropy  Dole, Malcolm
Apparatus for demonstrating entropy that involves heating a stretched rubber band with hot steam.
Dole, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 754.
Thermodynamics
Freezing ice cream and making caramel topping  Plumb, Robert C.; Olson, John Otto; Bowman, Leo H.
The obscurity of "colligative properties" can be dispelled by this ice cream example.
Plumb, Robert C.; Olson, John Otto; Bowman, Leo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 49.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Brief introduction to the three laws of thermodynamics  Stevenson, Kenneth L.
Brief descriptions of the three laws of thermodynamics.
Stevenson, Kenneth L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 330.
Thermodynamics
Goal-oriented teaching of thermodynamics in general chemistry  Canham, G. W. Rayner
Thermodynamics can be more interesting if biological applications are emphasized.
Canham, G. W. Rayner J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 600.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
The first law. For scientists, citizens, poets and philosophers  Bent, Henry A.
Practical experiences and phenomena that serve to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 323.
Thermodynamics
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Seven questions requiring the application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 769.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Astrochemistry
Freezing curves for Salol  Laswick, Patty Hall
The convenient freezing temperature of salol (40-43 C) means that students can easily and safely melt the material using warm water
Laswick, Patty Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 537.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Entropy and a rubber band  Laswick, Patty Hall
A temperature change is noted when a rubber band held against the cheek is stretched and then released.
Laswick, Patty Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 469.
Thermodynamics
An alternative to free energy for undergraduate instruction  Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank
It is the purpose of this paper to question the usefulness of the Gibbs function for the student and to propose an alternative based on the use of entropy functions that help the student to focus more sharply on the features of a system that relate to its capacity to change.
Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 347.
Thermodynamics
Our freshmen like the second law  Craig, Norman C.
The author affirms the place of thermodynamics in the introductory chemistry course and outlines a presentation that has been used with students at this level.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 342.
Thermodynamics
The second law - How much, how soon, to how many?  Bent, Henry A.
Discussion of the conceptual components of thermodynamics, their mathematical requirements, and where they might be best placed in the curriculum.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 337.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) Is there such a thing as a negative pH value? Or one above 14? (2) What is entropy, in terms a beginner may understand? (3) On calculating the molecular weight of a solute from concentration and freezing point depression.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Energy and Entropy in Chemistry (Wyatt, P. A. H.)  Strong, Laurence E.

Strong, Laurence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 71.
Thermodynamics
The fundamental assumptions of chemical thermodynamics  MacRae, Duncan
Examines the fundamental terms, definitions, and assumptions of chemical thermodynamics.
MacRae, Duncan J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 586.
Thermodynamics
Demonstrations of spontaneous endothermic reactions  Matthews, G. W. J.
The reaction between hydrated metal chlorides and thionyl chloride provides a series of valuable experiments that can be used to demonstrate spontaneous endothermic reactions.
Matthews, G. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 476.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The enigmatic polymorphism of iron  Myers, Clifford E.
Unusual and nontypical, elemental iron can provide the impetus for discussing important chemical principles and properties, including basic thermodynamic concepts and the phenomenon and theory of ferromagnetism.
Myers, Clifford E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 303.
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
The use and misuse of the laws of thermodynamics  McGlashan, M. L.
Examines the first and second laws, the usefulness of thermodynamics, the calculation of equilibrium constants, and what entropy does not mean.
McGlashan, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 226.
Thermodynamics
Demonstrating concepts of statistical thermodynamics: More on the Maxwell Demon bottle  Sussman, M. V.
The Maxwell Demon bottle can illustrate the nature of entropy, the difference between a work effect and a heat effect, the difference between reversible and irreversible work effects, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and similar intangibles.
Sussman, M. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 105.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics of the ionization of acetic and chloroacetic acids  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
Students are asked to determine the effect of the structure of acetic, chloroacetic, dichloroacetic, and trichloroacetic acid on equilbria and to discuss the observed effects in terms of standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 484.
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Carnot cycle and Maxwell's relations  Nash, Leonard K.
Maxwells equations can be derived from nothing more than the Carnot cycle and the deployment of the simplest plane geometry.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 368.
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
A simple approach to the second law  Breck, W. G.
Uses a reversible Carnot cycle as a simple approach to explicating the second law.
Breck, W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 353.
Thermodynamics
Temperature dependence of equilibrium: A first experiment in general chemistry  Mahan, Bruce H.
This experiment uses cooling curves to derive the expression for the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant.
Mahan, Bruce H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 293.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
A second lecture in thermodynamics  Burton, Milton
Outlines an introduction for the three laws of thermodynamics
Burton, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 500.
Thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics: Introduction for beginners at any level  Bent, Henry A.
Examines and offers suggestions for dealing with some of the challenges in teaching thermodynamics at an introductory level.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 491.
Thermodynamics
How can you tell whether a reaction will occur?  MacWood, George E.; Verhoek, Frank H.
This paper attempts to answer the title question in a clear and direct fashion.
MacWood, George E.; Verhoek, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 334.
Thermodynamics
A heat engine run by rubber  Cox, E. G.
Describes a rotating wheel powered by the alternate heating and cooling of rubber bands.
Cox, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 307.
Thermodynamics