TIGER

Journal Articles: 49 results
Construction of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Gas Sensor  Shabnam Virji, Bruce H. Weiller, Jiaxing Huang, Richard Blair, Heather Shepherd, Tanya Faltens, Philip C. Haussmann, Richard B. Kaner, and Sarah H. Tolbert
The objectives of this lab are to synthesize different diameter polyaniline nanofibers and compare them as sensor materials. Its advantages include simplicity and low cost, making it suitable for both high school and college students, particularly in departments with modest means.
Virji, Shabnam; Weiller, Bruce H.; Huang, Jiaxing; Blair, Richard; Shepherd, Heather; Faltens, Tanya; Haussmann, Philip C.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1102.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
pH |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
Determining the Solubility Product of Fe(OH)3: An Equilibrium Study with Environmental Significance  Michelle Meighan, Joseph MacNeil, and Renee Falconer
This study explores the environmental impact of acidic mine drainage by investigating the relationship between pH and the aqueous solubility of heavy metals. Students precipitate Fe(OH)3 from acidic FeCl3 and NaOH and use the concentrations of ferric and hydroxide ionsdetermined through pH and flame spectroscopyto calculate the Ksp of Fe(OH)3.
Meighan, Michelle; MacNeil, Joseph; Falconer, Renee. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 254.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Spectroscopy
The Use of Conjugate Charts in Transfer Reactions: A Unified Approach  Michael I. Allnutt
Redox reactions are discussed in terms of the relative strengths of the oxidant, the reductant, and their conjugates; a conjugate chart is a convenient and useful way of doing this. A similar chart for acids and bases that can be applied in the same manner is proposed.
Allnutt, Michael I. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1659.
Acids / Bases |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Constructing a Graphic Organizer in the Classroom: Introductory Students' Perception of Achievement Using a Decision Map To Solve Aqueous Acid–Base Equilibria Problems  Stephen DeMeo
A decision map is a directional heuristic that helps learners solve problems within a generic framework. The decision map that is presented was created to solve pH problems of varying difficulty that introductory college chemistry students encounter when studying acidbase equilibria.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 540.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Thermochemical Analysis of Neutralization Reactions: An Introductory Discovery Experiment  Kenneth V. Mills and Louise W. Guilmette
Describes a guided-inquiry laboratory pedagogy in which students discover chemical concepts in the lab and the instructor uses their pooled data to guide the lecture portion of the course. This method is illustrated by an experiment that reinforces students' understanding of stoichiometry and allows them to discover neutralization reactions and thermochemistry.
Mills, Kenneth V.; Guilmette, Louise W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 326.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Acids / Bases
p-Sulfanilic Acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of p-sulfanilic acid are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 990.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Linking Laboratory Experiences to the Real World: The Extraction of Octylphenoxyacetic Acid from Water  Jorge E. Loyo-Rosales, Alba Torrents, Georgina C. Rosales-Rivera, and Clifford P. Rice
A known quantity of the sodium salt of octylphenoxyacetic acid is dissolved in water, transformed to the acid (insoluble) form, and extracted using dichloromethane. These changes can be followed visually owing to conspicuous changes in solution turbidity.
Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Torrents, Alba; Rosales-Rivera, Georgina C.; Rice, Clifford P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 248.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Stoichiometry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Water / Water Chemistry
Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base Equilibria  Harry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai
This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero.
Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
The Chemistry of Photographic Color Dye Formation  Bruce E. Kahn
A laboratory activity is described where black and white photographs are converted to color images in a variety of ways.
Kahn, Bruce E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 694.
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Teaching Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory in a Direct Comprehensive Way  Jamie L. Adcock
Unifying all the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base concepts in a quantitative way.
Adcock, Jamie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1495.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Acids and Bases in Layers: The Stratal Structure of an Ancient Topic  Wobbe de Vos and Albert Pilot
This article identifies and discusses six successive "layers" that can be recognized in chapters on acids and bases in general chemistry textbooks, each the result of what once was a modernization; the cumulative result of these layers has become problematic, and some learning problems that students have when studying acids and bases become comprehensible when viewed from this perspective.
de Vos, Wobbe; Pilot , Albert. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 494.
Acids / Bases |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Weak vs Strong Acids and Bases: The Football Analogy  Todd P. Silverstein
A football analogy for acids and bases in which acids are compared to quarterbacks, whose job is to get rid of the ball (H+). A strong acid, like an excellent quarterback, delivers the ball effectively; a weak acid, like a poor quarterback, is often left holding the ball. Furthermore, bases may be likened to wide receivers, whose job is to catch and hold onto the ball (H+).
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 849.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Predicting Acid-Base Titration Curves without Calculations  Dennis W. Barnum
In this paper a qualitative and systematic method for sketching titration curves is presented. Even the more complex cases such as salts or polyprotic acids and bases are treated just as easily as simple monoprotic acids. Having students predict the shape of titration curves from known equilibrium constants helps to focus attention on the general principles without distraction by the mathematics.
Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 938.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Do pH in Your Head  Addison Ault
Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 936.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
A Simplified Method for Finding the pKa of an Acid-Base Indicator by Spectrophotometry  George S. Patterson
Experiments on determining the pKa of an acid-base indicator by visible spectroscopy are often found in analytical and physical chemistry lab texts. The procedure described here is a modification suitable for general chemistry lab students.
Patterson, George S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 395.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Why and How To Teach Acid-Base Reactions without Equilibrium  Terry S. Carlton
A stepwise method enables students to predict which acid-base reactions occur when two solutions are mixed. The complexities of equilibrium are avoided by treating reactions as all-or-none and by providing a table of acids in order of strength.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 939.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
The determination of "apparent" pKa's: An experiment for liberal arts or science students  Cawley, John J.
An experiment with two different "conclusions" to be reached: one for liberal arts students, one for science students.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 596.
Acids / Bases |
Nonmajor Courses |
pH
Analogical demonstrations   Fortman, John J.
By illustrating an analogy with a visual demonstration, a student is aided in both understanding and remembering a lesson.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 323.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases
Acid and base dissociation constants of water and its associated ions  de Lange, A. M.; Potgieter, J. H.
By applying the Bronsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases, one can derive acid and base dissociation constants for water and its associated ions.
de Lange, A. M.; Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 304.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate (the author replies)   Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate  Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A short program for the automatic calculation of pH in solutions having many acids or bases  Campanario, Juan Miguel; Ballesteros, Reyes
121. Bits and pieces, 45. A computer program for calculating the pH of mixtures having many acids or bases.
Campanario, Juan Miguel; Ballesteros, Reyes J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1036.
Acids / Bases |
pH
The pH of any mixture of monoprotic acids and bases  Herman, D. P.; Booth, K. K.; Parker, O. J.; Breneman, G. L.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. The pH of any mixture of monoprotic weak and strong acids and bases can be calculated. A curve can also be plotted for the titration of the mixture by any monoportic weak or strong acid or base.
Herman, D. P.; Booth, K. K.; Parker, O. J.; Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 501.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Microscale acid-base extraction: A colorful introduction  Elder, John W.
The concept and the microscale manipulation involved in acid-base extractions are often difficult for beginning students.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 266.
Acids / Bases |
Microscale Lab
The hydrolysis of salts derived from a weak monoprotic acid and a weak monoprotic base  Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo
The limitations as well as the conditions under which this simplified approach to the hydrolysis of salts from a weak acid and a weak base can yield almost exact results are discussed.
Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 221.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions  Thompson, Ralph J.
How to calculate the equilibrium constant of an acid-base reaction.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Potentiometric titration of acidic and basic compounds in household cleaners  Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E.
The potentiometric titration of commercial household cleaners can be used in student laboratories in freshman, analytical, and physical chemistry courses. It can be used for analysis of household cleaners with either one or two component systems, or it can be used for the determination of the dissociation constant.
Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 184.
Acids / Bases |
Potentiometry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemistry: Acids and Bases ( Frazin, J. and partners)  Bendall, Victor I.; Roe, Robert, Jr.
Two reviews of a software package that contains drill and practice programs that are suitable for beginning students of chemistry.
Bendall, Victor I.; Roe, Robert, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A204.
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases
Further observations on the cobalt(II)-chloride equilibrium: Effect of changing the chloride ion concentration  Martins, Luis J. A.; da Costa, J. Barbosa
In this article, the authors supplement previous experiments on equilibrium by confirming the effect of changes in chloride ion concentration.
Martins, Luis J. A.; da Costa, J. Barbosa J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 989.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Acids / Bases
The relative strength of oxyacids and its application  Monroe, Manus
A simple technique for predicting the relative strength of oxyacids and their anions among students unfamiliar with Ka and pKa.
Monroe, Manus J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 41.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
A pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations   Guida, Wayne C.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A description of a pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations .
Guida, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 101.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
A physical model to demonstrate acid-base conjugate pairs  Naylor, Robert W.
There seems to be a great deal of confusion among students over the relationship of the strength of a conjugate acid or base to its respective precursor. Using magnets, an extremely simple method of demonstrating that weak acids give strong bases and vice versa can be easily performed.
Naylor, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Acids / Bases
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Strong and weak acids and bases  Deck, Joseph C.
The designations "strong" and "weak" are used in various ways, and often with respect to the same compound in different situations.
Deck, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 814.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The great fallacy of the H+ ion: And the true nature of H3O+  Giguere, Paul A.
The hydronium ion is as real as its counterpart, the hydroxide ion.
Giguere, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 571.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The pH concept  Kolb, Doris
Reviews pH, the pH scale, pH calculations, buffered solutions, and measuring pH.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 49.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Visual aid for acid-base concepts  Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A.
Three plots that the authors have found particularly useful in concisely illustrating a number of acid-base concepts relating to buffer capacity and acid-base titrations.
Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Le Chtelier and ionic equilibria  Ringbom, Anders
When s solution contains several weak acids, the squares of the separately calculated hydrogen ion concentrations of all weak acids in the solution are additive.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 442.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Acid-base titration and distribution curves  Waser, Jurg
Presents an alternative method for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 274.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Development of the pH concept: A historical survey  Szabadvary, Ferenc; Oesper, Ralph E., trans.
Traces the historical development of the following: a recognition of the importance of hydrogen ion concentration; an understanding of buffer solutions; and the concept and measurement of pH.
Szabadvary, Ferenc; Oesper, Ralph E., trans. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 105.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Homogeneous catalysis: A reexamination of definitions  Leisten, J. A.
Considers common questions regarding the action of catalysts by examining various typical examples.
Leisten, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 23.
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases
The hydrated hydronium ion  Clever, H. Lawrence
It is the purpose of this brief review to cite and discuss some of the evidence for the existence of the trihydrated hydronium ion.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 637.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Is there an alternative to pH?  Crane, Francis E., Jr.
Provides some alternatives to the traditional definition of pH that introductory students may find more intuitive and less confusing.
Crane, Francis E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 365.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An approach to complex equilibrium problems  Butler, James N.
Presents an approach to equilibrium problems that sets up enough equations relating the various concentrations present to define the system completely and then makes approximations that simplify the equations.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 141.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Indicators and the basis for their use  Gorin, George
Describes the method for selecting appropriate indicators and the teaching of this subject.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 318.
Dyes / Pigments |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
pH
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry. III  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the practical applications of electronegativities and charge distribution.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Acids / Bases
pH approximations  McBay, Arthur J.
Describes the use of data from tables to approximate pH values.
McBay, Arthur J. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 526.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry