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Journal Articles: 589 results
Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy  Jean-Michel Lavoie, Esteban Chornet, and André Pelletier
Using a simple extraction and a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer, this protocol allows students in analytical or organic chemistry to quantify and qualify monoterpenes from the peels of limes, grapefruits, and oranges.
Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, André. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1555.
Alkenes |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils  Molly W. Crowther
This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of five edible and structurally similar fats and oils for average chain length, degree of unsaturation, and trans fat content.
Crowther, Molly W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1550.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Fatty Acids
Experimental Design and Optimization: Application to a Grignard Reaction  Naoual Bouzidi and Christel Gozzi
This 5-week project, which systematically investigates optimizing the synthesis of benzyl-1-cyclopentan-1-ol, constitutes an initiation into research methodology and experimental design to prepare the student-engineer for an industry internship. Other pedagogical goals include experience in synthetic techniques, obtaining reproducible yields, and using quantitative analysis methods.
Bouzidi, Naoual; Gozzi, Christel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1544.
Addition Reactions |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chemometrics |
Gas Chromatography |
Organometallics |
Synthesis
Borohydride Reduction of Estrone  Animesh Aditya, David E. Nichols, and G. Marc Loudon
This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity using chiral hindered ketones that undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride. The resulting diastereomeric estradiols can be analyzed and differentiated by thin-layer chromatography and melting point.
Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1535.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Steroids |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A One-Pot, Asymmetric Robinson Annulation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  Kiel E. Lazarski, Alan A. Rich, and Cheryl M. Mascarenhas
Describes a one-pot, enantioselective, Robinson annulation geared towards the second-year organic chemistry major and demonstrating aspects of green chemistry.
Lazarski, Kiel E.; Rich, Alan A.; Mascarenhas, Cheryl M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1531.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry
Quantitative Analysis of Nail Polish Remover Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Revisited  Markus M. Hoffmann, Joshua T. Caccamis, Mark P. Heitz, and Kenneth D. Schlecht
Substantial modifications intended for a second- or third-year laboratory course in analytical chemistry are presented for a previously described procedure using NMR spectroscopy to quantitatively determine analytes in commercial nail polish remover. The revised experiment introduces student collaboration to critically interpret a relatively large set of data.
Hoffmann, Markus M.; Caccamis, Joshua T.; Heitz, Mark P.; Schlecht, Kenneth D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1421.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H2S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds  Indu Tucker Sidhwani and Sushmita Chowdhury
The classic technique for the qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures relies on highly toxic hydrogen sulfide. Increasing environmental awareness has prompted the development of a green scheme for the detection of cations by spot tests that is simple and fast.
Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1099.
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Polymer-Supported Reagents and 1H–19F NMR Couplings: The Synthesis of 2-Fluoroacetophenone  Nicola Pohl and Kimberly Schwarz
Describes an experiment in which 2-bromoacetophenone is converted to 2-fluoroacetophenone using a solid-phase nucleophilic fluorine source. The experiment introduces students to the utility of solid-phase reagents in organic synthesis, to NMR-active nuclei other than 1H without the requirement of a special NMR probe, and to the unique uses of fluorine in molecular design.
Pohl, Nicola; Schwarz, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 834.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Acid-Catalyzed Enolization of β-Tetralone  Brahmadeo Dewprashad, Anthony Nesturi, and Joel Urena
This experiment allows students to use 1H NMR to compare the rates of substitution of benzylic and non-benzylic a hydrogens of -tetralone and correlate their findings with predictions made by resonance theory.
Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Nesturi, Anthony; Urena, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 829.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Isotopes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactive Intermediates |
Resonance Theory |
Synthesis
The Baeyer–Villiger Oxidation with Trifluoroacetic Acid and Household Sodium Percarbonate  Richard A. Kjonaas and Anthony E. Clemons
Reports a method for carrying out the BaeyerVilliger oxidation of cyclopentanone to d-valerolactone in a large-section introductory organic chemistry laboratory course.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Clemons, Anthony E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper  Mark Mascal and Richard Scown
In this experiment, waste newspaper is pulped with acid and its cellulose hydrolyzed to produce glucose syrup that is fermented and distilled to yield ethanol. In doing so, students are introduced to carbohydrate chemistry and the use of fermentation in organic synthesis.
Mascal, Mark; Scown, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis and Characterization of 9-Hydroxyphenalenone Using 2D NMR Techniques  Benjamin Caes and Dell Jensen Jr.
The synthesis of 9-Hydroxyphenalenone produces a planar multicyclic beta-ketoenol, the tautomerization of which results in C2v symmetry on the NMR time scale, thus simplifying the spectra and providing a unique structure for teaching 2D NMR spectroscopy.
Caes, Benjamin; Jensen, Dell, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 413.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Why Are 1H NMR Integrations Not Perfect? An Inquiry-Based Exercise for Exploring the Relationship Between Spin Dynamics and NMR Integration in the Organic Lab  Haim Weizman
When FT-NMR is used to collect data without a sufficient delay time between subsequent pulses, the integrated area under certain peaks may result in a lower value than should be observed under appropriate conditions. This exercise is designed to raise awareness of this issue in students and to serve as an inquiry-based stepping-stone into basic FT-NMR.
Weizman, Haim. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 294.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy
ATR–FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Jennifer D. Schuttlefield and Vicki H. Grassian
Presents several examples of the use of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, including measuring the infrared spectra of solid and liquid organic compounds commonly used as unknowns and of inorganic solids synthesized by students.
Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Grassian, Vicki H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 279.
IR Spectroscopy |
Liquids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Undergraduate Research
Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis in the Organic Teaching Lab: A Simple, Greener Wittig Reaction  Eric Martin and Cynthia Kellen-Yuen
A microwave-assisted Wittig reaction has been developed for the organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this technique, a variety of styrene derivatives have been synthesized from aromatic aldehydes in good yields. The mixture of cis and trans alkenes produced also provides instructors with opportunities to emphasize the spectroscopic analysis of product mixtures.
Martin, Eric; Kellen-Yuen, Cynthia. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2004.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  Bruce M. Branan, Joshua T. Butcher, and Lawrence R. Olsen
This organic laboratory involves the ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil) followed by a reductive workup that generates an aldehyde easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra.
Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1979.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Qualitative Organic Analysis That Exploits the Senses of Smell, Touch, and Sound  Deborah C. Bromfield-Lee and Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo
In this sensorial laboratory, students differentiate a variety of compounds by their aromas and, based on their olfactory classification, identify an unknown functional group. They then perform chemical tests incorporating touch, smell, and sound to confirm the functional group present.
Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1976.
Qualitative Analysis
Determination of Solvent Effects on Keto—Enol Equilibria of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds Using NMR  A. Gilbert Cook and Paul M. Feltman
Expands the classic physical chemistry experiment using of proton NMR to determine the equilibrium position of tautomeric 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in various solvents.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Feltman, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Equilibrium |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Probing the Rate-Determining Step of the Claisen–Schmidt Condensation by Competition Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Wing-Fat Chan, Ka-Ying Lung, Wai-Yee Lam, Weng-Cheong Ng, and Siu-Fung Lee
This article describes a physical organic experiment to identify the rate-determining step of the ClaisenSchmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and acetophenone by studying the linear free energy relationship.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Chan, Wing-Fat; Lung, Ka-Ying; Lam, Wai-Yee; Ng, Weng-Cheong; Lee, Siu-Fung. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1819.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gas Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones  Nicholas G. Angelo, Laura K. Henchey, Adam J. Waxman, James W. Canary, Paramjit S. Arora, and Donald Wink
Describes an experiment in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and ketone and make use of TLC, column chromatography, recrystallization, and characterization by 1H NMR, GCMS, and FTIR.
Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1816.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Hydration of Acetylene: A 125th Anniversary  Dmitry A. Ponomarev and Sergey M. Shevchenko
The discovery the hydration of alkynes catalyzed by mercury ions by Mikhail Kucherov made possible industrial production of acetaldehyde from acetylene and had a profound effect on the development of industrial chemistry in the 1920th centuries.
Ponomarev, Dmitry A.; Shevchenko, Sergey M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1725.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkynes |
Catalysis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Reactions
A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent  Christopher J. Fenk, Nathan Kaufman, and Donald G. Gerbig, Jr.
Presents a new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of aspartame that incorporates a less caustic biuret reagent and visible spectroscopic analysis for selective detection in aqueous solutions using readily available instrumentation.
Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1676.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Food Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids
A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions  A. Gilbert Cook
The product of a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction is identified through a guided prelab exercise of the synthesis of the Hagemann ester, and then through the analysis of GCMS, NMR, and IR spectra. The stereochemistry of the product is determined through the NMR spectrum and Karplus curve, and the student is required to write a mechanism for the reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1477.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
A Guided-Inquiry Approach to the Sodium Borohydride Reduction and Grignard Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds  Robert E. Rosenberg
Students teams identify unknowns and their reaction products and use their data to deduce that esters are less electrophilic than the other carbonyl compounds present, that Grignard reagents are more nucleophilic than sodium borohydride, and that carboxylic acid derivatives do not undergo the nucleophilic addition reactions that are characteristic of aldehydes and ketones.
Rosenberg, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1474.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes  Benjamin M. Hutchins, Thomas T. Morgan, Miné G. Ucak-Astarlioglu, and Mary Elizabeth Williams
Visually observed fluorescent colors of quantum dots in conjunction with spectroscopic data show students the additive emission of such mixtures; while some appear to emit white light, their fluorescence peaks remain spectroscopically resolved.
Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Miné G.; Williams, Mary Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1301.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Photochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Vanillin Synthesis from 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde  Douglass F. Taber, Shweta Patel, Travis M. Hambleton, and Emma E. Winkel
Describes a simple and safe preparation of vanillin from 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde appropriate for undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories.
Taber, Douglass F.; Patel, Shweta; Hambleton, Travis M.; Winkel, Emma E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1158.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Food Science |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
CARBOHYDECK: A Card Game To Teach the Stereochemistry of Carbohydrates  Manuel João Costa
This paper describes CARBOHYDECK, a card game that may replace or complement lectures identifying and differentiating monosaccharide isomers.
Costa, Manuel João. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 977.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Student-Centered Learning
Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone  Rajani Gandhari, Padma P. Maddukuri, and Thottumkara K. Vinod
Describes an eco-friendly procedure for the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids in water or a water-ethanol mixture using Oxone as the oxidant. The use of eco-friendly solvents, a non-toxic reagent, and the elimination of extraction solvents in the procedure demonstrate important green chemistry themes to students.
Gandhari, Rajani; Maddukuri, Padma P.; Vinod, Thottumkara K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 852.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  Amber Victoria Irish Hess
Thin-layer chromatography enhanced by digital photography is ideal for high school and college labs and can perform qualitative and quantitative analysis comparable to more expensive, high-performance TLC equipment. Using common photo-editing software, one can quickly produce multi-spectral scans, densitograms, and calibration curves, output previously limited to HPTLC.
Hess, Amber Victoria Irish. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 842.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography
A Disciplined Chemical Puzzle  Miguel Peris
A puzzle is presented as an entertaining learning activity for intermediate-level chemistry students. Data required to solve the puzzle is obtained by deducing information from clues based on inorganic and organic chemistry.
Peris, Miguel. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 609.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Using a Premade Grignard Reagent To Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment  Michael A. G. Berg and Roy D. Pointer
Describes the use of a commercially available Grignard reagent in a Grignard synthesis that avoided the failures typically associated with the Grignard reaction.
Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 483.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Synthesis
The Aldol Addition and Condensation: The Effect of Conditions on Reaction Pathway  R. David Crouch, Amie Richardson, Jessica L. Howard, Rebecca L. Harker, and Kathryn H. Barker
Describes an experiment offering the opportunity for students to observe the critical role that reaction temperature and base strength have in determining the product of the base-mediated addition of a ketone to an aldehyde.
Crouch, R. David; Richardson, Amie; Howard, Jessica L.; Harker, Rebecca L.; Barker, Kathryn H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 475.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Green Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  George D. Bennett
The proline-catalyzed aldol condensation between acetone and isobutyraldehyde proceeds in good yield and with high enantioselectivity at room temperature. This multi-week experiment also illustrates a number of principles and trade-offs of green chemistry.
Bennett, George D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1871.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis of meso-Diethyl-2,2′-dipyrromethane in Water. An Experiment in Green Organic Chemistry  Abilio J. F. N. Sobral
In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to the synthesis of dipyrromethanes important precursors for porphyrin and calix[4]pyrrolethrough the acid-catalyzed condensation of pyrrole and 3-pentanone to produce meso-diethyl-2,2'-dipyrromethane.
Sobral, Abilio J. F. N. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1665.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis
A Discovery-Learning 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone Experiment  Bruno M. Vittimberga and Ben Ruekberg
Selections of liquid aldehydes and ketones are proposed for students to determine what property is the best predictor of the color (yellow to red) of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative. Students may use a computer (spreadsheet or word processor) to analyze their results.
Vittimberga, Bruno M.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1661.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Microwave-Mediated Synthesis of Lophine: Developing a Mechanism To Explain a Product   R. David Crouch, Jessica L. Howard, Jennifer L. Zile, and Kathryn H. Barker
Describes the microwave-mediated preparation of lophine (2,4,5-triphenylimidazole). The experiment also provides an opportunity for students to employ the principles of carbonyl chemistry in devising a mechanism to explain the formation of the product.
Crouch, R. David; Howard, Jessica L.; Zile, Jennifer L.; Barker, Kathryn H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1658.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Modeling |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy
Synthesis and Analysis of a Versatile Imine for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Jacqueline Bennett, Kristen Meldi, and Christopher Kimmell II
In this experiment students prepare and analyze N-p-methoxyphenyl (N-PMP) alpha-imino ethyl glyoxalate, an imine that has been used in the synthesis of biologically active molecules. The stability and versatility of this imine allow it to be used in subsequent reactions, offering a variety of possible multistep synthetic strategies.
Bennett, Jacqueline; Meldi, Kristen; Kimmell, Christopher, II. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1221.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Infrared Examination of the Transformation of Barium Sulfate into Barium Carbonate. An Inorganic Infrared Qualitative and Quantitative Experiment  Gene E. Kalbus, Van T. Lieu, and Lee H. Kalbus
This experiment provides an interesting pedagogical exercise that not only demonstrates the value of infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of inorganic systems, but also visually illustrates a procedure used in classical wet chemical qualitative analysis for sample preparation.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 910.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids
Ozonolysis Problems That Promote Student Reasoning  Ray A. Gross Jr.
The structural features inherent in acyclic monoterpenes that follow the isoprene rule often lead to unique sets of ozonolysis products from which their structures, excluding stereochemistry, can be determined from molecular formulas only. This article shows how students may elucidate the structures of these compounds by analysis of the oxidative and reductive workup products.
Gross, Ray A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 604.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Student-Centered Learning
Diastereoselectivity in the Reduction of α-Hydroxyketones. An Experiment for the Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  David B. Ball
Describes a research type, inquiry-based project where students synthesize racemic ahydroxyketones using umpolung, a polarity-reversal approach; investigate chelating versus non-chelating reducing agents; and determine the diastereoselectivity of these reducing processes by NMR spectroscopy.
Ball, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 101.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Conferences |
Constitutional Isomers |
Enantiomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Conformational Analysis
Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests  Craig Anderson
Tests for illegal drugs were performed on unknowns obtained from over-the-counter cold medicines. Substances that tested positive for the qualitative Marquis color test were found to be false positives for illegal substances, while scopolamine hydrochloride shows a false positive for cocaine hydrochloride with the cobalt thiocyanate reagent.
Anderson, Craig. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1809.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis  Brian F. Woodfield, Merritt B. Andrus, Gregory L. Waddoups, Melissa S. Moore, Richard Swan, Rob Allen, Greg Bodily, Tricia Andersen, Jordan Miller, Bryon Simmons, and Richard Stanger
Describes a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. The purpose of these simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments.
Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1728.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 6. Selective Reduction in Organic Chemistry: Reduction of Aldehydes in the Presence of Esters Using Sodium Borohydride  Ashvin R. Baru and Ram S. Mohan
Describes two discovery oriented lab experiments involving the chemoselective reduction of vanillin acetate and methyl 4-formylbenzoate in the presence of esters using sodium borohydride, followed by product identification using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
Baru, Ashvin R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1674.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Preparation, Analysis, and Characterization of Some Transition Metal Complexes—A Holistic Approach  Kristy M. Blyth, Lindsay R. Mullings, David N. Phillips, David Pritchard, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
In this laboratory procedure, a wide range of complexes are characterized by IR and UVvis spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, and conductance. The results allow one to the deduce the nature and strength of the bonding of the ligand to the central atom and the number of ions that the complex produces in aqueous solution.
Blyth, Kristy M.; Mullings, Lindsay R.; Phillips, David N.; Pritchard, David; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1667.
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Conductivity
NMR Analysis of Unknowns: An Introduction to 2D NMR Spectroscopy  David E. Alonso and Steven E. Warren
Second-year organic chemistry students analyze and compare the spectral data of three unknown ketones (2-heptanone, 3-heptanone, and 4-heptanone). Students acquire one-dimensional proton and carbon NMR data for each unknown and make signal assignments based on chemical shifts, integration values, and splitting patterns of signals. Difficulties are encountered during interpretation of NMR data for 2- and 3-heptanone. Acquiring and analyzing the two-dimensional NMR spectra of the heptanones resolve these problems.
Alonso, David E.; Warren, Steven E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1385.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance  Neil M. Glagovich and Timothy D. Shine
An undergraduate organic laboratory designed to teach the use of IR and NMR spectra interpretation in the identification of an unknown substance has been developed. This laboratory requires the student to obtain the IR spectrum of an unknown substance and, from the interpretation of that spectrum, determine which of several possible functional groups is present in the molecule. Using this information and either the melting point or boiling point of the unknown, the student is able to determine a list of likely candidates (usually between eight and twelve suspects collated from a supplied table of possible compounds). The student will then draw the structures for all candidate compounds and, from those structures, predict the 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra for each.
Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1382.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solids |
Liquids
Using Building-Block Puzzles To Practice Drawing Organic Mechanisms  Ender Erdik
This pencil-and-paper activity is designed to test the ability of students in writing intermediates and products in the reactions of ketones. An undergraduate student who is successful in organic chemistry at the sophomore level is expected to fill in empty boxes with the appropriate "building blocks", which are atoms and atom groups (neutral or ionic). Solving the puzzle will give the formulas of reactants, reactive intermediates, and products. Students test their understanding of reaction mechanisms while having fun.
Erdik, Ender. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1325.
Reactive Intermediates |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Improved Preparation of 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine Reagent  Ben Ruekberg and Eric Rossoni
In the analysis of aldehydes and ketones (both for characterizing the functional group and identifying such compounds by the melting points of their derivatives), 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent is often used. Of the several formulations of this reagent, the most popular uses sulfuric acid. The method involves making a paste of 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazine in concentrated sulfuric acid, dispersion of the paste in ethanol, addition of water, and the filtration of the reagent. This improvement uses milder conditions, which may obviate the need for the final filtration. Those responsible for preparation of stock reagent solutions for classes should note that this method facilitates scaling up the preparation.
Ruekberg, Ben; Rossoni, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1310.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A Microwave-Assisted Reduction of Cyclohexanone Using Solid-State-Supported Sodium Borohydride  Lori L. White and Kevin W. Kittredge
We report a microwave-assisted reduction of cyclohexanone by sodium borohydride that is supported on SiO2. The reaction was completed in less than 3 minutes. Workup and analysis by GCMS, IR, and 1H NMR was possible in a two and half-hour laboratory session. This reduction was used successfully in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory. Students were exposed to a green chemistry reaction using solid-state-supported reactants in the absence of solvent.
White, Lori L.; Kittredge, Kevin W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1055.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Realizing Workplace Skills in Instrumental Analysis  John H. Kalivas
Undergraduates entering the workforce often lack key technical skills. This paper describes an approach to teaching an instrumental analysis laboratory that assists students in attaining expertise needed for the work place. The course provides experiences with life-long benefits by developing good laboratory practices in concert with protocols common to commercial and research laboratories.
Kalivas, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 895.
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Screening Technique for Lead and Cadmium in Toys and Other Materials Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy  Henry Brouwer
This article describes a simple method to determine the presence of metals such as lead and cadmium in plastic toys, paints, and other solids using an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) without going through the time-consuming sample preparation steps. Basically, the method involves transferring solid sample to a nichrome wire by placing a small sample on a wire loop or touching the heated wire to the sample and then heating the wire in the AAS flame. By choosing the appropriate radiation source and wavelength, the presence of different metals may be determined qualitatively.
Brouwer, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 611.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Qualitative Organic Analysis—In the Classroom and Laboratory  K. Thomas Finley
The identification of molecular structure remains central to the study of chemistry and the search for new and useful materials. The classical methods of qualitative organic analysis provide opportunities to illustrate the fascinating world of science to a broad audience of students at different levels of study. Specific examples of the use of this subject matter with high school students, organic chemistry students, and nonscience students are given.
Finley, K. Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 240.
Qualitative Analysis |
Nonmajor Courses
A Substitute for “Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride”  Joshua M. Daley and Robert G. Landolt
Benzotrifluoride (BTF) is a suitable solvent substitute for carbon tetrachloride in experiments requiring application of bromine (Br2) in free radical or addition reactions with organic substrates. A 1 M solution of Br2 in BTF may be used to distinguish hydrocarbons based on the ease of abstraction of hydrogen atoms in thermally or light-induced free radical substitutions. Efficacy of minimization of solvent use, by aliquot addition to neat samples, has been established.
Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 120.
Alkenes |
Free Radicals |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions
Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Sam H. Leung and Stephen A. Angel
In this experiment (E)- and (Z)-1-(4-bromophenyl)-2-phenylethene are synthesized by a solvent-free Wittig reaction. The reaction is effected by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle. Both the E and Z isomers of the product are produced as evidenced by thin-layer chromatography and 1H NMR analysis. The E isomer is isolated by crystallization with ethanol in this experiment. In addition to learning about the Wittig reaction, students are also introduced to the ideas of mechanochemistry and green chemistry.
Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1492.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes
The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery  John W. Nicholson and Alan Wilson
This article describes the history of the reaction converting carboxylic acids to ketones. The reaction has been rediscovered several times, yet has actually been known for centuries.
Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1362.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Pressure Dependence of Gas-Phase Reaction Rates  Stéphanie de Persis, Alain Dollet, and Francis Teyssandier
This article is intended to show that only simple concepts are required to qualitatively explain and describe the pressure dependence of gas-phase reaction rates.
de Persis, Stéphanie; Dollet, Alain; Teyssandier, Francis. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 832.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Darzens Condensation: Structure Determination through Spectral Analysis and Understanding Substrate Reactivity  R. David Crouch, Michael S. Holden, and Candice A. Romany
The Darzens condensation involves two steps that are typically included in the sophomore organic curriculum: an aldol reaction followed by an intramolecular nucleophilic substitution.
Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S.; Romany, Candice A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 711.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Methyl Ethyl Ketone  Jay A. Young
The hazards of methyl ethyl ketone are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 630.
Laboratory Management |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: Autopsy in Blue  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
This story is a chemical mystery with an emphasis on qualitative inorganic analysis, forensic chemistry, and medicinal substances. This is the 15th article in a series presenting a scientific problem in mystery format in the context of the popular and beloved characters Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 497.
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Patty L. Feist
Students are given a mixture of a solid ketone and a solid alcohol and asked to separate and identify the two components. First the students use TLC to determine the optimum solvent system to separate the two compounds, then they separate the unknowns on a microscale flash chromatography column. The students acquire the melting point, and if possible, the IR and 1H NMR spectra for each separated compound and identify them by matching the observed data with that of known compounds.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 109.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The Base-Induced Reaction of Salicylaldehyde with 1-Bromobutane in Acetone: Two Related Examples of Chemical Problem Solving  Holly D. Bendorf and Chriss E. McDonald
Each student performs his or her own experimental work, running one of the two reactions, and acquiring the proton and carbon NMR, IR, and mass spectra. The students work in groups to propose structures for the products and mechanisms for their formation. The students are also asked to address why the reactions take different courses.
Bendorf, Holly D.; McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1185.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Phenols |
IR Spectroscopy
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood  Benjamin P. Huddle and Joseph C. Stephens
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbon monoxide in blood using the Conway diffusion method.
Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 441.
Gases |
Toxicology |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Basic Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy ( J. Michael Hollas)  Brian K. Taylor
Covers the concepts of quantitative and qualitative spectroscopy without significant mathematical detail.
Taylor, Brian K. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 389.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A Qualitative Investigation of Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Macroscopic Interpretations of the Submicroscopic Structures of Molecules  Gayle Nicoll
Study of how undergraduate chemistry students (freshman through senior) translate between symbolic and submicroscopic representations of molecules by building free-form models, given the symbolic formula for the molecules, and whether these conceptions change with increased chemistry instruction.
Nicoll, Gayle. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 205.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Qualitative Analysis
Identifying a Protein by MALDI–TOF Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory  Anne E. Counterman, Matthew S. Thompson, and David E. Clemmer
Experiment that requires students to use mass spectral data (MALDI-TOF) to find the identity of an unknown protein sample by performing a database search on the Internet.
Counterman, Anne E.; Thompson, Matthew S.; Clemmer, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 177.
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
Micelle-Mediated Extraction of Heavy Metals from Environmental Samples: An Environmental Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Dimosthenis L. Giokas, Evangelos K. Paleologos, and Miltiades I. Karayannis
A laboratory focussing on the determination of metallic elements in drinking water through cloud-point extraction.
Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Karayannis, Miltiades I. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 61.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Analysis of Seawater: A Laboratory-Centered Learning Project in General Chemistry  Jodye I. Selco, Julian L. Roberts, Jr., and Daniel B. Wacks
Experiment designed to introduce students to qualitative and quantitative analysis methods (gravimetric analysis, potentiometric titration, ion-selective electrodes, and atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy) in the context of an overall analysis of an environmental sample.
Selco, Jodye I.; Roberts, Julian L., Jr.; Wacks, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 54.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Potentiometry
Preparing Students for Research: Synthesis of Substituted Chalcones as a Comprehensive Guided-Inquiry Experience  James R. Vyvyan, Donald L. Pavia, Gary M. Lampman, and George S. Kriz Jr.
An aldol condensation of substituted benzaldehydes with substituted acetophones to produce substituted benzalacetophenones (chalcones) in a guided-inquiry approach.
Vyvyan, James R.; Pavia, Donald L.; Lampman, Gary M.; Kriz, George S., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1119.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Application of Datalogger in Biosensing: A Glucose Biosensor  Martin M. F. Choi and Pui Shan Wong
Using an eggshell as a platform for the immobilization of glucose oxidase while determining glucose concentration through the depletion of oxygen as measured by an oxygen sensor and datalogger.
Choi, Martin M. F.; Wong, Pui Shan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 982.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Synthesis and Characterization of a Gasoline Oxygenate, Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether  Craig J. Donahue, Teresa D'Amico, and Jennifer A. Exline
Procedure for the synthesis and characterization of ethyl tert-butyl ether.
Donahue, Craig J.; D'Amico, Teresa; Exline, Jennifer A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 724.
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Ethers |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Identification of Flavor Components in Perfumes by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  Gerd Knupp, Peter Kusch, and Michael Neugebauer
Experiment for the identification of flavor components in commercial perfume through headspace-solid-phase extraction (HS-SPME) followed by GC-MS.
Knupp, Gerd; Kusch, Peter; Neugebauer, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 98.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry
Leopold's Workbench: The Hapsburg-Lorraine Grand Duke and Chemistry  Gianfranco Scorrano, Nicoletta Nicolini, and Ida M. Masoner
Analysis of the contents of containers preserved in unlabeled glass bottles within the desk of Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1765-1790), and consideration of their potential use.
Scorrano, Gianfranco; Nicolini, Nicoletta; Masoner, Ida M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 47.
Qualitative Analysis
Raman Spectroscopy with a Fiber-Optic Probe and Multichannel Detection  Thomas J. Vickers, Jeanne Pecha, and Charles K. Mann
Exercise emphasizing instrumental methods of chemical analysis of solids and liquids relying on Raman spectroscopy.
Vickers, Thomas J.; Pecha, Jeanne; Mann, Charles K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1674.
Instrumental Methods |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Cigarette Smoke Analysis Using an Inexpensive Gas-Phase IR Cell  N. Garizi, A. Macias, T. Furch, R. Fan, P. Wagenknecht, and K. A. Singmaster
A PVC gas cell used to collect and analyze cigarette smoke and car exhaust through IR spectroscopy.
Garizi, N.; Macias, A.; Furch, T.; Fan, R.; Wagenknecht, P.; Singmaster, K. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1665.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis
Relating Qualitative Analysis to Equilibrium Principles  Glenn V. Lo
Mathcad document intended for a prelab activity for qualitative analysis experiments.
Lo, Glenn V. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1557.
Qualitative Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Precipitation / Solubility
Using Capillary Electrophoresis to Determine the Purity of Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Frank Welder and Christa L. Colyer
Determination of the concentration of synthesized acetylsalicylic acid and unreacted salicylic acid using capillary electrophoresis.
Welder, Frank; Colyer, Christa L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1525.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
An Alternative Confirmatory Test for Silver Ion in Qualitative Analysis  Louis J. Kirschenbaum, Elmo Resende, Edwin Li, and Ben Ruekberg
Confirmatory test for silver ion that reduces volume and toxicity of waste involved by using ascorbic acid.
Kirschenbaum, Louis J.; Resende, Elmo; Li, Edwin; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1524.
Qualitative Analysis
Analysis of Zinc Tablets: An Extension to a Stoichiometry Experiment  Steven Murov and Brian Stedjee
Titration of ferrocyanide solutions with zinc ion.
Murov, Steven; Stedjee, Brian. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1389.
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Discovery-Oriented Approach To Organic Synthesis: Tandem Aldol Condensation-Michael Addition Reactions. Identifying Diastereotopic Hydrogens in an Achiral Molecule by NMR Spectroscopy  Nanette Wachter-Jurcsak and Kendra Reddin
Procedure illustrating aldol condensation and Michael addition reactions.
Wachter-Jurcsak, Nanette; Reddin, Kendra. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1264.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Modification of a Lactase Experiment by Use of Commercial Test Strips  Tammy J. Melton
Using urinalysis test strips to detect the presence of glucose.
Melton, Tammy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1243.
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Nonmajor Courses |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Was the Driver Drunk? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Determination of Blood Alcohol Content  Jennifer L. Zabzdyr and Sheri J. Lillard
Forensic-based experiment to motivate correct analytical procedures and careful interpretation of data by using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.
Zabzdyr, Jennifer L.; Lillard, Sheri J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1225.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography
The TCICA Test for Distinguishing Aldehydes and Ketones  Gene A. Hiegel, Christine Juska, and Michelle Kim
Distinguishing aldehydes from ketones through their reaction with TCICA (trichloroisocyanuric acid).
Hiegel, Gene A.; Juska, Christine; Kim, Michelle. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1105.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Distinguishing Calcium Carbonate from Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate by Instrumental Methods. A Set of Laboratory Experiments for Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  Eugenio Garribba, Giovanni Micera, Liliana Strinna-Erre, and Giovanna Stara
Distinguishing calcium carbonate from calcium sulfate dihydrate through chemical analysis, thermal analysis and decomposition, IR spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy, and EDXRF spectroscopy.
Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Strinna-Erre, Liliana; Stara, Giovanna. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1090.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thermal Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
A More Realistic Teaching Style in Spectroscopic Instruction  Mar Gómez Gallego, Santiago Romano, Miguel A. Sierra, and Enrique Nieto
A practical application of spectroscopic analysis in intermediate and advanced organic chemistry to determine reaction mechanisms and identify products; provides three specific problems.
Gallego, Mar Gómez; Romano, Santiago; Sierra, Miguel A.; Nieto, Enrique. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 765.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Learning Theories |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Surfactant-Induced Osazone Formation at Room Temperature  K. Nagajyothi, P. S. Raghavan, and R. Gopalan
Using surfactants for speedy and easy identification of reducing sugars without heating.
Nagajyothi, K.; Raghavan, P. S.; Gopalan, R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 728.
Catalysis |
Micelles |
Surface Science |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis
Diastereoselective Synthesis of (+/-)-1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-propanediol. A Discovery-Based Grignard Reaction Suitable for a Large Organic Lab Course  James A. Ciaccio, Roxana P. Bravo, Antoinette L. Drahus, John B. Biggins, Rosalyn V. Concepcion, and David Cabrera
An experiment that probes the diastereoselectivity of the reaction between a Grignard reagent and a common, inexpensive alpha-chiral ketone; introduces students to pi-facial discrimination by having them establish the stereochemical course of kinetically controlled nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl.
Ciaccio, James A.; Bravo, Roxana P.; Drahus, Antoinette L.; Biggins, John B.; Concepcion, Rosalyn V.; Cabrera, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 531.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Grignard Reagents |
Aldehydes / Ketones
From GC to the NMR: A Simple Semipreparative Gas Chromatography Collection Method Using NMR Tubes  Andrew R. Bressette
Semipreparative gas chromatography is an excellent technique for isolating small amounts of volatile compounds from mixtures. A new, inexpensive semipreparative GC collection tube was developed utilizing a standard 5-mm NMR tube to collect the purified samples.
Bressette, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 366.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Sampling Technique for Organic Solids in IR Spectroscopy: Thin Solid Films as the Method of Choice in Teaching Laboratories  Patty L. Feist
Techniques for sampling solid organic compounds for FTIR spectroscopy are briefly compared and contrasted. One method, called thin solid films, stands out as the method of choice in undergraduate laboratories because they are easy and inexpensive to prepare; the spectra obtained are of good to excellent quality.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 351.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Qualitative Analysis
Undergraduate Science and Engineering Students' Understanding of the Reliability of Chemical Data  Bette Davidowitz, Fred Lubben, and Marissa Rollnick
This study investigates the status of procedural knowledge of sophomore science and chemical engineering students in South Africa. Procedural knowledge includes collection, manipulation, and interpretation of experimental data. Some implications for teaching are given.
Davidowitz, Bette; Lubben, Fred; Rollnick, Marissa. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 247.
Qualitative Analysis |
Learning Theories
Determination of Flavonoids in Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  Celeste da Queija, M. A. Queirós, and Ligia M. Rodrigues
An application of HPLC to the analysis of flavonoids in wines, designed for students of instrumental methods. This laboratory work is very attractive to students because they deal with a common daily product whose components are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects.
da Queija, Celeste; Queirós, M. A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 236.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC
A Novel Experiment for Fast and Simple Determination of the Oxygen Content in the Air  Metodija Najdoski and Vladimir M. Petrusevski
The reaction between nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen is used for determination of the oxygen content in the air. The nitrogen dioxide thus produced is dissolved in water. The volume decrease of the gas enables quick and accurate enough determination of the O2 content. The results of 20 measurements give %O2 = 21.04  0.63.
Najdoski, Metodija; Petrusevski, Vladimir M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1447.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry
INQUAL-S  Victor I. Bendall and Sean Johnson
INQUAL-S is a simulation of inorganic qualitative analysis using the insolubility of sulfides as the main avenue to separation. This simulation allows for the identification of eighteen common cations in a mixture of their nitrates.
Bendall, Victor I.; Johnson, S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 936.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Preparation and Analysis of Multiple Hydrates of Simple Salts  Richard W. Schaeffer, Benny Chan, Shireen R. Marshall, Brian Blasiole, Neetha Khan, Kendra L. Yoder, Melissa E. Trainer, and Claude H. Yoder
A laboratory project in which students prepare a series of hydrates of simple salts and then determine the extent of hydration of the product(s); provides a good introduction to the concepts of solubility, saturation, recrystallization, relative compound stability, and simple gravimetric analysis.
Schaeffer, Richard W.; Chan, Benny; Marshall, Shireen R.; Blasiole, Brian; Khan, Neetha; Yoder, Kendra L.; Trainer, Melissa E.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 509.
Stoichiometry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Organic Chemistry in Capillaries  Bharat G. Mahamulkar, Dilip D. Dhavale, and Shriniwas L. Kelkar
Capillaries are put to several uses such as checking the solubility, detecting a functional group, and performing reactions. These innovative uses of open-ended capillaries reduce the consumption of chemicals, solvents, and reagents and considerably lessen the time required to perform all these functions.
Mahamulkar, Bharat G.; Dhavale, Dilip D.; Kelkar, Shriniwas L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 387.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Introducing Chiroscience into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum  Kenny B. Lipkowitz, Tim Naylor, and Keith S. Anliker
"Chiroscience" is a young but robust industry linking science and technology with chemistry and biology; includes description of an asymmetric reduction of a ketone followed by an assessment of the enantiomeric excess by GC using a chiral stationary phase.
Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Naylor, Tim; Anliker, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 305.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Synthesis of Derivatives of (1R)-(-)- and (1S)-(+)-10-Camphorsulfonic Acid  Steven C. Cermak and David F. Wiemer
The preparation of optically active (camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridines from commercially available (1R)-(-) and/or (1S)-(+)10-camphorsulfonic acid provides a clear demonstration of the lack of relationship between absolute configuration and optical rotation. The parent sulfonic acid can be converted to the corresponding acid chloride and then to the sulfonamide, sulfonylimine, and finally to an oxaziridine in a series of practical organic laboratory experiments.
Cermak, Steven C.; Wiemer, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1715.
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases
Antacids Revisited with Modern Chemical Instruments: GCMS, AAS, and CCT  Stanley L. Burden and Christopher J. Petzold
This paper describes a novel experiment that requires students to obtain and interpret data from several analytical techniques to identify the brand name of a commercial antacid. They are required to design a set of experiments utilizing computer controlled titrations (CCT), atomic absorption (AA), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS), and careful quantitative manual titrations using a visual indicator of their choice to determine the brand name of their sample from a list of six to eight choices.
Burden, Stanley L.; Petzold, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1544.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Piltdown Man: Combining the Instruction of Scientific Ethics and Qualitative Analysis  John B. Vincent
Pieces of chalk are treated with chromium, manganese, and iron to simulate the treatment used to forge the Piltdown "fossils"; students can use techniques in qualitative analysis schemes for the group III ions to determine whether the samples are "forgeries" and if so which metal ion(s) were used.
Vincent, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1501.
Ethics |
Qualitative Analysis
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiocyanate in Human Saliva  Markku Lahti*, Juhani Vilpo, and Jari Hovinen
Here is described how qualitative and quantitative analysis of human saliva thiocyanate ion can be performed as a part of the laboratory exercise for the determination of chemical equilibrium between Fe+3 and SCN- ions.
Lahti, Markku; Vilpo, Juhani; Hovinen, Jari. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1281.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A Fast and Reliable Method for Packing Capillaries for X-ray Powder Diffraction Analysis  Walter K. Dean and Brett J. MacIntyre
This note presents an improved method for filling capillary tubes for X-ray powder crystallographic analysis, which avoids the tedium and breakage associated with traditional methods.
Dean, Walter K.; MacIntyre, Brett J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1245.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
X-ray Crystallography
Qualitative Analysis in the Beginning Organic Laboratory  James H. Cooley and Richard Vaughan Williams
We present arguments for the continued inclusion of qualitative analysis in the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum. We have developed a problem-solving approach to the teaching of these laboratory courses.
Cooley, James H.; Williams, Richard Vaughan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1117.
Learning Theories |
Qualitative Analysis
The Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds, 7th Edition (by R. L. Shriner, C. K. F. Hermann, T. C. Morrill, D. Y. Curtin, and R. C. Fuson)  David Evans
Qualitative organic chemistry text.
Evans, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1069.
Qualitative Analysis
Service-Learning General Chemistry: Lead Paint Analyses  Laya Kesner and Edward M. Eyring
In a service-learning general chemistry class, students disseminate information about this health threat in an older neighborhood. At some of the homes they collect paint samples that they analyze for lead both qualitatively and quantitatively. This service-learning experience generates enthusiasm for general chemistry through the process of working on a "real" problem.
Kesner, Laya; Eyring, Edward M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 920.
Toxicology |
Applications of Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Preparation and Identification of Benzoic Acids and Benzamides: An Organic "Unknown" Lab  Douglass F. Taber, Jade D. Nelson, and John P. Northrop
The reaction of an unknown substituted benzene derivative with oxalyl chloride and aluminum chloride gives the acid chloride. Hydrolysis of the acid chloride gives the acid, and reaction of the acid with concentrated aqueous ammonia gives the benzamide. The equivalent weight of the acid can be determined by titration; given this information and the melting points of the acid and the benzamide, it is possible to deduce the structure of the initial unknown.
Taber, Douglass F.; Nelson, Jade D.; Northrop, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 828.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Chemical Waste Management for the Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator  Steven W. Zimmer
For schools that generate relatively small quantities of waste, an individual can effectively manage the waste program without becoming overly burdened by the EPA regulations required for those generating large quantities of waste, if given the necessary support from the institution.
Zimmer, Steven W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 808.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Teaching Statistical Methods  Muranaka, Ken
Problems with Dixon's Q-test for testing outlying observations.
Muranaka, Ken J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 469.
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis
Is It Real Gold?  Harold H. Harris
The oxidation-reduction couples involved in the corrosion of gold alloys and the dissolution of "noble" metals are related to an inquiry to the newspaper columnist, Ann Landers. the origin of several contemporary phrases (touch stone, acid test, Hallmark) are found in the chemistry of gold.
Harris, Harold H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 198.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Functional Group Analysis  Johannes S. Malherbe and Cornelius J. Meyer
Initial questions where all results and observations of the chemical tests relating to the selected functional groups are systematically tabulated help to develop a methodical approach to analyzing problems. The tabulated comparisons can facilitate the student's approach to the classical questions, preventing random attempts with no regard for a process of elimination (if applicable).
Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 56.
Nonmajor Courses |
Qualitative Analysis |
Learning Theories
Reduction of 2,6-Dimethylcyclohexanone with Sodium Borohydride Revisited: A Correction on the Structural Assignments of the Products, and the Discovery of a Solvent Effect  Bruce A. Hathaway
Changing the solvent from methanol to ethanol produced a different ratio of cis-cis to trans-trans than was reported in the original work. Therefore, a short series of solvents was investigated to determine if there was a solvent effect. The results indicate that as the size and bulk of the solvent increase, the proportion of the trans alcohol product increases.
Hathaway, Bruce A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1623.
Stereochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Chromatography, Absorption, and Fluorescence: A New Instrumental Analysis Experiment on the Measurement of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cigarette Smoke  Lisa M. Wingen, Jason C. Low, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
An experiment suitable for an undergraduate junior/senior-level instrumental analysis laboratory which illustrates the principles of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its application to the identification and measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tobacco smoke.
Wingen, Lisa M.; Low, Jason C.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1599.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Lead Globules  Francisco J. Arnáiz and Maria R. Pedrosa
Reaction of plumbate solutions with aluminum. A variety of lead films can be formed depending on the conditions. The method we describe permits obtaining a large lead globule in less than 1 minute.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Pedrosa, Maria R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1431.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Vanillin (the author replies)  Hocking, Martin
Additional information regarding salicylic acid.
Hocking, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1203.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Vanillin  Calloway, Dean
Incorrect structural formula for methyl salicylate.
Calloway, Dean J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1203.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters  
Incorrect structural formula for methyl salicylate.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1203.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Infrared Spectroscopy Determination of Lead Binding to Ethylenediaminotetraacetic Acid  Alanah Fitch and Simona Dragan
In an attempt to improve a thematic lab sequence based on lead analysis of community derived samples, we have considered infrared spectroscopy as a method of determining the lead bound to ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid (EDTA).
Fitch, Alanah; Dragan, Simona. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1018.
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds
A Simple Organic Microscale Experiment Illustrating the Equilibrium Aspect of the Aldol Condensation  Ernest A. Harrison Jr.
A simple microscale experiment has been developed that illustrates the equilibrium aspect of the aldol condensation by using two versions of the standard preparation of tetraphenylcyclopentadienone from benzil and 1,3-diphenyl- 2-propanone.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 636.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Cinnamaldehyde by Steam Distillation of Cinnamon  Douglass F. Taber and Andrew J. Weiss
Powdered cinnamon foams badly on attempted steam distillation. It has been demonstrated that preliminary iterative evacuation of the aqueous mixture allows smooth distillation of cinnamaldehyde (I).
Taber, Douglass F.; Weiss, Andrew J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 633.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 484.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Dyes / Pigments
Incorporating Organic Name Reactions and Minimizing Qualitative Analysis in an Unknown Identification Experiment  Claire Castro and William Karney
The authors have developed a new type of unknown identification experiment for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. The unknown sample the student is provided with is the product of an organic name reaction. The student is only informed of the starting material and conditions used in the compound's synthesis, and must then: (1) deduce the compound's structure, (2) determine the name reaction and corresponding mechanism that yields the compound, and (3) present his/her results to the class.
Claire Castro and William Karney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 472.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An Aldehyde Derivative  J. Hodge Markgraf and Bo Yoon Choi
A system in which aldehydes are condensed with 1,2-benzenedimethylthiol in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride on silica gel to give 3-substituted 1,5-dihyhdro-2,4-benzodithiepines. Melting points of the derivatives were taken as a means of identification of unknown compounds.
Markgraf, J. Hodge; Choi, Bo Yoon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 222.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Nucleophilic Addition vs. Substituion: A Puzzle for the Organic Laboratory  Ernest F. Silversmith
The chemistry of beta-carbonyl compounds is studied. Beta-carbonyl compounds react with hydrazines to give products with a 5-membered ring containing two nitrogens. The experiment makes students determine whether ethyl 2-acetyl-3-oxobutanoate reacts like a beta-diketone or like a beta-keto ester.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 221.
Learning Theories |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Grignard-like Organic Reaction in Water  Gary W. Breton and Christine A. Hughey
A known Grignard-like reaction between allyl bromide and benzaldehyde mediated by zinc metal in aqueous media. The procedure retains the desirable features of the traditional Grignard reaction, while eliminating some of the commonly encountered difficulties.
Breton, Gary W.; Hughey, Christine A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 85.
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Acetone and Ethyl Acetate in Commercial Nail Polish Removers: A Quantitative NMR Experiment Using an Internal Standard  David W. Clarke
The qualitative and quantitative analysis of commercial nail polish removers is performed on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer. After taking NMR spectra of the polish removers, students can make peak assignments for the known components of acetone and ethyl acetate. Using these spectra, students are also able to identify the unknown alcohol present in the remover as ethanol.
Clarke, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1464.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Complexometric Titrations: Competition of Complexing Agents in the Determination of Water Hardness with EDTA  M. Cecilia Yappert and Donald B. DuPre
The competition of complexing agents for the same metal ion and the formation of colored metal-ion complexes is demonstrated with the use of an overhead projector. This demonstration can be used to emphasize both the relevance of the relative values of formation constants in the complexation of metal cations and the applicability of complexometric titrations in quantitative chemical analysis.
Yappert, M. Cecilia; DuPre, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1422.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals
A Mini-Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis Session  Johannes S. Malherbe and Cornelius J. Meyer
A qualitative analysis scheme for a limited selection of carbohydrates (i.e. some mono- and disaccharides) using a flowchart approach. Procedures, for the preparation of all reagents, the tests and a brief description of the results are detailed.
Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1304.
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Nonmajor Courses
Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils  Judith F. Rubinson and Jennifer Neyer-Hilvert

Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1106.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke  Jon W. Wong, Kenley K. Ngim, Jason P. Eiserich, Helen C. H. Yeo, Takayuki Shibamoto, and Scott A. Mabury
This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode).
Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1100.
Learning Theories |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry
Reduction of Chlorinated Dibenzodioxin and Dibenzofuran Formation in the Beilstein Test  Theodore D. Goldfarb and Sabine G. Fontana
In this paper we describe the results of studies designed to increase the safety of the Beilstein test by minimizing the production of these toxins. Simple adjustments in Bunsen burner temperature and the length of time the copper test loop is exposed to the flame were found to be ineffective.
Goldfarb, Theodore D.; Fontana, Sabine G. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 838.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds
Catalytic Transfer Hydogenation Reactions for Undergraduate Practical Programs  R. W. Hanson
A brief review of catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) reactions is given. Attention is drawn, particularly, to the utility of ammonium formate as the hydrogen donor in this type of reaction.
Hanson, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 430.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Experiment to Demonstrate Magnetic Nonequivalence in Proton NMR  Christopher J. Welch
The bicyclic compound, 3a,6a-diethoxycarbonyl-2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole, prepared by a literature procedure is used to demonstrate magnetic nonequivalence for methylene protons in the proton NMR experiment.
Welch, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 247.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A -78°C Sequential Michael Addition for the Organic Lab  Michael W. Tanis
This paper introduces a cold-temperature enolate alkylation reaction that can be performed safely and inexpensively by undergraduate students in approximately two 3-hour lab sessions.
Tanis, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 112.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Ems-Wilson, Janice
The progress of two microscale reactions, the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride and the photochemical formation of benzopinacol, was monitored, qualitatively, using FT-IR.
Ems-Wilson, Janice J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A171.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
IR Spectroscopy
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Janice Ems-Wilson
This article describes an experiment that encourages discussion of carbohydrate chemistry in terms of reaction mechanisms, conformational analysis, and spectroscopy. The specific experiment involves the preparation of the bis(acetonide) of D-(+)-mannose.
Ems-Wilson, Janice. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A170.
Microscale Lab |
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Conformational Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
The Use of PTFE Membranes for the Construction of Semimicroscale Gas Reactors  Schallies, Michale; Schnelle, Hans-Otto; Kunze, Klaus
The membranes are employed to separate reaction compartments, where gas-evolving reactions take place, from solutions of reagents needed for qualitative or quantitative determinations of the gases. The PTFE membranes allow free flow of gases while they prevent the passage of water.
Schallies, Michale; Schnelle, Hans-Otto; Kunze, Klaus J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A128.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Carbonyl and Conjugate Additions to Cyclohexenone: Experiments Illustrating Reagent Selectivity  Michael G. Organ and Paul Anderson
Undergraduate students leaving an organic chemistry program should have exposure to these concepts and hands-on experience in dealing practically with the issue of selectivity. In this paper, selective addition of a nucleophile to either end of the enone moiety in cyclohexenone is examined.
Organ, Michael G.; Anderson, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1193.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment  John M. Risley
Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell.
Risley, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1181.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Consumer Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Nonmajor Courses |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Phenols
Mini-scale Oxidation/Reduction in Organic Laboratory Course: 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde/ 4-Nitrobenzyl Alcohol  Douglass F. Taber, Yanong Wang, Sebastian Liehr
Oxidation of an alcohol to the aldehyde or ketone, and corresponding reduction back to the alcohol, are two of the most common transformations of preparative organic chemistry. We have found a much more satisfactory combination in 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde: both are crystalline, neither is volatile, and both are strongly UV-absorbing, so they visualize well on TLC.
Taber, Douglass F.; Wang, Yanong; Liehr, Sebastian. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1042.
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation State |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
A Demonstration of Crystal-Field Effects in Octahedral Complexes  Edward Koubek and Mark Elert
The simple demonstration described here can perhaps enhance the presentation of crystal field splitting and magnetic properties in octahedral complexes.
Koubek, Edward; Elert, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 947.
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Magnetic Properties |
Coordination Compounds
Home-Study Microlabs  Dietmar Kennepohl
This article presents the use of microscaled chemistry experiments for individual home study and how it can be incorporated into a course with traditional laboratory work.
Kennepohl, Dietmar. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 938.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
A New Photochemistry Experiment, A Simple 2+2 Photocycloaddition that Poses an Interesting NMR Problem   John T. Magner, Matthias Selke, Arlene A. Russell, Orville L. Chapman
The cycloaddition of -nitrostyrene to 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene provides an extremely clean example of 2 + 2 cycloaddition. This laboratory exercise combines theory, technique, spectroscopy, and data interpretation.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 854.
Photochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
The Use of a "Qual" Centrifuge for Greatly Simplifying and Speeding the Study of Milk  Quentin R. Petersen
Laboratory study of the constituents of milk is almost always slowed by difficult separation of relatively large amounts of curd and whey by filtration. In the two-and-one-half hour experiment described, only 5 mL of skim milk is used and the curd is separated from the whey by using a simple "qual" centrifuge.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 848.
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis
Determination of Free-Energy Relationships Using Gas Chromatography  Nicholas H. Snow
By performing a few straightforward analyses on a gas chromatograph, it is possible to calculate the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes that occur when a compound transfers between the mobile and stationary phases.
Snow, Nicholas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 592.
Gas Chromatography |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Qualitative Analysis
GC-MS and GC-FTIR Characterization of Products: From Classical Freshman and Sophomore Syntheses  D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo
The GC separation of ferrocene, acetylferrocene, and diacetylferrocene is accomplished in less than ten minutes. In addition to the operation of the instrument, the students are introduced to the interpretation of mass spectra and library aided spectral identification.
D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Epoxidation of Alpha-Methylstyrene and its Lewis Acid Rearrangement to 2-Phenylpropanal  David L. Garin, Melissa Gamber, and Bradley J. Rowe
This undergraduate organic lab experiment includes procedures for the peracid epoxidation of an olefin and the Lewis acid rearrangement of an epoxide to a carbonyl compound.
Garin, David L.; Gamber, Melissa; Rowe, Bradley J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 555.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A Pedagogical Approach to Qualitative Organic Analysis: Simulating the Integration of Wet Tests, Spectroscopy, and Common Sense  Adrian J. Blackman
185. Students, by using a computer simulation, are able to discover and rehearse the strategy of identifying an organic unknown in a situation free from the additional uncertainties of performing unfamiliar laboratory work and then relying on the results.
Blackman, Adrian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 434.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A Mixed Aldol Condensation-Michael Addition Experiment  Thomas P. Clausen, Beverly Johnson, and Jim Wood
This article describes the analysis of the recrystallized products of a mixed aldol condensation between symmetrical ketones and aromatic aldehydes.
Clausen, Thomas P.; Johnson, Beverly; Wood, Jim. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 266.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Mechanism of NaBH4 Addition to Aldehydes: A Labeling Experiment  Rolland K. Robinson and Karl De Jesus
In order to determine the sources of hydrogens in NaBH4 reductions of aldehydes, a series of reductions were carried out using differentially deuterated reagents and solvents.
Robinson, Rolland K.; De Jesus, Karl. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 264.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Methylene-bis-amide (MBA) Derivatives for Characterization of Nitriles  Edgar F. Kiefer and Kenn M. Takauye
Nitriles (RCN) react with formaldehyde in 80% H2SO4 to form solid derivatives (RCONH)2CH2 useful for characterization. Melting points are tabulated for derivatives of 18 common nitriles.
Kiefer, Edgar F.; Takauye, Kenn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 190.
Qualitative Analysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Experimental Illustration of the Utility of Lewis Structures: An FTIR Experiment for Introductory Chemistry  James E. Swartz and Kurt Schladetzky
An experiment is described in which students record the FTIR spectra of a series of organic liquids which contain a carbonyl group and to predict the strength of the carbonyl bonds based upon drawing and examination of various Lewis structures.
Swartz, James E.; Schladetzky, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 188.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Lewis Structures
Capillary Gas Chromatography Injection: An Exercise for Students of Instrumental Analysis  Philip J. Marriot and Peter D. Carpenter
A laboratory exercise is described which illustrates the operation of a split/splitless capillary gas chromatography injection system.
Marriott, Philip J.; Carpenter, Peter D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 96.
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Phase Transfer Catalysis Applied to Oxidation  Claude Amsterdamsky
Benzhydrol and cycloheptanol have been oxidized to ketones using commercial bleach as oxidizer and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate as a phase transfer catalyst.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 92.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Catalysis
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M.
Efficient and simple microscale preparation of 3,5-dinitrobenzoates.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A164.
Synthesis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management |
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Richard F. Smith and Gaetano M. Cristalli
A laboratory to introduce the concept and technique of mass spectroscopy to introductory organic students; sample data and analysis included.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A160.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Organic Qualitative Analysis at the Microscale Level  Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K.
Project requiring students to identify pure unknowns and the components of mixtures using a variety of chromatography and spectrometry techniques.
Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A102.
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Discovery-Based Microscale Catalytic Decarbonylation of Aldehydes  Pearsall, Mary-Ann; Rosen, Alan M.; Conrad, Jennifer S.; Hendrickson, Carrie A.; Pacchia, Ann Marie L.; Schantz, Daniel J.
Experimental procedure for decarbonylation of aldehydes by heating over a palladium/carbon catalyst.
Pearsall, Mary-Ann; Rosen, Alan M.; Conrad, Jennifer S.; Hendrickson, Carrie A.; Pacchia, Ann Marie L.; Schantz, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A29.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Microscale Lab
Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Indane-1-ones: Monitoring of the Reaction by VPC and IR Spectroscopy  Elie Stephan
Procedure for the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of indane-1-ones.
Stephan, Elie. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1142.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Students Use Printed and Electronic Handbooks to Identify Unknowns  Grace Baysinger
Synopsis of a program allowing sophomore organic students to supplement their laboratory work with extensive citations to support their observations; includes a summary of all reference materials used, a bibliography of relevant texts, printed and electronic references, and results of a student survey.
Baysinger, Grace. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1107.
Qualitative Analysis
Thin-Layer Chromatography of Analgesics--An Update  John W. Elder
Procedure for identifying ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, acetominaphen, aspirin, and caffeine on commercial chromatography sheets containing a fluorescent indicator.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1049.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds
Using Copper sulfate as a Classification Test for Amino Acids and Amines  Christine K. F. Hermann
Using copper sulfate to test for amino acids and amines that do not dissolve well in water.
Hermann, Christine K. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 940.
Amino Acids |
Laboratory Management |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
An Alternative Methodology for General Chemistry Laboratories: Chemical Equivalent of a Metal  Carlos M. Bonatti, José L. Zurita, and Horácio N. Sólimo
Procedure in which students are asked to identify an unknown metal that can react with mineral acids to evolve hydrogen where the students are required to obtain bibliographic information and decide on some aspects of the experimental work.
Bonatti, Carlos M.; Zurita, Jose L.; Sclimo, Horacio N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 834.
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis
A Laboratory Experiment Illustrating the Properties and Bioavailability of Iron  Kimbrough, Doris R.; Martinez, Noelia; Stolfus, Stephanie
A qualitative laboratory experiment to illustrate the properties and behavior of iron and its complexes to the absorption and bioavailability of iron in human systems.
Kimbrough, Doris R.; Martinez, Noelia; Stolfus, Stephanie J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 558.
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis
A Centenary Synthesis of Carone and Dicarvelone  Armstead, D. E. F.
Procedure for synthesizing carone and dicarvelone.
Armstead, D. E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 550.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A Compromise Method for Dispensing Some Strong Acids for Qualitative Analysis Classes.  Ruekberg, Ben.
Apparatus and procedure for dispensing strong acids to students.
Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 450.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Baker's Yeast Reduction of alpha-Diketones: A Four-Hour Experiment for Undergraduate Students  Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri
Procedure for quickly and efficiently reducing alpha-diketones using bakers' yeast.
Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 277.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The Identification of Aspirin-Free Bayer Products: An Alternative to the Classical TLC of Analgesics (1)  Cawley, John J.
Procedure for identifying several non-aspirin analgesics using using thin layer chromatography and an ultraviolet lamp.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 272.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Preparation of (S)-(+)-5,8a-Dimethyl-3,4,8,8a-tetrahydro-1,6(2H,7H)-naphthalenedione: An Undergraduate Experiment in Asymmetric Synthesis  Markgraf, J. Hodge; Fei, John F.; Ruckman, Robert E.
An asymmetric Robinson annelation suitable for the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Markgraf, J. Hodge; Fei, John F.; Ruckman, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 270.
Synthesis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Qualitative and Instrumental Analysis of Environmentally Significant Elements (Chasteen, Thomas G.)  Bath, Donald
A supplementary lab text.
Bath, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A261.
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
The Distribution of Cyclohexanone between Cyclohexane and Water  Worley, John D.
A microscale experiment that may be used to demonstrate extraction, spectrophotometric analysis, and the determination of a distribution constant.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A145.
Microscale Lab |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
A Microscale Purification and Qualitative Spectroscopic Examination of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene): An Experiment Suitable for Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Courses  Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D.
A simple and inexpensive purification procedure for isolating C60.
Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A141.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A More Affordable Undergraduate Experiment on the Reduction of Acetophenone by Yeast  Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha
Preparation of Mosher's esters through the reduction of acetophenone with baker's yeast.
Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A62.
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Esters |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study of Plant Growth Regulators Phenylpyridylureas: An "Agrorganic" Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Hocquet, Alexandre; Tohier, Jacques; Fournier, Josette
This lab could represent an undergraduate comparative synthesis and analysis of biologically active molecules, suitable for an introductory lab session.
Hocquet, Alexandre; Tohier, Jacques; Fournier, Josette J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1092.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
A Mini-Qualitative Organic Analysis Session  Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J.
The article describes a tested mini-scheme that works for selected unknowns and allows an instructor to introduce non-major students to a variety of functional group tests in a single laboratory session.
Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1088.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nonmajor Courses
A Qualitative Experiment for Organic Chemistry Lab  Hermann, Christine K. F.
This experiment was introduced near the end of second semester. The students were told that the unknowns were either an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, an amine, an aldehyde, or a ketone. The identifications were based on melting points or boiling points, the IR and NMR spectra, and a set of four classification tests.
Hermann, Christine K. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 991.
Qualitative Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
A Kinetic Experiment To Determine Traces of Iron(lll) and Iron(ll): Using the "Pyrrole Blue" Reaction  Lampard, M.
The semi-quantitative determination of traces of iron(II) and iron(III) over a practical range of 1-10 micrograms.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 352.
Kinetics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Dyes / Pigments
Models of 2-Butanone: Using Graphics To Illustrate Complementary Approaches to Molecular Structure and Reactivity  Hanks, T. W.
157. Ways in which a graphics workstation can be used to illustrate various concepts of molecular structure.
Hanks, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 62.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Stereochemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
The stereochemistry of commercial 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanone: An application of capillary gas chromatography   Garner, Charles M.
One example of how capillary gas chromatography can be employed in undergraduate organic laboratories.
Garner, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A310.
Gas Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
Microscale qualitative organic analysis   Goller, Edwin J.; Miller, John H.
Students gain critical thinking skills in an organic chemistry course by selecting their own chemical tests.
Goller, Edwin J.; Miller, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A159.
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab
How to make the N-bottle problem more rigorous  Ryan, Dennis P.; Strothkamp, Ronald E.
Suggestions include: use more bottles, include cations from more groups, require balanced net ionic equations, require a formal report, and more.
Ryan, Dennis P.; Strothkamp, Ronald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 850.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Products of aldol addition and related reactions: Notation for their prediction  Nwaukwai, Stephen O.
A simple method that can be used to predict products of aldols and aldol-tye addition reactions.
Nwaukwai, Stephen O. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 626.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Identifying polymers through combustion and density   Blumberg, Avrom A.
Using analytical chemistry class experiences as a way to not only quantitatively and qualitatively analyze substances, but also to gain practical experience with characteristic chemical reactions of those substances.
Blumberg, Avrom A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 399.
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Polymerization |
Quantitative Analysis
Whether organic qual will wither?   Zieger, Herman E.
Author argues the important pedagogic purposes of organic qualitative analysis.
Zieger, Herman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 230.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Detection of Common Chlorinated Pesticides in Water by Gas Chromatography  Neuzil, E. F.; Stone, D. J.
This experiment is easy and is met with student interest near the end of a full-year laboratory as an example of micro- analysis used in a qualitative and somewhat quantitative determination.
Neuzil, E. F.; Stone, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 167.
Gas Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.  Lee, Moses.
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.
Lee, Moses. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A172.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Microscale reactions of vanillin   Fowler, Rosemary G.
In this paper five microscale experiments which allow first-year organic student sot study the properties and reactions of vanillin are presented.
Fowler, Rosemary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A43.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Microscale Lab |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Preparing and purifying 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones: Alternatives to the Brady procedure  Zhang, Juan; Hertzler, Russell L.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Problems with and an alternative to the Brady procedure for preparing 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone; using a sulfonic acid ion-exchange resin in refluxing toluene.
Zhang, Juan; Hertzler, Russell L.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1037.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The chemical adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The case of the screaming stepfather  Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 999.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Qualitative Analysis |
Toxicology
An hydrogen sulfide free analytical technique for cation analysis: The statistical approach  Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez
In this analysis the study of each cation was carried out independently without taking into account the other cations present in the solutions.
Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 934.
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Cautionary note regarding the phenol color test by ferric chloride in acidic solution  Hasegawa, Tadashi; Usui, Toyokazu
Effect of acids on the phenol color test by ferric chloride.
Hasegawa, Tadashi; Usui, Toyokazu J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 840.
Phenols |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Identification of methylcyclohexanones by NMR  Gurst, Jerome E.
Distinguishing between three isomeric methylcyclohexanones using NMR.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 774.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers
Pinacol rearrangement of cyclopentylcyclohexane-1,1'-diol revisited.  Sands, Richard D.
Two cyclic diols are treated with ice-cold boron trifluoride etherate to make rearrangement instead of diene formation the major product.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 667.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Keeping the "un" in unknowns in qualitative identification exercises using FTIR.  Chauvin, Judy V.; Field, Jack E.
Using hexachloro-1,3-butadiene as the diluent for FTIR unknowns.
Chauvin, Judy V.; Field, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 661.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Qualitative Analysis
Three methods for studying the kinetics of the halogenation of acetone.  Birk, James P.; Walters, David L.
Three methods for carrying out a kinetic study of the reaction between propanone and elemental iodine.
Birk, James P.; Walters, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 585.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Rate Law
Schiff base puzzle project.  Todd, David.
Students pick an unknown substituted aniline and a substituted benzaldehyde, produces the corresponding Schiff base from them, and compares its melting point to those of 25 possible Schiff bases (their structures and melting points being given).
Todd, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 584.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Corn chip aroma: A classroom demonstration on the preparation of a Schiff base  Sartori, Antony T.; Wood, William F.
Preparing 3-methylimino-2-butanone.
Sartori, Antony T.; Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 572.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The importance of temperature control in the preparation of phencyclone (1,3-diphenyl-2-H-cyclopenta[I]phenanthrene-2-one).  Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
The addition of a methanolic alkali solution to the reactant mixture increases yields to 80%.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 571.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A source of isomer-drawing assignments  Kjonaas, Richard A.
A comprehensive source from which instructors can choose a wide variety of good isomer drawing examples to use as homework assignments and exam questions.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 452.
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Esters |
Alkynes
W(h)ither organic qual?   Zubrick, J. W.
If our students have already learned the times table, what is the point of denying the use of calculators.
Zubrick, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 387.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
An introduction to NMR titration for studying rapid reversible complexation  Macomber, Roger S.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrospcopy is one of the most useful techniques available to chemists for the investigation of dynamic molecular processes.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 375.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
A new method for the oxidation of 4-phenylurazole to 4-phenyltriazolinedione.  Mallakpour, Shadpour E.
The procedures describe the synthesis of 4-phenyl-urazole from ethyl carbazate and then the oxidation of the urazole with NO2-N2O4 to yield 4-phenyl-1,2,4-trizoline-3,5-dione.
Mallakpour, Shadpour E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Enhancing interest in organic chemistry. Part I. Relating redolence in organic chemistry class.  Smith, Terrill D.
The author supplies a list of compounds that can be passed around in class for students to guess their origin from an odor.
Smith, Terrill D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 233.
Esters |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Phenols
Beta-keto esters from tin(II) chloride catalyzed reactions of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate: An undergraduate laboratory experiment drawn from the current literature  Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R.
This is an experimental procedure for producing longer-chain keto esters from unconjugated aldehydes on reaction with ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by Lewis acids for use in an undergraduate laboratory.
Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 68.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters
A novel ketone derivative  Melamedi, Dan; Pickering, Miles
The authors propose the use of thioketals as derivatives as a safer alternative that also illustrates an interesting but rarely visited corner of undergraduate organic chemistry.
Melamedi, Dan; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1046.
Aldehydes / Ketones
Textile fiber identification: An organic-polymer laboratory  Flachskam, Robert L., Jr.; Flachskam, Nancy W.
A laboratory that introduces student to an important application of polymers-textile fibers.
Flachskam, Robert L., Jr.; Flachskam, Nancy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1044.
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties |
Materials Science
The water solubility of 2-butanol: A widespread error  Alger, Donald B.
There seems to be widespread misreporting of the solubility of 2-butanol. This misreporting is an example of the importance of consulting original sources.
Alger, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 939.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Precipitation / Solubility
A study of the Lucas test  Kjonaas, Richard A.; Riedford, Bernie A.
These authors performed the Lucas test on a number of alcohols and discuss the problems associated with the Lucas test's detection of secondary alcohols.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Riedford, Bernie A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 704.
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
The malonic ester synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D.
The versatile reactions of diethyl malonate represent an important lecture topic in introductory organic courses, but are only rarely performed in the lab because of several problems associated with performing these reactions. These authors present a lab the circumvents some of the typical problems.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 689.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amino Acids |
Heterocycles |
Amides
Transition metal complexes with 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane: A laboratory experiment in coordination chemistry  Grant, Gregory J.; Mauldin, Penny L.; Setzer, William N.
A laboratory experiment in coordination chemistry that deals with the synthesis of four transition metal complexes containing a crown thioether ligand.
Grant, Gregory J.; Mauldin, Penny L.; Setzer, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 605.
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
An internal comparison of the intermolecular forces of common organic functional groups: A thin-layer chromatography experiment  Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W.
Due to the latest trends in organic chemistry textbook content sequences, it has become desirable to develop an experiment that is rapid, simple, and general, that would compare and contrast the various functional group classes of organic molecules in terms of their relative polarities, dipole moments, and intermolecular forces of attraction.
Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 428.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Preparation and characterization of two nickel(II) complexes: An inorganic chemistry experiment  Eagle, Cassandra T.; Walmsley, Frank
An inorganic chemistry experiment developed on coordination compounds that provides an opportunity to piece together several sets of data to determine significant information about the structures of compounds.
Eagle, Cassandra T.; Walmsley, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 336.
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Magnetic Properties |
Coordination Compounds
The synthesis of 2-methyl-4-heptanone  de Jong, Elma A.; Feringa, Ben L.
2-methyl-4-heptanone is an ant pheromone used to alarm fellow ants. The synthesis described in this article is greeted with interest by students.
de Jong, Elma A.; Feringa, Ben L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 71.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Grignard Reagents
A One-Step Synthesis of Cinnamic Acids Using Malonic Acid: The Verley-Doebner Modification of the Knoevenagel Condensation  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F.
With this procedure malonic acid itself, rather than its diester, can be effectively condensed with benzaldehyde to produce trans-cinnamic acid.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A304.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carboxylic Acids
Sherlock Holmes and the fraudulent ketone  Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1006.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Synthesis of 5-nitrofurfural diacetate and 5-nitrofurfural semicarbazone: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Li, Xiaorong; Liu, Qianguang; Chang, James C.
Demonstrates how to nitrate an aromatic compound having an aldehyde group that can be oxidized by nitrating agents.
Li, Xiaorong; Liu, Qianguang; Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 986.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Ethers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy
Preparation of 1-phenyl-3-phenylaminopyrrolidine-2,5-dione: An organic laboratory experiment on the Michael addition  Ram, Ram N.; Varsha, Kiran
Acylation of aniline with maleic anhydride to give maleanilic acid followed by Michael addition of aniline and cyclization to yield 1-phenyl-3-phenylaminopyrrolidine-2,5-dione.
Ram, Ram N.; Varsha, Kiran J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 985.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Color reactions and thin-layer chromatography of amino acids: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment for students in the allied health sciences  Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith
Students identify unknowns by determining Rf's and applying color reagents to the chromatograms.
Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 978.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Synthesis of a phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting polymer  Bedard, Y.; Riedl, B.
Procedure that allows for the synthesis of a 50% aqueous solution of a prepolymer that, with the proper application of heat and pressure, can be used to bind together wood or other materials.
Bedard, Y.; Riedl, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 977.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phenols |
Polymerization
Identification of unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography in combination  Levine, Samuel G.
Identification from among 12 unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 972.
Physical Properties |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis of alloys by electrography  Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Rodriguez, Alvaro Mombru
Electrolytes and color reagents used for the identification of 25 metallic ions.
Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Rodriguez, Alvaro Mombru J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 706.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
A simple procedure for the base-catalyzed cleavage of benzopinacolone to triphenylmethane: An undergraduate experiment  Stranberg, Michael; Anselme, J. -P.
A simple procedure for the base-catalyzed cleavage of benzopinacolone to triphenylmethane: An undergraduate experiment.
Stranberg, Michael; Anselme, J. -P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 616.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
A kinetic experiment for determination of traces of Cu2+  Lampard, M.
Adaptation of a spot technique used to identify trace amounts of cupric ion by its catalytic effect of the ferric ion / thiosulfate reaction.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 601.
Qualitative Analysis |
Catalysis |
Kinetics
Qualitative amino acid analysis of small peptides by GC/MS  Mabbott, Gary A.
Besides being appealing to students the exercise described here gives them experiences in derivation methods that are often necessary in order to make nonvolatile samples amenable to gas chromatography separation.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 441.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Hydroboration for the large organic laboratory  Pickering, Miles
This paper reports an experiment in hydroboration without large hood space requirements, without special glassware requirements, and without inert atmospheric precautions.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 436.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
The palladium-catalyzed oxidation of 2-vinylnaphthalene: A microscale organic synthesis experiment   Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R.
The Wacker oxidation experiment as described is cost-efficient due to the small scale employed, and is a valuable addition to the undergraduate organic curriculum.
Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 340.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Alkynes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
The subjection of glutaraldehyde to the Tollens test  Hill, William D., Jr.
Redox equations have been established for the Tollens test with respect to compounds containing two aldehyde groups such as glutaraldehyde.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 329.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory experiments on phase-transfer-catalyzed reactions of neutral molecules  Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K.
In order to illustrate the application of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC), the preparation of benzophenone oxime was attempted under different conditions.
Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 273.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Thioacetamide in qualitative analysis   Lumme, Paavo O.
The author points out that alternative schemes for qualitative inorganic analysis have been developed, in which neither hydrogen sulfide nor thioacetamide are needed.
Lumme, Paavo O. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 184.
Qualitative Analysis
g-Nonanoic lactone: Synthesis of a fragrance and flavor enhancer in the undergraduate laboratory  Bunce, Richard A.; Reeves, Henry D.
The experiment describes the synthesis of ?-nonanoic lactone, an un-natural compound having the odor and flavor of coconuts.
Bunce, Richard A.; Reeves, Henry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 69.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
An easy and low-cost technique for the qualitative analysis of silicates  Vitale, Daniel
This technique has proved easier for students to perform, analytical results have improved, and this technique has greater sensitivity than the previous one.
Vitale, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 64.
Qualitative Analysis
An inexpensive Schoninger flask  Sowa, John R.
Design and application of an inexpensive Schoninger flask.
Sowa, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 974.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis
A suggestion for a beginning organic chemistry laboratory  Sowa, John R.
A miniexperiment in qualitative analysis for early in the first-year organic laboratory to give students a greater appreciation for the introduction to functional groups received in the lecture.
Sowa, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 938.
Qualitative Analysis
Suggestions for the modification of assessment procedures in analytical chemistry courses: The statistical approach  Luaces, Victor Martinez; Gaggero, Fernando Labandera
Determines by means of statistical techniques whether samples of unknown composition provided to students for identification as part of a test of practical ability and theoretical comprehension present significant differences in their degree of difficulty.
Luaces, Victor Martinez; Gaggero, Fernando Labandera J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 843.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis and the binomial expansion  McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C.
How many all-different solutions can be prepared from a limited number of ions or compounds when preparing qualitative unknown mixtures?
McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 490.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Qualitative versus quantitative results: An experimental introduction to data interpretation  Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula
This paper describes an experiment in which the student can ascertain the meaning of a negative result from a quantitative test on the same sample.
Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 440.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates
Evaluation of EMIT as a qualitative screening test for marijuana use  Rehnstrom, Amy L.; Briner, Robert C.; Frazier, Christina L.
The Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT) can be used to detect qualitatively the presence of a particular substance in urine, serum, or plasma. In the crime laboratory, it is used to screen for drugs associated with illegal use.
Rehnstrom, Amy L.; Briner, Robert C.; Frazier, Christina L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 346.
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Plant Chemistry
A series of synthetic organic experiments demonstrating physical organic principles  Sayed, Yousry; Ahlmark, Chris A.; Martin, Ned H.
The sequence of reactions described here incorporates several common synthetic organic transformations involving alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, and ketones that demonstrate some important principles of physical organic chemistry.
Sayed, Yousry; Ahlmark, Chris A.; Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 174.
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
Trifluoroacetylation of unknown alcohols: An integrated microscale organic experiment using spectroscopic methods  Piers, Kenneth; Hsung, Richard
The authors have found that trifluoroacetylation of unknown alcohols is a fast, clean, easily performed microscale experiment that integrates a number of aspects of laboratory work, viz. synthesis, isolation, characterization, spectroscopic measurement, and interpretation, and unknown identification.
Piers, Kenneth; Hsung, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 90.
Alcohols |
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Photochemistry of phenyl alkyl ketones: The "Norrish type II" photoreaction: An organic photochemistry experiment   Marciniak, Bronislaw
In this paper a student laboratory experiment is described aimed to study the "Norrish type II" reception of valerophenone. The advantage of this experiment is that it can be performed with a simple irradiation system and with a gas chromatograph and it brings students into contact with some problems of organic photochemistry.
Marciniak, Bronislaw J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 832.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Phenols |
Chromatography
The preparation of 4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one and its base catalyzed conversion into 2,3,4,5-tetraphenycyclopentadienone: An organic laboratory experiment   Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
An organic laboratory experiment that permits direct observation of a pedagogically interesting transformation.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 828.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phenols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Example of the Robinson annulation procedure via phase transfer catalysis a beginning organic synthesis experiment  Soriano, D. S.; Lombardi, A. M.; Persichini, P. J.; Nalewajek, D.
A brief description of the procedure.
Soriano, D. S.; Lombardi, A. M.; Persichini, P. J.; Nalewajek, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 637.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A conversion of methyl ketones into acetylenes: A project for a problem oriented or microscale organic chemistry course  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Orlando, Steven C.
The authors present their adaptation of an open-ended project on the conversion of methyl ketones into acetylenes for the microscale lab and describe its pedagogic utility.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Orlando, Steven C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 630.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography
Organic lecture demonstrations  Silversmith, Ernest F.
Organic chemistry may not be known for its spectacular, attention getting chemical reactions. Nevertheless, this author describes a few organic chemistry reactions that put points across and generate interest. This article provides a convenient sources of demonstrations and urges others to add to the collection. Demonstrations concerning: carbohydrates, spectroscopy, proteins, amines, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and much more.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 70.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Qualitative Chemical Analysis (Harris, Daniel C.)  Wolsey, Wayne C.
Analytical chemistry text.
Wolsey, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A156.
Qualitative Analysis
Analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R.
Separating and identifying the amino acids found in aspartame.
Conklin, Alfred R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1065.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A problem involving organic qualitative analysis  Silvert, D. J.
Five different organic compounds are to be identified from the result of three simple qualitative tests on each unknown (dichromate, DNPH, and iodoform tests).
Silvert, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 971.
Qualitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Improved performance in qualitative analysis from incorporating some microscale techniques into a traditional organic laboratory program  Hammond, Christina Noring; Tremelling, Michael J.
Three synthesis experiments in second semester organic that introduce students to microscale techniques in qualitative analysis.
Hammond, Christina Noring; Tremelling, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 440.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis
A safe, convenient method of generating bromine for qualitative analysis  Slayden, Suzauee W.; Do, Thuy H.; Smiley, Kimberly Y.; Nelson, Donna J.
A safe, convenient method of generating bromine used as a qualitative test for unsaturation, active methylene groups, phenols, and amines.
Slayden, Suzauee W.; Do, Thuy H.; Smiley, Kimberly Y.; Nelson, Donna J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 368.
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes |
Phenols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
An aldol condensation experiment using a number of aldehydes and ketones  Hathaway, Bruce A.
Four aldehydes and four ketones can be used to synthesize sixteen different products via an aldol condensation reaction.
Hathaway, Bruce A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 367.
Aldehydes / Ketones
Computer program for allocation of organic qualitative analysis unknowns  Pontius, Ann L.; Kurz, Michael E.
81. Bits and pieces, 33. A computer program written in IBM BASICA to generate a random group of unknowns for each student.
Pontius, Ann L.; Kurz, Michael E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 239.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Tollens's test, fulminating silver, and silver fulminate  Jenkins, Ian D.
Preparation, application, and misinformation regarding Tollens's test for aldehydes and reducing sugars.
Jenkins, Ian D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 164.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
A visual manifestation of the Norrish Type I reaction: The cyclohexanone sunburn dosimeter  Carroll, Felix A.; Strouse, Geoffrey F.; Hain, Jon M.
Irradiation of aqueous cyclohexanone solutions produces hex-5-enal and butylketene; the latter reacts with water to form caproic acid, which lowers the pH of the solution and thus can be used to measure the progress of the reaction.
Carroll, Felix A.; Strouse, Geoffrey F.; Hain, Jon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 84.
Photochemistry |
pH |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Synthesis and evaluation of the sex pheromone of the bagworm moth  Schwarz, Meyer; Klun, J. A.
Several possible student-oriented experiments at different educational levels can look into the interesting chemistry involved in a naturally occurring optically active pheromone.
Schwarz, Meyer; Klun, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1014.
Undergraduate Research |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Comparison of chemical oxidation of alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols on the overhead projector  Kolb, Kenneth E.
This overhead projector demonstration utilizes two classical oxidants, permanganates and dichromate, to distinguish between alkanes, alkenes, and primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols.
Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 977.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis
Characterization of the unusual product from the reaction between cobalt (II) chloride, ethane-1,2-diamine, and hydrochloric acid: An undergraduate project involving an unknown metal complex   Curtis, Neil F.; Hay, Robert W.; House, Donald A.; Searle, Graeme B.
The authors describe an "unknown metal" experiment involving the product from the reaction between cobalt (II) chloride, ethane 1,2 diamine (en) and concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Curtis, Neil F.; Hay, Robert W.; House, Donald A.; Searle, Graeme B. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 899.
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
A quick test for the highly colored ions of the aluminum-nickel group  Grenda, Stanley C.
This paper intends to present a technique that eliminates errors in the analysis of the nickel subgroup cations.
Grenda, Stanley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 720.
Qualitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds
Extended logic problems in qualitative analysis   Feldman, Martin R.
An interesting variation of a qualitative analysis problem is one that involves nonchemical as well as chemical data. Such problems are ideal for a take-home situation.
Feldman, Martin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 606.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Michael addition and aldol condensation: A simple teaching model for organic laboratory  Garcia-Raso, A.; Garcia-Raso, J.; Sinisterra, J. V.; Mestres, R.
Three experiments are presented in this paper: Michael addition; Michael addition followed by aldol addition; and Michael addition followed by aldol condensation.
Garcia-Raso, A.; Garcia-Raso, J.; Sinisterra, J. V.; Mestres, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 443.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Selective oxidation in the presence of a heterocycle  Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R.
The process of weighing the advantages and disadvantages of various oxidation methods are presented in this paper.
Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 358.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carboxylic Acids
Number of oxidations relative to methylene: A convenient method of recognizing and quantifying organic oxidation-reduction  Kjonaas, Richard A.
This paper describes the use of a type of molecular oxidation number called "Number of oxidations relative to methylene".
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 311.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes
Computer-assisted quantitative infrared conformational analysis of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones  Tisnes, P.; Perry, M.
Investigates the s-cis <> s-trans conformational equilibrium of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones.
Tisnes, P.; Perry, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 903.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis
Rapid identification of thermoplastic polymers  Cloutier, Helene; Prud'homme, Robert E.
Procedures for the identification of unknown polymer samples, particularly through their solubilities in organic solvents.
Cloutier, Helene; Prud'homme, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 815.
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Microscale group test for carbonyl compounds  Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X.
Rf values for separating various carbonyl compounds using thin layer chromatography.
Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 806.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Use of laboratory-supplied natural gas in breakthrough phenomena  Eiceman, G. A.; Davani, B.; Gardea-Torresdey , J.
Discussion of breakthrough phenomenon and an experiment to identify the organic compounds present in natural gas through gas chromatography.
Eiceman, G. A.; Davani, B.; Gardea-Torresdey , J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 614.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Lead in hair and in red wine by potentiometric stripping analysis: The university students' design  Josephsen, Jens
Determining the lead content of hair and red wine using potentiometric stripping analysis.
Josephsen, Jens J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 532.
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Undergraduate Research
Using a computer database - An "experiment" for the organic and forensic laboratories  Umland, Jean B.
From the infrared spectrum of an unknown compound, students use an Infrared Search System to get a list of possible compounds.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 500.
Forensic Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of chromium in presence of iron and manganese  Werner, Wolfgang
Procedure for the detection of chromium in the presence of iron and manganese.
Werner, Wolfgang J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 349.
Qualitative Analysis
Acid rain analysis by standard addition titration  Ophardt, Charles E.
A simple standard addition titration method for determining the acidity of a rain or snow sample.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 257.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis of some transition metals  Kilner, Cary
Students are asked to determine which test or or sequence of tests unambiguously identifies each of several cations (iron, nickel, cobalt, and copper) and to use their results to identify several unknowns.
Kilner, Cary J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 80.
Qualitative Analysis |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Atmospheric formaldehyde levels in an academic laboratory  Clausz, John C.; Maclntyre, Bruce A.; Malone, Elizabeth S.; Twelmeyer, John M.
Study to determine whether improved ventilation and use of "formaldehyde-free" specimens could reduce the levels of formaldehyde in laboratory air.
Clausz, John C.; Maclntyre, Bruce A.; Malone, Elizabeth S.; Twelmeyer, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A121.
Laboratory Management |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Oxidation of alcohols using calcium hypochlorite and solid/liquid phase-transfer catalysis  Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L.
Includes synthesis of an aldehyde from a primary alcohol as well as several ketones from secondary alcohols.
Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1118.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
The subjection of glutaraldehyde to the Fehling test and to the corrected Benedict test  Hill, William D., Jr.
The molecular and ionic redox equations with respect to the Fehling and Benedict tests (corrected with respect to glutaraldehyde).
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1085.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Quantitative analysis of a mixture by NMR spectroscopy  Wallace, Tim
Adding a measured quantity of an inert, easily removed reference compound with a simple NMR signal that does not overlap with the mixture's signal can provide the basis for an instructive experiment.
Wallace, Tim J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1074.
Qualitative Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Qualitative identification of potassium ions using didymium glasses  Wood, William F.
Students using the didymium glasses of glass blowers have no trouble determining the presence or absence of potassium in flame tests when their unknown contains sodium.
Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1024.
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A practical experiment for determining a pervasive, persistent pollutant  Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A.
Spectral identification by means of infrareds spectroscopy of the PCBs recovered from a TLC plate is enhanced due to the concentrating effect of a commercial sample-recovery system.
Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 738.
IR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Commercial organic products and the organic identification course  Goeckner, Norbert A.
Examples of commercial organic products that have been assigned as unknowns.
Goeckner, Norbert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 680.
Consumer Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Identification of copper(II) complexes in aqueous solution by electron spin resonance: An undergraduate coordination chemistry experiment  Micera, G.; Deiana, S.; Erre, L.; Piu, P.; Panzanelli, A.
Experiment for studying complex species formed by Cu2+ and 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate ions in aqueous solution through ESR spectroscopy.
Micera, G.; Deiana, S.; Erre, L.; Piu, P.; Panzanelli, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 646.
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy
Analysis of alcohols  McCullough, Brother Thomas
Identifying unknown alcohols using boiling point and viscosity measurements.
McCullough, Brother Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 68.
Alcohols |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis by gas chromatography: GC versus the nose in formulating artificial fruit flavors  Rasmussen, P. W.
Using GC retention indexes for the identification of the volatile compounds responsible for the odor of the banana.
Rasmussen, P. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 62.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Qualitative determination of nitrate with triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride  Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.
Since the reliability of the standard test for nitrate (adding ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid) is questionable, a new qualitative scheme using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride is described.
Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 60.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis, with periodicity, for "real" solutions  Rich, Ronald L.
The Bromide Scheme proposed begins with the solvent extraction of a group of bromo-complexes from a highly acidic solution, with several major and minor advantages.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 53.
Qualitative Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Acetaldehyde: a chemical whose fortunes have changed  Wittcoff, Harold A.
Acetaldehyde is an example of a chemical whose use is declining because chemists have replaced it with superior chemicals.
Wittcoff, Harold A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1044.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry
Prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton NMR spectra   Macomber, Roger S.
Undergraduates generally become equipped only to handle only first-order coupling patterns. This means that they have a hard time understanding a real spectra. By scaffolding students through the synthesis level of Bloom's taxonomy, students can work toward a more expert level of understanding.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 525.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Learning Theories
Non-cyanide detection of cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions in a mixture  Syamal, A.; Ahmad, S.
The authors report a convenient method for the non-cyanide detection of copper (II) and cadmium (II) in a mixture.
Syamal, A.; Ahmad, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 518.
Qualitative Analysis
A phase transfer catalyzed permanganate oxidation: preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate  Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.
There are several attractive features in this reaction sequence for the undergraduate laboratory. These include (1) use of a protecting acetate group, (2) use of a familiar "textbook" oxidant, potassium permanganate, (3) use of phase transfer catalyst, (4) preparing of an aldehyde, (5) short reaction period, and (6) the laboratory has a pleasant aroma.
Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 503.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
Scoring qualitative inorganic unknowns at the stockroom  Brooks, David W.; Tipton, Thomas J.; Kinnan, Darrell A.
The authors share their strategy for efficiently organizing unknown chemicals in their stockroom that are used for qualitative analysis.
Brooks, David W.; Tipton, Thomas J.; Kinnan, Darrell A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 389.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
3-Ketoesters by malonic synthesis  Pollet, Patrick L.
This essay reviews a synthesis strategy.
Pollet, Patrick L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 244.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkylation
A nontraditional qualitative organic analysis experiment  Haynes, LeRoy W.
The author of this article wanted students to gain experience with experiments that come closer to separation and identification problems which a chemist would have to solve in a research situation. The activity described in this article was designed to meet that end.
Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 234.
Qualitative Analysis
Solvent increment not solvent correction: a suggested modification in the procedure of calculating wavelength of maximum ultraviolet absorption of alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones  Qureshi, Mohammad Ismail
This article describes a procedure for calculating the ? solvent max that removes an unnecessary, but typical source of confusion.
Qureshi, Mohammad Ismail J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 149.
Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Qualitative analysis  Cole, G. Mattney, Jr.; Waggoner, William H.
This article is the first in a series that reconsiders the qualitative analysis scheme in terms of suitability for large numbers of students and instructors.
Cole, G. Mattney, Jr.; Waggoner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 135.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative tests for manganese  Guenther, William B.
A chemically interesting test that has been used successfully in a qualitative analysis course that introduces students to Mn (III).
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 134.
Qualitative Analysis
A reinvestigation of the synthesis of 4-methyl-3-heptanol  Hoffman, Robert V.; Alexander, M. D.; Buntain, Gregory; Hardenstein, Richard; Mattox, Cynthia; McLaughlin, Susan; McMinn, Denise; Spray, Scott; White, Steven
A previously reported laboratory may have reported gas chromatographic separation of the 4-methyl-3-heptanol diastereomiers in error. The side reactions in the Grignard reaction account for the observed results.
Hoffman, Robert V.; Alexander, M. D.; Buntain, Gregory; Hardenstein, Richard; Mattox, Cynthia; McLaughlin, Susan; McMinn, Denise; Spray, Scott; White, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 78.
Hormones |
Alcohols |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Natural Products
The study of a cobalt complex - a laboratory project  Loehlin, James H.; Kahl, Stephen B.; Darlington, Jeanne A.
The laboratory involves synthesis followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis of either Co(NH3)5Cl3 or C0(NH3)6Cl3 over several weeks.
Loehlin, James H.; Kahl, Stephen B.; Darlington, Jeanne A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1048.
Coordination Compounds |
Magnetic Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Synthesis
Equilibria in the silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems  Samuel, Patricia L.
A qualitative test for arsenate ion provides the basis for a colorful demonstration of the principles of relative acid strength, solubility product, and effects of pH on solubility.
Samuel, Patricia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1043.
Equilibrium |
Qualitative Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Does the N-solution problem measure student proficiency?  Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles
An investigation to determine if the commonly used, N-solution, qualitative identification laboratory assessment problem assesses students' knowledge of descriptive chemistry.
Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1032.
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Ketone synthesis using household bleach  Perkins, Robert A.; Chau, Felix
Household bleach is used to synthesize several different ketones from alcohols.
Perkins, Robert A.; Chau, Felix J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 981.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
The qualitative test for nitrogen in organic compounds using the oxygen flask method  Thomas, Rudolf
The oxygen flask method has been found superior to the traditional sodium fusion method, but for compounds containing both nitrogen and bromine a negative test for nitrogen is produced.
Thomas, Rudolf J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 690.
Qualitative Analysis
Separation and determination of hydroxyacetophenones: An experiment in preparative TLC and UV spectroscopy  Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J.
A mixture of o-, m-, and p-hydroxyacetophenones is separated through thin-layer chromatography, and the constituents are identified by UV spectroscopy.
Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 618.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Rapid chemical identification of the nitrosyl group in complexes  Subramanian, Periyasamy; Sarkar, Sabyasachi
A simple chemical test that enables rapid identification of coordinated nitric oxide.
Subramanian, Periyasamy; Sarkar, Sabyasachi J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 527.
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
The separation and identification of straight chain hydrocarbons: An experiment using gas-liquid chromatography  Benson, G. A.
Gas liquid chromatography used to separate and identify a mixture of C5 to C10 straight chain hydrocarbons.
Benson, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 344.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Chromatography
A correction on the Benedict test  Hill, William D., Jr.
Sodium hydroxide is also needed for the formation of copper(I) oxide in the identification of carbohydrates.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 334.
Qualitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates
An individualized approach to qualitative analysis  Haendler, Blanca L.; Cook, Robert; Siemiencow, George
Students are required to work out a separation scheme based on the results of experimentation with certain reagents and with the help of some reference materials.
Haendler, Blanca L.; Cook, Robert; Siemiencow, George J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 333.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The analysis of an amine mixture: An introductory analysis experiment  Williams, T. R.
Analysis of a binary mixture of amines in which students are asked to identify each component and determine the weight percentage of each compound.
Williams, T. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 202.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Isolation, separation and identification of synthetic food colors  Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G.
A simple, inexpensive experiment for the extraction of synthetic dyes permitted in foodstuffs, and their separation and identification using thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.
Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 67.
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Separating copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis  Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L.
A different method for the separation of copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis based on the reductive potential precipitation of copper(II) as copper(I) thiocyanate.
Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 59.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Boiling points and small volumes: An apparatus and a method  Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D.
The authors describe a convenient apparatus that can be used with thousands of students to perform qualitative analysis of organic substances using boiling points.
Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1029.
Qualitative Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Preparation of solid derivatives by differential scanning calorimetry  Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine
Derivatives of alcohols, amines, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, and haloalkanes are prepared and their phase transitions observed using a differential scanning calorimeter.
Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 824.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Preparation of 1,1-Diphenyl-1-hydroxy-3-butanone  Rivett, D. E. A.
Exemplifies the use of a protecting group in organic synthesis.
Rivett, D. E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 751.
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Qualitative analysis of the halogens  Spadaro, Joseph J., Jr.
A procedure for the qualitative determination of the halogens in the presence of one another using hexane rather than carbon tetrachloride.
Spadaro, Joseph J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 372.
Qualitative Analysis
A novel method for the detection of nitrates  Gupta, H. L.; Pande, P. N.; Ameta, Suresh A.
Replacing copper turnings with filter paper cuttings in the preliminary test for nitrates using sulfuric acid.
Gupta, H. L.; Pande, P. N.; Ameta, Suresh A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 319.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Teaching quantitative analysis courses by an integrated audiovisual method  Ferraro, Carlos
Describes the results of the application of Integrated Audiovisual Methodology to the teaching of a quantitative analysis course.
Ferraro, Carlos J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 185.
Qualitative Analysis
Diphenylbutadienes syntheses by means of the Wittig reaction: Experimental introduction to the use of phase transfer catalysis  Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L.
Intended as a project carried out by students at the end of introductory organic chemistry.
Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 161.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
An organic chemistry experiment for forensic science majors  Rothchild, Robert
Qualitative analysis of over-the-counter analgesics using thin-layer chromatography.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 757.
Forensic Chemistry |
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A simple technique for the preparation of solutions for qualitative infrared spectroscopy  Southwick, Everett W.; Kidd, Douglas H.
A simple technique for the preparation of solutions for qualitative infrared spectroscopy involves drawing the sample into a capillary tube through capillary action.
Southwick, Everett W.; Kidd, Douglas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 394.
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Interference with the molybdate test for phosphate in qualitative inorganic analysis  Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Pilger, Richard C., Jr.
Standard texts have generally not recognized the dramatic interference by the iodide ion; provides two simple remedies for this interference.
Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Pilger, Richard C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 342.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
X-ray fluorescence simulation  Breneman, G. L.
A Basic program to simulate qualitative and quantitative analysis by X-ray fluorescence.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 303.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemical toxicology. Part I. Organic compounds  Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus
General principles of toxicology, and particular consideration of aliphatics, aromatic, and halogenated hydrocarbons; alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, and ketones; sulfides, mercaptans, and carbon disulfide; nitrogen-containing compounds; and carcinogens.
Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 284.
Toxicology |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Ethers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Lipids
Aqueous chromic acid oxidation of secondary alcohols in diethyl ether: A convenient undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M.
A two-phase procedure for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones that is applicable to a wide variety of substrates.
Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 203.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Ethers |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Qualitative analysis simulation  Binder, Bernhard
An interactive computer program simulating common qualitative analysis techniques that are suitable to identify 12 cations.
Binder, Bernhard J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 108.
Qualitative Analysis
The effect of iodide concentration on the starch-indicator end point in the coulometric determination of As(III)  Bell, Dorothy
Good analytical results are yielded using the techniques in this brief note.
Bell, Dorothy J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 815.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Synthesis of chrysanthemic acid: A multistep organic synthesis for undergraduate students  Schatz, Paul F.
This laboratory is geared toward intermediate organic chemistry laboratory courses that will acquaint students, predominantly chemistry majors, with the strategies and techniques in carrying out a multistep synthesis.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 468.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
Separation of mixtures encountered in qualitative organic analysis: An anomalous case  Pinkus, A. G.
The author presents an improved procedure for a separation of mixtures encountered in qualitative organic analysis.
Pinkus, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 458.
Qualitative Analysis
Oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes with pyridinium chlorochromate. An organic chemistry experiment  Glaros, George
This organic chemistry experiment addresses a common misconception about aldehyde reactions.
Glaros, George J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 410.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
Sodium nitroprusside reagent II-A solvent modification  Dougherty, Charles M.; Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Markowska, Maria; Battey, York C.
The authors report an improvement classification test for aliphatic and aryl amines.
Dougherty, Charles M.; Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Markowska, Maria; Battey, York C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 341.
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds  Chenier, Philip J.
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds: This can be classified as an intramolecular rearrangement from carbon to carbon, involving a migrating group Z moving without its electrons from migrating origin A to an electron-rich terminus B.
Chenier, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 286.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
The qualitative organic analysis laboratory: A real life experience  Caret, Robert L.
The author will provide copies of all handouts designed for scaffolding qualitative organic analysis upon request.
Caret, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 246.
Qualitative Analysis
Classification test for aldehydes involving phase transfer catalysis  Durst, H. Dupont; Gokel, George W.
Although common spectroscopic methods have largely supplanted the more classical methods for distinguishing aldehydes from ketones in many applications, aldehyde classification tests remain very useful in actual laboratory practice as well as important pedagogical device in qualitative organic chemistry.
Durst, H. Dupont; Gokel, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 206.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Qualitative Analysis
Gas chromatographic analysis of aerosol propellants  Miller, James M.
A simple procedure for the qualitative analysis of commercial propellants by gas chromatography.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 735.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Computer assisted instruction in qualitative analysis  Bishop, Marvin
This Basic program includes 22 cations distributed into four groups.
Bishop, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 689.
Qualitative Analysis
Precipitation of lead as lead chloride in presence of mercuric ions  Pyriadi, Thanun Mohamad; Polis, Aroosiak
In the presence of Hg2+ it seems that PbCl2 does not precipitate easily unless cooled.
Pyriadi, Thanun Mohamad; Polis, Aroosiak J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 439.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis
Synthesis of 4-methyl-3-heptanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanone. Two easily synthesized insect pheromones  Einterz, Robert M.; Ponder, Jay W.; Lenox, Ronald S.
A two step reaction sequence involving the Grignard synthesis of an alcohol followed by oxidation of this alcohol to the corresponding ketone.
Einterz, Robert M.; Ponder, Jay W.; Lenox, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 382.
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Grignard Reagents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Identification of FD&C dyes by visible spectroscopy. A consumer-oriented undergraduate experiment  McKone, Harold T.
Absorption maxima and procedures for identifying 11 FD&C dyes through visible spectroscopy.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 376.
Qualitative Analysis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science
Simple qualitative analysis scheme for several environmentally important elements  Lambert, Jack L.; Meloan, Clifton E.
A qualitative analysis scheme for Hg(I), Hg(II), Sb(III), Cr(III), Pb(II), Sr(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), As(III), Cl-, NO3-, and SO4-2.
Lambert, Jack L.; Meloan, Clifton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 249.
Qualitative Analysis
Lighter flint chemistry  Hentz, F. C., Jr.; Long, G. G.
The author describes an inquiry investigation into the composition of a lighter flint.
Hentz, F. C., Jr.; Long, G. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 651.
Materials Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
The scope of the Haworth synthesis  Agranat, Israel; Shih, Yu-Shan
The duality of the Haworth synthesis as revealed most conspicuously in the preparation of both anthracene and phenanthrene, widens the scope of the method. On the basis of the reversibility of Friedel-Crafts acylation in PPA, the Haworth synthesis may serve as a route to linearly annelated-as well as to angularly annelated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.
Agranat, Israel; Shih, Yu-Shan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 488.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
An undergraduate electroanalytical experiment  Janata, Jiri
This article presents a determination of vanillin and of other aromatic aldehyde can easily be accomplished by amperometric titration with a standard solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydazine.
Janata, Jiri J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 399.
Electrochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Natural Products
Preparation of phenanthridone. A multipurpose experiment for the organic laboratory  Hawbecker, Byron L.; Radovich, David A.; Tillotson, Loyal G.
It is desirable to have a series of multipurpose reactions available which can illustrate a variety of reaction types within a single, three hour lab period.
Hawbecker, Byron L.; Radovich, David A.; Tillotson, Loyal G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 398.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Studies for the organic qual lab  Southam, R. M.
The author shares a lab exercise that allows students to develop analysis forming and note its role as essential to a chemical investigation.
Southam, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 34.
Qualitative Analysis
Perspectives on curricula: Qualitative analysis revisited  Brooks, David W.; Holtzclaw, Henry F., Jr.; Lewis, J. D.
Considers curricula from the viewpoints of reinforcement theory; concrete vs. abstract reasoning; and the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains.
Brooks, David W.; Holtzclaw, Henry F., Jr.; Lewis, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 581.
Qualitative Analysis |
Learning Theories
Illustrating gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. An undergraduate experiment  Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken
One lab period is used to separate and collect the components of a ketone mixture; the second lab period is used to explain and demonstrate the MS instrumentation and the interpretation of ketone spectra; and in part three the spectra of the separated ketones are analyzed by individual students.
Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 535.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Simulated student samples  Parker, Gordon A.
The availability of directions for the preparation of samples simulating animal tissue ash, coal ash, coal ash, copper refinery flue dust, plant ash, rodent teeth ash, and soil ash.
Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 106.
Natural Products |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative and quantitative gas chromatography for the undergraduate  Karasek, F. W.; De Decker, E. H.; Tiernay, J. M.
The authors present two experiments which provide beginning student a broad general knowledge of the gas chromatography field.
Karasek, F. W.; De Decker, E. H.; Tiernay, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 816.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
The photoisomerization of cyclic ketones: An experiment in organic chemistry  Haas, J. W., Jr.
This experiment deals with parameters such as the nature of the excited state, effect of triplet quenchers on product formation, chemical structure and reaction rate and quantum yield when cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone are irradiated at 254nm. These cyclic ketones provide a variety of photolysis information in a short time span, are conveniently analyzed by gas chromatography, and are readily available at the requisite levels of purity.
Haas, J. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 346.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography
Preparative reduction of benzil: Use of a polarographic analyzer and simple current booster  Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J.
The authors report a simple laboratory experiment which demonstrates some of the preparative and mechanistic electrochemistry of ketones in acid solution. The also describe a simple and inexpensive apparatus for preparative scale electrochemistry.
Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 343.
Electrochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A crossed aldol condensation for the undergraduate laboratory  Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E.
This two-step experiment for undergraduate organic chemistry students illustrates three basic ideas: organic chemistry students illustrate three basic ideas (1) crossed aldol condensation; (2) the acidity of benzylic hydrogen in hydrocarbons; and (3) reduction of a double bond in hydride transfer.
Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 64.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Brief chemistry of the elements (Hall, James L.; Keyworth, Donald A.)  Davenport, Derek A.

Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A414.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Preparation of standard solutions  Smith, B. W.; Parsons, M. L.
A summary of compounds recommended for preparing solutions containing known concentrations of over seventy elements.
Smith, B. W.; Parsons, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 679.
Qualitative Analysis
Spot test for detection of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids  Singh, Eric J.
A 1% solution of copper sulfate can be used for the detection of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
Singh, Eric J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 669.
Qualitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Sensitive CN test  McCullough, Thomas, C.S.C.
Comments on the sodium fusion test.
McCullough, Thomas, C.S.C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 656.
Qualitative Analysis
Separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group  Antikainen, P. J.
This procedure applies paper- and ion-exchange chromatography to the separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group.
Antikainen, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 595.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography
Computer-simulated qualitative inorganic chemistry  Francis, Larry D.
A computer simulation is especially effective for teaching qualitative chemistry because many of the time-consuming procedures necessary for good results can be eliminated; the guiding philosophy of this lesson is on chemical reasoning rather than laboratory practice.
Francis, Larry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 556.
Qualitative Analysis
A questionable method of distinguishing maleic and fumaric acids  Noldan, Lawrence R.; Pollard, Bruce
Fumaric acid causes no change in the blue color of ditto print, but maleic acid turns it a bright green.
Noldan, Lawrence R.; Pollard, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 457.
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
A use for broken glass electrodes  Davidson, John E.
Once broken, the electrode can still be used as an indicator electrode for a potentiometric precipitation titration of silver or halide ions.
Davidson, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 375.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
An instructional computer program to generate microanalysis data  Eliason, Robert
An instructional, Fortran IV, computer program to generate microanalysis data.
Eliason, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 371.
Qualitative Analysis
A qualitative analysis test for chromium  Berthold, Mary Ellen Sr.; Huchital, Daniel
This paper reports a more convenient and lasting method to test for the presence of chromium using a separate portion of the sample and observing the formation of the deep purple chromium(III)-EDTA complex.
Berthold, Mary Ellen Sr.; Huchital, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 340.
Qualitative Analysis
Molecular weight determination of aldehydes and ketones. A quantitative organic experiment  Steinhaus, Ralph K.
The reaction between semicarbazide and an unknown ketone is used to determine molecular weight.
Steinhaus, Ralph K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 293.
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Inexpensive scale expansion for ion selective electrodes  Parsons, P. G.
The scale of an ordinary pH meter can be expanded by connecting a 1-mV recorder or a 1-amp galvanometer.
Parsons, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 175.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Qualitative Analysis |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
TLC detection of caffeine in commercial products  Pavlik, James W.
An introductory experiment that involves the thin layer chromatography detection of caffeine in a variety of familiar pharmaceutical products.
Pavlik, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 134.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis
Calcium oxide-zinc fusion. The successor to sodium fusion in the undergraduate laboratory  Snyder, Carl H.; Sickels, Jackson P.; Del Valle, Clara J.
With extensive modification, a calcium oxide-zinc fusion technique shows promise to replace sodium fusion as the method of choice for qualitative elemental analysis in the first-year organic laboratory.
Snyder, Carl H.; Sickels, Jackson P.; Del Valle, Clara J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 72.
Qualitative Analysis
Ions in aqueous systems. An introduction to chemical equilibrium and solution chemistry (Moeller, Therald)  Guenther, W. B.

Guenther, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A697.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative concepts from quantum chemistry (Drago, Russell)  Deskin, William A.

Deskin, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A606.
Quantum Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
An unusual reaction of a ketal with base. An undergraduate organic experiment  Marchand, Alan P.
An experiment that is designed to utilize primarily spectral methods (nmr and ir) to identify an unknown product of a reaction performed in the laboratory; it also demonstrates that, under certain conditions, ketals can be made to react with a base.
Marchand, Alan P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 841.
Qualitative Analysis
Furfural - Ubiquitous natural product  McCullough, CSC, Thomas
Procedure for obtaining 2-furaldehyde from citrus peelings, banana skins, gourd rinds, corn cobs, dried leaves, and other organic wastes.
McCullough, CSC, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 836.
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Visualization of molecular orbitals. Formaldehyde  Olcott, Richard J.
Using a computer to generate three dimensional charge density distributions of the formaldehyde molecule.
Olcott, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 614.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Armchair unknowns. A simple CAI qual organic simulation  Venier, Clifford G.; Reinecke, Manfred G.
The purpose of Armchair Unknowns is to teach the logic of qualitative organic analysis more rapidly and effectively than is possible in the traditional wet laboratory.
Venier, Clifford G.; Reinecke, Manfred G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 541.
Qualitative Analysis
Organic chemistry laboratory. A non-traditional approach  Nugent, Maurice J.
A problem-solving approach to the organic chemistry laboratory in which students are asked to identify and then synthesize two unknowns.
Nugent, Maurice J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 491.
Synthesis |
Qualitative Analysis
Thermal decomposition of potassium bisoxalatocuprate(II) dihydrate. An inorganic-analytical experiment  Darley, J. R.; Hoppe, J. I.
This investigation includes some elementary gravimetric analysis and qualitative analysis in addition to a simple extraction procedure and a range of titrimetric estimations.
Darley, J. R.; Hoppe, J. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 365.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Benzenesulfonyl chloride does react with tertiary amines. The Hinsberg test in proper prospective  Gambill, C. R.; Roberts, T. D.; Shechter, H.
Addresses the long standing myths that tertiary amines do not react with nitrous acid or benzylsulfonyl chloride.
Gambill, C. R.; Roberts, T. D.; Shechter, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 287.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Beer, acetone, and diabetes: A story and a demonstration  Isenberg, Norbert
Acetone causes the collapse of beer foam.
Isenberg, Norbert J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 151.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Medicinal Chemistry
Catalytic hydrogenation of ketones at moderate pressures. An organic demonstration-experiment  Kaye, Irving Allan
This procedure requires a moderate pressure hydrogenator and can be completed as a demonstration or a laboratory with a small number of students.
Kaye, Irving Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 131.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Alkylations in organic chemistry  Mundy, Bradford P.
Examines some of the subtle factors involved in alkylations, including alkylations via enolates, alkylations via enamines, and alkylation of enolates derived from reduction of enone systems.
Mundy, Bradford P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 91.
Synthesis |
Alkylation |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Instrumental techniques compared by analysis of a reaction mixture  Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O.
The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint the student with how a combination of instruments (glc, ir, and nmr) can be used to separate as well as to identify each compound in a reaction mixture.
Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 827.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Preparation of 2,3-diphenyl-1-indenone and related compounds  Clark, Thomas J.
The author describes a series of preparative experiments which students in organic chemistry have found enjoyable and instructive.
Clark, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 554.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Detection of carboxylic acids by formation of ferric hydroxamates  Cleland, George H.; Knight, Duane W.
Offers an improved method for the detection of carboxylic acids through the formation of ferric hydroxamates.
Cleland, George H.; Knight, Duane W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 781.
Carboxylic Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Recrystallization and melting point determination  Kaye, Irving Allan; Yuska, Henry
This experiment is essentially an exercise in recrystallization and identification, by melting point and mixed melting point determination, an unknown ketone that has been transformed into either its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone or semicarbazone derivative.
Kaye, Irving Allan; Yuska, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 703.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Qualitative Analysis
Experiments in paper chromatography  Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K.
Briefly summarizes a series of paper chromatography experiments that demonstrate basic physical and inorganic principles, as well as providing an introduction to a useful separation technique.
Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 688.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of chloride, bromide, and iodide following sodium fusion  McCullough, Thomas; Allaire, Pierre N.; Boettcher, Brian R.
Presents the use of paper chromatography in conjunction with the sodium fusion detection of chloride, bromide, and iodide.
McCullough, Thomas; Allaire, Pierre N.; Boettcher, Brian R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 217.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography
On-line computer printing of NMR spectra  Rondeau, Roger E.; Rish, Hughey A. III
The program described reduces the probability of assignment error while also eliminating the most tedious task in the analysis of complex NMR spectra.
Rondeau, Roger E.; Rish, Hughey A. III J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 139.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A computer program for identifying organic compounds  Gasser, William; Emmons, John L.
This program is based on five determinations: melting or boiling point; elemental analysis for nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens; and the aluminum chloride-azoxybenzene test.
Gasser, William; Emmons, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 137.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Analytical chemistry - Two supportive views. Where the action is...  Wharton, H. Whitney
The author argues for the relevance of analytical chemistry.
Wharton, H. Whitney J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 58.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Analytical chemistry - Two supportive views. Where the action is...  Wharton, H. Whitney
The author argues for the relevance of analytical chemistry.
Wharton, H. Whitney J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 58.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Hydrolysis of latex paint in dimethyl sulfoxide: An organic laboratory experiment  Vinson, Joe A.
The purpose of this experiment is to hydrolyze the ester groups of the vinyl acetate and acrylic ester found in latex paint and identify the R group of the acrylic ester.
Vinson, Joe A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 877.
Qualitative Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy
The essential oils: A series of laboratory experiments  Runquist, Olaf
Describes a variety of "research type" laboratory problems for the second term introductory organic chemistry course involving essential oils.
Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 846.
Lipids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
First semester qualitative analysis  DeLap, James H.
Describes the student work involved in a freshman laboratory course entitled "Chemical Periodicity."
DeLap, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 837.
Qualitative Analysis
Cupferron as a reagent in qualitative analysis  Parks, A. O.; DuBose, Betsy
A short on the use of cupferron (nitrosophenylhydroxylamine, NH4+ salt) for the removal of Cu(II) from a solution containing both Cu(II) and Cd(II).
Parks, A. O.; DuBose, Betsy J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 768.
Qualitative Analysis
Chloramine-T as a substitute for chlorine water in qualitative analysis  Nair, B. G. K.; Nair, C. G. R.
A brief note on the use of chloramine-T as a substitute for chlorine water as a reagent for detecting Br- and I- ions.
Nair, B. G. K.; Nair, C. G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 755.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Basic organic laboratory techniques and problem solving: The nitration of 4-nitrophenol  Pearson, Robert E.
The experiment described requires application of melting point data and the technique of recrystallization to identify the product of a simple chemical reaction.
Pearson, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 692.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Qualitative Analysis |
Phenols
Computer graded qualitative analysis experiments  Deutsch, J. L.; Deutsch, E. W.
A brief note on a program for the qualitative analysis laboratory that grades students' experimental results, records their grades, and calculates course averages.
Deutsch, J. L.; Deutsch, E. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 649.
Qualitative Analysis
A review of techniques in the Lassaigne sodium-fusion  Gower, R. P.; Rhodes, I. P.
The present article is intended to collect the available methods of the sodium-fusion test with some indication of the most suitable circumstances in which each one may be used.
Gower, R. P.; Rhodes, I. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 606.
Laboratory Management |
Qualitative Analysis
Reflectance spectroscopic analysis of dyes separated by thin layer chromatography  Frodyma, M. M.; Frei, R. W.
This study attempts to verify the usefulness of reflectance spectroscopy as an analytical tool in the hands of the inexperienced analyst.
Frodyma, M. M.; Frei, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 522.
Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Identification of carboxylic acids: Use of N-methylpiperazine and N-phenylpiperazine  Duff, J. G.; Yung, D. K.; Brenner, R. J.; Wilson, B. J.; Racz, W. J.
Demonstrates that N-phenylpiperazine is a useful reagent for the identification of carboxylic acids.
Duff, J. G.; Yung, D. K.; Brenner, R. J.; Wilson, B. J.; Racz, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 388.
Carboxylic Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Improving potassium flame tests  Strong, Frederick C., III
Describes ways for optimizing the classical flame test for potassium.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 178.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
A simple method for the identification of borosilicate glass  Drake, Robert F.
Provides an alternative to using the refractive index of benzene in carbon tetrachloride.
Drake, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 48.
Qualitative Analysis
Introduction to Qualitative Analysis Layde, Durward C.; Busch, Daryle H.)  Larson, W. D.

Larson, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A984.
Qualitative Analysis
Nitrogen chemistry. E. Nitrites and nitrates  Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A.
Demonstrations include nitric acid + H2S, sodium nitrate + carbon, fire-writing with KNO3, nitrate ring test, nitrate versus nitrite, and micro-analysis for nitrogen compounds.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A607.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Hazardous chemicals data  National Fire Protection Association
Explains aspects of chemical hazard data and presents hazards associated with acetaldehyde.
National Fire Protection Association J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A115.
Chemometrics |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Management
Spectrometric identification of insect sex attractants  Silverstein, Robert M.
Uses spectrometric methods to identify the sex attractants of three types of beetle pests.
Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 794.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy
Acids as derivatives of aldehydes prepared with silver oxides  Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G.
Examines the use of silver(i) and silver(II) oxide to convert aldehydes into acid derivatives.
Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Calcium carbonate equilibria in the oceans - ion pair formation  Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred
Discusses some of the problems encountered in studying the chemistry of lakes and oceans, focussing on the solubility of calcium carbonate in marine environments.
Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 513.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis
Using TLC to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone  Davis, Michael
A short note regarding a simple procedure involving the use of thin layer chromatography to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone.
Davis, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 192.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The identification of vegetable oils: A gas chromatographic experiment  Cover, Richard E.
In this procedure the student is given a sample of oil which he saponifies and then esterfies to form the methyl esters of the fatty acids; the esters are then extracted, concentrated, and identified through gas chromatography.
Cover, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 120.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis
Rapid detection of cations and anions (Charlot, Gaston)  Williams, T. R.

Williams, T. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A62.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An analytical approach to a short organic laboratory  Finley, K. Thomas.; Wilson, James, Jr.
Describes a laboratory exercise in which students are asked to identify three simple unknowns.
Finley, K. Thomas.; Wilson, James, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 666.
Nonmajor Courses |
Qualitative Analysis
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis without removing phosphate  Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V.
Describes a scheme for the analysis of groups III, IV, and V, carried out below pH 7, which does not necessitate the removing of phosphate.
Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 484.
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of iron with salicylimine  Poonia, N. S.; Bakre, V. P.; Bal, M. S.
Describes the detection of iron with salicylimine.
Poonia, N. S.; Bakre, V. P.; Bal, M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 483.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Reagents for analysis of iron(II)-iron(III) mixtures  Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N.
Presents some analytical reagents that may be used for the analysis of iron(II)-iron(III) mixtures.
Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 482.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Detection of mercury(I) and mercury(II) in the presence of each other  Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N.
Presents some analytical reagents that may be used for the analysis of mercury(I) and mercury(II) in the presence of each other.
Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 482.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Some analytical reagents for tin(II)-tin(IV) mixtures  Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N.
Presents some analytical reagents that may be used for the analysis of tin(II)-tin(IV) mixtures.
Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 481.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Spot tests for silver(I) and manganese(II)  Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L.
This investigation introduces piperidine as a new reagent for this test and describes an improved technique with increased sensitivity.
Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 480.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Qualitative analysis with paper chromatography  Poonia, N. S.
A spot of an unknown mixture is subjected to radial development, and the circular chromatogram is divided into a number of segments used for the detection of different cations or groups of cations.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 477.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Ionization, Electricity D. Special electrical phenomena   Bernard, Robert; Slabaugh, W. H.
Demonstrations include cation analysis, conductivity during the titration of Ba(OH)2 + HCl vs H2C2O4, and conductivity during the titration of Ba(OH)2 + HCl vs H3PO4.
Bernard, Robert; Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A901.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
Chemical Principles in Calculations of Ionic Equilibria: Solution Theory for General Chemistry, Qualitative Analysis, and Quantitative Analysis (Margolis, Emil J.)  Whiteker, Roy A.

Whiteker, Roy A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 684.
Equilibrium |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Qualitative Analysis (Hovey, Nelson W.; Krohn, Albertine)  Kieff, Lester

Kieff, Lester J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 507.
Qualitative Analysis
Use of KMnO4, to oxidize interfering organic anions in qualitative analysis  Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V.
A simple procedure is presented here that is based upon the oxidation of organic material by permanganate ion in acidified medium.
Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 424.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reagents for the qualitative analysis of Ce(III)-Ce(IV) mixtures  Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N.
Reports a series of comparisons between the behavior of Ce(III) and Ce(IV) toward several analytical reagents.
Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 424.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Errors in the detection of cadmium: Light-colored copper-thioacetamide complexes  Isenberg, N.; Kreger, H. J.; Middleton, R. H.
It is important to take precautions in the identification of cadmium in the presence of copper.
Isenberg, N.; Kreger, H. J.; Middleton, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 422.
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Fusion reactions under the microscope  Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe
An electrically heated wire is used to identify a variety of cations and anions according to colors observed under a microscope.
Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 421.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure
What has happened to qualitative analysis: A 1966 survey  Krohn, Albertine
Reports the result of a survey sent to 458 chemistry departments regarding future planned changes in qualitative analysis.
Krohn, Albertine J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 419.
Qualitative Analysis
The interaction of chromium(III) ion with hydroxide ion. An experiment for the undergraduate inorganic laboratory  Reinhardt, Richard A.
In the interactions with hydroxide ion, at least three different types of reactions may be considered: protolysis, the formation of a sparingly soluble hydroxide, and the formation of polymeric species.
Reinhardt, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 382.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Hydration of an alkyne: Undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Rose, Norman C.
The hydration of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol to yield 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone is a very suitable reaction for undergraduates who have had little prior experience in the organic laboratory.
Rose, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 324.
Alkynes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
The systematic identification of organic compounds: A laboratory manual (Shriner, Ralph; Fuson, Reynold C.; Curtin, David Y.)  Bossert, Roy G.

Bossert, Roy G. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A324.
Qualitative Analysis
Semimicro qualitative organic analysis: The systematic identification of organic compounds (Cheronis, Nicholas D.; Entrikin, John B.; Hodnett, Ernest M.)  Webb, James L. A.

Webb, James L. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 691.
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative test for ketones, aromatic aldehydes, and aliphatic aldehydes  Morrison, James D.
The Bordwell-Wellman solution of chromic anhydride in aqueous sulfuric acid is an excellent reagent for distinguishing aldehydes from ketones.
Morrison, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 554.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Experiments on metal amine salts  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Tetrammine monaquo copper(II) sulfate is prepared and studied qualitatively and quantitatively.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 468.
Metals |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Qualitative tests for K+  McCoy, Robert E.
Flame tests of solid or concentrated cobaltnitrites produce results that are easily mistaken for potassium.
McCoy, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 444.
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Cation analysis with thin layer chromatography  Goller, Edwin J.
Reported here is an adaptation of thin layer chromatography to an undergraduate laboratory operation for cation analysis.
Goller, Edwin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 442.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of chloride ion in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Summarizes and evaluates several published methods for detecting chloride ions in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 440.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Neothorin spot test for zirconium and hafnium  Johnson, Arnold R., Jr.
Describes the use of neothorin in a spot test for zirconium and hafnium.
Johnson, Arnold R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 439.
Qualitative Analysis
PiperidineA spot reagent for Mn(II)  Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L.
Describes the use of piperidine as a spot reagent for manganese.
Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 438.
Qualitative Analysis
Two nitrosophenol reagents for iron(II) and cobalt  Peach, S. M.
Describes the preparation of two new nitrosophenol reagents for the detection and assay of iron(II) and cobalt: dinitrosoresorcinol sodium sulphonate and nitroso-4-chlororesorcinol.
Peach, S. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 437.
Qualitative Analysis
Applications of sodium-lead alloy in qualitative inorganic analysis  Edge, Robert A.; Fowles, Gerald W. A.
This note describes how sodium-lead alloy may be used n qualitative inorganic analysis, both as a reductant in acid and alkaline media, and as a source of sodium hydroxide for hydroxide precipitations.
Edge, Robert A.; Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 436.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Letter to the editor  Gennaro, A. R.
Two recent comments on the limitation of the Hinsberg method for primary amines appear to place unwarranted emphasis on an alleged error in modern texts.
Gennaro, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 48.
Qualitative Analysis
An inexpensive centrifuge for micro qualitative analysis  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Presents an inexpensive micro centrifuge.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A qualitative test for the presence of paramagnetic species  Goldberg, P.
This article describes a simple method for demonstrating the presence of a paramagnetic species.
Goldberg, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 450.
Qualitative Analysis |
Magnetic Properties
The use of polyelectrolytes to improve qualitative analysis preparations  Williams, T. R.; Carter, Robert
Describes the use of polyelectrolytes to deal with the problem of precipitates in colloidal form.
Williams, T. R.; Carter, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 442.
Qualitative Analysis |
Colloids
The effect of mineral acid on methyl violet solutions  McKaig, Nelson, Jr.
Test results indicate that the four common strong mineral acids cause fading of methyl violet indicator.
McKaig, Nelson, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 441.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Separation and identification of copper and cadmium  Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L.
Describes three semimicro procedures for the separation and identification of copper and cadmium.
Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 439.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Resacetophenone oxime chelation of copper in the presence of cadmium  Kadarmandalgi, S. G.
The use of resacetophenone oxime as a chelating agent for copper(II) ions avoids the use of cyanide in the separation of copper from cadmium ions.
Kadarmandalgi, S. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 438.
Qualitative Analysis
Spot test for detection of manganese  Kadarmandalgi, S. G.
Describes a procedure for the spot test detection of manganese.
Kadarmandalgi, S. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 437.
Qualitative Analysis
A fluorescent indicator for a confirmatory test for the aluminum ion  Haworth, Daniel T.; Starshak, R. J.; Surak, J. G.
Presents a new confirmatory test for the aluminum ion using 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-napthol as a fluorescent indicator.
Haworth, Daniel T.; Starshak, R. J.; Surak, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 436.
Qualitative Analysis
Column chromatographic analysis of the metal ions  Marie, Sister Eleanor, S. S. J.
Presents a column chromatographic analysis of the metal ions that is superior to conventional methods.
Marie, Sister Eleanor, S. S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 436.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Metals |
Separation Science
The quinhydrone test for amines  Meek, Willoughby F.; Entrikin, John B.
Proposes modifications to the quinhydrone test for amines that allows for accurate classification.
Meek, Willoughby F.; Entrikin, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 420.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
A new qualitative reagent for aluminum. A specific qualitative reagent for copper  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests research questions to accompany an earlier published JCE article.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A564.
Qualitative Analysis
Non-cyanide detection of cadmium in the presence of copper  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests research questions to accompany an earlier published JCE article.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A564.
Qualitative Analysis
The pyrolytic decomposition of carboxylate salts to ketones  Schultz, H. P.; Sichels, J. P.
Suggestions for research to accompany a previously published article.
Schultz, H. P.; Sichels, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A463.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The use of the Perkin reaction in organic chemistry classes  Buckles, R. E.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Buckles, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
A gas chromatography demonstration apparatus  McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L.
Describes an apparatus for the separation of volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography using oxygen or air as the carrier gas.
McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 539.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative detection of Ba, Sr, and Ca ions  Pariza, Richard
This short note presents a procedure for the separation of Ba++, Ca++, and Sr++ in pairs or combination of the three.
Pariza, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 417.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Preparation of solutions for qualitative analysis with a cation exchange resin  Key, Paul; Sohl, Edward; Tiews, Robert; Bricker, Clark
A simple technique utilizing an ion exchange resin has been developed that eliminates most of the difficulties encountered in the dissolution of insoluble salts prior to analysis.
Key, Paul; Sohl, Edward; Tiews, Robert; Bricker, Clark J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 416.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange
A simple separation of the group II-A sulfides  O'Donnell, T. A.
Presents a group separation scheme for the separation of lead from bismuth and copper from cadmium.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 415.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Non-cyanide detection of cadmium  Dutta, R. L.; Choudhury, S. Dutta
This short note presents a non-cyanide method for the detection of cadmium in the presence of copper.
Dutta, R. L.; Choudhury, S. Dutta J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 414.
Qualitative Analysis
Dissolving difficultly soluble salts with chelating ion exchange resins  Rich, Ronald
Chelating resins such as Dowex A-1 and Chelex 100 provide a new way of separating the ions of some difficultly soluble salts.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 414.
Ion Exchange |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Separation Science
Separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium  Abrao, Alcidio
Suggests techniques for the separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium without relying on HCN.
Abrao, Alcidio J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 413.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
The present and future of qualitative analysis: Report of a survey  Hovey, Nelson W.
Reports the results of a survey whose objective was to determine to what extent new concepts in the teaching of chemistry have affected the content and place in the curriculum of courses in qualitative analysis.
Hovey, Nelson W. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 410.
Qualitative Analysis
The theory of the formaldehyde clock reaction  Jones, P.; Oldham, K. B.
Presents a theory for the formaldehyde clock reaction.
Jones, P.; Oldham, K. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 366.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The formation of acetone from acetates  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests some research activities based on an article published previously in the Journal.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A962.
Undergraduate Research |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
Introduction to qualitative analysis (Layde, Durward C.)  Larson, W. D.

Larson, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 656.
Qualitative Analysis
Spectrometric identification of organic compounds  Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton
Presents a sequence of procedures for identifying an unknown organic liquid using mass, NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy, along with specific examples of unknowns and their spectra,
Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 546.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Qualitative elemental analysis (Swift, E. H.; Schaefer, William P.)  Tyree, S. Y., Jr.

Tyree, S. Y., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 432.
Qualitative Analysis
The cyanocobaltate scheme of qualitative analysis  Rich, Ronald
This paper presents a novel scheme of qualitative analysis for cations.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 403.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Combining preparative and quantitative procedures in qualitative analysis  Fowles, G. W. A.
Reviews some of the advantages and disadvantages of teaching qualitative analysis and offers an alternative approach.
Fowles, G. W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 401.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The detection of strontium and calcium  Isenberg, Norbert; Collins, Carolyn J.; MacFarland, Sue A.; Strax, Polly A.
This method addresses the problem of detecting strontium and calcium in the presence of the chromate ion.
Isenberg, Norbert; Collins, Carolyn J.; MacFarland, Sue A.; Strax, Polly A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 401.
Qualitative Analysis
New confirmatory tests for manganese, antimony, lead, mercury, and chromium  Rich, Ronald
Presents a series of tests for confirming the presence of manganese, antimony, lead, mercury, and chromium.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 400.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The separation and identification of cadmium and copper ions  Whitehead, T. H.; Hatcher, Georgia K.
Presents a sensitive and rapid method for the separation and identification of cadmium and copper ions.
Whitehead, T. H.; Hatcher, Georgia K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 399.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Qualitative analysis for aluminum  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Tests for qualitatively determining the presence of Al+3, even in the presence of other metallic ions.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 398.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Detection of barium, strontium, and calcium with sodium rhodizonate  Chandra, Ramesh
The application of sodium rhodizonate allows the rapid detection of Group IV cations.
Chandra, Ramesh J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 397.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Detection of ferrocyanide, ferricyanide, and thiocyanate  Chandra, Ramesh; Sharma, S. L.
The authors present a simplified method for detecting ferrocyanide, ferricyanide, and thiocyanate in the presence of one another.
Chandra, Ramesh; Sharma, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 397.
Qualitative Analysis
Specific tests for cations of group II  Chandra, Ramesh; Jindal, H. R.
Methods for the identification of mercury, bismuth, copper, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, and tin.
Chandra, Ramesh; Jindal, H. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 396.
Qualitative Analysis
A spot test scheme for the identification of metal ions  Vavoulis, Alex
This spot test may be incorporated into a classical qualitative analysis scheme; includes methods for mercury, silver, bismuth, manganese, and zinc.
Vavoulis, Alex J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 395.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
H2S equilibria: The precipitation and solubilities of metal sulfides  Petrucci, Ralph H.; Moews, P. C., Jr.
It is possible to discuss all aspects of H2S and metal sulfide systems through a single mathematical relationship by using the appropriate terms in the expression.
Petrucci, Ralph H.; Moews, P. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 391.
Equilibrium |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
A rapid test to distinguish tertiary from primary or secondary alcohols  Bordwell, Frederick C.; Wellman, Keith M.
Describes a protocol for distinguishing tertiary from primary or secondary alcohols and its application to a specific problem.
Bordwell, Frederick C.; Wellman, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 308.
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
The acylation of aliphatic unsaturated hydrocarbons  Sharefkin, Jacob G.
Introductory organic chemistry textbooks discuss the Friedel-Crafts synthesis of aromatic ketones but usually do not treat the corresponding reaction in the aliphatic series.
Sharefkin, Jacob G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 206.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Inorganic chemistry of qualitative analysis (Clifford, A. F.)  Jolly, William L.

Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 53.
Qualitative Analysis
Chemical properties and identification of ions: An introduction to semimicro qualitative analysis (Whipple, Omer K.)  Summers, Donald B.

Summers, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A920.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Qualitative Analysis and Analytical Chemical Separations (West, Philip W.; Vick, Maurice M.)  Frank, Richard E.

Frank, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A642.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Letters  Smith, W. B.
The author suggests two experiments for determining the best method for preparing cyclopentanone from adipic acid.
Smith, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 638.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Letters  Archer, R. D.
The author clarifies some of the chemistry relevant to an earlier article.
Archer, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 638.
Qualitative Analysis
A qualitative elemental analysis system correlated with the periodic table  Swift, Ernest H.; Schaefer, William P.
This article describes a new system of qualitative analysis developed especially for instructional purposes as a means of teaching descriptive inorganic chemistry and the principles of chemical reactions.
Swift, Ernest H.; Schaefer, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 607.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Qualitative Analysis |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Reactions
Contemporary analysis and the chemistry curriculum  Rogers, L. B.
Examines a variety of curricular issues regarding analytical chemistry.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 455.
Qualitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A simple test for the detection of phosphorus in organic compounds  Ketcham, Roger; Low-Beer, Anne de G.
This simple test for the detection of phosphorus in organic compounds relies on the sodium fusion procedure and filter paper moistened with silver nitrate.
Ketcham, Roger; Low-Beer, Anne de G. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 414.
Qualitative Analysis
A specific qualitative reagent for copper  Williams, T. R.; Burton, Frederick
Suggests the use of T-sulfonamidine as a specific precipitant for the separation and confirmation of copper(II) ions.
Williams, T. R.; Burton, Frederick J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 413.
Qualitative Analysis
Rapid detection of cations of copper group  Chandra, Ramesh
Presents a procedure for the separation and detection of the ions normally present in the copper subgroup.
Chandra, Ramesh J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 413.
Qualitative Analysis
A simple test for nitric acid fumes  Chan, Alfred, Jr.
This simple test for nitric acid fumes relies on an ordinary kraft paper towel.
Chan, Alfred, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 412.
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
A new qualitative reagent for aluminum  Jones, C. T.; Williams, Max B.
Describes the use of arsenazo as a confirmatory test for aluminum.
Jones, C. T.; Williams, Max B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 411.
Qualitative Analysis
Benzenoid nitro-compounds as organic reagents for tin(II)  Burns, Robert L.; Gruen, Fred M.
Describes the results of a series of experiments involving benzenoid nitro-compounds as organic reagents for the detection of tin(II).
Burns, Robert L.; Gruen, Fred M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 410.
Qualitative Analysis
Non-cyanide detection of cadmium in the presence of copper  Chandra, Ramesh
Describes six novel procedures for the detection of cadmium in the presence of copper that do not rely on cyanide.
Chandra, Ramesh J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 409.
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of phosphate in the presence of arsenate  Chandra, Ramesh
Describes a procedure for the detection of phosphate in the presence of arsenate.
Chandra, Ramesh J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 408.
Qualitative Analysis
Preparative separations replace typical qualitative analysis  Mahr, Carl
Discusses the use of preparative separations in qualitative analysis.
Mahr, Carl J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 407.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Ion exchange paper chromatography  Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P.
Describes an experiment/demonstration in ion exchange paper chromatography separating amino acids.
Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 406.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
A paper chromatographic scheme for the identification of metallic ions  Ritchie, A. S.
Presents a scheme for the identification of metallic ions through paper chromatography.
Ritchie, A. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 400.
Chromatography |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis
Condensed Norms: ACS Cooperative Examinations  
Presents norms for ACS tests in qualitative analysis and general chemistry.
J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 211.
Qualitative Analysis
Letters  Taylor, D. A. H.
Tollens reagent is not an infallible test for aldehydes.
Taylor, D. A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 102.
Quantitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Letters  Battino, Rubin
The author offers an experimental approach to qualitative analysis as an exercise in deductive reasoning.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 102.
Qualitative Analysis
The detection of acetate ions in qualitative analysis  Berk, Dennis; Hecker, Lawrence
A reliable test for acetate has been developed that is based on the fact that the acetate ion pyrolyzes with sodium hydroxide to form sodium carbonate.
Berk, Dennis; Hecker, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 414.
Qualitative Analysis
A non-cyanide separation of copper from cadmium  Waggoner, William H.
A procedure has been developed for the separation of copper from cadmium that is based on the observation that thiocyanate ion will precipitate copper but not cadmium from an acidic solution.
Waggoner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 411.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Improved confirmatory test for chromium  Ferrand, Edward F., Jr.
Describes an improved and sensitive confirmatory test for chromium.
Ferrand, Edward F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 411.
Qualitative Analysis
A new reagent for the identification of Mg and Bi  Bishop, John A.
Brominated tetraresorcinol pyromellitein can be used in the identification of magnesium and bismuth.
Bishop, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 410.
Qualitative Analysis
A study of various methods for the analysis for Group III cations  Hahn, Richard B.; Sanders, Charlie H.
Results of a study comparing three methods for separating group III ions.
Hahn, Richard B.; Sanders, Charlie H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 408.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Separation Science
Semimicro analysis of alloys containing zirconium  Lehrman, Leo; Dorenbush, Martin; Meisler, Natalie
Presents a procedure for determining the presence and estimating the amount of zirconium in an alloy.
Lehrman, Leo; Dorenbush, Martin; Meisler, Natalie J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 407.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Metals
A realistic introduction to solution equilibria  Ramette, Richard
This paper is concerned with a sophomore chemistry course entitled "Equilibrium."
Ramette, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 344.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Identification of amino acids in a protein hydrolysate by paper chromatography  Clapp, L. B.; Hansch, Corwin
By varying the number of amino acids to be identified, the difficulty of this procedure can be easily controlled.
Clapp, L. B.; Hansch, Corwin J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 293.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Chromatography
Quantitative analysis versus quantitative chemistry  Swift, Ernest H.
Examines the historical development of quantitative analysis and quantitative chemistry and their contemporary role in the undergraduate curriculum.
Swift, Ernest H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 283.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Semimicro Experiments in General Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis (Cheronis, Nicholas D.; Stein, Herman)  Williams, Theodore R.

Williams, Theodore R. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 216.
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis
The Fehling and Benedict tests  Daniels, Ralph; Rush, Clyde C.; Bauer, Ludwig
The commonly cited interpretation of the Fehling and Benedict tests are not in accord with experimental facts.
Daniels, Ralph; Rush, Clyde C.; Bauer, Ludwig J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 205.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
Letters to the editor  Brescia, Frank
Presents the results of two surveys regarding the place of qualitative analysis in the chemistry curriculum.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 416.
Qualitative Analysis
Toluene-3,4-dithiol and its derivatives as analytical reagents: A new approach to qualitative inorganic analysis  Clark, R. E. D.; Neville, R. C.
Develops a rational basis for applying organic reagents to inorganic qualitative analysis.
Clark, R. E. D.; Neville, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 390.
Qualitative Analysis
Separating copper from cadmium without cyanide  Sanyal, Somorendranath
The procedure here is based on the observation that CdS is soluble in hot dilute H2SO4, whereas CuS is insoluble.
Sanyal, Somorendranath J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 387.
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of thiocyanate and dissolution of silver halides  Gentil, Vicente; Caldas, Alcides
This procedure will detect the presence of 1 mg of I-, Br-, Cl-, or SCN- in any mixture containing up to 100 mg of each of the other ions.
Gentil, Vicente; Caldas, Alcides J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 386.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in inorganic qualitative analysis  Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko
Presents the results of an investigation into the sulfate-forming tendencies of various oxidizing agents.
Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 385.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A gas testing device using liquids or test papers  Williams, T. R.; Stock, John T.
This simple device facilitates the qualitative testing of gases evolved during small-scale inorganic analysis using liquids or test papers.
Williams, T. R.; Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 384.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The separation of arsenic in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
A separation of arsenic as As(III) has been developed based upon the observation that As(III) is extracted selectively from hydrochloric acid solution of the common cations encountered in the usual qualitative analysis scheme.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 384.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
The preparation of barium chloranilate  Thomas, E. B.
The use of barium chloranilate in the colorimetric determination of sulfate offers an effective means of introducing classes in quantitative analysis to indirect, colorimetric procedures.
Thomas, E. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 383.
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis
An evaluation of reagents for sulfide precipitation  Page, John O.; Machel, A. R.; Ramsey, J. W.
The comparative efficiencies of four sulfide-precipitating reagents - hydrogen sulfide, ammonium hydrosulfide solution, sodium hydrosulphide solution, and triethylamine solution - are evaluated.
Page, John O.; Machel, A. R.; Ramsey, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 382.
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Qualitative test for potassium using sodium tetraphenylboron  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Sodium tetraphenylboron reacts with potassium ions to form a white insoluble compound.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 380.
Qualitative Analysis
A spot test analysis of the group III cations  Marion, Stephen P.; Zlochower, Isaac
This procedure may be used for the direct determination of the group III cations, for a quick confirmation of the results obtained in the regular scheme of analysis, or for teaching another technique in analytical chemistry.
Marion, Stephen P.; Zlochower, Isaac J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 379.
Qualitative Analysis
Use of radioisotopes in the college chemistry laboratory  Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H.
Provides experiments and experiences working with constructed Geiger counters and radioisotopes.
Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 133.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Kinetics
Systematic detection of anions through their parent elements  Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente
Presents an analysis scheme that aims at the detection of the parent elements of the anions, no matter what their state of combination.
Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 545.
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The use of N-chlorosuccinimide for identification of bromide and iodide ions  Filler, Robert
Describes the use of N-chlorosuccinimide as an oxidizing agent in preference to "chlorine water" for the identification of bromide and iodide ions.
Filler, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 407.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Separation of copper(II) from cadmium (II) in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
This procedure is based on the observation that copper(II) ion is extracted selectively from solutions containing copper(II) and cadmium(II) by a solution of 8-hydroxyquinoline in chloroform.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 406.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A bench-scale preparation of thioacetamide  O'Connor, William F.; Cogswell, George W.; Moriconi, Emil J.
The bench-scale preparation of thioacetamide presented is a modification of an earlier technique.
O'Connor, William F.; Cogswell, George W.; Moriconi, Emil J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 405.
Synthesis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Identification of copper and cadmiumA method without the use of KCN  Husted, Helen G.
In order to avoid the use of very poisonous KCN while retaining the wet basis for the analysis, the author has developed a new method for the separation and identification of copper and cadmium.
Husted, Helen G. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 403.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A spot test for cadmium  Petroccione, John F.
A simple but effective spot test for cadmium can be made with Titan yellow.
Petroccione, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 402.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Separation of arsenic and copper in qualitative analysis  Stock, John T.
Provides a procedure for the separation of arsenic and copper in qualitative analysis.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 402.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The colorimetric detection of arsenic as copper arsenide  Stock, John T.; Garcia, Lucinda M.
A test for detecting arsenic in the presence of antimony.
Stock, John T.; Garcia, Lucinda M. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 401.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The use of "parallel samples" in qualitative analysis courses  Kauffman, George B.
As an alternative to analyzing separately the known and then the unknown, as is done in some schools, the author suggests that the student analyze the known and unknown simultaneously, "in parallel."
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 363.
Qualitative Analysis
A simple method for the detection of soluble bicarbonates  Lahiri, Ananta Gopal
The brief notes describes a simple method for the detection of soluble bicarbonates.
Lahiri, Ananta Gopal J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 298.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative identification of narcotics by spot test examination  Lampe, Kenneth F.
Provides procedures for the qualitative identification of narcotics table of color reactions of narcotics in spot tests.
Lampe, Kenneth F. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 96.
Qualitative Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
The solubility product constant for copper iodate: An experiment  Peterson, B. H.
Copper iodate is a salt of moderate solubility, and a titrimetric analysis of an aliquot portion of saturated solution provides the data necessary for the calculation of the solubility product.
Peterson, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 612.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
The qualitative analysis course should teach analysis  Strong, Frederick C., III
The author examines the practicality of the typical qualitative chemistry course.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 400.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis and analytical chemical separations without the use of sulfides  Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W.
The authors argue for the need of qualitative analysis, examine systems of qualitative analysis, and present a qualitative scheme that eliminates the need for sulfides.
Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 393.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
What topics belong in a modern course in qualitative analysis?  Gilreath, Esmarch S.
The author focuses particularly on the role of theory and aqueous solutions equilibria in the qualitative analysis course.
Gilreath, Esmarch S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 391.
Qualitative Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
History of qualitative analysis  Welcher, Frank J.
The author traces the history of qualitative analysis, examining particularly the origin of microanalysis and spot tests.
Welcher, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 389.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Why teach qualitative analysis?  Freiser, Henry
The author examines the depreciation of qualitative analysis and the need for a proper re-evaluation of the course's purpose.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 387.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysisWhat, why how? A symposium  Hahn, Richard B.
An introduction to a symposium examining the place, content, and methods of qualitative analysis.
Hahn, Richard B. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 387.
Qualitative Analysis
Identification analysis, a stimulating revival of qualitative analysis  Frank, Richard E.
The author describes the process of identification analysis and provides examples of several identification analyses.
Frank, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 383.
Qualitative Analysis
Microchemical apparatus: A long-term project  Stock, John T.
Presents a variety of laboratory devices developed for microscale work, including heating, stirring, electrochemical, and qualitative analysis devices.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 358.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry
Letters to the editor  Shevach, Lawrence P.
The author argues that qualitative analysis should be integrated with general chemistry.
Shevach, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 155.
Qualitative Analysis
The inclusion of tungsten and thallium in the elementary scheme of qualitative analysis  Waters, K. L.; Brockman, C. J.; Waggoner, W. H.
It is the purpose of this paper to present a scheme of analysis for Group I which includes tungsten and thallium.
Waters, K. L.; Brockman, C. J.; Waggoner, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 137.
Qualitative Analysis
A rapid chromatographic analysis of group I cations  Marion, Stephen P.; Psihas, James
This simple experiment makes use of an easy paper technique, is rapid, and requires no special apparatus or reagents.
Marion, Stephen P.; Psihas, James J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 87.
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis of alloys containing molybdenum  Lehrman, Leo; Schneider, Paul
The object of this work was to develop a semimicro method of qualitative analysis for molybdenum within the framework of a scheme used for the common metals.
Lehrman, Leo; Schneider, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 621.
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis
Gas-phase chromatography: A class experiment  Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles
Recommends an experimental procedure involving gas chromatography and presents the necessary apparatus.
Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 490.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Gas-phase chromatography  Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B.
Introduces gas chromatography and describes its associated apparatus and operation.
Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 485.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The nature of chromatography  Cassidy, Harold G.
Provides a definition of chromatography and a description of gas chromatography.
Cassidy, Harold G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 482.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Sleuthing in the chemistry laboratory: An impromptu project  Johnson, Leroy D.
Students in a general organic chemistry laboratory are given unknowns that have been produced over time through various unintended interactions in the chemical stockroom.
Johnson, Leroy D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 389.
Qualitative Analysis
A reduced-scale Lassaigne technique: The detection of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens in organic compounds  Stock, John T.
Presents apparatus that makes use of a reduced-scale Lassaigne technique involving fusion with metallic sodium for the detection of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens in organic compounds.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 345.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Principles of the systematic separation of cations  Weisz, Herbert
Lays out approaches to be used in the systematic separation of cations.
Weisz, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 334.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
The qualitative separation and detection of zinc  Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K.
This paper investigates stages in the inorganic scheme of analysis where the zinc ion could be adsorbed on or coprecipitated with precipitates of other ions.
Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 613.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Precipitation / Solubility
A chemistry course including both qualitative and quantitative analysis  McDuffie, Bruce
Describes a chemistry course and its experiments that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative analysis.
McDuffie, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 560.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Thioacetamide as a source of hydrogen sulfide in qualitative analysis  Lehrman, Leo
Examines the advantages and disadvantages of using a water solution of thioacetamide as a source of hydrogen sulfide to precipitate metal sulfides in qualitative analysis.
Lehrman, Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 474.
Amides |
Qualitative Analysis
Separation and detection of the aluminum ion in qualitative analysis  Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M.
Describes a study that seeks to eliminate the interference of iron and chromium in the detection of aluminum when using the "aluminon" test.
Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 380.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Trends in chemical education  Currier, Arnold J.
Topics examined include chemical nomenclature, the organization of subject matter in chemistry, carbon chemistry versus qualitative analysis, the laboratory versus the textbook, and supplies in chemistry teachers.
Currier, Arnold J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 286.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Qualitative Analysis
A laboratory exercise in catalytic dehydrogenation  Allison, Elizabeth; Gorsich, Richard; Binder, L. O.
Presents an apparatus that uses a copper catalyst to prepare aldehydes and ketones from alcohols through catalytic dehydrogenation.
Allison, Elizabeth; Gorsich, Richard; Binder, L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 209.
Catalysis |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Circular-paper chromatography in qualitative analysis  Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J.
Describes procedures for and examples of circular-paper chromatography.
Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 95.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Aids to semimicro qualitative analysis  Pantony, D. A.; Wilson, C. L.
Describes an analysis board, hanging-drop cell and hydrogen sulfide absorption apparatus, and other equipment and procedures developed for semimicro qualitative analysis.
Pantony, D. A.; Wilson, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 648.
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis
Multiple chromatograms for detection of amino acids in blood serum  Ven Horst, Sister Helene; Carstens, Yolanda
A simple piece of equipment was constructed whereby 2 to 16 chromatograms could be run simultaneously and under identical conditions.
Ven Horst, Sister Helene; Carstens, Yolanda J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 576.
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A new qualitative identification procedure for cobaltous and nickelous ions  Yasuda, Stanley K.; Lambert, Jack L.
The procedure and identification test described here reveals cobaltous ion alone or in the presence of much nickelous ion by selective color formation.
Yasuda, Stanley K.; Lambert, Jack L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 572.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis of alloys containing titanium and vanadium  Lehrman, Leo; Moscowitz, Albert; Schmeltz, Irwin
The purpose of this paper is to develop a semimicro method of qualitative analysis for titanium and vanadium within the framework of a scheme used for the common metals.
Lehrman, Leo; Moscowitz, Albert; Schmeltz, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 310.
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis
Small-scale units for organic identifications  Stock, John T.; Fill, M. A.
Presents a small, block-type unit that includes practically all of the apparatus required for organic identification work.
Stock, John T.; Fill, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 144.
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis
A synthesis of bis(p-aminophenyl) sulfone for laboratory classes  Buckles, Robert E.
A three-step synthesis of bis(p-aminophenyl) sulfone from p-chloronitrobenzene has been devised on a fairly small scale for laboratory classes in beginning organic chemistry.
Buckles, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 36.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Chromatography as a class unit in qualitative analysis  Surak, John G.; Schlueter, Donald P.
Describes procedures for the chromatographic separation and identification of cations.
Surak, John G.; Schlueter, Donald P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 457.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstration of the intermediate position of cobalt between iron and nickel  Goldstein, Ernst M.
The different oxidizability of ferrous, cobaltous, and nickelous hydroxides, together with increasing color deepness of the oxidation products, can be used to demonstrate that cobalt is intermediate in its properties between iron and nickel.
Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 387.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
The separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis  Hahn, Richard B.
Suggests a method for the separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis that relies on 72% rather than 100% nitric acid.
Hahn, Richard B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 349.
Metals |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The identification of esters of phenols  Carbone, Gabriel
The present modification is designed to better characterize esters of phenols and is based on the observations that the potassium salts of phenols are soluble in absolute alcohol wile the potassium salts of organic acids are relatively insoluble in absolute methanol.
Carbone, Gabriel J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 315.
Phenols |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis
Inorganic paper chromatography. II. Separation of groups III, IV, and V  Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert
This paper concerns itself with the separation and identification of the cations of Groups IIIa, IIIb, IV, and V.
Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 20.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The Friedel-Crafts reaction in elementary organic laboratories  Wright, Oscar L.; Fuhlhage, Donald; Sheridan, Earl
Presents a modification of the Perrier ketone synthesis.
Wright, Oscar L.; Fuhlhage, Donald; Sheridan, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 620.
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Modified Hinsberg procedure  Ritter, Frank O.
Improves the Hinsberg method for differentiating between primary, secondary, and tertiary amines.
Ritter, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 506.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Letters  Dorsey, Woodrow W.
It is in the analytical class that the student can discover if he desires to continue as a science major or to go on to some other area.
Dorsey, Woodrow W. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 473.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The identification of zinc in the presence of nickel and cobalt  Levine, E. M.; Krakower, Gerald
The presence of nickel and cobalt interfere with the identification of small amounts of zinc.
Levine, E. M.; Krakower, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 437.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Chromatographic analysis for metal ions  Fillinger, Harriett H.; Trafton, Lois Ann
Presents the results of research, much of it by undergraduates, regarding the analysis of the silver, copper, arsenic, zinc, aluminum, and alkaline earth groups of metallic ions.
Fillinger, Harriett H.; Trafton, Lois Ann J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 285.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Undergraduate Research
The course in analytical chemistry  West, Philip W.
Discusses some of the issues involved in designing a course in analytical chemistry.
West, Philip W. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 222.
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
A qualitative test for ammonia in aqueous solution  O'Neil, Richard C.; Renfrow, W. B.
The reaction between ammonia and iodine affords a reliable test for ammonia that is more convenient than the usual methods of detection.
O'Neil, Richard C.; Renfrow, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 94.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Undergraduate research projects in qualitative analysis  McDuffie, Bruce
Provides a list of topics for undergraduate research projects in qualitative analysis.
McDuffie, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 36.
Qualitative Analysis |
Undergraduate Research |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The detection of nitrite and sulfamate ions in qualitative analysis  Brasted, Robert C.
Suggests an improved test for the nitrite ion and describes its sensitivity and the potential for interference by other ions.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 592.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A scheme for the qualitative identification of amino acids  Dunn, Max S.; Drell, William
This scheme of analysis has been used to successfully identify seventeen of the naturally occurring amino acids distributed in mixtures containing from two to five components.
Dunn, Max S.; Drell, William J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 480.
Qualitative Analysis |
Amino Acids
The use of fluorescence in qualitative analysis  White, Charles E.
It is the purpose of this paper to show that the techniques of fluorescence are simple, that the apparatus required is inexpensive, and to outline procedures that may be used in any scheme of qualitative analysis. Specific tests for aluminum, zinc, boron, sodium, beryllium, thallium, and thorium are described.
White, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 369.
Qualitative Analysis |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Letters  Miller, S. Porter
The author defends qualitative analysis from its detractors and argues that it should not be relegated to freshman chemistry.
Miller, S. Porter J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 286.
Qualitative Analysis
A rapid test for castor oil in soaps and lipsticks  Sister M. Clarita Mangold
Makes use of sodium or potassium hydroxide to produce octyl alcohol as a rapid test for castor oil in soaps and lipsticks.
Sister M. Clarita Mangold J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 266.
Qualitative Analysis
The use of starch-iodate paper in qualitative analysis  Lundin, John A.
Describes the preparation of starch-iodate paper and its use in detecting sulfur dioxide and reducing anions.
Lundin, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 122.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction