Journal Articles: 27 results 

The Penny Experiment Revisited: An Illustration of Significant Figures, Accuracy, Precision, and Data Analysis Joseph Bularzik In this general chemistry laboratory the densities of pennies are measured by weighing them and using two different methods to measure their volumes. The average and standard deviation calculated for the resulting densities demonstrate that one measurement method is more accurate while the other is more precise. Bularzik, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1456.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Nonmajor Courses 
Physical Properties

Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC). Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy 
Instrumental Methods 
Food Science 
Lipids 
Chemometrics 
Qualitative Analysis 
Fourier Transform Techniques 
Consumer Chemistry 
Applications of Chemistry

Precision in Microscale Titration Julian L. Roberts Jr. Comparing the precision of a 2mL graduated pipet and 50mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration. Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus 
Chemometrics 
Microscale Lab 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Precision in Microscale Titration Julian L. Roberts Jr. Comparing the precision of a 2mL graduated pipet and 50mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration. Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus 
Chemometrics 
Microscale Lab 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

A Simple Method for Illustrating Uncertainty Analysis Paul C. Yates A fast and simple method for generating data for uncertainty analysis; includes statistical analysis and calculation of maximum probable error for a sample set of data. Yates, Paul C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 770.
Chemometrics 
Quantitative Analysis

How Can an Instructor Best Introduce the Topic of Significant Figures to Students Unfamiliar with the Concept? Richard A. Pacer The focus of this paper is how best to introduce the concept of significant figures so that students find it meaningful before a stage is reached at which they become turned off. The approach described begins with measurements students are already familiar with from their life experiences and involves the students as active learners. Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1435.
Learning Theories 
Nonmajor Courses 
Chemometrics

Spreadsheet Calculation of the Propagation of Experimental Imprecision Robert de Levie A spreadsheet is used to compute the propagation of imprecision, and a macro is described that will do this automatically. de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 534.
Chemometrics 
Quantitative Analysis 
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing

Precision and Accuracy in Measurements: A Tale of Four Graduated Cylinders Richard S. Treptow The concepts of precision and accuracy help students understand that uncertainty accompanies even our best scientific measurements. A model experiment can be used to distinguish the two terms. The experiment uses four graduated cylinders which give measurements of different accuracy and precision. Such terms as mean, range, standard deviation, error, and true value are defined through an illustration. Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 992.
Quantitative Analysis 
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 2) Midden, W. Robert Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Midden, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 1) Guare, Charles J. Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Guare, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (3) Rustad, Douglas Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Rustad, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (1) Sykes, Robert M. Standard procedures for determining and maintaining significant figures in calculations. Sykes, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics

A Note on Covariance in Propagation of Uncertainty Edwin F. Meyer It is pointed out that whenever both the slope and the intercept are used in calculating a physical quantity from a linear regression, propagation of error must include the covariance as well as the variances. The point is illustrated with a calculation of the boiling point of water from the parameters of the lnP vs 1/T fit. If the covariance is omitted from the propagation of error, the estimate of uncertainty is unreasonably large. Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1339.
Chemometrics

Buoyancy Programs; Viscosity of Polymer Solutions; Precision of Calculated Values Bertrand, Gary L. Software to simulate the determination of the density of solids; the preparation of polymer solutions and their time to flow through a viscometer; and a program to calculate the uncertainties of results given the input values. Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 492.
Physical Properties 
Chemometrics

Measuring with a Purpose: Involving Students in the Learning Process Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. Constructivist learning activities for helping students to understand measurement, significant figures, uncertainty, scientific notation, and unit conversions. Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics 
Constructivism

A Simple Laboratory Experiment Using Popcorn To Illustrate Measurement Errors Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R. This experiment focuses on the difference between accuracy and precision and demonstrates the necessity for multiple measurements of an experimental variable. Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 519.
Chemometrics

Shell thickness of the copperclad cent Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R. An exercise in determining the thickness of the copper layer of modern pennies presents the opportunities to combine good chemistry, instrumentation, simple curve fitting, and geometry to solve a simply stated problem. Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1023.
Metals 
Quantitative Analysis 
Chemometrics

Statistical analysis of errors: A practical approach for an undergraduate chemistry lab: Part 1. The concepts Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J. A concise and practiceoriented introduction to the analysis and interpretation of measurement and errors. Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 776.
Chemometrics

A simple but effective demonstration for illustrating significant figure rules when making measurements and doing calculations Zipp, Arden P. Students can be surprised and confused when different arithmetical operations are performed on experimental data, because the rules change when changing from addition to subtraction to multiplication or division. The following is a simple way to illustrate several aspects of these rules. Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 291.
Chemometrics

Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry Finster, David C. The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners. Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Chemometrics 
Descriptive Chemistry

Is 8C equal to 50F? Thompson, H. Bradford A play, commentary, modest proposal, and a "less modest" proposal regarding calculations and significant figures. Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 400.
Chemometrics

Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 1. The special nature of quantity equations Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley Differences between operation on quantities and operation on numbers and how chemical quantities should be described mathematically. Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 839.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

Propagation of significant figures Schwartz, Lowell M. The rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 693.
Chemometrics

A statistical note on the time lag method for secondorder kinetic rate constants Schwartz, Lowell M. A clever method for finding secondorder kinetic rate constants by using a time lag method that avoids direct measurement of the end point reading P(infinity) can easily be programmed. Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 588.
Chemometrics 
Kinetics 
Rate Law

How many significant digits in 0.05C? Power, James D. Textbooks abound with erroneous examples, such as 33F = 0.56C. Power, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

Significant digits in logarithmantilogarithm interconversions Jones, Donald E. Most textbooks are in error in the proper use of significant digits when interconverting logarithms and antilogarithms. Jones, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 753.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

The significance of significant figures Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. This paper is an attempt to clarify some of our ideas about numerical data, measurements, mathematical operations, and significant figures. Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 232.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

