TIGER

Journal Articles: 587 results
Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy  Jean-Michel Lavoie, Esteban Chornet, and André Pelletier
Using a simple extraction and a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer, this protocol allows students in analytical or organic chemistry to quantify and qualify monoterpenes from the peels of limes, grapefruits, and oranges.
Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, André. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1555.
Alkenes |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils  Molly W. Crowther
This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of five edible and structurally similar fats and oils for average chain length, degree of unsaturation, and trans fat content.
Crowther, Molly W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1550.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Fatty Acids
The Synthesis of N-Benzyl-2-azanorbornene via Aqueous Hetero Diels–Alder Reaction  Xavier Sauvage and Lionel Delaude
Characterization of the product of this organic synthesis through IR and NMR data analysis provides valuable material to familiarize students with different types of protonproton coupling patterns and their typical ranges, serves to illustrate the concepts of green chemistry and atom efficiency, and can be used to exemplify structural analysis and computational studies.
Sauvage, Xavier; Delaude, Lionel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1538.
Alkenes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H2S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds  Indu Tucker Sidhwani and Sushmita Chowdhury
The classic technique for the qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures relies on highly toxic hydrogen sulfide. Increasing environmental awareness has prompted the development of a green scheme for the detection of cations by spot tests that is simple and fast.
Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1099.
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
The Iodochlorination of Styrene: An Experiment That Makes a Difference  R. Gary Amiet and Sylvia Urban
This purpose of this laboratory exercise is to determine the various substitution and elimination products generated in the iodochlorination of styrene and their relative proportions through the application of mechanistic principles and a basic knowledge of GCMS and NMR.
Amiet, R. Gary; Urban, Sylvia. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 962.
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Student-Centered Learning
Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography  Benjamin T. Burlingham and Joseph C. Rettig
Presents a microscale experiment in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions and the products determined through thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students evaluate proposed mechanisms for each dihydroxylation in light of the data collected.
Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 959.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Pyrolysis of Aryl Sulfonate Esters in the Absence of Solvent: E1 or E2? A Puzzle for the Organic Laboratory  John J. Nash, Marnie A. Leininger, and Kurt Keyes
An aryl sulfonate ester is synthesized and then pyrolyzed at reduced pressure. The volatile products are analyzed using gas chromatography to determine whether the thermal decomposition occurs via an E1 or E2 mechanism.
Nash, John J.; Leininger, Marnie A.; Keyes, Kurt . J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 552.
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Elimination Reactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper  Mark Mascal and Richard Scown
In this experiment, waste newspaper is pulped with acid and its cellulose hydrolyzed to produce glucose syrup that is fermented and distilled to yield ethanol. In doing so, students are introduced to carbohydrate chemistry and the use of fermentation in organic synthesis.
Mascal, Mark; Scown, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
ATR–FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Jennifer D. Schuttlefield and Vicki H. Grassian
Presents several examples of the use of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, including measuring the infrared spectra of solid and liquid organic compounds commonly used as unknowns and of inorganic solids synthesized by students.
Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Grassian, Vicki H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 279.
IR Spectroscopy |
Liquids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Undergraduate Research
Regioselectivity in Organic Synthesis: Preparation of the Bromohydrin of α-Methylstyrene  Brad Andersh, Kathryn N. Kilby, Meghan E. Turnis, and Drew L. Murphy
In the described experiment, the regiochemical outcome of the addition of "HOBr" to a-methylstyrene is investigated. Although both "classic" qualitative analysis and instrumental techniques are described, the emphasis of this experiment is on the utilization 13C and DEPT-135 NMR spectroscopy to determine the regiochemical outcome of the addition.
Andersh, Brad; Kilby, Kathryn N.; Turnis, Meghan E.; Murphy, Drew L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 102.
Addition Reactions |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis in the Organic Teaching Lab: A Simple, Greener Wittig Reaction  Eric Martin and Cynthia Kellen-Yuen
A microwave-assisted Wittig reaction has been developed for the organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this technique, a variety of styrene derivatives have been synthesized from aromatic aldehydes in good yields. The mixture of cis and trans alkenes produced also provides instructors with opportunities to emphasize the spectroscopic analysis of product mixtures.
Martin, Eric; Kellen-Yuen, Cynthia. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2004.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Computational Analysis of Stereospecificity in the Cope Rearrangement  Laura Glish and Timothy W. Hanks
Experimental product distributions from the Cope rearrangement of disubstituted 1,5-hexadienes can be readily understood by computer modeling of the various possible transitions states. Visual analysis of these geometries allow students to interpret the computational results by analogy to the familiar chair and boat conformations of substituted cyclohexanes.
Glish, Laura; Hanks, Timothy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2001.
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
Medicinal Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Qualitative Organic Analysis That Exploits the Senses of Smell, Touch, and Sound  Deborah C. Bromfield-Lee and Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo
In this sensorial laboratory, students differentiate a variety of compounds by their aromas and, based on their olfactory classification, identify an unknown functional group. They then perform chemical tests incorporating touch, smell, and sound to confirm the functional group present.
Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1976.
Qualitative Analysis
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Maleic Acid at Moderate Pressures  Kwesi Amoa
This article demonstrates the reduction of maleic acid in about 90 minutes using moderate-pressure catalytic hydrogenation.
Amoa, Kwesi. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1948.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Hydration of Acetylene: A 125th Anniversary  Dmitry A. Ponomarev and Sergey M. Shevchenko
The discovery the hydration of alkynes catalyzed by mercury ions by Mikhail Kucherov made possible industrial production of acetaldehyde from acetylene and had a profound effect on the development of industrial chemistry in the 1920th centuries.
Ponomarev, Dmitry A.; Shevchenko, Sergey M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1725.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkynes |
Catalysis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Reactions
A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent  Christopher J. Fenk, Nathan Kaufman, and Donald G. Gerbig, Jr.
Presents a new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of aspartame that incorporates a less caustic biuret reagent and visible spectroscopic analysis for selective detection in aqueous solutions using readily available instrumentation.
Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1676.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Food Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids
The Aromaticity of Pericyclic Reaction Transition States  Henry S. Rzepa
Presents an approach that combines two fundamental concepts in organic chemistry, chirality and aromaticity, into a simple rule for stating selection rules for pericyclic reactions in terms of achiral Hckel-aromatic and chiral Mbius-aromatic transition states.
Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1535.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes  Benjamin M. Hutchins, Thomas T. Morgan, Miné G. Ucak-Astarlioglu, and Mary Elizabeth Williams
Visually observed fluorescent colors of quantum dots in conjunction with spectroscopic data show students the additive emission of such mixtures; while some appear to emit white light, their fluorescence peaks remain spectroscopically resolved.
Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Miné G.; Williams, Mary Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1301.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Photochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Quantitative Measurement of Trans-Fats by Infrared Spectroscopy  Edward B. Walker, Don R. Davies, and Mike Campbell
FTIR-ATR spectroscopy provides an efficient analytical tool to measure the percentage of trans-fat in several commercially available lipids and the degree of alkene isomerization induced by brominationdebromination chemical reactions.
Walker, Edward B.; Davies, Don R.; Campbell, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1162.
Alkenes |
Calibration |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lipids |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  Amber Victoria Irish Hess
Thin-layer chromatography enhanced by digital photography is ideal for high school and college labs and can perform qualitative and quantitative analysis comparable to more expensive, high-performance TLC equipment. Using common photo-editing software, one can quickly produce multi-spectral scans, densitograms, and calibration curves, output previously limited to HPTLC.
Hess, Amber Victoria Irish. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 842.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography
A Disciplined Chemical Puzzle  Miguel Peris
A puzzle is presented as an entertaining learning activity for intermediate-level chemistry students. Data required to solve the puzzle is obtained by deducing information from clues based on inorganic and organic chemistry.
Peris, Miguel. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 609.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity  P. K. Chattaraj, U. Sarkar, and D. R. Roy
Electronic structure principles dictate that aromatic molecules are associated with low energy, polarizability, and electrophilicity but high hardness values, while antiaromatic molecules possess the opposite characteristics. These relationships are demonstrated through B3LYP/6-311G** calculations on benzene and cyclobutadiene.
Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 354.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Quantum Chemistry
Polar Addition to C=C Group: Why Is Anti-Markovnikov Hydroboration–Oxidation of Alkenes Not "Anti-"?  Predrag-Peter Ilich, Lucas S. Rickertsen, and Erienne Becker
The authors redefine Markovnikov or anti-Markovnikov regioselectivity and propose that the teaching of organic chemistry should be based on robust and portable concepts such as energy difference and atomic charge rather than historical labels.
Ilich, Predrag-Peter; Rickertsen, Lucas S.; Becker, Erienne. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1681.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Modeling
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Discovery-Learning 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone Experiment  Bruno M. Vittimberga and Ben Ruekberg
Selections of liquid aldehydes and ketones are proposed for students to determine what property is the best predictor of the color (yellow to red) of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative. Students may use a computer (spreadsheet or word processor) to analyze their results.
Vittimberga, Bruno M.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1661.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
3,5-Diarylisoxazoles: Individualized Three-Step Synthesis and Isomer Determination Using 13C NMR or Mass Spectroscopy  Chad E. Stephens and Reem K. Arafa
Describes the three-step synthesis and definitive characterization of a 3,5-diarylisoxazole via the chalcone and chalcone dibromide. The project is individualized with regard to compound purification, characterization, and literature searches as each student prepares a differently substituted chalcone.
Stephens, Chad E.; Arafa, Reem K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1336.
Alkenes |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy
Rapid and Stereoselective Conversion of a trans-Cinnamic Acid to a β-Bromostyrene  Thomas A. Evans
The stereoselective synthesis of an aryl vinyl bromide is accomplished in a rapid microscale reaction of trans-4-methoxycinnamic acid with N-bromosuccinimide in dichloromethane. This guided-inquiry experiment links reactivity, stereochemistry, and mechanism in electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes and in E1 and E2 elimination reactions that form alkenes.
Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1062.
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Gas Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Regiospecific Epoxidation of Carvone: A Discovery-Oriented Experiment for Understanding the Selectivity and Mechanism of Epoxidation Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Y. M. Lai, and Yuk-Hong Siu
Peroxy acids and alkaline H2O2 are two commonly used reagents for alkene epoxidation. The former react preferentially with electron-rich alkenes while the latter works better with a,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The selectivity of these two reagents on carvone, a naturally occurring compound that contains both types of C=C bonds, is investigated.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Lai, Y. M.; Siu, Yuk-Hong. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1058.
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Epoxides |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Stereospecific Synthesis of the Geometrical Isomers of a Natural Product  T. Grove, D. DiLella, and E. Volker
Presents an experiment for the synthesis of (Z) and (E) isomers that is presented to students as a puzzle in which they must determine the identity of the major component in anise oil. A necessary part of the analysis is the preparation the (E) and (Z) isomers of anethole. Molecular modeling is used to explore the conformation of and energy difference between isomers.
Grove, T.; DiLella, D.; Volker, E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1055.
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
A Sequence of Linked Experiments, Suitable for Practical Courses of Inorganic, Organic, Computational Chemistry, and NMR Spectroscopy  Grigoriy A. Sereda
A sequence of investigations associated with the iodochlorination of styrene and 1-hexene is described. The sequence is flexible enough to be used in inorganic, organic, computational, and instrumental courses.
Sereda, Grigoriy A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 931.
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
MO Theory |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Iodolactonization of 4-Pentenoic Acid   R. David Crouch, Alexander Tucker-Schwartz, and Kathryn Barker
Describes an experiment in which 4-pentenoic acid is converted into a lactone via iodolactonization.
Crouch, R. David; Tucker-Schwartz, Alexander; Barker, Kathryn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 921.
Alkenes |
Carboxylic Acids |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Infrared Examination of the Transformation of Barium Sulfate into Barium Carbonate. An Inorganic Infrared Qualitative and Quantitative Experiment  Gene E. Kalbus, Van T. Lieu, and Lee H. Kalbus
This experiment provides an interesting pedagogical exercise that not only demonstrates the value of infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of inorganic systems, but also visually illustrates a procedure used in classical wet chemical qualitative analysis for sample preparation.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 910.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids
Ozonolysis Problems That Promote Student Reasoning  Ray A. Gross Jr.
The structural features inherent in acyclic monoterpenes that follow the isoprene rule often lead to unique sets of ozonolysis products from which their structures, excluding stereochemistry, can be determined from molecular formulas only. This article shows how students may elucidate the structures of these compounds by analysis of the oxidative and reductive workup products.
Gross, Ray A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 604.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Student-Centered Learning
Electrophilic Additions to Alkenes  Thomas M. Bertolini and Phuc D. Tran
A worksheet of 18 reactions is presented as a learning aid to comprehend the regiochemistry and stereochemistry of alkene electrophilic addition.
Bertolini, Thomas M.; Tran, Phuc D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 590.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Reactions
Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Alkynes via the Alkylation of Sodium Acetylides. An Introduction to Synthetic Design for Organic Chemistry Students  Jennifer N. Shepherd and Jason R. Stenzel
Teams of students design a microscale synthesis of an unsymmetrical alkyne using commercially available terminal alkynes and alkyl halides and characterize the resulting products using TLC, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Depending on the chosen reactants, students observe both substitution and elimination products, or in some cases, no reaction at all.
Shepherd, Jennifer N.; Stenzel, Jason R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 425.
Alkylation |
Alkynes |
Elimination Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Grubbs's Cross Metathesis of Eugenol with cis-2-Butene-1,4-diol To Make a Natural Product. An Organometallic Experiment for the Undergraduate Lab   Douglass F. Taber and Kevin J. Frankowski
Describes the ruthenium catalyzed cross metathesis of eugenol with cis-1,4-butenediol. The experiment is an excellent example of the powerful selectivity possible with the Grubbs' catalyst, demonstrating the preference for trans over cis alkene formation and for cross metathesis over homodimerization.
Taber, Douglass F.; Frankowski, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 283.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
Just Click It: Undergraduate Procedures for the Copper(I)-Catalyzed Formation of 1,2,3-Triazoles from Azides and Terminal Acetylenes  William D. Sharpless, Peng Wu, Trond Vidar Hansen, and James G. Lindberg
In keeping with the defining aspects of click chemistry, this reaction is high-yielding, requires no chromatography, is easily monitored by TLC, and displays distinct peaks in both IR and 1H-NMR. Virtually all products precipitate, and with just a few different starting blocks, every student, or pair of lab partners, can produce a unique "clicked" compound.
Sharpless, William D.; Wu, Peng; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Lindberg, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1833.
Catalysis |
Heterocycles |
Alkynes |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests  Craig Anderson
Tests for illegal drugs were performed on unknowns obtained from over-the-counter cold medicines. Substances that tested positive for the qualitative Marquis color test were found to be false positives for illegal substances, while scopolamine hydrochloride shows a false positive for cocaine hydrochloride with the cobalt thiocyanate reagent.
Anderson, Craig. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1809.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis  Brian F. Woodfield, Merritt B. Andrus, Gregory L. Waddoups, Melissa S. Moore, Richard Swan, Rob Allen, Greg Bodily, Tricia Andersen, Jordan Miller, Bryon Simmons, and Richard Stanger
Describes a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. The purpose of these simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments.
Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1728.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Template-Controlled Solid-State Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Tomislav Friscic, Tamara D. Hamilton, Giannis S. Papaefstathiou, and Leonard R. MacGillivray
Describes a laboratory experiment that employs linear hydrogen-bond templates to direct [2 + 2] photodimerization in the solid state. The experiment introduces undergraduates to supramolecular and solid-state chemistry, as well as aspects of green chemistry.
Friscic, Tomislav; Hamilton, Tamara D.; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S.; MacGillivray, Leonard R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1679.
Green Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Materials Science |
NMR Spectroscopy
Preparation, Analysis, and Characterization of Some Transition Metal Complexes—A Holistic Approach  Kristy M. Blyth, Lindsay R. Mullings, David N. Phillips, David Pritchard, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
In this laboratory procedure, a wide range of complexes are characterized by IR and UVvis spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, and conductance. The results allow one to the deduce the nature and strength of the bonding of the ligand to the central atom and the number of ions that the complex produces in aqueous solution.
Blyth, Kristy M.; Mullings, Lindsay R.; Phillips, David N.; Pritchard, David; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1667.
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Conductivity
Diels–Alder Synthesis of endo-cis-N-Phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide  Marsha R. Baar and Kristin Wustholz
endo-cis-N-Phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide was synthesized by a DielsAlder cycloaddition of 1,3-cyclohexadiene and N-phenylmaleimide in ethyl acetate. 1,3-Cyclohexadiene and N-phenylmaleimide were selected to illustrate the Alder rule, which reflects a preference for endo products and to overcome the difficulties associated with the traditional combination of 1,3-cyclopentadiene and maleic anhydride.
Baar, Marsha R.; Wustholz, Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1393.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
NMR Analysis of Unknowns: An Introduction to 2D NMR Spectroscopy  David E. Alonso and Steven E. Warren
Second-year organic chemistry students analyze and compare the spectral data of three unknown ketones (2-heptanone, 3-heptanone, and 4-heptanone). Students acquire one-dimensional proton and carbon NMR data for each unknown and make signal assignments based on chemical shifts, integration values, and splitting patterns of signals. Difficulties are encountered during interpretation of NMR data for 2- and 3-heptanone. Acquiring and analyzing the two-dimensional NMR spectra of the heptanones resolve these problems.
Alonso, David E.; Warren, Steven E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1385.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance  Neil M. Glagovich and Timothy D. Shine
An undergraduate organic laboratory designed to teach the use of IR and NMR spectra interpretation in the identification of an unknown substance has been developed. This laboratory requires the student to obtain the IR spectrum of an unknown substance and, from the interpretation of that spectrum, determine which of several possible functional groups is present in the molecule. Using this information and either the melting point or boiling point of the unknown, the student is able to determine a list of likely candidates (usually between eight and twelve suspects collated from a supplied table of possible compounds). The student will then draw the structures for all candidate compounds and, from those structures, predict the 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra for each.
Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1382.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solids |
Liquids
Cis and Trans Isomers of Cycloalkenes  Susan E. Barrows and Thomas H. Eberlein
The purpose of this article is to provide that analysis. In order for a cycloalkene to accommodate a trans double bond one or more of the following nonideal geometries must occur: a twisted p bond; pyramidal sp2-carbon atoms; nonideal sp3 bond angles; or longer than normal CC single and double bonds. This article provides a list of experimentally determined relative energies of the cis and trans isomers within the series cycloheptenecycloundecene, along with computationally derived energies at several levels of theory. It also examines the geometric distortions through which cycloalkenes relieve the strain introduced by a trans double bond.
Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1334.
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers
Understanding Rotation about a C=C Double Bond  Susan E. Barrows and Thomas H. Eberlein
We present a simple method of introducing the concept of a flexible C=C pi bond into beginning organic chemistry courses. We report the energetic demands of partial twisting about the C=C bond in 2-butene as calculated using DFT, LMP2, and MCSCF methods. Finally, using the results of these calculations, we assessed the degree of strain introduced by the twisted nature of the C=C bond in trans cycloalkenes.
Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1329.
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes
The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene   Judith C. Amburgey-Peters and LeRoy W. Haynes
We investigated the reaction of (Z)-1,2-diphenylethene (cis-stilbene) with various brominating reagents and solvents following directions in standard organic chemistry manuals. We were particularly interested in learning which combination of brominating reagent and solvent gave the best yield of (d,l)-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane without the formation of significant amounts of meso-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane, which is essentially the sole product from the reaction of bromine with (E)-1,2-diphenylethene (trans-stilbene). Based on the results from the standard preparatory methods, some permutations of solvent and brominating reagent were tried.
Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1051.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Realizing Workplace Skills in Instrumental Analysis  John H. Kalivas
Undergraduates entering the workforce often lack key technical skills. This paper describes an approach to teaching an instrumental analysis laboratory that assists students in attaining expertise needed for the work place. The course provides experiences with life-long benefits by developing good laboratory practices in concert with protocols common to commercial and research laboratories.
Kalivas, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 895.
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Screening Technique for Lead and Cadmium in Toys and Other Materials Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy  Henry Brouwer
This article describes a simple method to determine the presence of metals such as lead and cadmium in plastic toys, paints, and other solids using an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) without going through the time-consuming sample preparation steps. Basically, the method involves transferring solid sample to a nichrome wire by placing a small sample on a wire loop or touching the heated wire to the sample and then heating the wire in the AAS flame. By choosing the appropriate radiation source and wavelength, the presence of different metals may be determined qualitatively.
Brouwer, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 611.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
The Evolution of a Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment: Greener Brominations of Stilbene  Lallie C. McKenzie, Lauren M. Huffman, and James E. Hutchison
We describe two new greener alkene bromination reactions that offer enhanced laboratory safety and convey important green chemistry concepts, in addition to illustrating the chemistry of alkenes. The two alternative reactions, one involving pyridinium tribromide and a second using hydrogen peroxide and hydrobromic acid, are compared to the traditional bromination of stilbene through the application of green metrics, including atom economy, percent experimental atom economy, E factor, and effective mass yield.
McKenzie, Lallie C.; Huffman, Lauren M.; Hutchison, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 306.
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Qualitative Organic Analysis—In the Classroom and Laboratory  K. Thomas Finley
The identification of molecular structure remains central to the study of chemistry and the search for new and useful materials. The classical methods of qualitative organic analysis provide opportunities to illustrate the fascinating world of science to a broad audience of students at different levels of study. Specific examples of the use of this subject matter with high school students, organic chemistry students, and nonscience students are given.
Finley, K. Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 240.
Qualitative Analysis |
Nonmajor Courses
A Substitute for “Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride”  Joshua M. Daley and Robert G. Landolt
Benzotrifluoride (BTF) is a suitable solvent substitute for carbon tetrachloride in experiments requiring application of bromine (Br2) in free radical or addition reactions with organic substrates. A 1 M solution of Br2 in BTF may be used to distinguish hydrocarbons based on the ease of abstraction of hydrogen atoms in thermally or light-induced free radical substitutions. Efficacy of minimization of solvent use, by aliquot addition to neat samples, has been established.
Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 120.
Alkenes |
Free Radicals |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions
The Sharpless Asymmetric Dihydroxylation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  Christopher J. Nichols and Melissa R. Taylor
A six-period laboratory exercise has been developed that uses the convenient Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD) to illustrate the principles of a chiral synthesis. Using one particular alkene, students perform a racemic dihydroxylation, an AD using a commercially available AD-mix, and then an AD using an ester derivative of dihydroquinidine that they synthesized themselves. The structures of the products are confirmed with 1H NMR spectroscopy and the enantiomeric excesses of the diols are determined using a chiral GC column.
Nichols, Christopher J.; Taylor, Melissa R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 105.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions
Cis and Trans Isomerization in Cyclic Alkenes: A Topic for Discovery Using the Results of Molecular Modeling  Susan E. Barrows and Thomas H. Eberlein
This article describes an activity in which students are led to discover the fundamental reasons behind the unusual instability of the trans isomers in medium-sized cycloalkenes by using the results of molecular modeling. Notably, students will make the unexpected discovery that twisting about p bonds is perhaps more facile than they had been led to believe.
Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1529.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Sam H. Leung and Stephen A. Angel
In this experiment (E)- and (Z)-1-(4-bromophenyl)-2-phenylethene are synthesized by a solvent-free Wittig reaction. The reaction is effected by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle. Both the E and Z isomers of the product are produced as evidenced by thin-layer chromatography and 1H NMR analysis. The E isomer is isolated by crystallization with ethanol in this experiment. In addition to learning about the Wittig reaction, students are also introduced to the ideas of mechanochemistry and green chemistry.
Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1492.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes
Regioselective Synthesis of a Stereodefined Heterocyclic Push–Pull Alkene. 1H NMR Studies and Two-Dimensional TLC Illustrating Z/E Isomerization  Rade Markovi, Marija Baranac, Vesna Jovanovi, and Zdravko Dambaski
Facile and direct regioselective synthesis of the 4-oxothiazolidine derivative from inexpensive chemicals as an example of kinetic versus thermodynamic control is described.
Markovi, Rade; Baranac, Marija; Jovanovi, Vesna; Dambaski, Zdravko. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1026.
Heterocycles |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy
Pressure Dependence of Gas-Phase Reaction Rates  Stéphanie de Persis, Alain Dollet, and Francis Teyssandier
This article is intended to show that only simple concepts are required to qualitatively explain and describe the pressure dependence of gas-phase reaction rates.
de Persis, Stéphanie; Dollet, Alain; Teyssandier, Francis. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 832.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: Autopsy in Blue  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
This story is a chemical mystery with an emphasis on qualitative inorganic analysis, forensic chemistry, and medicinal substances. This is the 15th article in a series presenting a scientific problem in mystery format in the context of the popular and beloved characters Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 497.
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Patty L. Feist
Students are given a mixture of a solid ketone and a solid alcohol and asked to separate and identify the two components. First the students use TLC to determine the optimum solvent system to separate the two compounds, then they separate the unknowns on a microscale flash chromatography column. The students acquire the melting point, and if possible, the IR and 1H NMR spectra for each separated compound and identify them by matching the observed data with that of known compounds.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 109.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The Study of Elimination Reactions Using Gas Chromatography: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Devin Latimer
This article describes an investigation of elimination reactions of alkyl halides. 1-Bromopentane or 2-bromopentane are reacted with either sodium ethoxide or potassium tert-butoxide. Gas chromatography is used to monitor the relative amounts of 1-pentene, (E)-2-pentene, and (Z)-2-pentene produced.
Latimer, Devin. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1183.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Synthesis |
Gas Chromatography |
Elimination Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood  Benjamin P. Huddle and Joseph C. Stephens
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbon monoxide in blood using the Conway diffusion method.
Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 441.
Gases |
Toxicology |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Basic Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy ( J. Michael Hollas)  Brian K. Taylor
Covers the concepts of quantitative and qualitative spectroscopy without significant mathematical detail.
Taylor, Brian K. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 389.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A Qualitative Investigation of Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Macroscopic Interpretations of the Submicroscopic Structures of Molecules  Gayle Nicoll
Study of how undergraduate chemistry students (freshman through senior) translate between symbolic and submicroscopic representations of molecules by building free-form models, given the symbolic formula for the molecules, and whether these conceptions change with increased chemistry instruction.
Nicoll, Gayle. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 205.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Qualitative Analysis
Identifying a Protein by MALDI–TOF Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory  Anne E. Counterman, Matthew S. Thompson, and David E. Clemmer
Experiment that requires students to use mass spectral data (MALDI-TOF) to find the identity of an unknown protein sample by performing a database search on the Internet.
Counterman, Anne E.; Thompson, Matthew S.; Clemmer, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 177.
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
Micelle-Mediated Extraction of Heavy Metals from Environmental Samples: An Environmental Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Dimosthenis L. Giokas, Evangelos K. Paleologos, and Miltiades I. Karayannis
A laboratory focussing on the determination of metallic elements in drinking water through cloud-point extraction.
Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Karayannis, Miltiades I. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 61.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Analysis of Seawater: A Laboratory-Centered Learning Project in General Chemistry  Jodye I. Selco, Julian L. Roberts, Jr., and Daniel B. Wacks
Experiment designed to introduce students to qualitative and quantitative analysis methods (gravimetric analysis, potentiometric titration, ion-selective electrodes, and atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy) in the context of an overall analysis of an environmental sample.
Selco, Jodye I.; Roberts, Julian L., Jr.; Wacks, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 54.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Potentiometry
1H NMR Measurement of the Trans–Cis Photoisomerization of Cinnamic Acid Derivatives  Basil Danylec and Magdy N. Iskander
Procedure that illustrates trans-cis photoisomerization.
Danylec, Basil; Iskander, Magdy N. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1000.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Application of Datalogger in Biosensing: A Glucose Biosensor  Martin M. F. Choi and Pui Shan Wong
Using an eggshell as a platform for the immobilization of glucose oxidase while determining glucose concentration through the depletion of oxygen as measured by an oxygen sensor and datalogger.
Choi, Martin M. F.; Wong, Pui Shan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 982.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Synthesis and Characterization of a Gasoline Oxygenate, Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether  Craig J. Donahue, Teresa D'Amico, and Jennifer A. Exline
Procedure for the synthesis and characterization of ethyl tert-butyl ether.
Donahue, Craig J.; D'Amico, Teresa; Exline, Jennifer A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 724.
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Ethers |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Colorful Azulene and Its Equally Colorful Derivatives  Robert S. H. Liu
Analysis of azulene and related compounds for an explanation of their respective colors.
Liu, Robert S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 183.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes
Identification of Flavor Components in Perfumes by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  Gerd Knupp, Peter Kusch, and Michael Neugebauer
Experiment for the identification of flavor components in commercial perfume through headspace-solid-phase extraction (HS-SPME) followed by GC-MS.
Knupp, Gerd; Kusch, Peter; Neugebauer, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 98.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry
Effect of Anisotropy on the Chemical Shift of Vinyl Protons in trans- and cis-1,2-Dibenzoylethylenes. A Small-Group or Recitation Activity  Roosevelt Shaw, David Roane, and Sean Nedd
Procedure to help students explain chemical shift differences for vinyl protons in alkene diastereomers.
Shaw, Roosevelt; Roane, David; Nedd, Sean. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 67.
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Leopold's Workbench: The Hapsburg-Lorraine Grand Duke and Chemistry  Gianfranco Scorrano, Nicoletta Nicolini, and Ida M. Masoner
Analysis of the contents of containers preserved in unlabeled glass bottles within the desk of Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1765-1790), and consideration of their potential use.
Scorrano, Gianfranco; Nicolini, Nicoletta; Masoner, Ida M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 47.
Qualitative Analysis
Preparation of a D-Glucose-Derived Alkene. An E2 Reaction for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Peter Norris and Andrew Fluxe
Synthesis of four carbohydrate derivatives that highlight techniques such as inert atmosphere work, rotary evaporators, and flash column chromatography.
Norris, Peter; Fluxe, Andrew. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1676.
Carbohydrates |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Elimination Reactions |
Chromatography
Raman Spectroscopy with a Fiber-Optic Probe and Multichannel Detection  Thomas J. Vickers, Jeanne Pecha, and Charles K. Mann
Exercise emphasizing instrumental methods of chemical analysis of solids and liquids relying on Raman spectroscopy.
Vickers, Thomas J.; Pecha, Jeanne; Mann, Charles K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1674.
Instrumental Methods |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Cigarette Smoke Analysis Using an Inexpensive Gas-Phase IR Cell  N. Garizi, A. Macias, T. Furch, R. Fan, P. Wagenknecht, and K. A. Singmaster
A PVC gas cell used to collect and analyze cigarette smoke and car exhaust through IR spectroscopy.
Garizi, N.; Macias, A.; Furch, T.; Fan, R.; Wagenknecht, P.; Singmaster, K. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1665.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis
Relating Qualitative Analysis to Equilibrium Principles  Glenn V. Lo
Mathcad document intended for a prelab activity for qualitative analysis experiments.
Lo, Glenn V. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1557.
Qualitative Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Precipitation / Solubility
Using Capillary Electrophoresis to Determine the Purity of Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Frank Welder and Christa L. Colyer
Determination of the concentration of synthesized acetylsalicylic acid and unreacted salicylic acid using capillary electrophoresis.
Welder, Frank; Colyer, Christa L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1525.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
An Alternative Confirmatory Test for Silver Ion in Qualitative Analysis  Louis J. Kirschenbaum, Elmo Resende, Edwin Li, and Ben Ruekberg
Confirmatory test for silver ion that reduces volume and toxicity of waste involved by using ascorbic acid.
Kirschenbaum, Louis J.; Resende, Elmo; Li, Edwin; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1524.
Qualitative Analysis
Analysis of Zinc Tablets: An Extension to a Stoichiometry Experiment  Steven Murov and Brian Stedjee
Titration of ferrocyanide solutions with zinc ion.
Murov, Steven; Stedjee, Brian. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1389.
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Synthesis and Analysis of a Solvatochromic Dye, 1-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-2-nitroethylene. An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Dana L. Richter-Egger, Aaron Tesfai, Spencer J. Flamm, and Sheryl A. Tucker
Synthesis and analysis of 1-(p-dimethylaminophenyl)-2-nitroethylene.
Richter-Egger, Dana L.; Tesfai, Aaron; Flamm, Spencer J.; Tucker, Sheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1375.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes
Moving Past Markovnikov's Rule  E. Eugene Gooch
Extension of the Markovnikov Rule for addition reactions across a carbon-carbon double bond.
Gooch, E. Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1358.
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Looking beyond the endo Rule in a Diels-Alder Discovery Lab  Ronald M. Jarret, Jamie New, Rebecca Hurley, and Laura Gillooly
Procedure to introduce preference for generation of the endo product and the stereochemistry of alkene addition of the Diels-Alder reaction.
Jarret, Ronald M.; New, Jamie; Hurley, Rebecca; Gillooly, Laura. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1262.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Alkenes
A Modification of a Lactase Experiment by Use of Commercial Test Strips  Tammy J. Melton
Using urinalysis test strips to detect the presence of glucose.
Melton, Tammy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1243.
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Nonmajor Courses |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Was the Driver Drunk? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Determination of Blood Alcohol Content  Jennifer L. Zabzdyr and Sheri J. Lillard
Forensic-based experiment to motivate correct analytical procedures and careful interpretation of data by using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.
Zabzdyr, Jennifer L.; Lillard, Sheri J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1225.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography
The TCICA Test for Distinguishing Aldehydes and Ketones  Gene A. Hiegel, Christine Juska, and Michelle Kim
Distinguishing aldehydes from ketones through their reaction with TCICA (trichloroisocyanuric acid).
Hiegel, Gene A.; Juska, Christine; Kim, Michelle. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1105.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Distinguishing Calcium Carbonate from Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate by Instrumental Methods. A Set of Laboratory Experiments for Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  Eugenio Garribba, Giovanni Micera, Liliana Strinna-Erre, and Giovanna Stara
Distinguishing calcium carbonate from calcium sulfate dihydrate through chemical analysis, thermal analysis and decomposition, IR spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy, and EDXRF spectroscopy.
Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Strinna-Erre, Liliana; Stara, Giovanna. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1090.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thermal Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
A More Realistic Teaching Style in Spectroscopic Instruction  Mar Gómez Gallego, Santiago Romano, Miguel A. Sierra, and Enrique Nieto
A practical application of spectroscopic analysis in intermediate and advanced organic chemistry to determine reaction mechanisms and identify products; provides three specific problems.
Gallego, Mar Gómez; Romano, Santiago; Sierra, Miguel A.; Nieto, Enrique. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 765.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Learning Theories |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Surfactant-Induced Osazone Formation at Room Temperature  K. Nagajyothi, P. S. Raghavan, and R. Gopalan
Using surfactants for speedy and easy identification of reducing sugars without heating.
Nagajyothi, K.; Raghavan, P. S.; Gopalan, R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 728.
Catalysis |
Micelles |
Surface Science |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis
From GC to the NMR: A Simple Semipreparative Gas Chromatography Collection Method Using NMR Tubes  Andrew R. Bressette
Semipreparative gas chromatography is an excellent technique for isolating small amounts of volatile compounds from mixtures. A new, inexpensive semipreparative GC collection tube was developed utilizing a standard 5-mm NMR tube to collect the purified samples.
Bressette, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 366.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Sampling Technique for Organic Solids in IR Spectroscopy: Thin Solid Films as the Method of Choice in Teaching Laboratories  Patty L. Feist
Techniques for sampling solid organic compounds for FTIR spectroscopy are briefly compared and contrasted. One method, called thin solid films, stands out as the method of choice in undergraduate laboratories because they are easy and inexpensive to prepare; the spectra obtained are of good to excellent quality.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 351.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Qualitative Analysis
Undergraduate Science and Engineering Students' Understanding of the Reliability of Chemical Data  Bette Davidowitz, Fred Lubben, and Marissa Rollnick
This study investigates the status of procedural knowledge of sophomore science and chemical engineering students in South Africa. Procedural knowledge includes collection, manipulation, and interpretation of experimental data. Some implications for teaching are given.
Davidowitz, Bette; Lubben, Fred; Rollnick, Marissa. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 247.
Qualitative Analysis |
Learning Theories
Determination of Flavonoids in Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  Celeste da Queija, M. A. Queirós, and Ligia M. Rodrigues
An application of HPLC to the analysis of flavonoids in wines, designed for students of instrumental methods. This laboratory work is very attractive to students because they deal with a common daily product whose components are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects.
da Queija, Celeste; Queirós, M. A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 236.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 5. Stereochemistry of E2 Elimination: Elimination of cis- and trans-2-Methylcyclohexyl Tosylate  Marcus E. Cabay, Brad J. Ettlie, Adam J. Tuite, Kurt A. Welday, and Ram S. Mohan
A discovery-oriented lab that illustrates the stereochemistry of the E2 elimination reaction and is a good exercise in 1H NMR spectroscopy. The added element of discovery insures that student interest and enthusiasm are retained.
Cabay, Marcus E.; Ettlie, Brad J.; Tuite, Adam J.; Welday, Kurt A.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 79.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Elimination Reactions |
Reactions |
Alkenes
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 4. Epoxidation of p-Methoxy-trans-b-methylstyrene: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for Sophomore Organic Laboratories  Rebecca S. Centko and Ram S. Mohan
Illustrates epoxidation of alkenes as well as the reactivity of epoxides toward acids. The experiment involves reaction of p-methoxy-trans-beta-methylstyrene (trans-anethole) with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (MCPBA), in both the absence and presence of a buffer, followed by product identification using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and IR spectroscopy
Centko, Rebecca S.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 77.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Epoxides |
Alkenes
A Novel Experiment for Fast and Simple Determination of the Oxygen Content in the Air  Metodija Najdoski and Vladimir M. Petrusevski
The reaction between nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen is used for determination of the oxygen content in the air. The nitrogen dioxide thus produced is dissolved in water. The volume decrease of the gas enables quick and accurate enough determination of the O2 content. The results of 20 measurements give %O2 = 21.04  0.63.
Najdoski, Metodija; Petrusevski, Vladimir M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1447.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry
INQUAL-S  Victor I. Bendall and Sean Johnson
INQUAL-S is a simulation of inorganic qualitative analysis using the insolubility of sulfides as the main avenue to separation. This simulation allows for the identification of eighteen common cations in a mixture of their nitrates.
Bendall, Victor I.; Johnson, S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 936.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Preparation and Analysis of Multiple Hydrates of Simple Salts  Richard W. Schaeffer, Benny Chan, Shireen R. Marshall, Brian Blasiole, Neetha Khan, Kendra L. Yoder, Melissa E. Trainer, and Claude H. Yoder
A laboratory project in which students prepare a series of hydrates of simple salts and then determine the extent of hydration of the product(s); provides a good introduction to the concepts of solubility, saturation, recrystallization, relative compound stability, and simple gravimetric analysis.
Schaeffer, Richard W.; Chan, Benny; Marshall, Shireen R.; Blasiole, Brian; Khan, Neetha; Yoder, Kendra L.; Trainer, Melissa E.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 509.
Stoichiometry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Organic Chemistry in Capillaries  Bharat G. Mahamulkar, Dilip D. Dhavale, and Shriniwas L. Kelkar
Capillaries are put to several uses such as checking the solubility, detecting a functional group, and performing reactions. These innovative uses of open-ended capillaries reduce the consumption of chemicals, solvents, and reagents and considerably lessen the time required to perform all these functions.
Mahamulkar, Bharat G.; Dhavale, Dilip D.; Kelkar, Shriniwas L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 387.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Antacids Revisited with Modern Chemical Instruments: GCMS, AAS, and CCT  Stanley L. Burden and Christopher J. Petzold
This paper describes a novel experiment that requires students to obtain and interpret data from several analytical techniques to identify the brand name of a commercial antacid. They are required to design a set of experiments utilizing computer controlled titrations (CCT), atomic absorption (AA), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS), and careful quantitative manual titrations using a visual indicator of their choice to determine the brand name of their sample from a list of six to eight choices.
Burden, Stanley L.; Petzold, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1544.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Piltdown Man: Combining the Instruction of Scientific Ethics and Qualitative Analysis  John B. Vincent
Pieces of chalk are treated with chromium, manganese, and iron to simulate the treatment used to forge the Piltdown "fossils"; students can use techniques in qualitative analysis schemes for the group III ions to determine whether the samples are "forgeries" and if so which metal ion(s) were used.
Vincent, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1501.
Ethics |
Qualitative Analysis
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiocyanate in Human Saliva  Markku Lahti*, Juhani Vilpo, and Jari Hovinen
Here is described how qualitative and quantitative analysis of human saliva thiocyanate ion can be performed as a part of the laboratory exercise for the determination of chemical equilibrium between Fe+3 and SCN- ions.
Lahti, Markku; Vilpo, Juhani; Hovinen, Jari. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1281.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A Fast and Reliable Method for Packing Capillaries for X-ray Powder Diffraction Analysis  Walter K. Dean and Brett J. MacIntyre
This note presents an improved method for filling capillary tubes for X-ray powder crystallographic analysis, which avoids the tedium and breakage associated with traditional methods.
Dean, Walter K.; MacIntyre, Brett J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1245.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
X-ray Crystallography
Qualitative Analysis in the Beginning Organic Laboratory  James H. Cooley and Richard Vaughan Williams
We present arguments for the continued inclusion of qualitative analysis in the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum. We have developed a problem-solving approach to the teaching of these laboratory courses.
Cooley, James H.; Williams, Richard Vaughan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1117.
Learning Theories |
Qualitative Analysis
The Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds, 7th Edition (by R. L. Shriner, C. K. F. Hermann, T. C. Morrill, D. Y. Curtin, and R. C. Fuson)  David Evans
Qualitative organic chemistry text.
Evans, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1069.
Qualitative Analysis
Service-Learning General Chemistry: Lead Paint Analyses  Laya Kesner and Edward M. Eyring
In a service-learning general chemistry class, students disseminate information about this health threat in an older neighborhood. At some of the homes they collect paint samples that they analyze for lead both qualitatively and quantitatively. This service-learning experience generates enthusiasm for general chemistry through the process of working on a "real" problem.
Kesner, Laya; Eyring, Edward M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 920.
Toxicology |
Applications of Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Preparation and Identification of Benzoic Acids and Benzamides: An Organic "Unknown" Lab  Douglass F. Taber, Jade D. Nelson, and John P. Northrop
The reaction of an unknown substituted benzene derivative with oxalyl chloride and aluminum chloride gives the acid chloride. Hydrolysis of the acid chloride gives the acid, and reaction of the acid with concentrated aqueous ammonia gives the benzamide. The equivalent weight of the acid can be determined by titration; given this information and the melting points of the acid and the benzamide, it is possible to deduce the structure of the initial unknown.
Taber, Douglass F.; Nelson, Jade D.; Northrop, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 828.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
A Puzzling Alcohol Dehydration Reaction Solved by GC–MS Analysis  Michael W. Pelter and Rebecca M. Macudzinski
The reaction of 2-methyl-2-propanol with ~50% sulfuric acid at 100 C yields isobutylene, which reacts further by a "puzzling" reaction. By coupling the GC/MS analysis of the product mixture with their knowledge of the mechanism of alcohol dehydration and alkene reactivity, students are able to identify the major products of this reaction.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 826.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Alcohols |
Alkenes
Chemical Waste Management for the Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator  Steven W. Zimmer
For schools that generate relatively small quantities of waste, an individual can effectively manage the waste program without becoming overly burdened by the EPA regulations required for those generating large quantities of waste, if given the necessary support from the institution.
Zimmer, Steven W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 808.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Teaching Statistical Methods  Muranaka, Ken
Problems with Dixon's Q-test for testing outlying observations.
Muranaka, Ken J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 469.
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis
Is It Real Gold?  Harold H. Harris
The oxidation-reduction couples involved in the corrosion of gold alloys and the dissolution of "noble" metals are related to an inquiry to the newspaper columnist, Ann Landers. the origin of several contemporary phrases (touch stone, acid test, Hallmark) are found in the chemistry of gold.
Harris, Harold H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 198.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Functional Group Analysis  Johannes S. Malherbe and Cornelius J. Meyer
Initial questions where all results and observations of the chemical tests relating to the selected functional groups are systematically tabulated help to develop a methodical approach to analyzing problems. The tabulated comparisons can facilitate the student's approach to the classical questions, preventing random attempts with no regard for a process of elimination (if applicable).
Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 56.
Nonmajor Courses |
Qualitative Analysis |
Learning Theories
Chromatography, Absorption, and Fluorescence: A New Instrumental Analysis Experiment on the Measurement of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cigarette Smoke  Lisa M. Wingen, Jason C. Low, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
An experiment suitable for an undergraduate junior/senior-level instrumental analysis laboratory which illustrates the principles of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its application to the identification and measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tobacco smoke.
Wingen, Lisa M.; Low, Jason C.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1599.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Photodimerization of Maleic Anhydride  Zhang, Zhijun
Why the photodimerization of maleic anhydride produces the cis, tans, cis product.
Zhang, Zhijun J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1515.
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkenes
Lead Globules  Francisco J. Arnáiz and Maria R. Pedrosa
Reaction of plumbate solutions with aluminum. A variety of lead films can be formed depending on the conditions. The method we describe permits obtaining a large lead globule in less than 1 minute.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Pedrosa, Maria R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1431.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Infrared Spectroscopy Determination of Lead Binding to Ethylenediaminotetraacetic Acid  Alanah Fitch and Simona Dragan
In an attempt to improve a thematic lab sequence based on lead analysis of community derived samples, we have considered infrared spectroscopy as a method of determining the lead bound to ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid (EDTA).
Fitch, Alanah; Dragan, Simona. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1018.
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds
S. M. Tanatar and His Contribution to the Field of Thermal Rearrangements  Ludmila Birladeanu
Thermal rearrangements constitute an important chapter in organic chemistry. Surprisingly, the name of its discoverer remains unknown. The present article is meant to remedy this situation by describing some of the work of the 19th century Russian chemist S. M. Tanatar (1849 - 1917) who, based on the thermochemical data provided by Berthelot, envisaged the possibility of transforming cyclopropane into propene under the influence of heat alone.
Birladeanu, Ludmila. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 603.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Synthesis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes
A History of the Double-Bond Rule  Bernard E. Hoogenboom
From his experience as an industrial chemist, Otto Schmidt recognized the bond weakening in hydrocarbons and in 1932 postulated the "Double-Bond Rule," stating that the presence of a double bond in a hydrocarbon has an alternating strengthening and weakening effect on single bonds throughout the molecule, diminishing with distance from the double bond.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 596.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 484.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Dyes / Pigments
Incorporating Organic Name Reactions and Minimizing Qualitative Analysis in an Unknown Identification Experiment  Claire Castro and William Karney
The authors have developed a new type of unknown identification experiment for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. The unknown sample the student is provided with is the product of an organic name reaction. The student is only informed of the starting material and conditions used in the compound's synthesis, and must then: (1) deduce the compound's structure, (2) determine the name reaction and corresponding mechanism that yields the compound, and (3) present his/her results to the class.
Claire Castro and William Karney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 472.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Complexometric Titrations: Competition of Complexing Agents in the Determination of Water Hardness with EDTA  M. Cecilia Yappert and Donald B. DuPre
The competition of complexing agents for the same metal ion and the formation of colored metal-ion complexes is demonstrated with the use of an overhead projector. This demonstration can be used to emphasize both the relevance of the relative values of formation constants in the complexation of metal cations and the applicability of complexometric titrations in quantitative chemical analysis.
Yappert, M. Cecilia; DuPre, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1422.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals
On the Disproportionations of Cyclohexene and Related Compounds  Alex Bunjes, Ingo Eilks, Manfred Pahlke, and Bernd Ralle*
The catalytic hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons is easy to realize in a simple laboratory experiment using a palladium catalyst. In the case of hydrogenation cyclohexen or cyclohexadiene in addition to the expected finding of cyclohexane among the hydrogenation products, the formation of benzene can be observed. In absence of hydrogen, the disproportionation of both starting materials to cyclohexane and benzene takes place.
Bunjes, Alex; Eilks, Ingo; Pahlke, Manfred; Ralle, Bernd. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1323.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Synthesis
A Mini-Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis Session  Johannes S. Malherbe and Cornelius J. Meyer
A qualitative analysis scheme for a limited selection of carbohydrates (i.e. some mono- and disaccharides) using a flowchart approach. Procedures, for the preparation of all reagents, the tests and a brief description of the results are detailed.
Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1304.
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Nonmajor Courses
Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils  Judith F. Rubinson and Jennifer Neyer-Hilvert

Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1106.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Reduction of Chlorinated Dibenzodioxin and Dibenzofuran Formation in the Beilstein Test  Theodore D. Goldfarb and Sabine G. Fontana
In this paper we describe the results of studies designed to increase the safety of the Beilstein test by minimizing the production of these toxins. Simple adjustments in Bunsen burner temperature and the length of time the copper test loop is exposed to the flame were found to be ineffective.
Goldfarb, Theodore D.; Fontana, Sabine G. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 838.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds
Old MacDonald Named a Compound: Branched Enynenynols  Dennis Ryan
An imaginary teacher of organic chemistry thinks up some whimsical compounds for his students to name using IUPAC nomenclature rules.
Ryan, Dennis. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 782.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A -78°C Sequential Michael Addition for the Organic Lab  Michael W. Tanis
This paper introduces a cold-temperature enolate alkylation reaction that can be performed safely and inexpensively by undergraduate students in approximately two 3-hour lab sessions.
Tanis, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 112.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Preparation and Solution Polymerization of Diacetylenes  Bruce A. Hathaway and Angela M. Scates
Most published student laboratory syntheses of symmetrical diacetylenes follow Hay's procedure, with some modifications for using air as a source of oxygen. We report a simpler procedure, which has been useful in preparing a variety of diacetylenes. In addition, we have developed conditions suitable for solution polymerization of these diacetylenes to PDA's, using short-wave UV light.
Hathaway, Bruce A.; Scates, Angela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 111.
Synthesis |
Alkenes
The Use of PTFE Membranes for the Construction of Semimicroscale Gas Reactors  Schallies, Michale; Schnelle, Hans-Otto; Kunze, Klaus
The membranes are employed to separate reaction compartments, where gas-evolving reactions take place, from solutions of reagents needed for qualitative or quantitative determinations of the gases. The PTFE membranes allow free flow of gases while they prevent the passage of water.
Schallies, Michale; Schnelle, Hans-Otto; Kunze, Klaus J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A128.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Further Comments upon the Electrophilic Addition to Alkynes: A Response to Criticism from Professor Thomas T.Tidwell  Hilton M. Weiss
This paper responds to the preceding article by Professor T. Tidwell in which he provides arguments for vinyl cations being an intermediate in most electrophilic additions to alkynes.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1082.
Addition Reactions |
Alkynes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Electrophilic Addition to Alkynes Revisited  Thomas T. Tidwell
A recent claim that vinyl cations are not the predominant intermediates in the electrophilic addition to alkynes is disputed.
Tidwell, Thomas T. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1081.
Addition Reactions |
Alkynes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Playing with the Soccer Ball-an Experimental Introduction to Fullerene Chemistry  Achim Hildebrand, Uwe Hilgers, Rudiger Blume, Dagmar Wiechoczek,
For the first time a selection of simple experiments with C60 on high-school and university level are presented: the bromination with Winkler's solution, hydroxylation with an alkaline permanganate solution, cycloadditions of dichlorcarbene and cyclopentadiene and the formation of a molecular complex with o-dimethoxybenzene.
Hildebrand, Achim; Hilgers, Uwe; Blume, Rudiger; Wiechoczek, Dagmar. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1066.
Alkenes
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
A Demonstration of Crystal-Field Effects in Octahedral Complexes  Edward Koubek and Mark Elert
The simple demonstration described here can perhaps enhance the presentation of crystal field splitting and magnetic properties in octahedral complexes.
Koubek, Edward; Elert, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 947.
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Magnetic Properties |
Coordination Compounds
Home-Study Microlabs  Dietmar Kennepohl
This article presents the use of microscaled chemistry experiments for individual home study and how it can be incorporated into a course with traditional laboratory work.
Kennepohl, Dietmar. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 938.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
A New Photochemistry Experiment, A Simple 2+2 Photocycloaddition that Poses an Interesting NMR Problem   John T. Magner, Matthias Selke, Arlene A. Russell, Orville L. Chapman
The cycloaddition of -nitrostyrene to 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene provides an extremely clean example of 2 + 2 cycloaddition. This laboratory exercise combines theory, technique, spectroscopy, and data interpretation.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 854.
Photochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
The Use of a "Qual" Centrifuge for Greatly Simplifying and Speeding the Study of Milk  Quentin R. Petersen
Laboratory study of the constituents of milk is almost always slowed by difficult separation of relatively large amounts of curd and whey by filtration. In the two-and-one-half hour experiment described, only 5 mL of skim milk is used and the curd is separated from the whey by using a simple "qual" centrifuge.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 848.
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis
Determination of Free-Energy Relationships Using Gas Chromatography  Nicholas H. Snow
By performing a few straightforward analyses on a gas chromatograph, it is possible to calculate the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes that occur when a compound transfers between the mobile and stationary phases.
Snow, Nicholas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 592.
Gas Chromatography |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Qualitative Analysis
GC-MS and GC-FTIR Characterization of Products: From Classical Freshman and Sophomore Syntheses  D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo
The GC separation of ferrocene, acetylferrocene, and diacetylferrocene is accomplished in less than ten minutes. In addition to the operation of the instrument, the students are introduced to the interpretation of mass spectra and library aided spectral identification.
D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A Pedagogical Approach to Qualitative Organic Analysis: Simulating the Integration of Wet Tests, Spectroscopy, and Common Sense  Adrian J. Blackman
185. Students, by using a computer simulation, are able to discover and rehearse the strategy of identifying an organic unknown in a situation free from the additional uncertainties of performing unfamiliar laboratory work and then relying on the results.
Blackman, Adrian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 434.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Relative Stabilities and Reactivities of Isolated Versus Conjugated Alkenes: Reconciliation Via a Molecular Orbital Approach  Chariklia Sotiriou-Leventis, Samir B. Hanna, and Nicholas Leventis
The well-accepted practice of generating a pair of molecular orbitals, one of lower energy and another of higher energy than the original pair of overlapping atomic orbitals, and the concept of a particle in a one-dimensional box are implemented in a simplified, nonmathematical method that explains the relative stabilities and reactivities of alkenes with conjugated versus isolated double bonds.
Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Hanna, Samir B.; Leventis, Nicholas. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 295.
Alkenes |
MO Theory
Methylene-bis-amide (MBA) Derivatives for Characterization of Nitriles  Edgar F. Kiefer and Kenn M. Takauye
Nitriles (RCN) react with formaldehyde in 80% H2SO4 to form solid derivatives (RCONH)2CH2 useful for characterization. Melting points are tabulated for derivatives of 18 common nitriles.
Kiefer, Edgar F.; Takauye, Kenn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 190.
Qualitative Analysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Olefin Metathesis Polymerization: The Unexpected Role of Carbenoid Species in Formation of Macromolecules  Donald M. Snyder
One particularly interesting topic still rarely seen outside of the research literature is the subject of metathesis polymerization. This article is intended to present the interested reader with a brief introduction to the mechanism of this unique process, its historical background, and some recent developments in the field.
Snyder, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 155.
Polymerization |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Capillary Gas Chromatography Injection: An Exercise for Students of Instrumental Analysis  Philip J. Marriot and Peter D. Carpenter
A laboratory exercise is described which illustrates the operation of a split/splitless capillary gas chromatography injection system.
Marriott, Philip J.; Carpenter, Peter D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 96.
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M.
Efficient and simple microscale preparation of 3,5-dinitrobenzoates.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A164.
Synthesis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management |
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Richard F. Smith and Gaetano M. Cristalli
A laboratory to introduce the concept and technique of mass spectroscopy to introductory organic students; sample data and analysis included.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A160.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Organic Qualitative Analysis at the Microscale Level  Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K.
Project requiring students to identify pure unknowns and the components of mixtures using a variety of chromatography and spectrometry techniques.
Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A102.
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Nitroalkenes: Conjugate Nitro Compounds (Perekalin, V. V.; Lipina, E. S.; Berestovitskaya, V. M.; Efremov, D. A.)  
Monograph.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A93.
Alkenes
Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Students Use Printed and Electronic Handbooks to Identify Unknowns  Grace Baysinger
Synopsis of a program allowing sophomore organic students to supplement their laboratory work with extensive citations to support their observations; includes a summary of all reference materials used, a bibliography of relevant texts, printed and electronic references, and results of a student survey.
Baysinger, Grace. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1107.
Qualitative Analysis
Thin-Layer Chromatography of Analgesics--An Update  John W. Elder
Procedure for identifying ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, acetominaphen, aspirin, and caffeine on commercial chromatography sheets containing a fluorescent indicator.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1049.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds
Diastereospecific Synthesis of an Epoxide: An Introductory Experiment in Organic Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry  James A. Ciaccio
A two-step epoxide synthesis that can be presented to students in the form of two mechanistic "puzzles" that probe the stereoselectivity of two important reactions: halohydrin formation from alkenes and epoxide formation via intramolecular Williamson ether synthesis.
Ciaccio, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1037.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Epoxides |
Alkenes
Using Copper sulfate as a Classification Test for Amino Acids and Amines  Christine K. F. Hermann
Using copper sulfate to test for amino acids and amines that do not dissolve well in water.
Hermann, Christine K. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 940.
Amino Acids |
Laboratory Management |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography to Determine the C60:C70 Ratio in Fullerene Soot: An Undergraduate Chemistry Lab  Michael C. Zumwalt and M. Bonner Denton
Apparatus for producing fullerene soot and procedure for determining its C60-C70 ratio.
Zumwalt, Michael C.; Denton, M. Bonner. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 939.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Main-Group Elements |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Alkenes |
HPLC |
Quantitative Analysis
Paper Models for Fullerenes C60-C84   John M. Beaton
Photocopyable patterns to construct C60-C84.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 863.
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkenes
The Addition of Hydrogen Bromide to Simple Alkenes  Hilton M. Weiss
Synthesis of 1-bromohexane.
Weiss, Hilton M. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 848.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes
An Alternative Methodology for General Chemistry Laboratories: Chemical Equivalent of a Metal  Carlos M. Bonatti, José L. Zurita, and Horácio N. Sólimo
Procedure in which students are asked to identify an unknown metal that can react with mineral acids to evolve hydrogen where the students are required to obtain bibliographic information and decide on some aspects of the experimental work.
Bonatti, Carlos M.; Zurita, Jose L.; Sclimo, Horacio N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 834.
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis
A Laboratory Experiment Illustrating the Properties and Bioavailability of Iron  Kimbrough, Doris R.; Martinez, Noelia; Stolfus, Stephanie
A qualitative laboratory experiment to illustrate the properties and behavior of iron and its complexes to the absorption and bioavailability of iron in human systems.
Kimbrough, Doris R.; Martinez, Noelia; Stolfus, Stephanie J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 558.
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis
A Compromise Method for Dispensing Some Strong Acids for Qualitative Analysis Classes.  Ruekberg, Ben.
Apparatus and procedure for dispensing strong acids to students.
Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 450.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The Identification of Aspirin-Free Bayer Products: An Alternative to the Classical TLC of Analgesics (1)  Cawley, John J.
Procedure for identifying several non-aspirin analgesics using using thin layer chromatography and an ultraviolet lamp.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 272.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative and Instrumental Analysis of Environmentally Significant Elements (Chasteen, Thomas G.)  Bath, Donald
A supplementary lab text.
Bath, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A261.
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
A Microscale Purification and Qualitative Spectroscopic Examination of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene): An Experiment Suitable for Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Courses  Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D.
A simple and inexpensive purification procedure for isolating C60.
Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A141.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Hydrochlorination of (R)-Carvone  Miles, William H.; Nutaitis, Charles F.; Berreth, Christina L.
This paper describes the hydrochlorination of (R)-carvone that illustrates the concepts of regioselectivity and chemoselectivity.
Miles, William H.; Nutaitis, Charles F.; Berreth, Christina L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1097.
Laboratory Management |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A Mini-Qualitative Organic Analysis Session  Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J.
The article describes a tested mini-scheme that works for selected unknowns and allows an instructor to introduce non-major students to a variety of functional group tests in a single laboratory session.
Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1088.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nonmajor Courses
A Simple and Safe Catalytic Hydrogenation of 4-Vinylbenzoic Acid  De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G.
An alternative procedure to catalytic hydrogenation is catalytic transfer hydrogenation. In this technique, the reduction of an organic compound is achieved with the aid of a donor substance in the presence of a catalyst.
De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 992.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
A Qualitative Experiment for Organic Chemistry Lab  Hermann, Christine K. F.
This experiment was introduced near the end of second semester. The students were told that the unknowns were either an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, an amine, an aldehyde, or a ketone. The identifications were based on melting points or boiling points, the IR and NMR spectra, and a set of four classification tests.
Hermann, Christine K. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 991.
Qualitative Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
An Advanced Inorganic Laboratory Experiment Using Synthesis and Reactivity of a Cycloheptatriene Molybdenum Complex  Timmers, Francis J.; Wacholtz, William F.
The reactions in the laboratory experiment described herein involve the synthesis, reactivity, and characterization of cycloheptatriene molybdenum.
Timmers, Francis J.; Wacholtz, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 987.
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
Alkenes
The Hydration of 1-Hexene and 1-Hexyne  Touchette, Kim M.; Weiss, Hilton M.; Rozenberg, Daniel
The sulfuric acid-catalyzed hydration of 1-hexene and 1-hexyne.
Touchette, Kim M.; Weiss, Hilton M.; Rozenberg, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 534.
Alkynes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Catalysis |
Synthesis
The Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol Revisited: The Evelyn Effect  Todd, David
Modification to an earlier procedure that allows students to observe the results of a hydride shift mechanism.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 440.
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes |
Elimination Reactions
A Kinetic Experiment To Determine Traces of Iron(lll) and Iron(ll): Using the "Pyrrole Blue" Reaction  Lampard, M.
The semi-quantitative determination of traces of iron(II) and iron(III) over a practical range of 1-10 micrograms.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 352.
Kinetics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Dyes / Pigments
A Safe and Easy Classroom Demonstration of the Generation of Acetylene Gas  Cox, Marilyn Blagg
Reacting calcium carbide with water to generate ethyne.
Cox, Marilyn Blagg J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 253.
Alkynes |
Reactions
Microscale qualitative organic analysis   Goller, Edwin J.; Miller, John H.
Students gain critical thinking skills in an organic chemistry course by selecting their own chemical tests.
Goller, Edwin J.; Miller, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A159.
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab
GC/MS experiments for the organic chemistry laboratory: I. E2 elimination of 2-bromo-2-methyloctane   Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie; Martin, Kristy A.; Green, John; Lytle, Scott
Two capillary GC/MS experiments that were designed for and tested in a sophomore organic laboratory course.
Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie; Martin, Kristy A.; Green, John; Lytle, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A103.
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols |
Elimination Reactions |
Synthesis
The electrophilic addition to alkynes  Weiss, Hilton M.
Electrophilic additions to alkynes traditionally do not receive as much attention in organic textbooks as electrophilic addition to alkenes.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 873.
Addition Reactions |
Alkynes
A fast, easy-to-run and safe ene reaction between benzyne and [beta]-pinene  Drouin, Jacques; Jacq, Philippe
A fast, easy-to-run and safe ene reaction between benzyne and [beta]-pinene.
Drouin, Jacques; Jacq, Philippe J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 863.
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkynes |
Reactions
How to make the N-bottle problem more rigorous  Ryan, Dennis P.; Strothkamp, Ronald E.
Suggestions include: use more bottles, include cations from more groups, require balanced net ionic equations, require a formal report, and more.
Ryan, Dennis P.; Strothkamp, Ronald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 850.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Hydrochlorination of 1-propynylbenzene on alumina: A demonstration of kinetic and thermodynamic control using HCl produced in situ and molecular modeling  Pienta, Norbert J.; Crawford, Scott D.; Kropp, Paul J.
A hydrochlorination experiment that provides sufficient latitude in choice of conditions.
Pienta, Norbert J.; Crawford, Scott D.; Kropp, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 682.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkynes |
Alkenes |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab
Identifying polymers through combustion and density   Blumberg, Avrom A.
Using analytical chemistry class experiences as a way to not only quantitatively and qualitatively analyze substances, but also to gain practical experience with characteristic chemical reactions of those substances.
Blumberg, Avrom A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 399.
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Polymerization |
Quantitative Analysis
Example of the Wolff-Kishner reduction procedure suitable for an undergraduate organic lab experiment: Preparation of oxindole  Soriano, David S.
Example of the Wolff-Kishner reduction procedure suitable for an undergraduate organic lab experiment.
Soriano, David S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 332.
Alkenes
Whether organic qual will wither?   Zieger, Herman E.
Author argues the important pedagogic purposes of organic qualitative analysis.
Zieger, Herman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 230.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Detection of Common Chlorinated Pesticides in Water by Gas Chromatography  Neuzil, E. F.; Stone, D. J.
This experiment is easy and is met with student interest near the end of a full-year laboratory as an example of micro- analysis used in a qualitative and somewhat quantitative determination.
Neuzil, E. F.; Stone, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 167.
Gas Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Microscale elimination reactions: Experiments for organic chemistry using the small scale approach  Gilow, Helmuth M.
Procedure illustrating E1 and E2 reactions.
Gilow, Helmuth M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A265.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Elimination Reactions |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Catalysis
Quantitative analysis by FTIR: Thin films of copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate.  Mathias, Lon J.; Hankins, Marie G.; Bertolucci, Craig M.; Grubb, Tina L.; Muthiah, Jeno.
Quantitation of coploymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate using FTIR.
Mathias, Lon J.; Hankins, Marie G.; Bertolucci, Craig M.; Grubb, Tina L.; Muthiah, Jeno. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A217.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Quantitative Analysis |
Alkenes |
Carboxylic Acids
The chemical adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The case of the screaming stepfather  Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 999.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Qualitative Analysis |
Toxicology
An hydrogen sulfide free analytical technique for cation analysis: The statistical approach  Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez
In this analysis the study of each cation was carried out independently without taking into account the other cations present in the solutions.
Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 934.
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
New recrystallization solvent for synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene  Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
Toluene/hexane shown to be superior to EtOAc/MeOH as recrystallization solvent.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 860.
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
Benzene isomers? (the author replies)  Potgieter, J. H.
Additional isomers of benzene.
Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 859.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers
Benzene isomers?  Reinecke, Manfred G.
Additional isomers of benzene.
Reinecke, Manfred G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 859.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Alkenes
Cautionary note regarding the phenol color test by ferric chloride in acidic solution  Hasegawa, Tadashi; Usui, Toyokazu
Effect of acids on the phenol color test by ferric chloride.
Hasegawa, Tadashi; Usui, Toyokazu J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 840.
Phenols |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
C60 and C70 made simply.  Craig, Norman C.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Johnson, Adam R.
Procedure and apparatus for synthesizing C60 and C70.
Craig, Norman C.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Johnson, Adam R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 664.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Synthesis |
Alkenes
Simple generation of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene).  Iacoe, David A.; Potter, William T.; Teeters, Dale.
A simple means for the production of fullerene-enhanced graphitic soot using equipment commonly found in most undergraduate chemistry and physics laboratories.
Iacoe, David A.; Potter, William T.; Teeters, Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 663.
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Alkenes
Keeping the "un" in unknowns in qualitative identification exercises using FTIR.  Chauvin, Judy V.; Field, Jack E.
Using hexachloro-1,3-butadiene as the diluent for FTIR unknowns.
Chauvin, Judy V.; Field, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 661.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Qualitative Analysis
An introduction to fullerene structures: Geometry and symmetry.  Boo, W. O. J.
The formidable task of organizing the fullerenes can be simplified greatly by categorizing them by their symmetries.
Boo, W. O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 605.
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
The synthesis of E-beta-bromostyrene: An experiment illustrating the use of IR bending modes to distinguish E and Z isomers and the concept of kinetic and thermodynamic controlled reactions.  Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R.
An experiment illustrating the concept of thermodynamic and kinetically controlled reactions to produce E and Z isomers (respectively); the use of IR to distinguish E and Z isomers; and the different properties of E and Z isomers (only the E isomer has a pleasant odor).
Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 588.
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Schiff base puzzle project.  Todd, David.
Students pick an unknown substituted aniline and a substituted benzaldehyde, produces the corresponding Schiff base from them, and compares its melting point to those of 25 possible Schiff bases (their structures and melting points being given).
Todd, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 584.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
A source of isomer-drawing assignments  Kjonaas, Richard A.
A comprehensive source from which instructors can choose a wide variety of good isomer drawing examples to use as homework assignments and exam questions.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 452.
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Esters |
Alkynes
W(h)ither organic qual?   Zubrick, J. W.
If our students have already learned the times table, what is the point of denying the use of calculators.
Zubrick, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 387.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
An introduction to NMR titration for studying rapid reversible complexation  Macomber, Roger S.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrospcopy is one of the most useful techniques available to chemists for the investigation of dynamic molecular processes.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 375.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Ethylene-An unusual plant hormone  Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.; Wallace, Anna L.
This article discusses some of the early historical observations about this ethylene, the production and concentration of ethylene in plants, the ethylene biosynthesis pathway, and the possible site of ethylene action.
Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.; Wallace, Anna L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 315.
Alkenes |
Plant Chemistry |
Biosynthesis
The addition of hydrogen bromide to unsymmetrical alkenes   Weiss, Hilton M.
The original article was valuable in pointing out the utility of HBr in acetic acid for the addition of HBr to alkenes.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 172.
Alkenes
Higher order cycloaddition reactions of adamantyl isobenzofulvene and isobenzofuran: A microscale synthesis illustrating the involvement of highly reactive intermediates and a simple FMO treatment of their cycloaddition periselectivities  Russell, Richard A.; Longmore, Robert W.; Warrener, Ronald N.
The authors have developed an undergraduate laboratory experiment to illustrate a cycloaddition reaction using a simple mathematical approach.
Russell, Richard A.; Longmore, Robert W.; Warrener, Ronald N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 164.
Microscale Lab |
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
MO Theory
Addition of IBr to fatty acids on the overhead projector   Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria; Kulp, Gary; Yu, Heung
The interhalogen compound IBr dissolved in CCl4 is added to petroleum ether solutions of fatty acids to test for unsaturation.
Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria; Kulp, Gary; Yu, Heung J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 66.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes
The Wittig synthesis of alkenes by phase-transfer catalysis: The syntheses of 4,4'-dichlorostilbenes and of E, E-1,4 -diphenylbutadiene   Breuer, Stephen W.
The syntheses of 4,4'-dichlorostilbenes and of E, E-1,4 -diphenylbutadiene.
Breuer, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A58.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds
Textile fiber identification: An organic-polymer laboratory  Flachskam, Robert L., Jr.; Flachskam, Nancy W.
A laboratory that introduces student to an important application of polymers-textile fibers.
Flachskam, Robert L., Jr.; Flachskam, Nancy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1044.
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties |
Materials Science
A quick and effective demonstration of anti-Markovnikov addition to alkenes  Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Hitchcock, Ian
This reaction can be performed in less then 10 minutes and the product is easily identifiable.
Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Hitchcock, Ian J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 785.
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions
A study of the Lucas test  Kjonaas, Richard A.; Riedford, Bernie A.
These authors performed the Lucas test on a number of alcohols and discuss the problems associated with the Lucas test's detection of secondary alcohols.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Riedford, Bernie A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 704.
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
Hydroboration-oxidation of (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene to isopinocampheol: A microscale experiment that displays regio- and stereochemistry using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations  Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes is an important route to alcohols and therefore receives considerable treatment in standard organic textbooks. These authors present their findings of an example (an alkene that undergoes the hydroboration oxidation process) that displays both regiochemistry and stereochemistry.
Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 693.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols
Transition metal complexes with 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane: A laboratory experiment in coordination chemistry  Grant, Gregory J.; Mauldin, Penny L.; Setzer, William N.
A laboratory experiment in coordination chemistry that deals with the synthesis of four transition metal complexes containing a crown thioether ligand.
Grant, Gregory J.; Mauldin, Penny L.; Setzer, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 605.
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Decarboxylative elimination of 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid to E or Z 1-bromo-2-phenylethylene (Beta-Bromostyrene): An experiment illustrating solvent effect on the stereochemical course of a reaction  Mestdagh, Helene; Puechberty, Anne
An experiment illustrating solvent effect on the stereochemical course of a reaction.
Mestdagh, Helene; Puechberty, Anne J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 515.
Elimination Reactions |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
An internal comparison of the intermolecular forces of common organic functional groups: A thin-layer chromatography experiment  Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W.
Due to the latest trends in organic chemistry textbook content sequences, it has become desirable to develop an experiment that is rapid, simple, and general, that would compare and contrast the various functional group classes of organic molecules in terms of their relative polarities, dipole moments, and intermolecular forces of attraction.
Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 428.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene Diels-Alder adduct: An organic chemistry experiment utilizing NMR spectroscopy to assign endo stereochemistry  Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
An organic chemistry experiment utilizing NMR spectroscopy to assign endo stereochemistry via synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene Diels-Alder adduct.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 426.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Preparation and characterization of two nickel(II) complexes: An inorganic chemistry experiment  Eagle, Cassandra T.; Walmsley, Frank
An inorganic chemistry experiment developed on coordination compounds that provides an opportunity to piece together several sets of data to determine significant information about the structures of compounds.
Eagle, Cassandra T.; Walmsley, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 336.
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Magnetic Properties |
Coordination Compounds
The diverse nature of the C6H6 molecule  Potgeiter, J. H.
The purpose of this discussion is to show that C6H6 describes more than just one kind of benzene.
Potgeiter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 280.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Reactions |
Constitutional Isomers
A convenient synthesis of 3,4-pentadien-1-ol from 3-butyn-1-ol: Spectral analysis and unusual durability of the allene moiety  Price, William A.; Patten, Timothy E.
Description of a convenient synthesis of 3,4-pentadien-1-ol from 3-butyn-1-ol: Spectral analysis and unusual durability of the allene moiety.
Price, William A.; Patten, Timothy E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 256.
Synthesis |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy
The synthesis of 2'-bromostyrene  Corvari, Linda; McKee, James R.; Zanger, Murray
Organic chemistry laboratories need not be the repositories of foul smells. This synthesis produces an aroma akin to hyacinth.
Corvari, Linda; McKee, James R.; Zanger, Murray J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 161.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Alkenes
Organic Nomenclature (Lampman, Gary)  Damey, Richard F.
An interactive tutorial / drill for naming organic compounds.
Damey, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A220.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols
Color reactions and thin-layer chromatography of amino acids: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment for students in the allied health sciences  Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith
Students identify unknowns by determining Rf's and applying color reagents to the chromatograms.
Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 978.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
An operationally simple hydroboration-oxidation experiment  Kabalka, George W.; Wadgaonkar, Prakash P.; Chatla, Narayana
The reactions involve the use of in situ generated diborane as the hydroborating reagent and sodium perborate as the oxidizing agent to convert cyclopentene to cyclopentanol.
Kabalka, George W.; Wadgaonkar, Prakash P.; Chatla, Narayana J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 975.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes |
Alcohols
Identification of unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography in combination  Levine, Samuel G.
Identification from among 12 unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 972.
Physical Properties |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis of alloys by electrography  Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Rodriguez, Alvaro Mombru
Electrolytes and color reagents used for the identification of 25 metallic ions.
Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Rodriguez, Alvaro Mombru J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 706.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Keeping track of directions of atomic orbitals: A useful device in organic chemistry  Talaty, Erach R.
The usefulness of keeping track of the directions of atomic orbitals.
Talaty, Erach R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 655.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
A kinetic experiment for determination of traces of Cu2+  Lampard, M.
Adaptation of a spot technique used to identify trace amounts of cupric ion by its catalytic effect of the ferric ion / thiosulfate reaction.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 601.
Qualitative Analysis |
Catalysis |
Kinetics
The stereochemistry of additions to trans-anethole  McGahey, Lawrence
Trans-anethole is brominated with pyridinium bromide perbromide in dichloromethane.
McGahey, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 554.
Addition Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
The addition of hydrogen bromide to unsymmetrical alkenes: Introductory experiments in NMR spectroscopy and mechanistic chemistry  Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Ellis, Robert
As an introduction to NMR the authors center their work around the addition of hydrogen bromide to unsymmetrical alkenes and use the coupling patterns in the proton NMR spectra to establish whether the addition product is consistent with the Markovnikov rule.
Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Ellis, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 518.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Qualitative amino acid analysis of small peptides by GC/MS  Mabbott, Gary A.
Besides being appealing to students the exercise described here gives them experiences in derivation methods that are often necessary in order to make nonvolatile samples amenable to gas chromatography separation.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 441.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Hydroboration for the large organic laboratory  Pickering, Miles
This paper reports an experiment in hydroboration without large hood space requirements, without special glassware requirements, and without inert atmospheric precautions.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 436.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
The palladium-catalyzed oxidation of 2-vinylnaphthalene: A microscale organic synthesis experiment   Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R.
The Wacker oxidation experiment as described is cost-efficient due to the small scale employed, and is a valuable addition to the undergraduate organic curriculum.
Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 340.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Alkynes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Thioacetamide in qualitative analysis   Lumme, Paavo O.
The author points out that alternative schemes for qualitative inorganic analysis have been developed, in which neither hydrogen sulfide nor thioacetamide are needed.
Lumme, Paavo O. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 184.
Qualitative Analysis
The preparation of Indanthrene Scarlet GG: A vat dye experiment for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory  Lutz, Wilson B.
The vat dye Indanthrene Scarlet GG can easily be synthesized and applied to cloth within a single two hour laboratory period.
Lutz, Wilson B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 71.
Synthesis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Alkenes
An easy and low-cost technique for the qualitative analysis of silicates  Vitale, Daniel
This technique has proved easier for students to perform, analytical results have improved, and this technique has greater sensitivity than the previous one.
Vitale, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 64.
Qualitative Analysis
An inexpensive Schoninger flask  Sowa, John R.
Design and application of an inexpensive Schoninger flask.
Sowa, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 974.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis
A Diels-Alder reaction for the overhead projector  Kolb, Kenneth E.
Reacting the strong dienophile tetracyanothylene with anthracene as the diene.
Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 955.
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A suggestion for a beginning organic chemistry laboratory  Sowa, John R.
A miniexperiment in qualitative analysis for early in the first-year organic laboratory to give students a greater appreciation for the introduction to functional groups received in the lecture.
Sowa, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 938.
Qualitative Analysis
A valence isomer trapping procedure for introductory organic laboratory: Synthesis of a homobarrelene derivative  Kurtz, David W.; Johnson, Richard P.
Norcaradiene is trapped out of its cycloheptatriene valence isomer in a Diels-Alder reaction with maleic anhydride.
Kurtz, David W.; Johnson, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 873.
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Suggestions for the modification of assessment procedures in analytical chemistry courses: The statistical approach  Luaces, Victor Martinez; Gaggero, Fernando Labandera
Determines by means of statistical techniques whether samples of unknown composition provided to students for identification as part of a test of practical ability and theoretical comprehension present significant differences in their degree of difficulty.
Luaces, Victor Martinez; Gaggero, Fernando Labandera J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 843.
Qualitative Analysis
Isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate: An undergraduate experiment utilizing high performance liquid chromatography  Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M.
Introduces students to liquid chromatography, the stereoisomerization of alkenes, certain aspects of free radical chemistry, and thermodynamics.
Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 781.
HPLC |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Esters |
Stereochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Thermodynamics
The catalytic hydrogenation of methyl oleate by in situ hydrogen generation  Plummer, Ben
Modification of the catalytic hydrogenation of methyl oleate into methyl stearate.
Plummer, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 518.
Catalysis |
Alkenes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Qualitative analysis and the binomial expansion  McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C.
How many all-different solutions can be prepared from a limited number of ions or compounds when preparing qualitative unknown mixtures?
McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 490.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
The interconversion of cis and trans isomers  McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B.
Trans-alkene oxides are converted to cis-alkenes on treatment with tributylphosphine, yet this reaction does not appear in most organic textbooks.
McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 486.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Qualitative versus quantitative results: An experimental introduction to data interpretation  Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula
This paper describes an experiment in which the student can ascertain the meaning of a negative result from a quantitative test on the same sample.
Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 440.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates
Evaluation of EMIT as a qualitative screening test for marijuana use  Rehnstrom, Amy L.; Briner, Robert C.; Frazier, Christina L.
The Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT) can be used to detect qualitatively the presence of a particular substance in urine, serum, or plasma. In the crime laboratory, it is used to screen for drugs associated with illegal use.
Rehnstrom, Amy L.; Briner, Robert C.; Frazier, Christina L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 346.
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Plant Chemistry
A series of synthetic organic experiments demonstrating physical organic principles  Sayed, Yousry; Ahlmark, Chris A.; Martin, Ned H.
The sequence of reactions described here incorporates several common synthetic organic transformations involving alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, and ketones that demonstrate some important principles of physical organic chemistry.
Sayed, Yousry; Ahlmark, Chris A.; Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 174.
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
Trifluoroacetylation of unknown alcohols: An integrated microscale organic experiment using spectroscopic methods  Piers, Kenneth; Hsung, Richard
The authors have found that trifluoroacetylation of unknown alcohols is a fast, clean, easily performed microscale experiment that integrates a number of aspects of laboratory work, viz. synthesis, isolation, characterization, spectroscopic measurement, and interpretation, and unknown identification.
Piers, Kenneth; Hsung, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 90.
Alcohols |
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Markownikoff's rule: What did he say and when did he say it?  Tierney, John
The author traces the origin of this important rule.
Tierney, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1053.
Alkenes |
Synthesis
Organic lecture demonstrations  Silversmith, Ernest F.
Organic chemistry may not be known for its spectacular, attention getting chemical reactions. Nevertheless, this author describes a few organic chemistry reactions that put points across and generate interest. This article provides a convenient sources of demonstrations and urges others to add to the collection. Demonstrations concerning: carbohydrates, spectroscopy, proteins, amines, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and much more.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 70.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Mnemonic for Z and E nomenclature  Thomas, C. W.
A visual reminder that makes it unnecessary to memorize the German terms.
Thomas, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 44.
Diastereomers |
Alkenes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Qualitative Chemical Analysis (Harris, Daniel C.)  Wolsey, Wayne C.
Analytical chemistry text.
Wolsey, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A156.
Qualitative Analysis
Analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R.
Separating and identifying the amino acids found in aspartame.
Conklin, Alfred R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1065.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A problem involving organic qualitative analysis  Silvert, D. J.
Five different organic compounds are to be identified from the result of three simple qualitative tests on each unknown (dichromate, DNPH, and iodoform tests).
Silvert, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 971.
Qualitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A very brief, rapid, simple, and unified method for estimating carbon-13 NMR chemical shifts: The BS method  Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C.
The "BS" method is so brief and simple that students can memorize and use it to interpret 13C NMR spectra with ease.
Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 915.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Instrumental Methods
Preparation of cyclopentadiene from its dimer  Dickson, Ronald S.; Dobney, Bruce J.; Eastwood, Frank W.
Procedure for preparing cyclopentadiene from its dimer.
Dickson, Ronald S.; Dobney, Bruce J.; Eastwood, Frank W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 898.
Alkenes |
Synthesis
Generation of cyclopentadiene  Ruekberg, Benjamin P.
Procedure and apparatus for generating cyclopentadiene.
Ruekberg, Benjamin P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 726.
Alkenes |
Synthesis
Improved performance in qualitative analysis from incorporating some microscale techniques into a traditional organic laboratory program  Hammond, Christina Noring; Tremelling, Michael J.
Three synthesis experiments in second semester organic that introduce students to microscale techniques in qualitative analysis.
Hammond, Christina Noring; Tremelling, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 440.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis
A safe, convenient method of generating bromine for qualitative analysis  Slayden, Suzauee W.; Do, Thuy H.; Smiley, Kimberly Y.; Nelson, Donna J.
A safe, convenient method of generating bromine used as a qualitative test for unsaturation, active methylene groups, phenols, and amines.
Slayden, Suzauee W.; Do, Thuy H.; Smiley, Kimberly Y.; Nelson, Donna J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 368.
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes |
Phenols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
Concerning dehydration of 2-methycyclohexanol  Feigenbaum, A.
One half of class dehydrates 2-methycyclohexanol, the other half dehydrates 1-methycyclohexanol; gas chromatography retention times are then compared for the two product mixtures.
Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 273.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography
Addition of iodine to alkenes: A pseudo-first-, second-, or third-order kinetics experiment  Field, Kurt W.; Wilder, Deborah; Utz, Arthur; Kolb, Kenneth E.
A simple, inexpensive, class-tested experiment for determining the kinetics of iodine addition to various alkenes in several solvents.
Field, Kurt W.; Wilder, Deborah; Utz, Arthur; Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 269.
Alkenes |
Kinetics
Computer program for allocation of organic qualitative analysis unknowns  Pontius, Ann L.; Kurz, Michael E.
81. Bits and pieces, 33. A computer program written in IBM BASICA to generate a random group of unknowns for each student.
Pontius, Ann L.; Kurz, Michael E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 239.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Tollens's test, fulminating silver, and silver fulminate  Jenkins, Ian D.
Preparation, application, and misinformation regarding Tollens's test for aldehydes and reducing sugars.
Jenkins, Ian D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 164.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Voltammetric monitoring of Br- and Br3- concentrations during the bromination of styrene by Br3-: A laboratory experiment  Desbene Monvernay, Annie; Berthelot, Jacques; Desbene, Paul-Louis
Electrochemical titration of Br- and Br3- and voltammetric monitoring of styrene bromination by TBEBr3.
Desbene Monvernay, Annie; Berthelot, Jacques; Desbene, Paul-Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 86.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Alkenes |
Reactions
Synthesis and evaluation of the sex pheromone of the bagworm moth  Schwarz, Meyer; Klun, J. A.
Several possible student-oriented experiments at different educational levels can look into the interesting chemistry involved in a naturally occurring optically active pheromone.
Schwarz, Meyer; Klun, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1014.
Undergraduate Research |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Comparison of chemical oxidation of alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols on the overhead projector  Kolb, Kenneth E.
This overhead projector demonstration utilizes two classical oxidants, permanganates and dichromate, to distinguish between alkanes, alkenes, and primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols.
Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 977.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis
Microscale organic laboratory: IV: A simple and rapid procedure for carrying out Wittig reactions  Pike, R. M.; Mayo, D. W.; Butcher, D. W.; Butcher, S. S.; Hinkle, R. J.
This paper offers two examples that illustrate a new synthetic method. This synthesis is the first feasible preparation of a particular group available for the introductory organic laboratory.
Pike, R. M.; Mayo, D. W.; Butcher, D. W.; Butcher, S. S.; Hinkle, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 917.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Alkenes |
Alcohols
Characterization of the unusual product from the reaction between cobalt (II) chloride, ethane-1,2-diamine, and hydrochloric acid: An undergraduate project involving an unknown metal complex   Curtis, Neil F.; Hay, Robert W.; House, Donald A.; Searle, Graeme B.
The authors describe an "unknown metal" experiment involving the product from the reaction between cobalt (II) chloride, ethane 1,2 diamine (en) and concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Curtis, Neil F.; Hay, Robert W.; House, Donald A.; Searle, Graeme B. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 899.
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
A quick test for the highly colored ions of the aluminum-nickel group  Grenda, Stanley C.
This paper intends to present a technique that eliminates errors in the analysis of the nickel subgroup cations.
Grenda, Stanley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 720.
Qualitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds
Extended logic problems in qualitative analysis   Feldman, Martin R.
An interesting variation of a qualitative analysis problem is one that involves nonchemical as well as chemical data. Such problems are ideal for a take-home situation.
Feldman, Martin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 606.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Number of oxidations relative to methylene: A convenient method of recognizing and quantifying organic oxidation-reduction  Kjonaas, Richard A.
This paper describes the use of a type of molecular oxidation number called "Number of oxidations relative to methylene".
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 311.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes
Rapid identification of thermoplastic polymers  Cloutier, Helene; Prud'homme, Robert E.
Procedures for the identification of unknown polymer samples, particularly through their solubilities in organic solvents.
Cloutier, Helene; Prud'homme, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 815.
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Microscale group test for carbonyl compounds  Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X.
Rf values for separating various carbonyl compounds using thin layer chromatography.
Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 806.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
The NBS reaction: A simple explanation for the predominance of allylic substitution over olefin addition by bromine at low concentrations  Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.
What factors govern the reaction of Br2 with an alkene to give either allylic substitution or double bond addition?
Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 650.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Alkenes
Use of laboratory-supplied natural gas in breakthrough phenomena  Eiceman, G. A.; Davani, B.; Gardea-Torresdey , J.
Discussion of breakthrough phenomenon and an experiment to identify the organic compounds present in natural gas through gas chromatography.
Eiceman, G. A.; Davani, B.; Gardea-Torresdey , J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 614.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Lead in hair and in red wine by potentiometric stripping analysis: The university students' design  Josephsen, Jens
Determining the lead content of hair and red wine using potentiometric stripping analysis.
Josephsen, Jens J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 532.
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Undergraduate Research
Using a computer database - An "experiment" for the organic and forensic laboratories  Umland, Jean B.
From the infrared spectrum of an unknown compound, students use an Infrared Search System to get a list of possible compounds.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 500.
Forensic Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of chromium in presence of iron and manganese  Werner, Wolfgang
Procedure for the detection of chromium in the presence of iron and manganese.
Werner, Wolfgang J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 349.
Qualitative Analysis
Acid rain analysis by standard addition titration  Ophardt, Charles E.
A simple standard addition titration method for determining the acidity of a rain or snow sample.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 257.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
A short set of 13C-NMR correlation tables  Brown, D. W.
The object of these tables is to enable a student to calculate rapidly approximate d values for 13C nuclei in as wide a variety of compounds as possible.
Brown, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 209.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
Qualitative analysis of some transition metals  Kilner, Cary
Students are asked to determine which test or or sequence of tests unambiguously identifies each of several cations (iron, nickel, cobalt, and copper) and to use their results to identify several unknowns.
Kilner, Cary J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 80.
Qualitative Analysis |
Transition Elements |
Metals
The subjection of glutaraldehyde to the Fehling test and to the corrected Benedict test  Hill, William D., Jr.
The molecular and ionic redox equations with respect to the Fehling and Benedict tests (corrected with respect to glutaraldehyde).
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1085.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Quantitative analysis of a mixture by NMR spectroscopy  Wallace, Tim
Adding a measured quantity of an inert, easily removed reference compound with a simple NMR signal that does not overlap with the mixture's signal can provide the basis for an instructive experiment.
Wallace, Tim J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1074.
Qualitative Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Qualitative identification of potassium ions using didymium glasses  Wood, William F.
Students using the didymium glasses of glass blowers have no trouble determining the presence or absence of potassium in flame tests when their unknown contains sodium.
Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1024.
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A practical experiment for determining a pervasive, persistent pollutant  Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A.
Spectral identification by means of infrareds spectroscopy of the PCBs recovered from a TLC plate is enhanced due to the concentrating effect of a commercial sample-recovery system.
Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 738.
IR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Commercial organic products and the organic identification course  Goeckner, Norbert A.
Examples of commercial organic products that have been assigned as unknowns.
Goeckner, Norbert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 680.
Consumer Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Identification of copper(II) complexes in aqueous solution by electron spin resonance: An undergraduate coordination chemistry experiment  Micera, G.; Deiana, S.; Erre, L.; Piu, P.; Panzanelli, A.
Experiment for studying complex species formed by Cu2+ and 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate ions in aqueous solution through ESR spectroscopy.
Micera, G.; Deiana, S.; Erre, L.; Piu, P.; Panzanelli, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 646.
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy
Who is anti-Markovnikov?  Tedder, J. M.
What are the factors that control the rate and orientation of free radical addition to alkenes?
Tedder, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 237.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes
The evaluation of strain and stabilization in molecules using isodesmic reactions  Fuchs, Richard
The stabilities of cyclic hydrocarbons are analyzed using isodesmic and metathetical isodesmic reactions.
Fuchs, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 133.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds
Analysis of alcohols  McCullough, Brother Thomas
Identifying unknown alcohols using boiling point and viscosity measurements.
McCullough, Brother Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 68.
Alcohols |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis by gas chromatography: GC versus the nose in formulating artificial fruit flavors  Rasmussen, P. W.
Using GC retention indexes for the identification of the volatile compounds responsible for the odor of the banana.
Rasmussen, P. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 62.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Qualitative determination of nitrate with triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride  Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.
Since the reliability of the standard test for nitrate (adding ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid) is questionable, a new qualitative scheme using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride is described.
Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 60.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis, with periodicity, for "real" solutions  Rich, Ronald L.
The Bromide Scheme proposed begins with the solvent extraction of a group of bromo-complexes from a highly acidic solution, with several major and minor advantages.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 53.
Qualitative Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Oil shale - Heir to the petroleum kingdom   Schachter, Y.
A discussion of oil shale provides students with real-world problems that require chemical literacy.
Schachter, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 750.
Applications of Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Green Chemistry
Non-cyanide detection of cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions in a mixture  Syamal, A.; Ahmad, S.
The authors report a convenient method for the non-cyanide detection of copper (II) and cadmium (II) in a mixture.
Syamal, A.; Ahmad, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 518.
Qualitative Analysis
Scoring qualitative inorganic unknowns at the stockroom  Brooks, David W.; Tipton, Thomas J.; Kinnan, Darrell A.
The authors share their strategy for efficiently organizing unknown chemicals in their stockroom that are used for qualitative analysis.
Brooks, David W.; Tipton, Thomas J.; Kinnan, Darrell A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 389.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
A nontraditional qualitative organic analysis experiment  Haynes, LeRoy W.
The author of this article wanted students to gain experience with experiments that come closer to separation and identification problems which a chemist would have to solve in a research situation. The activity described in this article was designed to meet that end.
Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 234.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis  Cole, G. Mattney, Jr.; Waggoner, William H.
This article is the first in a series that reconsiders the qualitative analysis scheme in terms of suitability for large numbers of students and instructors.
Cole, G. Mattney, Jr.; Waggoner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 135.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative tests for manganese  Guenther, William B.
A chemically interesting test that has been used successfully in a qualitative analysis course that introduces students to Mn (III).
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 134.
Qualitative Analysis
The study of a cobalt complex - a laboratory project  Loehlin, James H.; Kahl, Stephen B.; Darlington, Jeanne A.
The laboratory involves synthesis followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis of either Co(NH3)5Cl3 or C0(NH3)6Cl3 over several weeks.
Loehlin, James H.; Kahl, Stephen B.; Darlington, Jeanne A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1048.
Coordination Compounds |
Magnetic Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Synthesis
Equilibria in the silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems  Samuel, Patricia L.
A qualitative test for arsenate ion provides the basis for a colorful demonstration of the principles of relative acid strength, solubility product, and effects of pH on solubility.
Samuel, Patricia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1043.
Equilibrium |
Qualitative Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Does the N-solution problem measure student proficiency?  Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles
An investigation to determine if the commonly used, N-solution, qualitative identification laboratory assessment problem assesses students' knowledge of descriptive chemistry.
Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1032.
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Isobutylene revisited: An experiment introducing both qualitative and quantitative application of NMR spectroscopy  Tremelling, Michael J.; Hammond, Christina N.
The product distribution is a contradiction to the general rule that the more highly substituted alkene is more stable.
Tremelling, Michael J.; Hammond, Christina N. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 697.
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Addition Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Student preparation of alkanols from alkenes  McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M.
The hydration of 1-hexene to form 2-hexanol demonstrates Markovnikov addition, produces a higher yield of alcohol, and starts with a less expensive alkene than cyclohexene hydrations.
McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 695.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions
A hydration of an alkyne illustrating steam and vacuum distillation  Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.
The conversion of 2,5-dimethylhexyn-2,5-diol to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one using aqueous mercuric sulfate.
Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 694.
Alkynes
The qualitative test for nitrogen in organic compounds using the oxygen flask method  Thomas, Rudolf
The oxygen flask method has been found superior to the traditional sodium fusion method, but for compounds containing both nitrogen and bromine a negative test for nitrogen is produced.
Thomas, Rudolf J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 690.
Qualitative Analysis
Separation and determination of hydroxyacetophenones: An experiment in preparative TLC and UV spectroscopy  Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J.
A mixture of o-, m-, and p-hydroxyacetophenones is separated through thin-layer chromatography, and the constituents are identified by UV spectroscopy.
Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 618.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Rapid chemical identification of the nitrosyl group in complexes  Subramanian, Periyasamy; Sarkar, Sabyasachi
A simple chemical test that enables rapid identification of coordinated nitric oxide.
Subramanian, Periyasamy; Sarkar, Sabyasachi J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 527.
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Pi bonding without tears  Akeroyd, F. Michael
A non-mathematical treatment of sigma-pi bonding applied to conjugation, hyperconjugation, Markovnikoff addition, aromaticity, and aromatic substitution.
Akeroyd, F. Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 371.
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
The problem of syn- versus anti-addition: An organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Silversmith, Ernest F.
An experiment that allows a student to determine whether an addition to a carbon-carbon double bond proceeds in syn- or anti-fashion.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 346.
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Alkenes
The separation and identification of straight chain hydrocarbons: An experiment using gas-liquid chromatography  Benson, G. A.
Gas liquid chromatography used to separate and identify a mixture of C5 to C10 straight chain hydrocarbons.
Benson, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 344.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Chromatography
A correction on the Benedict test  Hill, William D., Jr.
Sodium hydroxide is also needed for the formation of copper(I) oxide in the identification of carbohydrates.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 334.
Qualitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates
An individualized approach to qualitative analysis  Haendler, Blanca L.; Cook, Robert; Siemiencow, George
Students are required to work out a separation scheme based on the results of experimentation with certain reagents and with the help of some reference materials.
Haendler, Blanca L.; Cook, Robert; Siemiencow, George J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 333.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The analysis of an amine mixture: An introductory analysis experiment  Williams, T. R.
Analysis of a binary mixture of amines in which students are asked to identify each component and determine the weight percentage of each compound.
Williams, T. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 202.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Isolation, separation and identification of synthetic food colors  Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G.
A simple, inexpensive experiment for the extraction of synthetic dyes permitted in foodstuffs, and their separation and identification using thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.
Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 67.
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Separating copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis  Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L.
A different method for the separation of copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis based on the reductive potential precipitation of copper(II) as copper(I) thiocyanate.
Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 59.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Boiling points and small volumes: An apparatus and a method  Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D.
The authors describe a convenient apparatus that can be used with thousands of students to perform qualitative analysis of organic substances using boiling points.
Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1029.
Qualitative Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Bent-bond models using framework molecular models  Sund, Eldon H.; Suggs, Mark W.
Using tubing to represent double and triple bonds.
Sund, Eldon H.; Suggs, Mark W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 638.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Covalent Bonding
Qualitative analysis of the halogens  Spadaro, Joseph J., Jr.
A procedure for the qualitative determination of the halogens in the presence of one another using hexane rather than carbon tetrachloride.
Spadaro, Joseph J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 372.
Qualitative Analysis
Bent bonds and multiple bonds  Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.
Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of the bent bond model first proposed by Pauling in 1931.
Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 329.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
A novel method for the detection of nitrates  Gupta, H. L.; Pande, P. N.; Ameta, Suresh A.
Replacing copper turnings with filter paper cuttings in the preliminary test for nitrates using sulfuric acid.
Gupta, H. L.; Pande, P. N.; Ameta, Suresh A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 319.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Teaching quantitative analysis courses by an integrated audiovisual method  Ferraro, Carlos
Describes the results of the application of Integrated Audiovisual Methodology to the teaching of a quantitative analysis course.
Ferraro, Carlos J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 185.
Qualitative Analysis
Diphenylbutadienes syntheses by means of the Wittig reaction: Experimental introduction to the use of phase transfer catalysis  Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L.
Intended as a project carried out by students at the end of introductory organic chemistry.
Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 161.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
An organic chemistry experiment for forensic science majors  Rothchild, Robert
Qualitative analysis of over-the-counter analgesics using thin-layer chromatography.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 757.
Forensic Chemistry |
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A topical alkene preparation and oxidation  Mitchell, Reginald H.; Hawkins, Blaine F.; West, Paul R.
Thermally depolymerizing polystyrene to styrene followed by an investigation of the properties of the flammable monomer produced.
Mitchell, Reginald H.; Hawkins, Blaine F.; West, Paul R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
Polymerization
A simple technique for the preparation of solutions for qualitative infrared spectroscopy  Southwick, Everett W.; Kidd, Douglas H.
A simple technique for the preparation of solutions for qualitative infrared spectroscopy involves drawing the sample into a capillary tube through capillary action.
Southwick, Everett W.; Kidd, Douglas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 394.
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Ethylene: The organic chemical industry's most important building block  Fernelius, Condrad W.; Wittcoff, Harold; Varnerin, Robert E.
The sources, chemistry, and industrial uses of ethylene.
Fernelius, Condrad W.; Wittcoff, Harold; Varnerin, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 385.
Alkenes |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Polymerization
Interference with the molybdate test for phosphate in qualitative inorganic analysis  Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Pilger, Richard C., Jr.
Standard texts have generally not recognized the dramatic interference by the iodide ion; provides two simple remedies for this interference.
Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Pilger, Richard C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 342.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
X-ray fluorescence simulation  Breneman, G. L.
A Basic program to simulate qualitative and quantitative analysis by X-ray fluorescence.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 303.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis simulation  Binder, Bernhard
An interactive computer program simulating common qualitative analysis techniques that are suitable to identify 12 cations.
Binder, Bernhard J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 108.
Qualitative Analysis
The effect of iodide concentration on the starch-indicator end point in the coulometric determination of As(III)  Bell, Dorothy
Good analytical results are yielded using the techniques in this brief note.
Bell, Dorothy J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 815.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Separation of mixtures encountered in qualitative organic analysis: An anomalous case  Pinkus, A. G.
The author presents an improved procedure for a separation of mixtures encountered in qualitative organic analysis.
Pinkus, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 458.
Qualitative Analysis
Sodium nitroprusside reagent II-A solvent modification  Dougherty, Charles M.; Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Markowska, Maria; Battey, York C.
The authors report an improvement classification test for aliphatic and aryl amines.
Dougherty, Charles M.; Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Markowska, Maria; Battey, York C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 341.
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis
Stoichiometric study in the gas phase: Bromination of unsaturated hydrocarbons  Charlson, A. J.; Shapiro, J. S.; Ware, G. W.; Watton, E. C.
Many college and high school manuals describe an experiment involving bromine addition to carbon-carbon double bonds. This experiment leaves many questions unanswered and may lead to confusion with the photo-bromination of hydrocarbons where decoloration of bromine occurs. This experiment leads students to many misconceptions regarding this reaction.
Charlson, A. J.; Shapiro, J. S.; Ware, G. W.; Watton, E. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 338.
Stoichiometry |
Alkenes
Balloon models for organic molecules  Niac, G.
A balloon model can be used to demonstrate properties of small, organic molecules.
Niac, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 303.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
VSEPR Theory
The qualitative organic analysis laboratory: A real life experience  Caret, Robert L.
The author will provide copies of all handouts designed for scaffolding qualitative organic analysis upon request.
Caret, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 246.
Qualitative Analysis
Classification test for aldehydes involving phase transfer catalysis  Durst, H. Dupont; Gokel, George W.
Although common spectroscopic methods have largely supplanted the more classical methods for distinguishing aldehydes from ketones in many applications, aldehyde classification tests remain very useful in actual laboratory practice as well as important pedagogical device in qualitative organic chemistry.
Durst, H. Dupont; Gokel, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 206.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Qualitative Analysis
Gas chromatographic analysis of aerosol propellants  Miller, James M.
A simple procedure for the qualitative analysis of commercial propellants by gas chromatography.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 735.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Computer assisted instruction in qualitative analysis  Bishop, Marvin
This Basic program includes 22 cations distributed into four groups.
Bishop, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 689.
Qualitative Analysis
Precipitation of lead as lead chloride in presence of mercuric ions  Pyriadi, Thanun Mohamad; Polis, Aroosiak
In the presence of Hg2+ it seems that PbCl2 does not precipitate easily unless cooled.
Pyriadi, Thanun Mohamad; Polis, Aroosiak J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 439.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis
Identification of FD&C dyes by visible spectroscopy. A consumer-oriented undergraduate experiment  McKone, Harold T.
Absorption maxima and procedures for identifying 11 FD&C dyes through visible spectroscopy.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 376.
Qualitative Analysis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science
Simple qualitative analysis scheme for several environmentally important elements  Lambert, Jack L.; Meloan, Clifton E.
A qualitative analysis scheme for Hg(I), Hg(II), Sb(III), Cr(III), Pb(II), Sr(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), As(III), Cl-, NO3-, and SO4-2.
Lambert, Jack L.; Meloan, Clifton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 249.
Qualitative Analysis
Ethylene by naphtha cracking. Free radicals in action  Wiseman, Peter
Ethylene manufacture, the mechanism of ethylene formation, maximizing ethylene yield, the effect of feedstock composition, and secondary reactions.
Wiseman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 154.
Free Radicals |
Industrial Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Lighter flint chemistry  Hentz, F. C., Jr.; Long, G. G.
The author describes an inquiry investigation into the composition of a lighter flint.
Hentz, F. C., Jr.; Long, G. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 651.
Materials Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Syntheses and rearrangements of cage molecules related to cubane  Jefford, Charles W.
This article looks at the synthesis of cubane, basketene, miscellaneous homocubane chemistry, snoutene, triqunacene, hypostrophene, tris-homocubane, and catalysis by transition metals.
Jefford, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 477.
Catalysis |
Transition Elements |
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Alcohols
Grignard dehydration reactions. An undergraduate organic experiment.  Duty, Robert C.; Ryder, Bernard L.
In this laboratory, the authors have incorporated the Grignard reaction in a step-wise synthesis that has been successful in demonstrating several experimental and instrumental techniques.
Duty, Robert C.; Ryder, Bernard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 457.
Grignard Reagents |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Alkenes
Studies for the organic qual lab  Southam, R. M.
The author shares a lab exercise that allows students to develop analysis forming and note its role as essential to a chemical investigation.
Southam, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 34.
Qualitative Analysis
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes. A convenient anti-Markownikoff hydration experiment  Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr.
A hydroboration-oxidation sequence that relies on the borane dimethylsulfide complex as the hydroborating agent and trimethylamine-N-oxide dihydrate as the oxidizing agent.
Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 745.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Addition Reactions
Perspectives on curricula: Qualitative analysis revisited  Brooks, David W.; Holtzclaw, Henry F., Jr.; Lewis, J. D.
Considers curricula from the viewpoints of reinforcement theory; concrete vs. abstract reasoning; and the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains.
Brooks, David W.; Holtzclaw, Henry F., Jr.; Lewis, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 581.
Qualitative Analysis |
Learning Theories
Calculation of the number of cis-trans isomers in a "symmetric" polyene  Har-zvi, Ron; Wittes, Janet Turk
A problem in which students are to derive a general expression for the number of cis-trans isomers in a "symmetric" straight chain polyene when there are n double bonds.
Har-zvi, Ron; Wittes, Janet Turk J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 545.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Alkenes
Microbial oxidation of alkenes. An integrated organic-biology experiment  Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J.
The conversion of an appropriate terminal alkene to a 1,2-epoxyalkane by Pseudomonas oleovorans introduces students to the techniques used in carrying out chemical conversions employing microorganisms.
Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 475.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Natural Products
Simulated student samples  Parker, Gordon A.
The availability of directions for the preparation of samples simulating animal tissue ash, coal ash, coal ash, copper refinery flue dust, plant ash, rodent teeth ash, and soil ash.
Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 106.
Natural Products |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative and quantitative gas chromatography for the undergraduate  Karasek, F. W.; De Decker, E. H.; Tiernay, J. M.
The authors present two experiments which provide beginning student a broad general knowledge of the gas chromatography field.
Karasek, F. W.; De Decker, E. H.; Tiernay, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 816.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
A series of related organic experiments with optional structure determinations  Fairless, Billy J.; Ragsdale, Gary; Kerby, Claudia
The authors wish to report three related experiments that have been received with enthusiasm by organic students.
Fairless, Billy J.; Ragsdale, Gary; Kerby, Claudia J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 61.
Phenols |
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy
Brief chemistry of the elements (Hall, James L.; Keyworth, Donald A.)  Davenport, Derek A.

Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A414.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Preparation of standard solutions  Smith, B. W.; Parsons, M. L.
A summary of compounds recommended for preparing solutions containing known concentrations of over seventy elements.
Smith, B. W.; Parsons, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 679.
Qualitative Analysis
Dihalocarbene addition reaction  Goh, S. H.
This experiment illustrates the synthetic utility of carbenes and that of phase transfer catalysis.
Goh, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 678.
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Synthesis
Spot test for detection of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids  Singh, Eric J.
A 1% solution of copper sulfate can be used for the detection of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
Singh, Eric J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 669.
Qualitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Sensitive CN test  McCullough, Thomas, C.S.C.
Comments on the sodium fusion test.
McCullough, Thomas, C.S.C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 656.
Qualitative Analysis
Separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group  Antikainen, P. J.
This procedure applies paper- and ion-exchange chromatography to the separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group.
Antikainen, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 595.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography
Computer-simulated qualitative inorganic chemistry  Francis, Larry D.
A computer simulation is especially effective for teaching qualitative chemistry because many of the time-consuming procedures necessary for good results can be eliminated; the guiding philosophy of this lesson is on chemical reasoning rather than laboratory practice.
Francis, Larry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 556.
Qualitative Analysis
A questionable method of distinguishing maleic and fumaric acids  Noldan, Lawrence R.; Pollard, Bruce
Fumaric acid causes no change in the blue color of ditto print, but maleic acid turns it a bright green.
Noldan, Lawrence R.; Pollard, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 457.
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
A use for broken glass electrodes  Davidson, John E.
Once broken, the electrode can still be used as an indicator electrode for a potentiometric precipitation titration of silver or halide ions.
Davidson, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 375.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
An instructional computer program to generate microanalysis data  Eliason, Robert
An instructional, Fortran IV, computer program to generate microanalysis data.
Eliason, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 371.
Qualitative Analysis
A qualitative analysis test for chromium  Berthold, Mary Ellen Sr.; Huchital, Daniel
This paper reports a more convenient and lasting method to test for the presence of chromium using a separate portion of the sample and observing the formation of the deep purple chromium(III)-EDTA complex.
Berthold, Mary Ellen Sr.; Huchital, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 340.
Qualitative Analysis
Inexpensive scale expansion for ion selective electrodes  Parsons, P. G.
The scale of an ordinary pH meter can be expanded by connecting a 1-mV recorder or a 1-amp galvanometer.
Parsons, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 175.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Qualitative Analysis |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
TLC detection of caffeine in commercial products  Pavlik, James W.
An introductory experiment that involves the thin layer chromatography detection of caffeine in a variety of familiar pharmaceutical products.
Pavlik, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 134.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis
Calcium oxide-zinc fusion. The successor to sodium fusion in the undergraduate laboratory  Snyder, Carl H.; Sickels, Jackson P.; Del Valle, Clara J.
With extensive modification, a calcium oxide-zinc fusion technique shows promise to replace sodium fusion as the method of choice for qualitative elemental analysis in the first-year organic laboratory.
Snyder, Carl H.; Sickels, Jackson P.; Del Valle, Clara J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 72.
Qualitative Analysis
Ions in aqueous systems. An introduction to chemical equilibrium and solution chemistry (Moeller, Therald)  Guenther, W. B.

Guenther, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A697.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative concepts from quantum chemistry (Drago, Russell)  Deskin, William A.

Deskin, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A606.
Quantum Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
An unusual reaction of a ketal with base. An undergraduate organic experiment  Marchand, Alan P.
An experiment that is designed to utilize primarily spectral methods (nmr and ir) to identify an unknown product of a reaction performed in the laboratory; it also demonstrates that, under certain conditions, ketals can be made to react with a base.
Marchand, Alan P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 841.
Qualitative Analysis
Armchair unknowns. A simple CAI qual organic simulation  Venier, Clifford G.; Reinecke, Manfred G.
The purpose of Armchair Unknowns is to teach the logic of qualitative organic analysis more rapidly and effectively than is possible in the traditional wet laboratory.
Venier, Clifford G.; Reinecke, Manfred G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 541.
Qualitative Analysis
Organic chemistry laboratory. A non-traditional approach  Nugent, Maurice J.
A problem-solving approach to the organic chemistry laboratory in which students are asked to identify and then synthesize two unknowns.
Nugent, Maurice J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 491.
Synthesis |
Qualitative Analysis
Thermal decomposition of potassium bisoxalatocuprate(II) dihydrate. An inorganic-analytical experiment  Darley, J. R.; Hoppe, J. I.
This investigation includes some elementary gravimetric analysis and qualitative analysis in addition to a simple extraction procedure and a range of titrimetric estimations.
Darley, J. R.; Hoppe, J. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 365.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Benzenesulfonyl chloride does react with tertiary amines. The Hinsberg test in proper prospective  Gambill, C. R.; Roberts, T. D.; Shechter, H.
Addresses the long standing myths that tertiary amines do not react with nitrous acid or benzylsulfonyl chloride.
Gambill, C. R.; Roberts, T. D.; Shechter, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 287.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Instrumental techniques compared by analysis of a reaction mixture  Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O.
The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint the student with how a combination of instruments (glc, ir, and nmr) can be used to separate as well as to identify each compound in a reaction mixture.
Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 827.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Detection of carboxylic acids by formation of ferric hydroxamates  Cleland, George H.; Knight, Duane W.
Offers an improved method for the detection of carboxylic acids through the formation of ferric hydroxamates.
Cleland, George H.; Knight, Duane W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 781.
Carboxylic Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Recrystallization and melting point determination  Kaye, Irving Allan; Yuska, Henry
This experiment is essentially an exercise in recrystallization and identification, by melting point and mixed melting point determination, an unknown ketone that has been transformed into either its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone or semicarbazone derivative.
Kaye, Irving Allan; Yuska, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 703.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Qualitative Analysis
Experiments in paper chromatography  Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K.
Briefly summarizes a series of paper chromatography experiments that demonstrate basic physical and inorganic principles, as well as providing an introduction to a useful separation technique.
Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 688.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Indene reactions: An organic chemistry laboratory problem  Garrison, James A.
Students are given a problem in which they are to determine which of two published accounts of reaction products involving derivatives of idene is correct.
Garrison, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 300.
Alkenes |
Alcohols
Detection of chloride, bromide, and iodide following sodium fusion  McCullough, Thomas; Allaire, Pierre N.; Boettcher, Brian R.
Presents the use of paper chromatography in conjunction with the sodium fusion detection of chloride, bromide, and iodide.
McCullough, Thomas; Allaire, Pierre N.; Boettcher, Brian R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 217.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography
On-line computer printing of NMR spectra  Rondeau, Roger E.; Rish, Hughey A. III
The program described reduces the probability of assignment error while also eliminating the most tedious task in the analysis of complex NMR spectra.
Rondeau, Roger E.; Rish, Hughey A. III J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 139.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A computer program for identifying organic compounds  Gasser, William; Emmons, John L.
This program is based on five determinations: melting or boiling point; elemental analysis for nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens; and the aluminum chloride-azoxybenzene test.
Gasser, William; Emmons, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 137.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Analytical chemistry - Two supportive views. Where the action is...  Wharton, H. Whitney
The author argues for the relevance of analytical chemistry.
Wharton, H. Whitney J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 58.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Analytical chemistry - Two supportive views. Where the action is...  Wharton, H. Whitney
The author argues for the relevance of analytical chemistry.
Wharton, H. Whitney J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 58.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Hydrolysis of latex paint in dimethyl sulfoxide: An organic laboratory experiment  Vinson, Joe A.
The purpose of this experiment is to hydrolyze the ester groups of the vinyl acetate and acrylic ester found in latex paint and identify the R group of the acrylic ester.
Vinson, Joe A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 877.
Qualitative Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy
The dehydration of 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol  Taber, Richard L.; Grantham, Gary D.; Champion, William C.
Presents an experiment that demonstrates the usefulness of gas chromatography as an analytical technique, emphasizes structural rearrangement, makes use of elementary thermodynamics, and gives the student some experience in the original literature.
Taber, Richard L.; Grantham, Gary D.; Champion, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 849.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Gas Chromatography
The essential oils: A series of laboratory experiments  Runquist, Olaf
Describes a variety of "research type" laboratory problems for the second term introductory organic chemistry course involving essential oils.
Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 846.
Lipids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
First semester qualitative analysis  DeLap, James H.
Describes the student work involved in a freshman laboratory course entitled "Chemical Periodicity."
DeLap, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 837.
Qualitative Analysis
Cupferron as a reagent in qualitative analysis  Parks, A. O.; DuBose, Betsy
A short on the use of cupferron (nitrosophenylhydroxylamine, NH4+ salt) for the removal of Cu(II) from a solution containing both Cu(II) and Cd(II).
Parks, A. O.; DuBose, Betsy J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 768.
Qualitative Analysis
A unique laboratory-lecture in organic chemistry  Nienhouse, Everett J.
The laboratory-lecture considered centers about the products obtained from the dehydration of 4-methyl-2-pentanol.
Nienhouse, Everett J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 765.
Alcohols |
Alkenes
Chloramine-T as a substitute for chlorine water in qualitative analysis  Nair, B. G. K.; Nair, C. G. R.
A brief note on the use of chloramine-T as a substitute for chlorine water as a reagent for detecting Br- and I- ions.
Nair, B. G. K.; Nair, C. G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 755.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Basic organic laboratory techniques and problem solving: The nitration of 4-nitrophenol  Pearson, Robert E.
The experiment described requires application of melting point data and the technique of recrystallization to identify the product of a simple chemical reaction.
Pearson, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 692.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Qualitative Analysis |
Phenols
Computer graded qualitative analysis experiments  Deutsch, J. L.; Deutsch, E. W.
A brief note on a program for the qualitative analysis laboratory that grades students' experimental results, records their grades, and calculates course averages.
Deutsch, J. L.; Deutsch, E. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 649.
Qualitative Analysis
A review of techniques in the Lassaigne sodium-fusion  Gower, R. P.; Rhodes, I. P.
The present article is intended to collect the available methods of the sodium-fusion test with some indication of the most suitable circumstances in which each one may be used.
Gower, R. P.; Rhodes, I. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 606.
Laboratory Management |
Qualitative Analysis
A modern look at Markovnikov's rule and the peroxide effect  Isenberg, Norbert; Grdinic, Marcel
Presents a "carbonium ion" definition of Markovnikov's Rule and examines the peroxide effect.
Isenberg, Norbert; Grdinic, Marcel J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 601.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions
Reflectance spectroscopic analysis of dyes separated by thin layer chromatography  Frodyma, M. M.; Frei, R. W.
This study attempts to verify the usefulness of reflectance spectroscopy as an analytical tool in the hands of the inexperienced analyst.
Frodyma, M. M.; Frei, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 522.
Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Identification of carboxylic acids: Use of N-methylpiperazine and N-phenylpiperazine  Duff, J. G.; Yung, D. K.; Brenner, R. J.; Wilson, B. J.; Racz, W. J.
Demonstrates that N-phenylpiperazine is a useful reagent for the identification of carboxylic acids.
Duff, J. G.; Yung, D. K.; Brenner, R. J.; Wilson, B. J.; Racz, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 388.
Carboxylic Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Organic chemistry  Dolbier, William R., Jr.
Presents an explanation that encompasses all electrophilic additions to alkenes within a single, unifying picture.
Dolbier, William R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 342.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Improving potassium flame tests  Strong, Frederick C., III
Describes ways for optimizing the classical flame test for potassium.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 178.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
A simple method for the identification of borosilicate glass  Drake, Robert F.
Provides an alternative to using the refractive index of benzene in carbon tetrachloride.
Drake, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 48.
Qualitative Analysis
Introduction to Qualitative Analysis Layde, Durward C.; Busch, Daryle H.)  Larson, W. D.

Larson, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A984.
Qualitative Analysis
Nitrogen chemistry. E. Nitrites and nitrates  Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A.
Demonstrations include nitric acid + H2S, sodium nitrate + carbon, fire-writing with KNO3, nitrate ring test, nitrate versus nitrite, and micro-analysis for nitrogen compounds.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A607.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Spectrometric identification of insect sex attractants  Silverstein, Robert M.
Uses spectrometric methods to identify the sex attractants of three types of beetle pests.
Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 794.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy
Calcium carbonate equilibria in the oceans - ion pair formation  Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred
Discusses some of the problems encountered in studying the chemistry of lakes and oceans, focussing on the solubility of calcium carbonate in marine environments.
Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 513.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis
Substitution products in the Hofmann elimination  Baumgarten, Ronald J.
Textbooks often state or imply that alkenes are the only products formed when tetra- alkylammonium hydroxides are heated.
Baumgarten, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 122.
Alkenes
The identification of vegetable oils: A gas chromatographic experiment  Cover, Richard E.
In this procedure the student is given a sample of oil which he saponifies and then esterfies to form the methyl esters of the fatty acids; the esters are then extracted, concentrated, and identified through gas chromatography.
Cover, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 120.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis
3-Sulfolene: A butadiene source for a Diels-Alder synthesis: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Sample, Thomas E., Jr.; Hatch, Lewis F.
By selecting a suitable diene cyclic sulfone, the common complication in performing a Diels-Alder experiment can be avoided.
Sample, Thomas E., Jr.; Hatch, Lewis F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 55.
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Rapid detection of cations and anions (Charlot, Gaston)  Williams, T. R.

Williams, T. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A62.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An analytical approach to a short organic laboratory  Finley, K. Thomas.; Wilson, James, Jr.
Describes a laboratory exercise in which students are asked to identify three simple unknowns.
Finley, K. Thomas.; Wilson, James, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 666.
Nonmajor Courses |
Qualitative Analysis
Dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol  Taber, Richard L.; Champion, William C.
This short article describes a simple alcohol dehydration that illustrates the Saytzeff Rule.
Taber, Richard L.; Champion, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 620.
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis without removing phosphate  Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V.
Describes a scheme for the analysis of groups III, IV, and V, carried out below pH 7, which does not necessitate the removing of phosphate.
Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 484.
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of iron with salicylimine  Poonia, N. S.; Bakre, V. P.; Bal, M. S.
Describes the detection of iron with salicylimine.
Poonia, N. S.; Bakre, V. P.; Bal, M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 483.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Reagents for analysis of iron(II)-iron(III) mixtures  Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N.
Presents some analytical reagents that may be used for the analysis of iron(II)-iron(III) mixtures.
Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 482.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Detection of mercury(I) and mercury(II) in the presence of each other  Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N.
Presents some analytical reagents that may be used for the analysis of mercury(I) and mercury(II) in the presence of each other.
Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 482.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Some analytical reagents for tin(II)-tin(IV) mixtures  Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N.
Presents some analytical reagents that may be used for the analysis of tin(II)-tin(IV) mixtures.
Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 481.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Spot tests for silver(I) and manganese(II)  Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L.
This investigation introduces piperidine as a new reagent for this test and describes an improved technique with increased sensitivity.
Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 480.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Qualitative analysis with paper chromatography  Poonia, N. S.
A spot of an unknown mixture is subjected to radial development, and the circular chromatogram is divided into a number of segments used for the detection of different cations or groups of cations.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 477.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Ionization, Electricity D. Special electrical phenomena   Bernard, Robert; Slabaugh, W. H.
Demonstrations include cation analysis, conductivity during the titration of Ba(OH)2 + HCl vs H2C2O4, and conductivity during the titration of Ba(OH)2 + HCl vs H3PO4.
Bernard, Robert; Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A901.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
Chemical Principles in Calculations of Ionic Equilibria: Solution Theory for General Chemistry, Qualitative Analysis, and Quantitative Analysis (Margolis, Emil J.)  Whiteker, Roy A.

Whiteker, Roy A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 684.
Equilibrium |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Qualitative Analysis (Hovey, Nelson W.; Krohn, Albertine)  Kieff, Lester

Kieff, Lester J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 507.
Qualitative Analysis
Use of KMnO4, to oxidize interfering organic anions in qualitative analysis  Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V.
A simple procedure is presented here that is based upon the oxidation of organic material by permanganate ion in acidified medium.
Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 424.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reagents for the qualitative analysis of Ce(III)-Ce(IV) mixtures  Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N.
Reports a series of comparisons between the behavior of Ce(III) and Ce(IV) toward several analytical reagents.
Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 424.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Errors in the detection of cadmium: Light-colored copper-thioacetamide complexes  Isenberg, N.; Kreger, H. J.; Middleton, R. H.
It is important to take precautions in the identification of cadmium in the presence of copper.
Isenberg, N.; Kreger, H. J.; Middleton, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 422.
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Fusion reactions under the microscope  Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe
An electrically heated wire is used to identify a variety of cations and anions according to colors observed under a microscope.
Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 421.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure
What has happened to qualitative analysis: A 1966 survey  Krohn, Albertine
Reports the result of a survey sent to 458 chemistry departments regarding future planned changes in qualitative analysis.
Krohn, Albertine J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 419.
Qualitative Analysis
The interaction of chromium(III) ion with hydroxide ion. An experiment for the undergraduate inorganic laboratory  Reinhardt, Richard A.
In the interactions with hydroxide ion, at least three different types of reactions may be considered: protolysis, the formation of a sparingly soluble hydroxide, and the formation of polymeric species.
Reinhardt, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 382.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Bromination of alkanes: Experiment illustrating relative reactivities and synthetic utility  Warkentin, J.
The radical halogenation of alkanes lend themselves well to the teaching of basic material such as bond dissociation energies, potential energy profiles, enthalpy of reaction, activation energy, and reaction rate.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 331.
Electrochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
Hydration of an alkyne: Undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Rose, Norman C.
The hydration of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol to yield 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone is a very suitable reaction for undergraduates who have had little prior experience in the organic laboratory.
Rose, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 324.
Alkynes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
The systematic identification of organic compounds: A laboratory manual (Shriner, Ralph; Fuson, Reynold C.; Curtin, David Y.)  Bossert, Roy G.

Bossert, Roy G. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A324.
Qualitative Analysis
Semimicro qualitative organic analysis: The systematic identification of organic compounds (Cheronis, Nicholas D.; Entrikin, John B.; Hodnett, Ernest M.)  Webb, James L. A.

Webb, James L. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 691.
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative test for ketones, aromatic aldehydes, and aliphatic aldehydes  Morrison, James D.
The Bordwell-Wellman solution of chromic anhydride in aqueous sulfuric acid is an excellent reagent for distinguishing aldehydes from ketones.
Morrison, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 554.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Experiments on metal amine salts  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Tetrammine monaquo copper(II) sulfate is prepared and studied qualitatively and quantitatively.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 468.
Metals |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Qualitative tests for K+  McCoy, Robert E.
Flame tests of solid or concentrated cobaltnitrites produce results that are easily mistaken for potassium.
McCoy, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 444.
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Cation analysis with thin layer chromatography  Goller, Edwin J.
Reported here is an adaptation of thin layer chromatography to an undergraduate laboratory operation for cation analysis.
Goller, Edwin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 442.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of chloride ion in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Summarizes and evaluates several published methods for detecting chloride ions in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 440.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Neothorin spot test for zirconium and hafnium  Johnson, Arnold R., Jr.
Describes the use of neothorin in a spot test for zirconium and hafnium.
Johnson, Arnold R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 439.
Qualitative Analysis
PiperidineA spot reagent for Mn(II)  Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L.
Describes the use of piperidine as a spot reagent for manganese.
Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 438.
Qualitative Analysis
Two nitrosophenol reagents for iron(II) and cobalt  Peach, S. M.
Describes the preparation of two new nitrosophenol reagents for the detection and assay of iron(II) and cobalt: dinitrosoresorcinol sodium sulphonate and nitroso-4-chlororesorcinol.
Peach, S. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 437.
Qualitative Analysis
Applications of sodium-lead alloy in qualitative inorganic analysis  Edge, Robert A.; Fowles, Gerald W. A.
This note describes how sodium-lead alloy may be used n qualitative inorganic analysis, both as a reductant in acid and alkaline media, and as a source of sodium hydroxide for hydroxide precipitations.
Edge, Robert A.; Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 436.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Letter to the editor  Gennaro, A. R.
Two recent comments on the limitation of the Hinsberg method for primary amines appear to place unwarranted emphasis on an alleged error in modern texts.
Gennaro, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 48.
Qualitative Analysis
An inexpensive centrifuge for micro qualitative analysis  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Presents an inexpensive micro centrifuge.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A qualitative test for the presence of paramagnetic species  Goldberg, P.
This article describes a simple method for demonstrating the presence of a paramagnetic species.
Goldberg, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 450.
Qualitative Analysis |
Magnetic Properties
The use of polyelectrolytes to improve qualitative analysis preparations  Williams, T. R.; Carter, Robert
Describes the use of polyelectrolytes to deal with the problem of precipitates in colloidal form.
Williams, T. R.; Carter, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 442.
Qualitative Analysis |
Colloids
The effect of mineral acid on methyl violet solutions  McKaig, Nelson, Jr.
Test results indicate that the four common strong mineral acids cause fading of methyl violet indicator.
McKaig, Nelson, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 441.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Separation and identification of copper and cadmium  Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L.
Describes three semimicro procedures for the separation and identification of copper and cadmium.
Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 439.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Resacetophenone oxime chelation of copper in the presence of cadmium  Kadarmandalgi, S. G.
The use of resacetophenone oxime as a chelating agent for copper(II) ions avoids the use of cyanide in the separation of copper from cadmium ions.
Kadarmandalgi, S. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 438.
Qualitative Analysis
Spot test for detection of manganese  Kadarmandalgi, S. G.
Describes a procedure for the spot test detection of manganese.
Kadarmandalgi, S. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 437.
Qualitative Analysis
A fluorescent indicator for a confirmatory test for the aluminum ion  Haworth, Daniel T.; Starshak, R. J.; Surak, J. G.
Presents a new confirmatory test for the aluminum ion using 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-napthol as a fluorescent indicator.
Haworth, Daniel T.; Starshak, R. J.; Surak, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 436.
Qualitative Analysis
Column chromatographic analysis of the metal ions  Marie, Sister Eleanor, S. S. J.
Presents a column chromatographic analysis of the metal ions that is superior to conventional methods.
Marie, Sister Eleanor, S. S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 436.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Metals |
Separation Science
The quinhydrone test for amines  Meek, Willoughby F.; Entrikin, John B.
Proposes modifications to the quinhydrone test for amines that allows for accurate classification.
Meek, Willoughby F.; Entrikin, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 420.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
A new qualitative reagent for aluminum. A specific qualitative reagent for copper  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests research questions to accompany an earlier published JCE article.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A564.
Qualitative Analysis
Non-cyanide detection of cadmium in the presence of copper  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests research questions to accompany an earlier published JCE article.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A564.
Qualitative Analysis
A gas chromatography demonstration apparatus  McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L.
Describes an apparatus for the separation of volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography using oxygen or air as the carrier gas.
McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 539.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative detection of Ba, Sr, and Ca ions  Pariza, Richard
This short note presents a procedure for the separation of Ba++, Ca++, and Sr++ in pairs or combination of the three.
Pariza, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 417.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Preparation of solutions for qualitative analysis with a cation exchange resin  Key, Paul; Sohl, Edward; Tiews, Robert; Bricker, Clark
A simple technique utilizing an ion exchange resin has been developed that eliminates most of the difficulties encountered in the dissolution of insoluble salts prior to analysis.
Key, Paul; Sohl, Edward; Tiews, Robert; Bricker, Clark J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 416.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange
A simple separation of the group II-A sulfides  O'Donnell, T. A.
Presents a group separation scheme for the separation of lead from bismuth and copper from cadmium.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 415.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Non-cyanide detection of cadmium  Dutta, R. L.; Choudhury, S. Dutta
This short note presents a non-cyanide method for the detection of cadmium in the presence of copper.
Dutta, R. L.; Choudhury, S. Dutta J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 414.
Qualitative Analysis
Dissolving difficultly soluble salts with chelating ion exchange resins  Rich, Ronald
Chelating resins such as Dowex A-1 and Chelex 100 provide a new way of separating the ions of some difficultly soluble salts.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 414.
Ion Exchange |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Separation Science
Separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium  Abrao, Alcidio
Suggests techniques for the separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium without relying on HCN.
Abrao, Alcidio J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 413.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
The present and future of qualitative analysis: Report of a survey  Hovey, Nelson W.
Reports the results of a survey whose objective was to determine to what extent new concepts in the teaching of chemistry have affected the content and place in the curriculum of courses in qualitative analysis.
Hovey, Nelson W. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 410.
Qualitative Analysis
Introduction to qualitative analysis (Layde, Durward C.)  Larson, W. D.

Larson, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 656.
Qualitative Analysis
Spectrometric identification of organic compounds  Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton
Presents a sequence of procedures for identifying an unknown organic liquid using mass, NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy, along with specific examples of unknowns and their spectra,
Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 546.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Qualitative elemental analysis (Swift, E. H.; Schaefer, William P.)  Tyree, S. Y., Jr.

Tyree, S. Y., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 432.
Qualitative Analysis
The cyanocobaltate scheme of qualitative analysis  Rich, Ronald
This paper presents a novel scheme of qualitative analysis for cations.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 403.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Combining preparative and quantitative procedures in qualitative analysis  Fowles, G. W. A.
Reviews some of the advantages and disadvantages of teaching qualitative analysis and offers an alternative approach.
Fowles, G. W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 401.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The detection of strontium and calcium  Isenberg, Norbert; Collins, Carolyn J.; MacFarland, Sue A.; Strax, Polly A.
This method addresses the problem of detecting strontium and calcium in the presence of the chromate ion.
Isenberg, Norbert; Collins, Carolyn J.; MacFarland, Sue A.; Strax, Polly A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 401.
Qualitative Analysis
New confirmatory tests for manganese, antimony, lead, mercury, and chromium  Rich, Ronald
Presents a series of tests for confirming the presence of manganese, antimony, lead, mercury, and chromium.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 400.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The separation and identification of cadmium and copper ions  Whitehead, T. H.; Hatcher, Georgia K.
Presents a sensitive and rapid method for the separation and identification of cadmium and copper ions.
Whitehead, T. H.; Hatcher, Georgia K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 399.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Qualitative analysis for aluminum  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Tests for qualitatively determining the presence of Al+3, even in the presence of other metallic ions.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 398.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Detection of barium, strontium, and calcium with sodium rhodizonate  Chandra, Ramesh
The application of sodium rhodizonate allows the rapid detection of Group IV cations.
Chandra, Ramesh J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 397.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Detection of ferrocyanide, ferricyanide, and thiocyanate  Chandra, Ramesh; Sharma, S. L.
The authors present a simplified method for detecting ferrocyanide, ferricyanide, and thiocyanate in the presence of one another.
Chandra, Ramesh; Sharma, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 397.
Qualitative Analysis
Specific tests for cations of group II  Chandra, Ramesh; Jindal, H. R.
Methods for the identification of mercury, bismuth, copper, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, and tin.
Chandra, Ramesh; Jindal, H. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 396.
Qualitative Analysis
A spot test scheme for the identification of metal ions  Vavoulis, Alex
This spot test may be incorporated into a classical qualitative analysis scheme; includes methods for mercury, silver, bismuth, manganese, and zinc.
Vavoulis, Alex J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 395.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
H2S equilibria: The precipitation and solubilities of metal sulfides  Petrucci, Ralph H.; Moews, P. C., Jr.
It is possible to discuss all aspects of H2S and metal sulfide systems through a single mathematical relationship by using the appropriate terms in the expression.
Petrucci, Ralph H.; Moews, P. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 391.
Equilibrium |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
A rapid test to distinguish tertiary from primary or secondary alcohols  Bordwell, Frederick C.; Wellman, Keith M.
Describes a protocol for distinguishing tertiary from primary or secondary alcohols and its application to a specific problem.
Bordwell, Frederick C.; Wellman, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 308.
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
Inorganic chemistry of qualitative analysis (Clifford, A. F.)  Jolly, William L.

Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 53.
Qualitative Analysis
Structural variety of natural products  Roderick, William R.
Classes of natural products examined includes alkynes; quinones; benzpyrones; small and large rings; sulfur, nitrogen, and halogen-containing compounds; and new amino acids.
Roderick, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 2.
Natural Products |
Amino Acids |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds
Chemical properties and identification of ions: An introduction to semimicro qualitative analysis (Whipple, Omer K.)  Summers, Donald B.

Summers, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A920.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Qualitative Analysis and Analytical Chemical Separations (West, Philip W.; Vick, Maurice M.)  Frank, Richard E.

Frank, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A642.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Letters  Archer, R. D.
The author clarifies some of the chemistry relevant to an earlier article.
Archer, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 638.
Qualitative Analysis
A qualitative elemental analysis system correlated with the periodic table  Swift, Ernest H.; Schaefer, William P.
This article describes a new system of qualitative analysis developed especially for instructional purposes as a means of teaching descriptive inorganic chemistry and the principles of chemical reactions.
Swift, Ernest H.; Schaefer, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 607.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Qualitative Analysis |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Reactions
Contemporary analysis and the chemistry curriculum  Rogers, L. B.
Examines a variety of curricular issues regarding analytical chemistry.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 455.
Qualitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A simple test for the detection of phosphorus in organic compounds  Ketcham, Roger; Low-Beer, Anne de G.
This simple test for the detection of phosphorus in organic compounds relies on the sodium fusion procedure and filter paper moistened with silver nitrate.
Ketcham, Roger; Low-Beer, Anne de G. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 414.
Qualitative Analysis
A specific qualitative reagent for copper  Williams, T. R.; Burton, Frederick
Suggests the use of T-sulfonamidine as a specific precipitant for the separation and confirmation of copper(II) ions.
Williams, T. R.; Burton, Frederick J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 413.
Qualitative Analysis
Rapid detection of cations of copper group  Chandra, Ramesh
Presents a procedure for the separation and detection of the ions normally present in the copper subgroup.
Chandra, Ramesh J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 413.
Qualitative Analysis
A simple test for nitric acid fumes  Chan, Alfred, Jr.
This simple test for nitric acid fumes relies on an ordinary kraft paper towel.
Chan, Alfred, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 412.
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
A new qualitative reagent for aluminum  Jones, C. T.; Williams, Max B.
Describes the use of arsenazo as a confirmatory test for aluminum.
Jones, C. T.; Williams, Max B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 411.
Qualitative Analysis
Benzenoid nitro-compounds as organic reagents for tin(II)  Burns, Robert L.; Gruen, Fred M.
Describes the results of a series of experiments involving benzenoid nitro-compounds as organic reagents for the detection of tin(II).
Burns, Robert L.; Gruen, Fred M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 410.
Qualitative Analysis
Non-cyanide detection of cadmium in the presence of copper  Chandra, Ramesh
Describes six novel procedures for the detection of cadmium in the presence of copper that do not rely on cyanide.
Chandra, Ramesh J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 409.
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of phosphate in the presence of arsenate  Chandra, Ramesh
Describes a procedure for the detection of phosphate in the presence of arsenate.
Chandra, Ramesh J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 408.
Qualitative Analysis
Preparative separations replace typical qualitative analysis  Mahr, Carl
Discusses the use of preparative separations in qualitative analysis.
Mahr, Carl J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 407.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Ion exchange paper chromatography  Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P.
Describes an experiment/demonstration in ion exchange paper chromatography separating amino acids.
Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 406.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
A paper chromatographic scheme for the identification of metallic ions  Ritchie, A. S.
Presents a scheme for the identification of metallic ions through paper chromatography.
Ritchie, A. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 400.
Chromatography |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis
The chemistry of benzyne  Bunnett, Joseph F.
Examines the chemistry of benzyne and alkynes.
Bunnett, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 278.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkynes
Condensed Norms: ACS Cooperative Examinations  
Presents norms for ACS tests in qualitative analysis and general chemistry.
J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 211.
Qualitative Analysis
Letters  Battino, Rubin
The author offers an experimental approach to qualitative analysis as an exercise in deductive reasoning.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 102.
Qualitative Analysis
The detection of acetate ions in qualitative analysis  Berk, Dennis; Hecker, Lawrence
A reliable test for acetate has been developed that is based on the fact that the acetate ion pyrolyzes with sodium hydroxide to form sodium carbonate.
Berk, Dennis; Hecker, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 414.
Qualitative Analysis
A non-cyanide separation of copper from cadmium  Waggoner, William H.
A procedure has been developed for the separation of copper from cadmium that is based on the observation that thiocyanate ion will precipitate copper but not cadmium from an acidic solution.
Waggoner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 411.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Improved confirmatory test for chromium  Ferrand, Edward F., Jr.
Describes an improved and sensitive confirmatory test for chromium.
Ferrand, Edward F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 411.
Qualitative Analysis
A new reagent for the identification of Mg and Bi  Bishop, John A.
Brominated tetraresorcinol pyromellitein can be used in the identification of magnesium and bismuth.
Bishop, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 410.
Qualitative Analysis
A study of various methods for the analysis for Group III cations  Hahn, Richard B.; Sanders, Charlie H.
Results of a study comparing three methods for separating group III ions.
Hahn, Richard B.; Sanders, Charlie H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 408.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Separation Science
Semimicro analysis of alloys containing zirconium  Lehrman, Leo; Dorenbush, Martin; Meisler, Natalie
Presents a procedure for determining the presence and estimating the amount of zirconium in an alloy.
Lehrman, Leo; Dorenbush, Martin; Meisler, Natalie J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 407.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Metals
A realistic introduction to solution equilibria  Ramette, Richard
This paper is concerned with a sophomore chemistry course entitled "Equilibrium."
Ramette, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 344.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Identification of amino acids in a protein hydrolysate by paper chromatography  Clapp, L. B.; Hansch, Corwin
By varying the number of amino acids to be identified, the difficulty of this procedure can be easily controlled.
Clapp, L. B.; Hansch, Corwin J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 293.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Chromatography
Quantitative analysis versus quantitative chemistry  Swift, Ernest H.
Examines the historical development of quantitative analysis and quantitative chemistry and their contemporary role in the undergraduate curriculum.
Swift, Ernest H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 283.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Semimicro Experiments in General Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis (Cheronis, Nicholas D.; Stein, Herman)  Williams, Theodore R.

Williams, Theodore R. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 216.
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis
The Fehling and Benedict tests  Daniels, Ralph; Rush, Clyde C.; Bauer, Ludwig
The commonly cited interpretation of the Fehling and Benedict tests are not in accord with experimental facts.
Daniels, Ralph; Rush, Clyde C.; Bauer, Ludwig J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 205.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
Letters to the editor  Brescia, Frank
Presents the results of two surveys regarding the place of qualitative analysis in the chemistry curriculum.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 416.
Qualitative Analysis
Toluene-3,4-dithiol and its derivatives as analytical reagents: A new approach to qualitative inorganic analysis  Clark, R. E. D.; Neville, R. C.
Develops a rational basis for applying organic reagents to inorganic qualitative analysis.
Clark, R. E. D.; Neville, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 390.
Qualitative Analysis
Separating copper from cadmium without cyanide  Sanyal, Somorendranath
The procedure here is based on the observation that CdS is soluble in hot dilute H2SO4, whereas CuS is insoluble.
Sanyal, Somorendranath J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 387.
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of thiocyanate and dissolution of silver halides  Gentil, Vicente; Caldas, Alcides
This procedure will detect the presence of 1 mg of I-, Br-, Cl-, or SCN- in any mixture containing up to 100 mg of each of the other ions.
Gentil, Vicente; Caldas, Alcides J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 386.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in inorganic qualitative analysis  Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko
Presents the results of an investigation into the sulfate-forming tendencies of various oxidizing agents.
Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 385.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A gas testing device using liquids or test papers  Williams, T. R.; Stock, John T.
This simple device facilitates the qualitative testing of gases evolved during small-scale inorganic analysis using liquids or test papers.
Williams, T. R.; Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 384.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The separation of arsenic in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
A separation of arsenic as As(III) has been developed based upon the observation that As(III) is extracted selectively from hydrochloric acid solution of the common cations encountered in the usual qualitative analysis scheme.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 384.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
The preparation of barium chloranilate  Thomas, E. B.
The use of barium chloranilate in the colorimetric determination of sulfate offers an effective means of introducing classes in quantitative analysis to indirect, colorimetric procedures.
Thomas, E. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 383.
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis
An evaluation of reagents for sulfide precipitation  Page, John O.; Machel, A. R.; Ramsey, J. W.
The comparative efficiencies of four sulfide-precipitating reagents - hydrogen sulfide, ammonium hydrosulfide solution, sodium hydrosulphide solution, and triethylamine solution - are evaluated.
Page, John O.; Machel, A. R.; Ramsey, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 382.
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Qualitative test for potassium using sodium tetraphenylboron  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Sodium tetraphenylboron reacts with potassium ions to form a white insoluble compound.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 380.
Qualitative Analysis
A spot test analysis of the group III cations  Marion, Stephen P.; Zlochower, Isaac
This procedure may be used for the direct determination of the group III cations, for a quick confirmation of the results obtained in the regular scheme of analysis, or for teaching another technique in analytical chemistry.
Marion, Stephen P.; Zlochower, Isaac J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 379.
Qualitative Analysis
Use of radioisotopes in the college chemistry laboratory  Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H.
Provides experiments and experiences working with constructed Geiger counters and radioisotopes.
Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 133.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Kinetics
Systematic detection of anions through their parent elements  Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente
Presents an analysis scheme that aims at the detection of the parent elements of the anions, no matter what their state of combination.
Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 545.
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Textbook errors: Guest column- XIX. The relative reactivity of acetylenes and olefins toward bromine  Mysels, Karol J.; Daniels, Ralph; Bauer, Ludwig
Many contemporary textbooks and laboratory manuals in organic chemistry either state explicitly or imply that bromine ass much faster to acetylenes than to olefins.
Mysels, Karol J.; Daniels, Ralph; Bauer, Ludwig J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 444.
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Alkylation |
Alkynes
The use of N-chlorosuccinimide for identification of bromide and iodide ions  Filler, Robert
Describes the use of N-chlorosuccinimide as an oxidizing agent in preference to "chlorine water" for the identification of bromide and iodide ions.
Filler, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 407.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Separation of copper(II) from cadmium (II) in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
This procedure is based on the observation that copper(II) ion is extracted selectively from solutions containing copper(II) and cadmium(II) by a solution of 8-hydroxyquinoline in chloroform.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 406.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A bench-scale preparation of thioacetamide  O'Connor, William F.; Cogswell, George W.; Moriconi, Emil J.
The bench-scale preparation of thioacetamide presented is a modification of an earlier technique.
O'Connor, William F.; Cogswell, George W.; Moriconi, Emil J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 405.
Synthesis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Identification of copper and cadmiumA method without the use of KCN  Husted, Helen G.
In order to avoid the use of very poisonous KCN while retaining the wet basis for the analysis, the author has developed a new method for the separation and identification of copper and cadmium.
Husted, Helen G. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 403.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A spot test for cadmium  Petroccione, John F.
A simple but effective spot test for cadmium can be made with Titan yellow.
Petroccione, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 402.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Separation of arsenic and copper in qualitative analysis  Stock, John T.
Provides a procedure for the separation of arsenic and copper in qualitative analysis.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 402.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The colorimetric detection of arsenic as copper arsenide  Stock, John T.; Garcia, Lucinda M.
A test for detecting arsenic in the presence of antimony.
Stock, John T.; Garcia, Lucinda M. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 401.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The use of "parallel samples" in qualitative analysis courses  Kauffman, George B.
As an alternative to analyzing separately the known and then the unknown, as is done in some schools, the author suggests that the student analyze the known and unknown simultaneously, "in parallel."
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 363.
Qualitative Analysis
Polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure: A demonstration using a "Ziegler" type catalyst  Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max
A simple experiment on the polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure is described using a "Ziegler" type catalyst prepared from amyl lithium and titanium tetrachloride.
Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 344.
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Alkenes
A simple method for the detection of soluble bicarbonates  Lahiri, Ananta Gopal
The brief notes describes a simple method for the detection of soluble bicarbonates.
Lahiri, Ananta Gopal J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 298.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative identification of narcotics by spot test examination  Lampe, Kenneth F.
Provides procedures for the qualitative identification of narcotics table of color reactions of narcotics in spot tests.
Lampe, Kenneth F. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 96.
Qualitative Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
The solubility product constant for copper iodate: An experiment  Peterson, B. H.
Copper iodate is a salt of moderate solubility, and a titrimetric analysis of an aliquot portion of saturated solution provides the data necessary for the calculation of the solubility product.
Peterson, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 612.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
The qualitative analysis course should teach analysis  Strong, Frederick C., III
The author examines the practicality of the typical qualitative chemistry course.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 400.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis and analytical chemical separations without the use of sulfides  Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W.
The authors argue for the need of qualitative analysis, examine systems of qualitative analysis, and present a qualitative scheme that eliminates the need for sulfides.
Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 393.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
What topics belong in a modern course in qualitative analysis?  Gilreath, Esmarch S.
The author focuses particularly on the role of theory and aqueous solutions equilibria in the qualitative analysis course.
Gilreath, Esmarch S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 391.
Qualitative Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
History of qualitative analysis  Welcher, Frank J.
The author traces the history of qualitative analysis, examining particularly the origin of microanalysis and spot tests.
Welcher, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 389.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Why teach qualitative analysis?  Freiser, Henry
The author examines the depreciation of qualitative analysis and the need for a proper re-evaluation of the course's purpose.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 387.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysisWhat, why how? A symposium  Hahn, Richard B.
An introduction to a symposium examining the place, content, and methods of qualitative analysis.
Hahn, Richard B. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 387.
Qualitative Analysis
Identification analysis, a stimulating revival of qualitative analysis  Frank, Richard E.
The author describes the process of identification analysis and provides examples of several identification analyses.
Frank, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 383.
Qualitative Analysis
Microchemical apparatus: A long-term project  Stock, John T.
Presents a variety of laboratory devices developed for microscale work, including heating, stirring, electrochemical, and qualitative analysis devices.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 358.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry
Letters to the editor  Shevach, Lawrence P.
The author argues that qualitative analysis should be integrated with general chemistry.
Shevach, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 155.
Qualitative Analysis
The inclusion of tungsten and thallium in the elementary scheme of qualitative analysis  Waters, K. L.; Brockman, C. J.; Waggoner, W. H.
It is the purpose of this paper to present a scheme of analysis for Group I which includes tungsten and thallium.
Waters, K. L.; Brockman, C. J.; Waggoner, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 137.
Qualitative Analysis
A rapid chromatographic analysis of group I cations  Marion, Stephen P.; Psihas, James
This simple experiment makes use of an easy paper technique, is rapid, and requires no special apparatus or reagents.
Marion, Stephen P.; Psihas, James J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 87.
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis of alloys containing molybdenum  Lehrman, Leo; Schneider, Paul
The object of this work was to develop a semimicro method of qualitative analysis for molybdenum within the framework of a scheme used for the common metals.
Lehrman, Leo; Schneider, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 621.
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis
Gas-phase chromatography: A class experiment  Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles
Recommends an experimental procedure involving gas chromatography and presents the necessary apparatus.
Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 490.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Gas-phase chromatography  Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B.
Introduces gas chromatography and describes its associated apparatus and operation.
Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 485.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The nature of chromatography  Cassidy, Harold G.
Provides a definition of chromatography and a description of gas chromatography.
Cassidy, Harold G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 482.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Sleuthing in the chemistry laboratory: An impromptu project  Johnson, Leroy D.
Students in a general organic chemistry laboratory are given unknowns that have been produced over time through various unintended interactions in the chemical stockroom.
Johnson, Leroy D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 389.
Qualitative Analysis
A reduced-scale Lassaigne technique: The detection of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens in organic compounds  Stock, John T.
Presents apparatus that makes use of a reduced-scale Lassaigne technique involving fusion with metallic sodium for the detection of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens in organic compounds.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 345.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Principles of the systematic separation of cations  Weisz, Herbert
Lays out approaches to be used in the systematic separation of cations.
Weisz, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 334.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
The qualitative separation and detection of zinc  Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K.
This paper investigates stages in the inorganic scheme of analysis where the zinc ion could be adsorbed on or coprecipitated with precipitates of other ions.
Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 613.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Precipitation / Solubility
A chemistry course including both qualitative and quantitative analysis  McDuffie, Bruce
Describes a chemistry course and its experiments that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative analysis.
McDuffie, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 560.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Thioacetamide as a source of hydrogen sulfide in qualitative analysis  Lehrman, Leo
Examines the advantages and disadvantages of using a water solution of thioacetamide as a source of hydrogen sulfide to precipitate metal sulfides in qualitative analysis.
Lehrman, Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 474.
Amides |
Qualitative Analysis
Separation and detection of the aluminum ion in qualitative analysis  Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M.
Describes a study that seeks to eliminate the interference of iron and chromium in the detection of aluminum when using the "aluminon" test.
Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 380.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Trends in chemical education  Currier, Arnold J.
Topics examined include chemical nomenclature, the organization of subject matter in chemistry, carbon chemistry versus qualitative analysis, the laboratory versus the textbook, and supplies in chemistry teachers.
Currier, Arnold J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 286.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Qualitative Analysis
Circular-paper chromatography in qualitative analysis  Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J.
Describes procedures for and examples of circular-paper chromatography.
Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 95.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Note on the representation of the electronic structures of acetylene and benzene  Noller, Carl R.
The three dimensional nature of molecular orbitals in acetylene and benzene are illustrated.
Noller, Carl R. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 23.
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Aids to semimicro qualitative analysis  Pantony, D. A.; Wilson, C. L.
Describes an analysis board, hanging-drop cell and hydrogen sulfide absorption apparatus, and other equipment and procedures developed for semimicro qualitative analysis.
Pantony, D. A.; Wilson, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 648.
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis
Multiple chromatograms for detection of amino acids in blood serum  Ven Horst, Sister Helene; Carstens, Yolanda
A simple piece of equipment was constructed whereby 2 to 16 chromatograms could be run simultaneously and under identical conditions.
Ven Horst, Sister Helene; Carstens, Yolanda J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 576.
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A new qualitative identification procedure for cobaltous and nickelous ions  Yasuda, Stanley K.; Lambert, Jack L.
The procedure and identification test described here reveals cobaltous ion alone or in the presence of much nickelous ion by selective color formation.
Yasuda, Stanley K.; Lambert, Jack L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 572.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis of alloys containing titanium and vanadium  Lehrman, Leo; Moscowitz, Albert; Schmeltz, Irwin
The purpose of this paper is to develop a semimicro method of qualitative analysis for titanium and vanadium within the framework of a scheme used for the common metals.
Lehrman, Leo; Moscowitz, Albert; Schmeltz, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 310.
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis
Small-scale units for organic identifications  Stock, John T.; Fill, M. A.
Presents a small, block-type unit that includes practically all of the apparatus required for organic identification work.
Stock, John T.; Fill, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 144.
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis
Chromatography as a class unit in qualitative analysis  Surak, John G.; Schlueter, Donald P.
Describes procedures for the chromatographic separation and identification of cations.
Surak, John G.; Schlueter, Donald P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 457.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstration of the intermediate position of cobalt between iron and nickel  Goldstein, Ernst M.
The different oxidizability of ferrous, cobaltous, and nickelous hydroxides, together with increasing color deepness of the oxidation products, can be used to demonstrate that cobalt is intermediate in its properties between iron and nickel.
Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 387.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
The separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis  Hahn, Richard B.
Suggests a method for the separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis that relies on 72% rather than 100% nitric acid.
Hahn, Richard B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 349.
Metals |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The identification of esters of phenols  Carbone, Gabriel
The present modification is designed to better characterize esters of phenols and is based on the observations that the potassium salts of phenols are soluble in absolute alcohol wile the potassium salts of organic acids are relatively insoluble in absolute methanol.
Carbone, Gabriel J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 315.
Phenols |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis
Inorganic paper chromatography. II. Separation of groups III, IV, and V  Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert
This paper concerns itself with the separation and identification of the cations of Groups IIIa, IIIb, IV, and V.
Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 20.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Hyperconjugation: An elementary approach  Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho
Presents kinetic, thermochemical, and spectroscopic evidence for hyperconjugation in organic species.
Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 554.
Alkenes
Modified Hinsberg procedure  Ritter, Frank O.
Improves the Hinsberg method for differentiating between primary, secondary, and tertiary amines.
Ritter, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 506.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Letters  Dorsey, Woodrow W.
It is in the analytical class that the student can discover if he desires to continue as a science major or to go on to some other area.
Dorsey, Woodrow W. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 473.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The identification of zinc in the presence of nickel and cobalt  Levine, E. M.; Krakower, Gerald
The presence of nickel and cobalt interfere with the identification of small amounts of zinc.
Levine, E. M.; Krakower, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 437.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Chromatographic analysis for metal ions  Fillinger, Harriett H.; Trafton, Lois Ann
Presents the results of research, much of it by undergraduates, regarding the analysis of the silver, copper, arsenic, zinc, aluminum, and alkaline earth groups of metallic ions.
Fillinger, Harriett H.; Trafton, Lois Ann J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 285.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Undergraduate Research
The course in analytical chemistry  West, Philip W.
Discusses some of the issues involved in designing a course in analytical chemistry.
West, Philip W. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 222.
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
A qualitative test for ammonia in aqueous solution  O'Neil, Richard C.; Renfrow, W. B.
The reaction between ammonia and iodine affords a reliable test for ammonia that is more convenient than the usual methods of detection.
O'Neil, Richard C.; Renfrow, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 94.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Undergraduate research projects in qualitative analysis  McDuffie, Bruce
Provides a list of topics for undergraduate research projects in qualitative analysis.
McDuffie, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 36.
Qualitative Analysis |
Undergraduate Research |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The detection of nitrite and sulfamate ions in qualitative analysis  Brasted, Robert C.
Suggests an improved test for the nitrite ion and describes its sensitivity and the potential for interference by other ions.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 592.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A scheme for the qualitative identification of amino acids  Dunn, Max S.; Drell, William
This scheme of analysis has been used to successfully identify seventeen of the naturally occurring amino acids distributed in mixtures containing from two to five components.
Dunn, Max S.; Drell, William J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 480.
Qualitative Analysis |
Amino Acids
The preparation of "2-bromo-naphthalene"  Wolfe, Winthrop C.; Doukas, Harry M.
Presents a procedure for the preparation of "2-bromo-naphthalene" in large or small amounts.
Wolfe, Winthrop C.; Doukas, Harry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 472.
Synthesis |
Alkenes
The use of fluorescence in qualitative analysis  White, Charles E.
It is the purpose of this paper to show that the techniques of fluorescence are simple, that the apparatus required is inexpensive, and to outline procedures that may be used in any scheme of qualitative analysis. Specific tests for aluminum, zinc, boron, sodium, beryllium, thallium, and thorium are described.
White, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 369.
Qualitative Analysis |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Letters  Miller, S. Porter
The author defends qualitative analysis from its detractors and argues that it should not be relegated to freshman chemistry.
Miller, S. Porter J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 286.
Qualitative Analysis
A rapid test for castor oil in soaps and lipsticks  Sister M. Clarita Mangold
Makes use of sodium or potassium hydroxide to produce octyl alcohol as a rapid test for castor oil in soaps and lipsticks.
Sister M. Clarita Mangold J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 266.
Qualitative Analysis
The use of starch-iodate paper in qualitative analysis  Lundin, John A.
Describes the preparation of starch-iodate paper and its use in detecting sulfur dioxide and reducing anions.
Lundin, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 122.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction