TIGER

Journal Articles: 198 results
Mosher Amides: Determining the Absolute Stereochemistry of Optically-Active Amines  Damian A. Allen, Anthony E. Tomaso, Jr., Owen P. Priest, David F. Hindson, and Jamie L. Hurlburt
In this experiment, teams of students are given an optically-pure amine of known structure but unknown stereochemistry. Different teams derivatize samples of the amine with (R) and (S) conformations of Mosher's acid chloride. The resulting diastereomers are analyzed by NMR to determine the absolute configuration of the initial, unknown amine.
Allen, Damian A.; Tomaso, Anthony E., Jr.; Priest, Owen P.; Hindson, David F.; Hurlburt, Jamie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 698.
Amides |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Diastereomers |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes  Benjamin M. Hutchins, Thomas T. Morgan, Miné G. Ucak-Astarlioglu, and Mary Elizabeth Williams
Visually observed fluorescent colors of quantum dots in conjunction with spectroscopic data show students the additive emission of such mixtures; while some appear to emit white light, their fluorescence peaks remain spectroscopically resolved.
Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Miné G.; Williams, Mary Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1301.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Photochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Enhancements on the Photochromism of 2-(2,4-Dinitrobenzyl)pyridine: Molecular Modeling, NMR Spectrometry, Photo- and Solvent-Bleaching  Ernest C. McGoran, Kevin Hintz, Kristin Hoffman, and Ramon Iovin
Describes molecular-modeling studies on the photochromism of 2-(2,4-dinitrobenzyl)pyridine (a-DNBP) that focus on the hydrogen atom migratory distances and the energies for the two very different tautomers arising from the photo-induced proton transfers.
McGoran, Ernest C.; Hintz, Kevin; Hoffman, Kristin; Iovin, Ramon. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 923.
Constitutional Isomers |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry
A Laboratory Assignment in 1H NMR Spectroscopy: A Comparative Analysis of Calculated and Experimental 1H NMR Chemical Shifts  Susan D. Van Arnum
A computer program is used to determine the proton NMR chemical shifts of endo- and exo-norbornenyl ketones and these values are compared to empirical results.
Van Arnum, Susan D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 429.
Constitutional Isomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 8. Microscale Simultaneous Photocatalysis  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mena-Brito, and Arturo Fregoso-Infante
In this article we describe a microscale experiment in which the simultaneous oxidation of an organic compound (citric acid) and the reduction of a metal ion (Cu2+) are photocatalytically performed in an aqueous slurry containing TiO2 irradiated with UV light. This produces electrons (capable of reducing the metal ions) and holes (capable of oxidizing the organic molecule) that can be used for environmental clean up. The experiment allows students to have a better comprehension of the different phenomena involved in a typical photocatalytic process.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mena-Brito, Rodrigo; Fregoso-Infante, Arturo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1549.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Photochemistry |
Semiconductors |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Testing for Ultraviolet Toxicity Using Fungi  Marcelo Vital and Patricia Esperón
In this article, we describe a laboratory project quantifying the effects of UV radiation on a suspension of living cells. This laboratory experiment was designed for undergraduate students in biochemistry. The experiment was carried out employing different fungi strains, changing the dosage of radiation, the distance to the UV source, and the exposure period to the UV radiation. The quantity of viable spores was calculated and the doseresponse curves were drawn. Students were able to prove that 100% of mortality was achieved with the longest time of exposure.
Vital, Marcelo; Esperón, Patricia. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 926.
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Biology |
Photochemistry
Response to Note on Photocatalytic Destruction of Organic Wastes: Methyl Red as a Substrate  José Alberto Herrera-Melián and Javier Araña Mesa
Aqueous p-nitrophenol solutions are not as hazardous as the solid compound, but of course if no wastes are available (unusual in a lab) the solid compound must be used, prepared by the lab trainer or by the students.
Herrera-Melián, José Alberto; Araña Mesa, Javier. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 526.
Catalysis |
Green Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Note on Photocatalytic Destruction of Organic Wastes: Methyl Red as a Substrate  L. J. Soltzberg and Virginia Brown
The laboratory experiment by Herrera-Melin, et al., Solar Photocatalytic Destruction of p-Nitrophenol, utilizes colorimetric monitoring of the disappearance of p-nitrophenol in a TiO2-catalyzed photochemical reaction. The hazardous nature of p-nitrophenol, documented in that paper, necessitates the use of protective clothing and respirators by those handling that material.
Soltzberg, L. J.; Brown, Virginia. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 526.
Catalysis |
Green Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Note on Photocatalytic Destruction of Organic Wastes: Methyl Red as a Substrate  L. J. Soltzberg and Virginia Brown
The laboratory experiment by Herrera-Melin, et al., Solar Photocatalytic Destruction of p-Nitrophenol, utilizes colorimetric monitoring of the disappearance of p-nitrophenol in a TiO2-catalyzed photochemical reaction. The hazardous nature of p-nitrophenol, documented in that paper, necessitates the use of protective clothing and respirators by those handling that material.
Soltzberg, L. J.; Brown, Virginia. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 526.
Catalysis |
Green Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Triboluminescent Crystals from the Microwave Oven. What Is the Proper Regulation of Controlled Substances at Educational Institutions?  Bruce Baldwin
Concerns the use of controlled substances in the laboratory.
Baldwin, Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1121.
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Management
Triboluminescent Crystals from the Microwave Oven. In California, N-Acetylanthranilic Acid and Anthranilic Acid Are Controlled Substances—Have You Been Using Them Illegally?  Arnold L. Rheingold
Concerns the use of controlled substances in the laboratory.
Rheingold, Arnold L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1121.
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Management
A Photochemical Reactor for the Study of Kinetics and Adsorption Phenomena  J. A. Poce-Fatou, M. L. A. Gil, R. Alcántara, C. Botella, and J. Martín
This article describes the design of a photochemical reactor intended to carry out experiments illustrating the fundamentals of heterogeneous photochemistry.
Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Gil, M. L. A.; Alcántara, R.; Botella, C.; Martín, J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 537.
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
Photogalvanic Cells for Classroom Investigations: A Contribution for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  Claudia Bohrmann-Linde and Michael W. Tausch
Laboratory experiments examining the fundamental processes in the conversion of light into electrical energy using photogalvanic cells have been developed. These simple cells are suitable for classroom investigations examining the operating principles of photogalvanic cells and the influence of different parameters on their efficiency.
Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1471.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment  Atif Koca and Musa Sahin
The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.
Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1314.
Catalysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Chemistry of Atmospheres: An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Atmospheres of Earth, the Planets, and their Satellites, 3rd Edition (Richard P. Wayne)  G. Barney Ellison
Text on atmospheric chemistry.
Ellison, G. Barney. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 264.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Astrochemistry |
Photochemistry
Using a Graphing Calculator to Determine a First-Order Rate Constant When the Infinity Reading Is Unknown  José E. Corté s-Figueroa and Deborah A. Moore
Using a graphing calculator and an acid-catalyzed sucrose inversion to determine a first-order rate constant when the infinity reading is unknown.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. ; Moore, Deborah A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1462.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Rate Law |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis
Small Scale Reactor for Ultraviolet Photochemistry  James E. Gano, Andrew J. Gano, Patricia Garry, and Padmanabhan Sekher
Apparatus for performing photochemical reactions at a variety of wavelengths.
Gano, James E.; Gano, Andrew J.; Garry, Patricia; Sekher, Padmanabhan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1361.
Free Radicals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Undergraduate Research |
Laboratory Management
Triboluminescent Crystals from the Microwave Oven  Bruce W. Baldwin and David M. Wilhite
Procedure for producing triboluminescent crystals in a microwave oven.
Baldwin, Bruce W.; Wilhite, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1344.
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry
1H NMR Measurement of the Trans–Cis Photoisomerization of Cinnamic Acid Derivatives  Basil Danylec and Magdy N. Iskander
Procedure that illustrates trans-cis photoisomerization.
Danylec, Basil; Iskander, Magdy N. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1000.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Mechanism of the Ritter Reaction in Combination with Wagner-Meerwein Rearrangements. A Cooperative Learning Experience  María I. Colombo, María L. Bohn, and Edmundo A. Rúveda
Procedure in which students develop analytical and problem-solving skills by investigating an organic reaction mechanism, predicting the most likely products, and suggesting experiments to test the postulated mechanistic pathways and possible intermediates.
Colombo, María I.; Bohn, María L.; Rúveda, Edmundo A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 484.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Amides |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
Wittig Reaction: The Synthesis of trans-9-(2-Phenylethenyl)anthracene Revisited  Christine Jaworek and Sarah Iacobucci
Improvements on a favorable Wittig reaction synthesis.
Jaworek, Christine; Iacobucci, Sarah. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 111.
Chromatography |
Photochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis
Effect of Anisotropy on the Chemical Shift of Vinyl Protons in trans- and cis-1,2-Dibenzoylethylenes. A Small-Group or Recitation Activity  Roosevelt Shaw, David Roane, and Sean Nedd
Procedure to help students explain chemical shift differences for vinyl protons in alkene diastereomers.
Shaw, Roosevelt; Roane, David; Nedd, Sean. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 67.
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Phototropic Reaction (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1386-1387)  Addison Ault
Incorrect interpretation of the mechanism of a photochemical reaction.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Phototropic Reaction (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1386-1387)  Paul Rademacher
Incorrect interpretation of the mechanism of a photochemical reaction.
Rademacher, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UV-Sensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A-648B)  Jerry A. Bell
Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UV-sensitive beads.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Chemometrics
Combustion of White Phosphorus  Richard L. Keiter and Chaminda P. Gamage
The combustion of white phosphorus.
Keiter, Richard L.; Gamage, Chaminda P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 908.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Oxidation / Reduction
Solar Photocatalytic Destruction of p-Nitrophenol: A Pedagogical Use of Lab Wastes  J. A. Herrera-Melián, J. M. Doña-Rodríguez, E. Tello Rendón, A. Soler Vila, M. Brunet Quetglas, A. Alvera Azcárate, and L. Pascual Pariente
Using lab wastes to develop new chemistry experiments.
Herrera-Melián, J. A.; Doña-Rodríguez, J. M.; Rendón, E. Tello; Soler Vila, A.; Brunet Quetglas, M.; Azcárate, A. Alvera; Pascual Pariente, L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 775.
Catalysis |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Light Emission at Electrodes: An Electrochemiluminescence Demonstration  Ed Bolton and Mark M. Richter
Upon application of a 3-volt potential to a platinum electrode immersed in a Ru(bpy)32+-C9H21N solution, an orange glow, readily visible in a semi-darkened room, is produced at the electrode.
Bolton, Ed; Richter, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 641.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry
Molecular Mechanics and Variable-Temperature 1H NMR Studies on N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide. An Undergraduate NMR and Molecular Modeling Experiment  Bruce L. Jensen and Raymond C. Fort Jr.
A combination of molecular modeling and variable-temperature NMR experiments is used to analyze the barrier to rotation about the amide bond of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). This approach utilizes the ability of computers to calculate the potential energy of a set of conformations obtained from a dihedral drive around the N-CO bond.
Jensen, Bruce L.; Fort, Raymond C. Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 538.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Amides
Chemistry and Molecular Electronics: New Molecules as Wires, Switches, and Logic Gates  Michael D. Ward
This review surveys recent advances in nanotechnology and looks at the advantages, limitations, and potential uses of the molecular components that have been prepared (including molecular wires, switches, and logic gates).
Ward, Michael D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 321.
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Applications of Chemistry
The Photochemical Basis of Cyanotype Photography (about J. Chem. Educ., 1999, 76, 1199-1200)  Harmon B. Abrahamson
Clarification of the chemical reactions that take place in the cyanotype process.
Abrahamson, Harmon B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 311.
Catalysis |
Nonmajor Courses |
Photochemistry
Chemiluminescence of Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II): A Glowing Experience  Ed Bolton and Mark M. Richter
When Mg powder or turnings are added to a CH3CN-H2O (50:50 v/v) solution mixture containing 1 mM Ru(bpy)32+ and 40 mM S2O82- (CH3CN = acetonitrile, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, S2O82 = peroxydisulfate) at pH 1.2, a bright orange emission results that is easily visible in a darkened room.
Bolton, Ed; Richter, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 47.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry
Cornell College Students Achieve the Highly Improbable  Addison Ault
On Tuesday, March 14, 2000, at Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa, two students who prepared the photochromic compound 2-(2,4-dinitrobenzyl)pyridine obtained their product as a single crystal, one weighing 864 mg and the other 891 mg. As far as we know, this has happened only once before, also at Cornell College in Iowa.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1386.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry
Displacement of the Benzene Solvent Molecule from Cr(CO)5(benzene) by Piperidine: A Laser Flash Photolysis Experiment  Ashfaq A. Bengali and Samantha B. Charlton
This laboratory experiment utilizes a nitrogen laser to investigate the chemistry of the Cr(CO)5(benzene) complex on the microsecond time scale. The unique capabilities of a laser and the chemistry made possible by its use is demonstrated.
Bengali, Ashfaq A.; Charlton, Samantha B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1348.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions
Photochemistry of Chloropicrin. A Physical Chemistry Project  E. A. Wade, T. P. Clemes, and K. A. Singmaster
In this experiment, students will use FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the kinetics of the photolysis of chloropicrin by an Hg arc lamp, both with and without oxygen. They will then be able to determine the mechanism of the photolytic reaction.
Wade, Elisabeth A.; Clemes, T. P.; Singmaster, Karen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 898.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Unexpected Event When Chymotrypsin Performs Its Physiological Role  Ivan G. Darvey
One of the events that occur during the chymotrypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of proteins is an example of an exception to a rule of thumb taught in introductory organic chemistry courses, namely, that amides can't readily be converted to esters. If biochemistry teachers and the authors of textbooks of biochemistry commented on this unusual reaction, it would emphasize further the remarkable part chymotrypsin plays as a catalyst in carrying out its main perceived "physiological role".
Darvey, Ivan G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 422.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Amides |
Esters
A Visual Demonstration of Supramolecular Chemistry: Observable Fluorescence Enhancement upon Guest-Host Inclusion  Brian D. Wagner, Penny J. MacDonald, and Maryam Wagner
A simple yet striking demonstration of supramolecular host-guest inclusion and fluorescence based on the extraordinarily large observed fluorescence enhancement of the probe ANS by a modified -cyclodextrin.
Wagner, Brian D.; MacDonald, Penny J.; Wagner, Maryam. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 178.
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Remediation of Water Contaminated with an Azo Dye: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Utilizing an Inexpensive Photocatalytic Reactor  John A. Bumpus, Jennifer Tricker, Ken Andrzejewski, Heather Rhoads, and Matthew Tatarko
The construction and use of an inexpensive photocatalytic reactor that utilizes titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst for wastewater treatment is described. In these experiments and in supplementary material, students are made aware that a variety of techniques have been developed to treat wastewaters, including those generated by the chemical industry. Water contaminated with the azo dye Congo Red was selected as an example of how one might treat contaminated water from a textile manufacturing facility.
Bumpus, John A.; Tricker, Jennifer; Andrzejewski, Ken; Rhoads, Heather; Tatarko, Matthew. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1680.
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Applications of Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Chemiluminescence Demonstration Illustrating Principles of Ester Hydrolysis Reactions  Andrew G. Hadd, David W. Lehmpuhl, Laura R. Kuck, and John W. Birks
Peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence, the most efficient nonenzymatic chemiluminescence reaction known, is used to demonstrate mechanistic features of analogous ester hydrolysis reactions.
Hadd, Andrew G.; Lehmpuhl, David W.; Kuck, Laura R.; Birks, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1237.
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Esters
UV Catalysis, Cyanotype Photography, and Sunscreens  Glen D. Lawrence and Stuart Fishelson
This laboratory experiment is intended for a chemistry course for non-science majors. The experiment utilizes one of the earliest photographic processes, the cyanotype process, to demonstrate UV catalysis of chemical reactions.
Lawrence, Glen D.; Fishelson, Stuart. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1199.
Nonmajor Courses |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis
Correction to "Pushing the Rainbow: Frontiers in Color Chemistry; Light and Color in Chemistry- Report on Two American Chemical Society Presidential Events" (J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 737-746)  Nancy S. Gettys
The section on Exploring Color and Periodic Properties with Light-Emitted Diode Lasers should have stated that the new, intense blue LEDs contain aluminum, gallium, indium, and nitrogen (not phosphorus).
Gettys, Nancy S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 897.
Conferences |
Photochemistry |
Materials Science
Correction to "How Mathematics Figures in Chemistry: Some Examples" (J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 258-267)  John Andraos
With respect to the widths of parabolas discussed in Problem 3, shallow wells should be characterized as having the a parameter between 0 and 1 (0 < a < 1). The words "deep" and "shallow" appearing in the paragraph following eq 17 are incorrectly transposed.
Andraos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 897.
Mass Spectrometry |
Photochemistry
Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise  Edwin F. Ullman
The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications.
Ullman, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 781.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Pushing the Rainbow: Frontiers in Color Chemistry; Light and Color in Chemistry; Report on Two American Chemical Society Presidential Events  Nancy S. Gettys
On Sunday March 21, 1999, the 217th ACS National Meeting in Anaheim, California sponsored two Presidential Events, "Pushing the Rainbow: Frontiers in Color Chemistry" and "Light and Color in Chemistry". The events included 10 exceptional and very different speakers who explored various aspects of the importance of light and color in chemistry and chemistry teaching, in other sciences, and in art and human culture.
Gettys, Nancy S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 737.
Conferences |
Photochemistry |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Laser-Induced Fluorescence of Lightsticks  Carl Salter, Kevin Range, and Gail Salter
Used mini lightsticks will fluoresce when inserted in a UV laser beam, making it easy to demonstrate that light of the same color is produced in both fluorescence and chemiluminescence.
Salter, Carl; Range, Kevin; Salter, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 84.
Photochemistry |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
The Preparation of a Fluorescent Dye: A Microscale TLC Experiment  Daniel S. Calimente, Shannon M. Strand, Shao-Chieh Chang, and David E. Lewis
This paper describes an experiment that allows the instructor to introduce TLC as a technique for analyzing reaction mixtures by monitoring the formation of a fluorescent dye. The experiment also illustrates the effects of eluting solvent on elution order.
Calimente, Daniel S.; Strand, Shannon M.; Chang, Shao-Chieh; Lewis, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 82.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Photochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Photodimerization of Maleic Anhydride  Zhang, Zhijun
Why the photodimerization of maleic anhydride produces the cis, tans, cis product.
Zhang, Zhijun J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1515.
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkenes
Chromatographic Separation Techniques for Undergraduates  Darwin B. Dahl, John T. Riley, and Thomas K. Green
Over the past several years the Chemistry Department at Western Kentucky University (WKU) has sought to strengthen its undergraduate program departmental through acquisition of FT-NMR, fluorescence, electrochemical, thermal analysis, laser Raman, microscale organic, and polymer laboratory instrumentation; this has enabled the department to build a successful undergraduate program.
Dahl, Darwin B.; Riley, John T.; Green, Thomas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1209.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Saving Your Students' Skin. Undergraduate Experiments that Probe UV Protection by Sunscreens and Sunglasses  James R. Abney and Bethe A. Scalettar
This article describes absorption spectroscopy experiments that illustrate the mechanism of action of sunscreens and sunglasses and that highlight the differences between different products. The experiments are well suited to incorporation into an undergraduate science laboratory and will expose students to absorption phenomena in a familiar context with substantial environmental and medical relevance.
Abney, James R.; Scalettar, Bethe A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 757.
Photochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  Greg P. Smestad and Michael Gratzel
A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer.
Smestad, Greg P.; Grtzel, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 752.
Photochemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Nanotechnology |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Photocatalytic Degradation of a Gaseous Organic Pollutant  Jimmy C. Yu and Linda Y. L. Chan
A simple and effective method to demonstrate the phenomenon of photocatalytic degradation of a gaseous organic pollutant was developed. Titanium dioxide (anatase) was used as the photocatalyst, and sunlight was found to be an effective light source for the activation of TiO2. The organic pollutant degrade in this demonstration was a common indoor air pollutant, dichloromethane.
Yu, Jimmy C.; Chan, Linda Y. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 750.
Catalysis |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Photodimerization of Anthracene  Gary W. Breton and Xoua Vang
The laboratory experiment of the photodimerization of anthracene is given.
Breton, Gary W.; Vang, Xoua. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 81.
Photochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
The Remarkable Resilience of Beer's Law  Mark A. Muyskens and Eric T. Sevy
Described is a case where Beer's law holds to a remarkable degree. Linear absorbance over three orders of magnitude is shown for both pyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine absorption of 266-nm laser light in a 3-m gas cell. This case provides a counter-example for a discussion of deviations from Beer's law.
Muyskens, Mark A.; Sevy, Eric T. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1138.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Perfect Strangers: Inorganic Photochemistry and Nucleic Acids  Pamela J. Carter, Suzanne A. Ciftan, Mark F. Sistare, H. Holden Thorp
The applications of inorganic photochemistry to nucleic acid chemistry are discussed. A brief review of nucleic acid structure is given. Methods for probing DNA using emissive inorganic complexes are discussed. Photoreactions that damage DNA by hydrogen atom transfer from sugar or electron abstraction from guanine are presented.
Carter, Pamela J.; Ciftan Suzanne A.; Sistare, Mark F.; Thorp, H. Holden. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 641.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Applications of Inorganic Photochemistry in the Chemical and Biological Sciences - Contemporary Developments  Kirk S. Schanze and Russell H. Schmehl
The articles published in the Journal provide an excellent introduction to the basic principles of spectroscopy and photophysics of inorganic molecules as well as a discussion of the photochemistry of particular molecular systems being actively investigated at the time. The collection of articles remains to this day an excellent resource to introduce students to the concepts of inorganic photochemistry.
Schanze, Kirk S.; Schmehl, Russell H. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 633.
Photochemistry
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Ems-Wilson, Janice
The progress of two microscale reactions, the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride and the photochemical formation of benzopinacol, was monitored, qualitatively, using FT-IR.
Ems-Wilson, Janice J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A171.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
IR Spectroscopy
A New Photochemistry Experiment, A Simple 2+2 Photocycloaddition that Poses an Interesting NMR Problem   John T. Magner, Matthias Selke, Arlene A. Russell, Orville L. Chapman
The cycloaddition of -nitrostyrene to 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene provides an extremely clean example of 2 + 2 cycloaddition. This laboratory exercise combines theory, technique, spectroscopy, and data interpretation.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 854.
Photochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Porous Silicon and the Search for a Silicon-Based LED  Ron Swisher, G. L. Richmond, and Peter C. Sercel
Porous silicon is easily made and its photo- and electroluminescence are easily demonstrated in the classroom. It provides an easily demonstrated example of key concepts in semiconductor chemistry.
Swisher, Ron; Richmond, G. L.; Sercel, Peter C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 738.
Semiconductors |
Photochemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry
Inexpensive Exemplars for the Wave Model of Electronic Structure and Light  Ed Vitz, Robert Binning, and James W. Long
The classic wave model can be used to understand the behavior of electrons constrained to the vicinity of a nucleus. In this article inexpensive examples of the wave model are described.
Vitz, Ed; Binning, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 171.
Photochemistry |
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Photochemical Key Steps in Organic Synthesis: An Experimental Course Book  reviewed by Roger C. Hahn
Photochemical organic synthesis experiments.
Hahn, Roger C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A229.
Photochemistry |
Synthesis
Photosynthesis: Why Does It Occur?  J. J. MacDonald
Explanation of why photosynthesis occurs; stating that it is merely the reverse of respiration is misleading.
MacDonald, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1113.
Plant Chemistry |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Environmental Laboratory Exercise: Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide by Fluorescence Spectroscopy  Judith Weinstein--Lloyd and Jai H. Lee
Procedure in which students analyze precipitation samples for trace concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (a deleterious air pollutant) using fluorescence spectroscopy.
Weinstein-Lloyd, Judith; Lee, Jai H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1053.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
A Low-Cost Matrix Isolation Experiment: For the Undergraduate Laboratory   Mark Flair and T. Rick Fletcher
Method for generating and observing the reaction intermediate formed by photolysis of Cr(CO)6 in a low temperature solid matrix illustrating some of the principles of photochemistry and the relationship of spectroscopy to molecular structure.
Flair, Mark; Fletcher, T. Rick. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 753.
Photochemistry |
Organometallics |
Reactive Intermediates |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Photoenolization: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Lavell, William T.
Procedure illustrating an organic photochemical reaction.
Lavell, William T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 552.
Photochemistry
Hammett Correlations of Amide Proton Chemical Shifts: An Organic or Spectroscopy Experiment  Setliff, F. L.; Soman, N. G.; Toland, A. D.
Experiment designed to illustrate the quantitative relationship between an easily measurable property (amide proton NMR chemical shift) and the electronic effect of several different substituents on substituted benzanilides; includes sample data and analysis.
Setliff, F. L.; Soman, N. G.; Toland, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 362.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amides
Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy: A General Chemistry Experiment  Giglio, Kimberly D.; Green, David B.; Hutchinson, Ben
Procedure that illustrates the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye to carbon dioxide; includes sample data and analysis.
Giglio, Kimberly D.; Green, David B.; Hutchinson, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 352.
Photochemistry |
Catalysis |
Metals |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Introducing Atmospheric Reactions: A Systematic Approach for Students  Baird, N. Colin
Outline of the dominant reactions that occur in air, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollutants.
Baird, N. Colin J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 153.
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Atmospheric Chemistry
The Ritter Reaction: Trapping a Carbocation with a Nitrile  Crouch, R. David
An organic experiment involving the Ritter reaction that yields an unpredictable product.
Crouch, R. David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A200.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The Modern Student Laboratory: Luminescent Characterization of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micellar Solution Properties  Goodling, Keith; Johnson, Kim; Lefkowitz, Lee; Williams, Brian Wesley
Three experiments: determination of critical micelle concentration (CMC), effects of sodium chloride concentration on the CMC, and determination of micellar aggregation number.
Goodling, Keith; Johnson, Kim; Lefkowitz, Lee; Williams, Brian Wesley J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A8.
Photochemistry |
Micelles |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Biophysical Chemistry
Dinitration of 2-Benzylpyyridine: Microscale Synthesis of a Photochromic Compound  Gilfillan, Elizabeth D.; Pelter, Michael W.
Microscale synthesis of 2-[(2,4-dinitrophenyl)methyl]pyridine, which is tan in the absence of light but turns blue when exposed to light.
Gilfillan, Elizabeth D.; Pelter, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A4.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
An Economical and Efficient Photochemical Box  Arney, B. E., Jr.; Banta, M. C.; Prouty, Patrick
Plans and construction of a UV light box for use in photochemical reactions.
Arney, B. E., Jr.; Banta, M. C.; Prouty, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 797.
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Photometric Determination of the Rate Expression for MnO4- Mediated Organic Oxidations  Crouch, R. David
Photometric procedure for studying the kinetics of the MnO4- mediated oxidation of mandelic acid in KOH.
Crouch, R. David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 597.
Rate Law |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics
Photodegradation of methylene blue: Using solar light and semiconductor (TiO2)  Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F.
An experiment that can be used to introduce or explore concepts such as photochemistry, semiconductors, and kinetics.
Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 861.
Semiconductors |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
MO Theory
A simple and colorful demonstration of light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane  Stevens, Malcolm P.
Light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane.
Stevens, Malcolm P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1028.
Catalysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Photochemistry |
Reactions
A multicolored luminescence demonstration  Smith, Paul E.; Johnston, Kevin; Reason, David M.; Bodner, George M.
Materials and apparatus to produce a range (red-to-white-to-blue) of luminescent colors.
Smith, Paul E.; Johnston, Kevin; Reason, David M.; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 827.
Photochemistry
Flash photochemical measurements in the physical chemistry laboratory: Kinetics of deactivation of electronically excited aromatic molecules by oxygen  Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L.
In this experiment, students examine the kinetics by which molecular oxygen deactivates the electronically excited triplet states of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene in hexane solution.
Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 336.
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Estimation of pKa in the first excited singlet state: A physical chemistry experiment that explores acid-base properties in the excited state.  Marciniak, B.; Kozubek, H.; Paszyc, S.
The acid-base reactions in excited states are some of the most elementary processes both in photochemistry and biochemistry and are, therefore, well-suited to form the basis for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment.
Marciniak, B.; Kozubek, H.; Paszyc, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 247.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Photochemistry
Methods for obtaining the midpoint potential E(m,pH) of a bacterial chromophore.  Rodriguez, Frdric; Prats, Michel.
The authors present a critical analysis of three methods that are used to determine the carotenoid midpoint potential of chromatophores extracted from Rhodobacter capsulatus.
Rodriguez, Frdric; Prats, Michel. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 245.
Proteins / Peptides |
Photochemistry |
Biological Cells |
Bioorganic Chemistry
Microscale resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine and chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in undergraduate chemistry   Krumpolc, Miroslav
A standard experiment has been modified to incorporate microscale techniques and employ chiral high performance liquid chromatography to determine enantiomeric purity.
Krumpolc, Miroslav J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A176.
Enantiomers |
Amides |
Diastereomers |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
The malonic ester synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D.
The versatile reactions of diethyl malonate represent an important lecture topic in introductory organic courses, but are only rarely performed in the lab because of several problems associated with performing these reactions. These authors present a lab the circumvents some of the typical problems.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 689.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amino Acids |
Heterocycles |
Amides
The three-step synthesis of 2,6-dinitro-4-methylaniline from p-toluidine  Todd, David
A multistep synthesis for the beginning organic chemistry lab.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 682.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides
Photophysics in a disco: Luminescence quenching of quinine  Sacksteder, LouAnn; Ballew, R. M.; Brown, Elizabeth A.; Demas, J. N.; Nesselrodt, D.; DeGraff, B. A.
A simple procedure for semiquantitatively examining luminescence quenching using tonic water (contains quinine), table salt, a shot glass, and a black light.
Sacksteder, LouAnn; Ballew, R. M.; Brown, Elizabeth A.; Demas, J. N.; Nesselrodt, D.; DeGraff, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1065.
Photochemistry
The H2 + Cl2 explosion as a chemical analogue of the photoelectric effect: A true quantum mechanical demonstration  Knox, Kerro
The photochemical hydrogen-chlorine reaction affords a good example of the quantum aspect of light and its interaction with matter.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 897.
Reactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Device to describe wave polarization  Nicolai, Lidia; Baron, Maximo
A device to show that any type of polarized wave (plane, circular, and elliptical) can be obtained from two coherent planar waves having their vibration planes perpendicular to each other.
Nicolai, Lidia; Baron, Maximo J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 647.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Photochemistry
An effective and facile demonstration of organic photochemistry  Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Cooksey, Christopher J.; Crich, David
The number of experiments that illustrate photochemically induced change and are suitable for student use is limited. The photolysis experiment described here is carried out very quickly using tungsten-filament lamp irradiation.
Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Cooksey, Christopher J.; Crich, David J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 434.
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Photohydration of pyridine: Modification of an undergraduate kinetics experiment  Morine, Gerald H.
In a previous article in this Journal an undergraduate experiment on photochemical kinetics was presented. This author is offering modifications to the original experiment.
Morine, Gerald H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 266.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Heterocycles
Change in optical rotation with wavelength  Koubek, Edward; Quinn, H.
Illustrates the effect of an optically active material (Karo corn syrup) on plane-polarized light.
Koubek, Edward; Quinn, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 853.
Photochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Photochemical and thermal isomerization of trans- and cis-1,2-dibenzoylethylene: A microscale approach  Klemm, Dennis V; Tuncay, Atilla
Both conversions are analyzed through thin layer chromatography.
Klemm, Dennis V; Tuncay, Atilla J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 519.
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Diastereomers
What color are fluorescent solutions?  Sturtevant, John L.
The overhead projector is ideally suited to separate the transmission and luminescence spectral properties of solutions.
Sturtevant, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 511.
Photochemistry
A microscale immersion well for photochemical reactions  Penn, John H.; Orr, Richard D.
In this document, the authors report the development of a microscale photochemical immersion well that incorporates all of the traditional advantages of microscale glassware, as well as offers significant developments for the pedagogy of organic photochemsitry.
Penn, John H.; Orr, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 86.
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Bromination of a hydrocarbon   Deck, Eva; Deck, Charles
The authors have developed a simple one-hour student experiment that demonstrates photochemical halogen substitution in a quantitative way using heptane, bromine, and water.
Deck, Eva; Deck, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 75.
Reactions |
Photochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Photochemistry of phenyl alkyl ketones: The "Norrish type II" photoreaction: An organic photochemistry experiment   Marciniak, Bronislaw
In this paper a student laboratory experiment is described aimed to study the "Norrish type II" reception of valerophenone. The advantage of this experiment is that it can be performed with a simple irradiation system and with a gas chromatograph and it brings students into contact with some problems of organic photochemistry.
Marciniak, Bronislaw J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 832.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Phenols |
Chromatography
cis and trans-Stilbenes: Chromatographic separation and photochemical isomerization  Levine, Samuel G.; Barhoriak, Kathleen Doubek; Cho, Ho S.
An organic chemistry laboratory that has historic significance.
Levine, Samuel G.; Barhoriak, Kathleen Doubek; Cho, Ho S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 79.
Separation Science |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Chromatography
Radiationless relaxation and red wine  Burrows, Hugh D.; Cardoso, A. Correia
Demonstrating radiationless decay by comparing red and white wine.
Burrows, Hugh D.; Cardoso, A. Correia J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 995.
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy
A multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration  Chalmers, John H., Jr.; Bradbury, Michael W.; Fabricant, Jill D.
Demonstrating a variety of luminescent colors using luminol and different fluorescent compounds.
Chalmers, John H., Jr.; Bradbury, Michael W.; Fabricant, Jill D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 969.
Photochemistry
Demonstrating the chemistry of air pollution  Hollenberg, J. Leland; Stephens, Edgar R.; Pitts, James N., Jr.
Demonstrations regarding the three essential conditions or ingredients for the formation of photochemical smog and involving NO, NO2, unsaturated hydrocarbons, and O3.
Hollenberg, J. Leland; Stephens, Edgar R.; Pitts, James N., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 893.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Electron spectroscopic methods in teaching  Allan, Michael
Presents several spectra in a format suitable for teaching applications with the intention of promoting the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in teaching the electronic structure of atoms and molecules at an elementary level.
Allan, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 418.
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Chlorofluorocarbons and stratospheric ozone  Elliot, Scott; Rowland, F. S.
Review of the physical atmospheric chemistry behind CFC-ozone relationships, first from a historical perspective and then in light of the "ozone-hole" discovered over Antarctica.
Elliot, Scott; Rowland, F. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 387.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis
An apparatus for sample degassing and sealing  Nicodem, David E.; Marchiori, Roberto
Device that allows the preparation and sealing of low-cost test tubes by inexperienced students.
Nicodem, David E.; Marchiori, Roberto J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 282.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Photochemistry
The structure of bis(trimethylsilyl) amides: A multinuclear NMR project  Samples, Majorie S.; Yoder, Claude H.; Schaeffor, Charles D., Jr.
A project designed to illustrate the great value of observing nuclei other than 1H and 13C (29Si, 14N, 17O).
Samples, Majorie S.; Yoder, Claude H.; Schaeffor, Charles D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 177.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amides |
NMR Spectroscopy
A visual manifestation of the Norrish Type I reaction: The cyclohexanone sunburn dosimeter  Carroll, Felix A.; Strouse, Geoffrey F.; Hain, Jon M.
Irradiation of aqueous cyclohexanone solutions produces hex-5-enal and butylketene; the latter reacts with water to form caproic acid, which lowers the pH of the solution and thus can be used to measure the progress of the reaction.
Carroll, Felix A.; Strouse, Geoffrey F.; Hain, Jon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 84.
Photochemistry |
pH |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Inorganic fireflies - A chemiluminescent clock reaction  Jones, Peter; Frew, Jane E.; Scowen, Nina
Adaptation of a clock reaction to illustrate the application to flow methods in the study of fast reactions and the release of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream in respiration.
Jones, Peter; Frew, Jane E.; Scowen, Nina J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 70.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Determination of reaction stoichiometries by flow injection analysis: A laboratory exercise  Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel
These authors took advantage of the features of Flow Injection Analysis and developed an easy and simple photometric method intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries.
Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 552.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods |
Photochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
Chemical Demonstrations: A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry, Volume I (Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.)  Kauffman, George B.
81 tested demonstrations grouped into 4 chapters: thermochemistry, chemiluminescence, polymers, and color and equilibria of metal ion precipitates and complexes.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A31.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Metals
An aldol condensation-photochemical bromination sequence with emphasis on spectroscopic interpretations: An undergraduate organic experiment  Rowland, Alex T.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Gerelus, Anne Sykes
The focus in these procedures is to extend students' abilities in the interpretation of spectral data in order to reach sound conclusions regarding the constitution and stereochemistry of reaction products.
Rowland, Alex T.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Gerelus, Anne Sykes J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 908.
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Windowsill kinetics: A spectrophotometric study of the photochromism of mercury dithizonate  Petersen, Richard L.; Harris, Gaylon L.
Mercury dithizonate undergoes a color change from orange to an intense royal blue upon irradiation with visible light.
Petersen, Richard L.; Harris, Gaylon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 802.
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Coordination Compounds |
Raman Spectroscopy
Inexpensive Apple II/photometer interfacing  Russo, Thomas
62. Bits and pieces, 25. A combined software / hardware package for the Apple II that will monitor light intensity versus real time.
Russo, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 692.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Photochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Energy interconversions in photosynthesis  Bering, Charles L.
Reviews the energetics of the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Bering, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 659.
Photosynthesis |
Photochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Bioenergetics
Phototropic glasses  Eiswirth, Markus; Schwankner, Robert J.
The discovery of phototropism, the structure and manufacture of phototropic glasses, the mechanism of phototropism, and applications and experiments of phototropism.
Eiswirth, Markus; Schwankner, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 641.
Photochemistry
A short set of 13C-NMR correlation tables  Brown, D. W.
The object of these tables is to enable a student to calculate rapidly approximate d values for 13C nuclei in as wide a variety of compounds as possible.
Brown, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 209.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
Preparation and analysis of potassium tris(oxalato)ferrate(III)trihydrate: A general chemistry experiment  Olmsted, John, III
The analysis of this compound combines gravimetric and titrimeric methods and includes a unique and colorful photoredox reaction.
Olmsted, John, III J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1098.
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chloride reaction: Improvements on a lecture demonstration  Ramette, R. W.
Improvements to the photon-initiated reaction between hydrogen and chlorine gas - the gas mixture is generated by the electrolysis of 8 M HCl.
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 722.
Photochemistry |
Reactions
Chemiluminescence  Gill, Steven K.; Brice, Luther K.
When exposed to moist air, tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene gives off a vivid blue-green luminescence.
Gill, Steven K.; Brice, Luther K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 713.
Photochemistry
Photochemical isomerization  Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P.
Using an incandescent rather than an ultraviolet lamp in the cited procedure.
Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 565.
Photochemistry
Photoelectrochemical solar cells  McDevitt, John T.
An introduction to photoelectrochemical cells and topics pertaining to solar energy conversion.
McDevitt, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 217.
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Semiconductors |
Applications of Chemistry
The photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid: an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P.
An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment in the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid.
Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 521.
Acids / Bases |
Photochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers
A photoelectrochemical solar cell: an undergraduate experiment  Boudreau, Sharon M.; Rauh, R. David; Boudreau, Robert A.
Students design a solar cell during a laboratory experiment for their environmental chemistry course in which they learn solid state semiconductor and electrochemical principles by preparing a CdSe photoelectrochemical cell.
Boudreau, Sharon M.; Rauh, R. David; Boudreau, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 498.
Photochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
A supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration   Olson, Edwin S.
The inquiries presented in this article serve to illustrate scientific methodology, a subject which must be taught as an important part of chemical education at all levels. This demonstration might best be utilized in a one-year organic course.
Olson, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 493.
Photochemistry
Dye photooxidation of semiconductor electrodes: A corollary to spectral sensitization in photography  Spitler, M. T.
Many aspects of photographic sensitization can be explored using photoelectrochemical techniques. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Spitler, M. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 330.
Applications of Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Semiconductors
A convenient lecture demonstration of fluorescence   Burrows, Hugh D.
In introducing fluorescence in courses in photochemistry, spectroscopy, or analytical chemistry it is valuable to have a demonstration showing clearly its characteristics, particularly that the emitted light is as longer wavelengths than the absorbed light and that the fluorescence decays very rapidly when the source of excitation is removed.
Burrows, Hugh D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 228.
Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Sunlight photochemistry: The preparation of dicarbonyl(ns-methylcyclopentadienyl) triphenylphosphinemanganese  Calabro, David C.; Lichtenberger, Dennis L.
The photosubstitution of PPh3 for CO in CH3C5H4Mn(CO)3 provides a straightforward demonstration of photochemistry and some basic mechanisms of transition metal reactions.
Calabro, David C.; Lichtenberger, Dennis L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 686.
Photochemistry |
Coordination Compounds
An easily conducted free radical substitution for organic chemistry courses  Pavlis, Robert R.
The photobromination of 1,2-diphenylethane into its dibromo derivative, (2R) (3S) 1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane.
Pavlis, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 658.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Photochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds
The sunset demonstration - A variation  May, Jeffrey C.
This demonstration uses no solutions - only a lamp and a stack of about 20 sheets of white paper.
May, Jeffrey C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 57.
Photochemistry
An undergraduate laboratory program project involving photocyclizations in independent syntheses of novel chrysenes and phenanthrenes  Letcher, R. M.
This experiment attempts to fulfill such objectives as providing meaningful and viable preparative reactions, providing an opportunity for independent laboratory work within a project framework and under conditions of nearly equal opportunity and experience.
Letcher, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1020.
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Thin Layer Chromatography
An inorganic laboratory experiment involving photochemistry, liquid chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy  Post, Elroy W.
An experiment involving photochemical ligand displacement on a metal carbonyl, separation of the product by mixture by chromatography, and identification of the components using IR spectroscopy and group theory.
Post, Elroy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 819.
Photochemistry |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Separation Science
How much inorganic spectroscopy and photochemistry?  Gray, Harry B.
Three levels of courses are required to treat adequately the ground state of electronic structures, the spectroscopy and photochemistry of inorganic molecules.
Gray, Harry B. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 764.
Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry
More Mnemonics  Goyal, Ashok K.
A similar mnemonic used in a photochemistry course.
Goyal, Ashok K. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 528.
Photochemistry
The effect of free radical stability on the rate of bromination of hydrocarbons  Doheny, Anthony J.; Loudon, G. Marc
The effect of alkyl free radical stability on the rate of free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons can be convincingly demonstrated by the comparative photobromination of the arenes toluene, ethylbenzene, and cumene.
Doheny, Anthony J.; Loudon, G. Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 507.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Rotation of plane-polarized light: A simple model  Hill, Roger R.; Whatley, Barrie G.
A simple model that explains why enantiomers of a chiral compound rotate light in different directions.
Hill, Roger R.; Whatley, Barrie G. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 306.
Photochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
CI. Thermoluminescence. Part III: Application to archaeological dating  Manche, Emanuel P.
Considers the basic dating method and current thermoluminescence dating techniques.
Manche, Emanuel P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, A341.
Photochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
A photochemical preparation of indoles: An organic chemistry experiment  Kane, Victoria; Schultz, Arthur G.
Modification of a research-oriented photochemical experiment the provides an early exposure to the synthetic advantages of organic photochemistry and illustrates the formation of a mechanistically interesting carbon-carbon bond.
Kane, Victoria; Schultz, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 555.
Synthesis |
Photochemistry
Hg vapor lamp from streetlight  Mattson, Bruce M.
Design of a simple photolysis apparatus equipped with a Hg vapor UV lamp.
Mattson, Bruce M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 542.
Applications of Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Polymer photophysics: A negative photoresist  Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Zadjura, Richard E.; Stemp, Leo; Fahrenholtz, Susan R.; Flowers, John M.
A negative photoresist is formulated that consists of a solution of a photosensitive film-forming polymer or resin that is used to create the negative image of an object on a glass slide.
Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Zadjura, Richard E.; Stemp, Leo; Fahrenholtz, Susan R.; Flowers, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 541.
Photochemistry |
Polymerization
Synthesis of some unreported derivatives of sulfonamides: A laboratory in organic chemistry  Gilow, Helmuth
Preparation of N4-benzylsulfanilamide.
Gilow, Helmuth J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 419.
Synthesis |
Amides |
Aromatic Compounds
Triboluminescence spectroscopy of common candies  Zink, Jeffrey I.; Angelos, Rebecca; Hardy, Gordon E.
Experimental methods of measuring spectra and the origins of triboluminescence; includes spectra data for spearmint, peppermint, and wintergreen Lifesavers.
Zink, Jeffrey I.; Angelos, Rebecca; Hardy, Gordon E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 413.
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy
A chemiluminescence demonstration - Oxalyl chloride oxidation  Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Goodman, Sidney; Chandross, Edwin A.; Kaplan, Martin
An effective chemiluminescence demonstration requiring minimal preparation based on the oxidation of oxalyl chloride by hydrogen peroxide.
Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Goodman, Sidney; Chandross, Edwin A.; Kaplan, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 111.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Demonstration of color development: Formation of the subtractive primary dyes  Olson, Edwin S.
The author reports a method for demonstrating the Kodachrome process in a lecture situation.
Olson, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 513.
Dyes / Pigments |
Photochemistry
Z- and E-stereoisomerism: An experiment using photochemistry  Bourelle-Wargnier, F.; Feigenbaum, A.; Muzart, J.
The authors' report on the preparation of 2-benzylidenecyclohexanone E(I).
Bourelle-Wargnier, F.; Feigenbaum, A.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 339.
Stereochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
Organic photochemistry  Zimmerman, H. E.
In this question, students must recognize that the protonated zwitterion is more likely to react with an external nucleophile than with the internal center of negative charge on the zwitterion.
Zimmerman, H. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 756.
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Phosphorescence: A demonstration  Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Spinner, Mark L.
Making samples for use in phosphorescence demonstrations by including them in a polymer matrix.
Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Spinner, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 167.
Photochemistry
Computer programs for evaluating luminescence decay times  Wyker, A. T.; Demas, J. N.
To computer programs LUMEN and DECAY are written in Basic and are available for evaluating luminescence decay times.
Wyker, A. T.; Demas, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 656.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Luminescence experiment using adsorbed dyes  McHale, Jeanne L.; Seybold, Paul G.
It is the purpose of this paper to show that recent developments in luminescence research provide special opportunities for study of this phenomenon on the undergraduate level.
McHale, Jeanne L.; Seybold, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 654.
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Fluorescence experiments with quinine  O'Reilly, James E.
Presents a series of experiments to illustrate the analytical capabilities of fluorescence, and outlines two straightforward quantitative analyses involving real samples.
O'Reilly, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 610.
Quantitative Analysis |
Photochemistry
Conversion of black and white prints to color in daylight. A demonstration lecture for general and organic courses  Wheeler, Thomas N.
A black and white print is converted to a full color print with the lights on; includes a detailed discussion of the chemical processes involved in the demonstration.
Wheeler, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 607.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemiluminescence. An illuminating experiment  Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.
Examines the bright chemiluminescenct reaction between trisbipyridalruthenium(III) and sodium borohydride.
Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 480.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
180-183. Four biochemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 241.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Photochemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
175-179. Five ecological chemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 171.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis |
Enzymes
A novel photochemistry experiment using a Diels-Alder reaction  Nash, E. G.
The authors present a two-step experiment incorporating a novel, but general photochemical reaction that is rapid, does not require special equipment, and which yields an interesting product worthy of further study.
Nash, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 619.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Photochemistry
Some experiments in atomic structure  Logan, Kent R.
The experiments provided here investigates color and wavelength, evidence of quantization, the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom, teaching guidelines, photographic specifications, and extensions.
Logan, Kent R. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 411.
Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A photochromic compound: A preparation for the introductory organic laboratory  Ault, Addison; Kouba, Craig
The authors describe a preparation for a photochromic compound for the introductory organic laboratory.
Ault, Addison; Kouba, Craig J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 395.
Photochemistry |
Synthesis
The photoisomerization of cyclic ketones: An experiment in organic chemistry  Haas, J. W., Jr.
This experiment deals with parameters such as the nature of the excited state, effect of triplet quenchers on product formation, chemical structure and reaction rate and quantum yield when cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone are irradiated at 254nm. These cyclic ketones provide a variety of photolysis information in a short time span, are conveniently analyzed by gas chromatography, and are readily available at the requisite levels of purity.
Haas, J. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 346.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography
Stereospecific thermal cycloadditions and catalyzed isomerizations: An organic laboratory project  Pasto, D. J.; Duncan, J. A.; Silversmith, E. F.
The authors have prepared a sequence of experiments for their undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory concerned with the preparation of cis and trans 1,4-diphenyl-2-butene-1,4diones, their cycloadditions reactions with cyclopentandiene, and with related isomerization reactions of both the sequence, which has met with much success experimentally, clearly and collectively demonstrates certain aspects of the concepts of thermodynamics, kinetics, and stereochemistry and photochemistry.
Pasto, D. J.; Duncan, J. A.; Silversmith, E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 277.
Photochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
Addition Reactions
A nonaqueous gravimetric titration. Determination of 8-hydroxyquinoline with p-toluenesulfonic acid in acetonitrile  Kratochvil, B.; Findlay, E. J.; Harris, W. E.
This experiment demonstrates the techniques of gravimetric titrimetry and photometric end-point detection.
Kratochvil, B.; Findlay, E. J.; Harris, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 629.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Photochemistry
Photochemical and thermal interconversion of cis and trans isomers. An organic laboratory experiment  Silversmith, Ernest F.; Dunson, Fay C.
The photoisomerization of trans-1,4-diphenyl-2-butene-1,4-dione to the cis isomer.
Silversmith, Ernest F.; Dunson, Fay C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 568.
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
Synthesis of a photochromic benzothiazolinic spiropyran  Guglielmetti, R.; Meyer, R.; Dupuy, C.
The purpose of this type of experiment is to elucidate structure of the different compounds gradually prepared starting from reaction mechanisms and chiefly from spectroscopic data given perviously to students.
Guglielmetti, R.; Meyer, R.; Dupuy, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 413.
Photochemistry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Three questions involving an application of chemical principles to interesting topics
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 356.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Photosynthesis |
Photochemistry
An experiment sequence involving potassium trioxalatoferrate(III) trihydrate  Brooks, David W.
This procedure explores the synthesis, analysis, and photochemical reactions of potassium trioxalatoferrate(III) trihydrate.
Brooks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 218.
Industrial Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry
Photochemical reactions of natural macromolecules. Photoreactions of proteins  Neckers, Douglas C.
Reviews salient features of protein destruction by ultraviolet radiation.
Neckers, Douglas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 164.
Photochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids
The helix coil transition of DNA  Steinert, Roger; Hudson, Bruce
The design and use of a photometer to detect the transition of DNA from the double helix to random coil form.
Steinert, Roger; Hudson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 129.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The absorption of light by oriented molecules  Wilson, R. Marshall; Gardner, Edward J.; Squire, Richard H.
Designed to expose students to classical techniques of organic dye synthesis.
Wilson, R. Marshall; Gardner, Edward J.; Squire, Richard H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 94.
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Synthesis
Non-conventional photochemical imaging processes  Sahyun, M. R. V.
Considers the history and development of non-conventional photochemical imaging processes as well as the mechanisms of the photochemical formation of dyes, photochromism, and photopolymerization.
Sahyun, M. R. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 88.
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Applications of Chemistry |
Polymerization
The gas phase free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons. An undergraduate experiment  Scala, Alfred A.
Investigates the photochemically initiated gas phase chlorination and bromination of lower hydrocarbons.
Scala, Alfred A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 573.
Free Radicals |
Alkylation |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry
A laboratory experiment in fluorescence using the Spectronic 20  Duncan, Robert L.; Kirkpatrick, James W.; Neas, Robert E.
Directions for modifying a Spec 20 to function as an unsophisticated filter fluorometer and using it to measure the fluorescence of quinine sulfate as a function of its concentration.
Duncan, Robert L.; Kirkpatrick, James W.; Neas, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 550.
Photochemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring the application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 414.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Astrochemistry |
Photochemistry
A phosphorescence demonstration  Goe, Gerald L.
Irradiating a sample of biphenyl dissolved and frozen in a solution of ethanol.
Goe, Gerald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 412.
Photochemistry
The photoaddition of maleic anhydride to benzene: A simple organic experiment in a complicated system  Bozak, R. E.; Alvarez, V. E.
Presents the photochemical synthesis of benzopinacol as a pedagogical example of organic photochemistry suitable for the first-year organic course.
Bozak, R. E.; Alvarez, V. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 589.
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
A chemiluminescence reaction  Slabaugh, W. H.
A dramatic demonstration of chemiluminescence can be made with the oxidation of the vat dye violanthrone.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 522.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments
A new, long-lasting luminol chemiluminescent cold light  Schneider, H. W.
Examines the chemistry of luminol and efforts to improve its luminescent longevity.
Schneider, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 519.
Photochemistry
Demonstration of photochemistry and the dimerization and trapping of free radicals  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This demonstration uses simple equipment and involves a rapid, readily noticeable color change and also illustrates dimerization and the trapping of free radicals.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 315.
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactions
A simple, student photochemical reactor  Silberman, Robert
This simple photochemical reactor consists of an Erlenmeyer flask, a large beaker, and some glass tubing.
Silberman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 122.
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Management
Alicyclic chemistry: The playground for organic chemists  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
This article reviews a number of general topics that have been of special interest in alicyclic chemistry, including conformational analysis, the nonclassical versus classical norbornyl cation, Woodward-Hoffmann electrolytic rules, the aromaticity of nonbenzoid rings, strained ring systems, bridgehead activity, and photochemical syntheses and rearrangements.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 404.
Conformational Analysis |
Synthesis |
Photochemistry
Photochemical fume hoods: Design and construction  Stenberg, Virgil I.
Describes the features of a fume hood designed especially for photochemical use.
Stenberg, Virgil I. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 176.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Photochemistry
The photoisomerization of azobenzene: A TLC experiment for the undergraduate organic laboratory  Janssen, Jerry F.
The photoisomerization of azobenzene provides a rare opportunity to explore molecular photochemistry in undergraduate organic chemistry.
Janssen, Jerry F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 117.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers
Energy D. Light Energy  Lamb, Clayton B; Averett, Gary; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. H.
Demonstrations include the photochemical oxidation of thionin, the photochemical reduction of Fe(III) by oxalic acid, blueprinting, diazo-printing, polarizing crystals, growing hypo in polarizer, growing benzoic acid in polarizer, and different concentrations of karo syrup polarizer.
Lamb, Clayton B; Averett, Gary; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A145.
Photochemistry
Energy C. Electrical Energy  Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin
Demonstrations include aluminum flashed in oxygen; photo-bromination of cinnamic acid, hexane, tartaric acid, toluene; photochemical H2+Cl2 explosion and the slow photochemical H2+Cl2 into 2HCl.
Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A83.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
The photochemical oxidation of aqueous iodide solutions: An experiment demonstrating the competitive reactions of the hydrated electron  Ayscough, P. B.; Burchill, C. E.; Ivin, K. J; Logan, S. R.
Hydrated electrons are formed by the photochemical method referred to in the cited article.
Ayscough, P. B.; Burchill, C. E.; Ivin, K. J; Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 349.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The path of oxygen from water to molecular oxygen  Heidt, Lawrence J.
This study is part of a program of research concerning the mechanisms of the photochemical decomposition of water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen by light absorbed by certain solute species.
Heidt, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 623.
Oxidation State |
Photochemistry |
Photosynthesis
Letter to the editor (the author replies)  Holloway, John L.
Warns readers about the dangers associated with the preparation of xenon fluoride.
Holloway, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 619.
Photochemistry
Letter to the editor  Chernick, Cedrick L.
Warns readers about the dangers associated with the preparation of xenon fluoride.
Chernick, Cedrick L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 619.
Photochemistry
Laser chemistry  Rousseau, Denis L.
The principal aim of this paper is to discuss several types of laser experiments and acquaint the reader with various laser research problems, thereby creating new interest in laser chemistry.
Rousseau, Denis L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 566.
Lasers |
Photochemistry
Light absorption in photochemistry  Shaw, Henry; Toby, Sidney
The purpose of this article is to review some of the basic physics involved in light absorption.
Shaw, Henry; Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 408.
Photochemistry
The photochemical reaction of xenon with fluorine at room temperature: A demonstration of the reactivity of xenon  Holloway, John H.
A demonstration experiment to illustrate the reactivity of xenon with fluorine can easily be executed if the pure, dry gases are available.
Holloway, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 202.
Photochemistry |
Nonmetals |
Gases
Some analytical applications of photoconductive cells  Hedrick, C. E.
Presents the construction and operation of photoprobes and their application in colorimetric, turbidimetric, and fluorescence titrations.
Hedrick, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 660.
Photochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Behavior of electrons in atoms: Structure, spectra, and photochemistry of atoms (Hochstrasser, Robin M.)  Gregory, N. W.

Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 62.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
An inexpensive photochemical reactor  Starr, J. Edward; Eastman, Richard H.
The study of photolytic reactions can be readily and effectively carried out using this inexpensive and easily constructed photolysis apparatus.
Starr, J. Edward; Eastman, Richard H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 394.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Photochemistry
Random and systematic errors in the determination of association constants  Pasternak, R. A.; Brady, A. P.
Examines random and systematic errors in the context of studying association equilibria in solution of carboxylic acids and amides.
Pasternak, R. A.; Brady, A. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 254.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Carboxylic Acids |
Amides
Analysis of tartar emetic: A photometric titration  Sellers, D. E.; Tang, S. S. N.; Van Atta, R. E.
Presents the determination of antimony in tartar emetic by photometric titration with potassium permanganate.
Sellers, D. E.; Tang, S. S. N.; Van Atta, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 408.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Photochemistry
The luminescence of inorganic crystals  Williams, Fred E.
A review of the photoluminescence of inorganic crystals.
Williams, Fred E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 242.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Photochlorination of hydrocarbons with chlorine generated in situ: A student laboratory exercise  Condon, F. E.; Sokoloff, Murray
Fair yields of cyclohexane have been obtained simply and safely by irradiating a heterogeneous mixture of cyclohexane, concentrated hydrochloric acid, and manganese dioxide.
Condon, F. E.; Sokoloff, Murray J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 554.
Alkylation |
Photochemistry
Textbook errors: XV. Miscellanea  Mysels, Karol J.
Textbooks errors considered include the solubility of acetates, the effect of light on reactions, tetrahedral carbon, the production of aluminum, and fumaric acid.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 32.
Photochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
An efficient chemiluminescent system and a chemiluminescent clock reaction  White, Emil H.
Presents the investigation of two chemiluminescent systems - the first is particularly brilliant and the second acts as a clock reaction.
White, Emil H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 275.
Photochemistry |
Reactions
Fluorescent lighting as an analytical hazard  Bishop, John A.
Fluorescent lighting in an analytical laboratory decomposes AgCl precipitates, obscuring certain titrations.
Bishop, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 372.
Photochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Thioacetamide as a source of hydrogen sulfide in qualitative analysis  Lehrman, Leo
Examines the advantages and disadvantages of using a water solution of thioacetamide as a source of hydrogen sulfide to precipitate metal sulfides in qualitative analysis.
Lehrman, Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 474.
Amides |
Qualitative Analysis
Photometric titrations  Underwood, Arthur L.
This paper calls to attention the method of photometric titration, its utility and previous applications, and possibilities for future work.
Underwood, Arthur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 394.
Photochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Some new demonstrations on fluorescence  Feigl, F.; Heisig, G. B.
Presents several demonstrations involving the fluorescent effects of 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine), including the formation of fluorescent metal oxinates and the preparation of a fluorescent sol and aerosol.
Feigl, F.; Heisig, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 192.
Photochemistry
A demonstration on the chemistry of color  Bunce, Stanley C.; Hammer, Henry F.
Describes a series of demonstrations to illustrate and explain the chemistry of color.
Bunce, Stanley C.; Hammer, Henry F. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 546.
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments