TIGER

Journal Articles: 421 results
Frank Westheimer's Early Demonstration of Enzymatic Specificity  Addison Ault
Reviews one of the most significant accomplishments of one of the most respected chemists of the 20th centurya series of stereospecific enzymatic oxidation and reduction experiments that led chemists to recognize enantiotopic and diastereotopic relationships of atoms, or groups of atoms, within molecules.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1246.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Enzymes |
Isotopes |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry
Data Pooling in a Chemical Kinetics Experiment: The Aquation of a Series of Cobalt(III) Complexes  Richard S. Herrick, Kenneth V. Mills, and Lisa P. Nestor
Describes an experiment that introduces students to integrated rate laws, the search for a mechanism that is consistent with chemical and kinetic data, and the concept of activation barriers and their measurement in a curriculum whose pedagogical philosophy makes the laboratory the center of learning for undergraduates in their first two years of instruction.
Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.; Nestor, Lisa P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1120.
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Polymer-Supported Reagents and 1H–19F NMR Couplings: The Synthesis of 2-Fluoroacetophenone  Nicola Pohl and Kimberly Schwarz
Describes an experiment in which 2-bromoacetophenone is converted to 2-fluoroacetophenone using a solid-phase nucleophilic fluorine source. The experiment introduces students to the utility of solid-phase reagents in organic synthesis, to NMR-active nuclei other than 1H without the requirement of a special NMR probe, and to the unique uses of fluorine in molecular design.
Pohl, Nicola; Schwarz, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 834.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Determination of Hammett Equation Rho Constant for the Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Benzoate Esters  Sheue L. Keenan, Karl P. Peterson, Kelly Peterson, and Kyle Jacobson
In this experiment, seven p-nitrophenyl benzoate esters are synthesized and characterized. Students then measure the rate constants for the base hydrolysis of these esters using UV-vis spectrophotometry and determine the Hammett equation constant for this hydrolysis reaction.
Keenan, Sheue L.; Peterson, Karl P.; Peterson, Kelly; Jacobson, Kyle. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 558.
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots  Joe Lee
This article provides a theoretical and statistical justification for the necessity of monitoring a reaction to a substantial fraction of completion if integrated rate plots plots are to yield unambiguous orders.
Lee, Joe. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 141.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A Discovery-Based Experiment Involving Rearrangement in the Conversion of Alcohols to Alkyl Halides  Richard A. Kjonaas and Ryand J. F. Tucker
This article reports a discovery-based experiment in which students convert three alcohols to alkyl halides under acidic conditions and record the 13C NMR spectrum in each case. By comparing the number of resonances observed with the number of resonances predicted for each possible product, students draw several conclusions about the resulting rearrangement.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Tucker, Ryand J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 100.
Alcohols |
Carbocations |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation  Henry A. Carter
This article examines the applications of chemistry to paper preservation. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose accounts for the deterioration of paper in library books and other written records. To combat this threat to our written heritage, new permanent papers have been developed that are relatively chemically stable and undergo a very slow rate of deterioration.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1937.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
pH |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Probing the Rate-Determining Step of the Claisen–Schmidt Condensation by Competition Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Wing-Fat Chan, Ka-Ying Lung, Wai-Yee Lam, Weng-Cheong Ng, and Siu-Fung Lee
This article describes a physical organic experiment to identify the rate-determining step of the ClaisenSchmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and acetophenone by studying the linear free energy relationship.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Chan, Wing-Fat; Lung, Ka-Ying; Lam, Wai-Yee; Ng, Weng-Cheong; Lee, Siu-Fung. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1819.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gas Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC  Gregory T. Rushton, William G. Burns, Judi M. Lavin, Yong S. Chong, Perry Pellechia, and Ken D. Shimizu
After the synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, students estimate the rotational barrier about a CarylNimidesingle bond by studying the reequilibration of the two resulting isomers using two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, followed by a more accurate determination through a 1H NMR time study.
Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1499.
Alcohols |
Chromatography |
Conformational Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Quantitative Imaging in the Laboratory: Fast Kinetics and Fluorescence Quenching  Tanya Cumberbatch and Quentin S. Hanley
This article describes an experiment based on quantitative imaging in which students use the quenching of fluorescein dianion to measure rate constants.
Cumberbatch, Tanya; Hanley, Quentin S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1319.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry  Steven Murov
The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry has been designed to provide an overview of most of the reactions needed for the organic chemistry course and should help students develop synthetic routes from one functional group to another.
Murov, Steven. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1224.
Addition Reactions |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Peer-Developed and Peer-Led Labs in General Chemistry  Lorena Tribe and Kim Kostka
Describes a student-developed and led laboratory curriculum as a model for producing a more student-centered and rich laboratory experience in general chemistry laboratories.
Tribe, Lorena; Kostka, Kim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1031.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Study of Metal–NH3 Interfaces (Metal = Cu, Ni, Ag) Using Potentiostatic Curves  Nelson Nunes, Angela Martins, and Ruben Elvas Leitão
Students determine kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of different metalsolution interfaces obtained from potentiostatic curves using the Tafel and the Arrhenius equations.
Nunes, Nelson; Martins, Angela; Leitão, Ruben Elvas. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1017.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Metals
An Inexpensive Kinetic Study: The Reaction of FD&C Red #3 (Erythrosin B) with Hypochlorite  Maher M. Henary and Arlene A. Russell
Students use a desktop visible spectrophotometer to quantitatively follow the rate of disappearance of FD&C Red #3 with hypochlorite. The first-order reaction in both dye and bleach yields simple data that students can easily process and graph using spreadsheet software to obtain the rate constant and the rate law.
Henary, Maher M.; Russell, Arlene A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 480.
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Pollutant Transformation Laboratory Exercise for Environmental Chemistry: The Reduction of Nitrobenzenes by Anaerobic Solutions of Humic Acid  Frank M. Dunnivant and Mark-Cody Reynolds
Presents a laboratory for advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level environmental chemistry in which students study the reduction of substituted nitrobenzenes by natural organic matter under anaerobic conditions. The exercise involves solution preparation, pH and EH buffers, organic reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetics, and instrumental analysis.
Dunnivant, Frank M.; Reynolds, Mark-Cody. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 315.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
pHantastic Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
Students easily extract a fluorescent substance from shavings of a wood called narra. The fluorescence is dramatically pH dependent and can be turned on and off repeatedly using commonly available acid and base solutions.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 768A.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Finkelstein Reaction: Quantitative Reaction Kinetics of an SN2 Reaction Using Nonaqueous Conductivity  R. David Pace and Yagya Regmi
Presents a quantitative kinetics laboratory exercise featuring the Finkelstein reaction (SN2) for use in the first-semester organic chemistry course that utilizes nonaqueous conductivity as the method by which relevant structuretemperaturesolvent effects are examined.
Pace, R. David; Regmi, Yagya. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1344.
Calibration |
Kinetics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents
Semiempirical and DFT Investigations of the Dissociation of Alkyl Halides  Jack R. Waas
Enthalpy changes corresponding to the gas phase heats of dissociation of 12 organic halides were calculated using two semiempirical methods, the HartreeFock method, and two DFT methods. All five methods agreed generally with the expected empirically known trends in the dissociation of alkyl halides.
Waas, Jack R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1017.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Computational Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Modeling |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Textbook Deficiencies: Ambiguities in Chemical Kinetics Rates and Rate Constants  Keith T. Quisenberry and Joel Tellinghuisen
Recommends that textbook authors make it clear that (i) the reaction rate and rate constant cannot be defined unambiguously without explicitly stating the reaction for which they apply and therefore (ii) the relation between the half-life, which is a physical property of the reaction system, and the rate constant depends upon how the reaction is written.
Quisenberry, Keith T.; Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 510.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Alkynes via the Alkylation of Sodium Acetylides. An Introduction to Synthetic Design for Organic Chemistry Students  Jennifer N. Shepherd and Jason R. Stenzel
Teams of students design a microscale synthesis of an unsymmetrical alkyne using commercially available terminal alkynes and alkyl halides and characterize the resulting products using TLC, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Depending on the chosen reactants, students observe both substitution and elimination products, or in some cases, no reaction at all.
Shepherd, Jennifer N.; Stenzel, Jason R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 425.
Alkylation |
Alkynes |
Elimination Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Glycosyltransferases A and B: Four Critical Amino Acids Determine Blood Type  Natisha L. Rose, Monica M. Palcic, and Stephen V. Evans
Human A, B, and O blood type is determined by the presence or absence of distinct carbohydrate structures on red blood cells. In this review the chemistry of the blood group ABO system and the role of glycosyltransferase A, glycosyltransferase B, and the four amino acids critical to determining blood group status are discussed.
Rose, Natisha L.; Palcic, Monica M.; Evans, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1846.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Biology |
X-ray Crystallography |
Amino Acids
Monitoring the Rate of Solvolytic Decomposition of Benzenediazonium Tetrafluoroborate in Aqueous Media Using a pH Electrode  Floyd L. Wiseman
This article discusses the use of pH electrodes to monitor the aqueous solvolysis of the benzenediazonium ion and shows that the results are in reasonable agreement with literature values.
Wiseman, Floyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1841.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
pH |
Rate Law
Simple and Inexpensive Computer Interface to a Durrum Stopped-Flow Apparatus Tested Using the Iron(III)–Thiocyanate Reaction  Craig M. Hoag
Describes a computer interface between a Durrum model 110 stopped-flow apparatus and a LabPro voltage probe using LoggerPro software from Vernier. This probe and software can be used to measure and record data from most instruments normally connected to an oscilloscope or chart recorder.
Hoag, Craig M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1823.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Photocatalytic Oxidation of Sulfurous Acid in an Aqueous Medium  Alicia Romero, Guillermo Hernández, and Marco F. Suárez
The photooxidation process of sulfurous acid by molecular oxygen in the presence of TiO2 is described. The effect of some reaction parameters, such as initial concentration of sulfurous acid, oxygen, TiO2 crystalline structure, and quantity of TiO2, were investigated. The reactions were run in an inexpensive reactor. The experiments are ideal for second-year chemistry undergraduate students interested in photocatalysis and green chemistry.
Romero, Alicia; Hernández, Guillermo; Suárez, Marco F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1234.
Catalysis |
Green Chemistry |
Kinetics
Ionic Activity Effects in Reaction Kinetics: What Happened to the Parsimony Principle?  Robert de Levie
The effect of ionic strength on the rates of chemical reactions highlights an often overlooked but highly relevant study by Christiansen. That work, based directly on the DebyeHckel theory, makes the BrnstedBjerrum interpretation unnecessary.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 885.
Kinetics |
Reactive Intermediates |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Automatic Low-Cost Data Acquisition from Old Polarimetric Instruments  Giuseppe Alibrandi, Santi D'Aliberti, Salvatore Coppolino, Antonino Villari, and Norberto Micali
This article describes the design of an apparatus that allows the digital acquisition of polarimetric data from a Lippich polarimeter. This apparatus consists of a low-cost telecamera applied to the ocular of a double-field polarimeter and connected to a PC. The camera is able to reveal with high sensibility the difference in brightness in the two fields allowing more accurate analytical data to be obtained, without need for the analyser to be rotated. This apparatus allows the execution of either single observations or kinetics, because it is able to save previously obtained analytical data.
Alibrandi, Giuseppe; D'Aliberti, Santi; Coppolino, Salvatore; Villari, Antonino; Micali, Norberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 442.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20  Jonathan E. Thompson and Jason Ting
A simple, inexpensive, water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. The cuvette and associated flow system can easily be constructed from materials commonly found in an undergraduate chemistry laboratory. As a demonstration of the cuvette's utility, we used the cuvette for the determination of the activation energy for the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion. However, the cuvette may prove useful in a variety of applications in which a sample must be thermostated within a spectrophotometer.
Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1341.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy
Removal of Zinc from Carbonic Anhydrase. A Kinetics Experiment for Upper-Level Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams and Bhavin Adhyaru
The Zn(II) ion in the active site of carbonic anhydrase can be removed by complexation with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate (dipicolinate).
Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1045.
Kinetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Enzymes |
Instrumental Methods
Determination of Spin—Lattice Relaxation Time Using 13C NMR. An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Zbigniew L. Gasyna and Antoni Jurkiewicz
A 13C NMR experiment is proposed in which spinlattice relaxation time T1 is determined for carbon atoms in a sample of liquid n-hexanol.
Gasyna, Zbigniew L.; Jurkiewicz, Antoni. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1038.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics
An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto–Enol Tautomerization. A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  D. Atkinson and V. Chechik
A series of physical organic chemistry experiments suitable for second- or third-year undergraduate students is presented.
Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1030.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Class Projects in Physical Organic Chemistry: The Hydrolysis of Aspirin  Peter S. Marrs
The students prepare a pHrate profile for the hydrolysis of aspirin and analyze this profile to determine the mechanism and type of catalysis of the hydrolysis at different pH values.
Marrs, Peter S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 870.
pH |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Pressure Dependence of Gas-Phase Reaction Rates  Stéphanie de Persis, Alain Dollet, and Francis Teyssandier
This article is intended to show that only simple concepts are required to qualitatively explain and describe the pressure dependence of gas-phase reaction rates.
de Persis, Stéphanie; Dollet, Alain; Teyssandier, Francis. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 832.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Practical Integrated Approach to Supramolecular Chemistry III. Thermodynamics of Inclusion Phenomena  Jesús Hernández-Benito, M. Pilar García-Santos, Emma O'Brien, Emilio Calle, and Julio Casado
This is the third in a series of experiments aimed at introducing undergraduate students into the field of supramolecular chemistry. In the present article, we propose an experiment aiming to familiarize students with the thermodynamics of inclusion phenomena.
Hernández-Benito, Jesús; García-Santos, M. Pilar; O'Brien, Emma; Calle, Emilio; Casado, Julio. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 540.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Photochemical Reactor for the Study of Kinetics and Adsorption Phenomena  J. A. Poce-Fatou, M. L. A. Gil, R. Alcántara, C. Botella, and J. Martín
This article describes the design of a photochemical reactor intended to carry out experiments illustrating the fundamentals of heterogeneous photochemistry.
Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Gil, M. L. A.; Alcántara, R.; Botella, C.; Martín, J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 537.
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Son of an Organic Chemist of Denmark  Ronald G. Brisbois
Herein, Hamlet (the son of an organic chemist of Denmark) is the surrogate of any and every student as he uses a thoroughly Shakespearean approach to sorting out some of the key distinguishing features of SN2 versus SN1 reactions.
Brisbois, Ronald G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 502.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant: Author Reply  José E. Cortés-Figueroa
When technology is used to help with mathematical calculations, the emphasis must be on the concepts being learned rather than simply the procedures. In our approach we are attempting to help students learn more about the concept and also to attain data analysis skills they will need in the future.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant  Todd P. Silverstein
The authors use the graphing calculator to estimate the infinity reading from linearized kinetics data, and then they use linearized semi-log data to determine the first-order rate constant.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
A Modular Laser Apparatus for Polarimetry, Nephelometry, and Fluorimetry in General Chemistry  Scott A. Darveau, Jessica Mueller, April Vaverka, Cheri Barta, Anthony Fitch, Jessica Jurzenski, and Yvonne Gindt
We present an apparatus suitable for multiple uses in the general chemistry laboratory including polarimetry, fluorescence, and nephelometry. The open design of the instrument also decreases the chance that students will contract the "black-box syndrome" that seems to develop when using instruments that only provide the final data in an experiment without showing how the measurements are obtained.
Darveau, Scott A.; Mueller, Jessica; Vaverka, April; Barta, Cheri; Fitch, Anthony; Jurzenski, Jessica; Gindt, Yvonne. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 401.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Substitution–Elimination Mechanistic Disc Method  Paul T. Buonora and Yu Jin Lim
In this manuscript a mnemonic device designed to facilitate presentation of the competing SN1, SN2, E1, and E2 mechanisms is presented.
Buonora, Paul T.; Lim, Yu Jin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 368.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming  Michael Golombok
We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity regimes: equilibrium determined and kinetically determined, respectively. The feed streams and reaction conditions are similar, but the products are different. The role of catalysis for the two processes is compared and the effects on the kinetics are discussed.
Golombok, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 228.
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Kinetics
Why Chemical Reactions Happen (James Keeler and Peter Wothers)  John Krenos
By concentrating on a limited number of model reactions, this book presents chemistry as a cohesive whole by tying together the fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and quantum chemistry, mainly through the use of molecular orbital interpretations.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 201.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
Using Conductivity Devices in Nonaqueous Solutions II: Demonstrating the SN2 Mechanism  Thomas A. Newton and Beth Ann Hill
The use of a conductivity apparatus in nonaqueous solutions to demonstrate structurereactivity correlations and solvent effects in the SN2 reaction is described.
Newton, Thomas A.; Hill, Beth Ann. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 61.
Conductivity |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Using Conductivity Devices in Nonaqueous Solutions I: Demonstrating the SN1 Mechanism  Thomas A. Newton and Beth Ann Hill
The use of a conductivity apparatus in nonaqueous solutions to demonstrate structurereactivity correlations and solvent effects in the SN1 reaction is described.
Newton, Thomas A.; Hill, Beth Ann. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 58.
Conductivity |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Reactions (→) vs Equations (=)  S. R. Logan
A recent chemical kinetics text uses an equals sign for an overall reaction, whereas an arrow is used in each of the reaction steps that are proposed to constitute the mechanism, and for any elementary process.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1258.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Synthesis, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics: An Advanced Laboratory Investigation of the Cis–Trans Isomerization of Mo(CO)4(PR3)2   Ashfaq A. Bengali and Kim E. Mooney
The students synthesize the cis complex and then study its conversion to the trans isomer. This experiment illustrates the important relationship between kinetics and thermodynamics and the results emphasize the selfconsistency of the data.
Bengali, Ashfaq A.; Mooney, Kim E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1044.
Kinetics |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Thermodynamics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
The Kinetics of Dissolution Revisited  Paula S. Antonel, Pablo A. Hoijemberg, Leandro M. Maiante, and M. Gabriela Lagorio
An experiment analyzing the kinetics of dissolution of a solid with cylindrical geometry in water is presented. The dissolution process is followed by measuring the solid mass and its size parameters (thickness and diameter) as a function of time. It is verified that the dissolution rate follows the Nernst model.
Antonel, Paula S.; Hoijemberg, Pablo A.; Maiante, Leandro M.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1042.
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Solids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemical Applications of a Programmable Image Acquisition System  Paul J. Ogren, Ian Henry, Steven E. S. Fletcher, and Ian Kelly
A programmable imaging system for thin-layer and kinetics measurements; examples of applications include well plate analysis, TLC quantitative analysis of acetaminophen and aspirin, analysis of electrophoresis bands, and kinetics of toluidine blue reduction by sulfite.
Ogren, Paul J.; Henry, Ian; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Kelly, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 699.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
Rate Controlling Factors in a Bunsen Burner Flame  Julio Andrade-Gamboa, Hugo L. Corso, and Fabiana C. Gennari
Analysis of a Bunsen burner flame and the kinetics of its combustion.
Andrade-Gamboa, Julio; Corso, Hugo L.; Gennari, Fabiana C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 524.
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Gases |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
What Is the Overall Stoichiometry of a Complex Reaction?  Sidney Toby and Irwin Tobias
Obtaining stoichiometric relationships from reaction mechanisms and a kinetics approach.
Toby, Sidney; Tobias, Irwin. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 520.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Spiral Puzzle for Organic Chemistry Students  Ender Erdik
Puzzle to review organic reactions and their reagents.
Erdik, Ender. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 428.
Synthesis |
Learning Theories |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Addition Reactions |
Alkylation |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Grignard Reagents
Correction to "Rate of Reaction and Rate Equations" (J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 89)   
Misplaced part of equation.
J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 386.
Kinetics |
Gases |
Rate Law
Using a Graphing Calculator to Determine a First-Order Rate Constant When the Infinity Reading Is Unknown  José E. Corté s-Figueroa and Deborah A. Moore
Using a graphing calculator and an acid-catalyzed sucrose inversion to determine a first-order rate constant when the infinity reading is unknown.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. ; Moore, Deborah A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1462.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Rate Law |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis
Collaboration between Chemistry and Biology to Introduce Spectroscopy, Electrophoresis, and Molecular Biology as Tools for Biochemistry  Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua, Jennifer L. Powers, Connie Tran, Swapan S. Jain, Reem Chabayta, Dale L. Vogelien, Ralph J. Rascati, Michelle Hall, and Kathleen Diehl
Program that integrates a variety of instrumental techniques across the biological and chemistry curricula, including biochemistry, plant physiology, genetics, and forensics.
Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H.; Powers, Jennifer L.; Vogelien, Dale L.; Rascati, Ralph J.; Hall, Michelle; Diehl, Kathleen; Tran, Connie; Jain, Swapan S.; Chabayta, Reem . J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1311.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Forensic Chemistry |
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Plant Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Depletion: A Game with Natural Rules for Teaching Reaction Rate Theory  Donald J. Olbris and Judith Herzfeld
Game that reinforces central concepts of rate theory through simulation.
Olbris, Donald J.; Herzfeld, Judith. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1232.
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Rate Law |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Catalysis
Dendrimers: Branching Out of Polymer Chemistry  Eric E. Simanek and Sergio O. Gonzalez
Addresses synthetic concepts surrounding dendrimers including the use of protecting groups, functional group interconversions, and convergent and divergent synthetic strategies.
Simanek, Eric E.; Gonzalez, Sergio O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1222.
Materials Science |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Addition Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkylation |
Nucleophilic Substitution
The Application of the Concept of Extent of Reaction  Adela E. Croce
Effectively applying the concept of extent of reaction and the degree of advancement in describing the course of a chemical reaction (particularly multistep reactions) and expressing reaction rate equations.
Croce, Adela E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 506.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Of Magnets and Mechanisms  Edward G. Neeland
Using magnets to demonstrate the electron flow (mechanism) of nucleophilic substitution reactions.
Neeland, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 186.
Magnetic Properties |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories |
Nucleophilic Substitution
An Excel Program to Study First-Order Kinetics  Ken Muranaka
An Excel program to study first-order kinetics.
Muranaka, Ken. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 135.
Computational Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Factors Affecting Reaction Kinetics of Glucose Oxidase  Kristin A. Johnson
Demonstration based on a biochemical kinetics experiment in which the rate of reaction varies with the enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, substrate used in the reaction, and temperature.
Johnson, Kristin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 74.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  Edward G. Senkbeil
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  J. C. Jones
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UV-Sensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A-648B)  Jerry A. Bell
Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UV-sensitive beads.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Chemometrics
An Inexpensive Water Jacket for a Polarimeter Tube  F. A. Kundell and W. A. Adkins
Design and construction of an inexpensive water jacket for a polarimeter tube.
Kundell, F. A.; Adkins, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1516.
Carbohydrates |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The Importance of Non-Bonds in Coordination Compounds  Michael Laing
Significance of noncovalent interactions in determining the structure and behavior of coordination compounds.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1400.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Relationship between Stoichiometry and Kinetics Revisited  Jim Y. Lee
Analysis decoupling stoichiometry and kinetics in dealing with nonelementary reactions.
Lee, Jim Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1283.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law
Teaching the Fundamentals of Pulsed NMR Spectroscopy in an Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Gary A. Lorigan, Robert E. Minto, and Wei Zhang
An undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment that utilizes a commercially available bench-top pulsed NMR spectrometer; students assemble the components of an NMR spectrometer, program a variety of pulse sequences, and collect T1 and T2 relaxation data.
Lorigan, Gary A.; Minto, Robert E.; Zhang, Wei. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 956.
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot!  Edward T. Urbansky
Using integrated rate plots to determine reaction order.
Urbansky, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 921.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
Build a Simple Polarimeter  Frank E. Stary and Norman Woldow
Details of the construction of a durable, inexpensive portable polarimeter with a self-contained 585-nm light source are given, combining the best features of several polarimeters; may easily be scaled up in size for increased sensitivity.
Stary, Frank E.; Woldow, Norman. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 644.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stereochemistry
Intermediates, Transition States, Butterflies, and Frogs  Trevor M. Kitson
The changes that occur in typical simple SN1 and SN2 reactions are compared to the metamorphoses undergone by caterpillars and tadpoles, respectively.
Kitson, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 504.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Thermodynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences (by Gordon G. Hammes)  Vicky Minderhout
Book designed to introduce biological science students to some of the important concepts of physical chemistry used in biology.
Minderhout, Vicky. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 457.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
The State of Division of Solids and Chemical Equilibria  João C. M. Paiva and Victor M. S. Gil
An experiment and a computer simulation are presented to address a counterintuitive situation often encountered when teaching chemical equilibria. This is prompted by the question "How can the subdivision of a solid reactant affect the reaction rate and not the composition of the equilibrium state?"
Paiva, João C. M.; Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 222.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Application of Hammond's Postulate. An Activity for Guided Discovery Learning in Organic Chemistry  J. E. Meany, Vicky Minderhout, and Y. Pocker
In this activity, students are given product distributions and other relevant experimental data concerning the free radical chlorination and bromination of propane. Students are guided in the use of Hammond's postulate to predict transition-state structures and to provide a rationale for the relationship between selectivity and reactivity in these and other reactions.
Meany, J. E.; Minderhout, Vicky; Pocker, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 204.
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
A Simple Method for Demonstrating Enzyme Kinetics Using Catalase from Beef Liver Extract  Kristin A. Johnson
A simple visual method of demonstrating enzyme kinetics using beef liver catalase. Filter paper is saturated with beef liver extract and placed into a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The catalase in the extract decomposes the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Oxygen forms on the filter paper, and the filter paper rises to the top of the beaker. Catalase activity is measured by timing the rise of the enzyme-soaked filter paper to the top of beakers containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
Johnson, A. Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1451.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Reactions
Combustion Demonstration Using Updated Flame Tornado  Edward G. Senkbeil
This demonstration uses the combustion of different forms of cellulose and an updated version of the "flame tornado" as an ignition source to illustrate the factors affecting the combustion process. The objectives of the experiment are to illustrate the factors affecting the rate of a combustion reaction and to demonstrate the factors affecting the production of a flame by using the flame tornado.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Epoxy Polymerization  Fred Schubert and Tom LoBuglio
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Schubert, Fred; LoBuglio, Tom. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy
Interpretation of Second Virial Coefficient  Vivek Utgikar
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Utgikar, Vivek. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Comparisons and Demonstrations of Scientific Calculators  Myung-Hoon Kim, Suw-Young Ly, and Tae-Kee Hong
Scientific calculators are compared in terms of their capacities, featuring many advantages of the graphic calculator over simple nongraphic calculators. Applications in this paper include a simulation of acid-base titration curves, and graphic display of a time course of concentrations of reactants and products for a chemical reaction with first-order kinetics.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Ly, Suw-Young; Hong, Tae-Kee. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Displacement of the Benzene Solvent Molecule from Cr(CO)5(benzene) by Piperidine: A Laser Flash Photolysis Experiment  Ashfaq A. Bengali and Samantha B. Charlton
This laboratory experiment utilizes a nitrogen laser to investigate the chemistry of the Cr(CO)5(benzene) complex on the microsecond time scale. The unique capabilities of a laser and the chemistry made possible by its use is demonstrated.
Bengali, Ashfaq A.; Charlton, Samantha B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1348.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions
Enzymatic Spectrophotometric Reaction Rate Determination of Glucose in Fruit Drinks and Carbonated Beverages. An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Food Science-Oriented Students  Argyro-Maria G. Vasilarou and Constantinos A. Georgiou
This laboratory experiment demonstrates the implementation of reaction rate kinetic methods of analysis, the use of enzymes as selective analytical reagents for the determination of substrates, the kinetic masking of ascorbic acid interference, and the analysis of glucose in drinks and beverages.
Vasilarou, Argyro-Maria G.; Georgiou, Constantinos A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1327.
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Quantifying the link between Rutherford's observations and Avogadro's number.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Rate Law
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Every Year Begins a Millennium  Jerry A. Bell
This article outlines a series of demonstrations and their contexts, leading to recommendations about what we teach and how we teach.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1098.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Learning Theories
Evaporation Kinetics in Short-Chain Alcohols by Optical Interference  Ian M. Rosbrugh, S. Y. Nishimura, and A. M. Nishimura
The evaporation rates of volatile organic liquids may be determined through the observation of optical interference of spatially coincident light that is reflected from the top (air-liquid) and bottom (liquid-surface) of a liquid drop on a glass surface. As an example of what is possible with this technique, the evaporation for a series of short-chain alcohols and acetone is investigated.
Rosbrugh, Ian M.; Nishimura, S. Y.; Nishimura, Allan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1047.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Chromic Acid Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols  Charles E. Harding, Christopher W. Mitchell, and Jozsef Devenyi
The kinetic isotope effect is an invaluable tool in studying certain organic reaction mechanisms. Two activities involving the technique that are suitable for introductory organic laboratory students are described. A simple competition experiment utilizing the benzhydrol?benzhydrol-d1 system and chromic acid oxidation is used to demonstrate qualitatively that there is a kinetic isotope effect involved in this process.
Harding, Charles E.; Mitchell, Christopher W.; Devenyi, Jozsef. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1042.
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Paradoxes, Puzzles, and Pitfalls of Incomplete Combustion Demonstrations  Ed Vitz
Paper is burned in a closed container containing sufficient oxygen to consume all the paper. Paradoxically, the flame expires while half of the paper remains. This demonstrates that thermodynamics or stoichiometry is insufficient to explain everyday chemical processes, and that kinetics is often necessary. The gases in the container are analyzed by GC before and after combustion, and the results are examined in detail.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1011.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry
Photochemistry of Chloropicrin. A Physical Chemistry Project  E. A. Wade, T. P. Clemes, and K. A. Singmaster
In this experiment, students will use FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the kinetics of the photolysis of chloropicrin by an Hg arc lamp, both with and without oxygen. They will then be able to determine the mechanism of the photolytic reaction.
Wade, Elisabeth A.; Clemes, T. P.; Singmaster, Karen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 898.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Molecular Orbital Animations for Organic Chemistry  Steven A. Fleming, Greg R. Hart, and Paul B. Savage
Introduces the application of highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) in animated form.
Fleming, Steven A.; Hart, Greg R.; Savage, Paul B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 790.
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Spreadsheet Investigation of First-Order Kinetics  Glenn V. Lo
Spreadsheet exercises designed for in-depth examination of the first-order rate law are described. The exercises illustrate two main approaches for analyzing first-order rate data and allow students to examine how they are affected by systematic and random errors. The exercises aim to provide a sound foundation for the students to make intelligent decisions with regard to data acquisition and analysis.
Lo, Glenn V. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 532.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
Modeling Chemical Processes in Seawater Aquaria to Illustrate Concepts in Undergraduate Chemistry  Gordan Grguric
This paper describes three exercises which can be used in a variety of undergraduate chemistry curricula: (i) determining the salts and their amounts needed to prepare a given volume of artificial seawater, (ii) modeling aqueous carbonate equilibria, to calculate pH and alkalinity shifts through additions of chemicals, and (iii) modeling chemical kinetics involved in aqueous ozone-bromine reactions, to predict the type and extent of disinfection by-products.
Grguric, Gordan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 495.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Applications of Chemistry
An Introduction to Nonlinear Chemical Dynamics: Oscillations, Waves, Patterns, and Chaos (by I. R. Epstein and J. A. Pojman)  reviewed by Richard J. Field
The major strength of this treatment by Epstein and Pojman is a strong connection between theory and experiment. The mechanisms of many oscillating chemical reactions are described in detail.
Field, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 450.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Experiments with Aspirin  Londa L. Borer and Edward Barry
Experiments include (i) synthesis, purification, and characterization of aspirin by mp and TLC, (ii) percentage composition of a commercial aspirin tablet by titration, (iii) kinetics of the hydrolysis of aspirin to salicylic acid under various conditions, (iv) synthesis and characterization of copper(II) aspirinate and copper(II) salicylate, and (v) reaction of copper(II) aspirinate in aqueous solution.
Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 354.
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
An Experiment to Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
This experiment, which is a modified version of the traditional iodine clock reaction, allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reactants, and activation energies. It also lets students discover that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having a lower activation energy.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1714.
Catalysis |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law
"New" Compounds from Old Plastics: Recycling PET Plastics via Depolymerization. An Activity for the Undergraduate Organic Lab  Don Kaufman, Geoff Wright, Ryan Kroemer, and Josh Engel
This paper describes work done to develop a meaningful undergraduate organic lab activity that illustrates chemistry of the real world while utilizing reactions typically included in the organic lecture and lab. We show how a common plastic can be converted into several compounds using ester hydrolysis and SN2 reactions.
Kaufman, Don; Wright, Geoff; Kroemer, Ryan; Engel, Josh. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1525.
Consumer Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Old Rule of Thumb and the Arrhenius Equation  I. A. Leenson
The empirical rule (doubling of the reaction rate upon every 10 increase in temperature) is discussed on the basis of the Arrhenius equation and experimental data. A graph is plotted that shows the applicability limits of the empirical rule in terms of activation energies and temperatures.
Leenson, Ilya A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1459.
Kinetics
Chemiluminescence Demonstration Illustrating Principles of Ester Hydrolysis Reactions  Andrew G. Hadd, David W. Lehmpuhl, Laura R. Kuck, and John W. Birks
Peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence, the most efficient nonenzymatic chemiluminescence reaction known, is used to demonstrate mechanistic features of analogous ester hydrolysis reactions.
Hadd, Andrew G.; Lehmpuhl, David W.; Kuck, Laura R.; Birks, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1237.
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Esters
The Arrhenius Equation Revisited (author's reply)  Carroll, Harvey F.
Misleading remarks regarding the Arrhenius equation in some general chemistry texts.
Carroll, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 899.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
The Arrhenius Equation Revisited  Logan, S. R.
Addition citation on the implications of the Arrhenius equation.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 899.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
Kinetics of Papain: An Introductory Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment  Kathleen Cornely, Eric Crespo, Michael Earley, Rachel Kloter, Aime Levesque, and Mary Pickering
In this experiment, we investigate the kinetics of the thiol protease papain. A specific substrate, Na-benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA), is used, which takes advantage of the fact that papain interacts with a phenylalanine residue two amino acids away from the peptide bond cleaved. Upon hydrolysis by papain, a bright yellow product is released, p-nitroaniline. This allows the reaction to be monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of formation of the p-nitroaniline product as a function of the increase in absorbance of the solution at the lmax of p-nitroaniline (400 nm) over time at various substrate concentrations. These data are used to plot a Lineweaver-Burk plot from which the vmax and KM are obtained.
Cornely, Kathleen; Crespo, Eric; Earley, Michael; Kloter, Rachel; Levesque, Aime; Pickering, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 644.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Using CBL Technology and a Graphing Calculator To Teach the Kinetics of Consecutive First-Order Reactions  José E. Cortés-Figueroa and Deborah A. Moore
This work proposes a demonstration to introduce first-order reactions using the CBL system. It then presents the analysis of two consecutive first-order reactions. The values of the rate constants that govern each reaction's rate are determined using the graphing and statistical capabilities of a TI-83 calculator.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E.; Moore, Deborah A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 635.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Rate Law
A New Twist on the Iodine Clock Reaction: Determining the Order of a Reaction  Xavier Creary and Karen M. Morris
The iodine clock reaction can be used to illustrate the kinetic order of a reaction, and an overhead projector demonstration was developed three years ago for general chemistry classes at the University of Notre Dame showing this concept.
Creary, Xavier; Morris, Karen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 530.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics
Equilibrium Principles: A Game for Students  Lionel J. Edmonson Jr. and Don L. Lewis
The laboratory exercise is a game using marked sugar cubes as dice. The game emphasizes the dynamic character of equilibrium. Forward and reverse rate-constant values are used to calculate an equilibrium constant and to predict equilibrium populations. Predicted equilibrium populations are compared with experimental results.
Edmonson, Lionel J., Jr.; Lewis, Don L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 502.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
General Potential Energy Surfaces for Catalytic Processes  S. H. Bauer
Here we argue that one may describe, in general terms, how catalysts modify reaction mechanisms by entering and leaving a conversion sequence, using potential energy surfaces that are conceptually correct. Thermochemical and kinetic constraints providing bounds that limit catalytic processes are formulated. 3-D diagrams are proposed. These clearly illustrate the basic principle that catalysts initially associate with the substrates and thus directly participate in modified conversion pathways, but are regenerated in the final step, thereby providing for a turnover number greater than unity.
Bauer, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 440.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Fizz Keeper, a Case Study in Chemical Education, Equilibrium, and Kinetics  Reed Howald
The chemistry of the loss of carbonation from carbonated beverages on storage is considered. Increasing the pressure of CO2(g) will restore carbonation, but an increase in pressure adding air should not affect the equilibria. It can and does, however, affect the kinetics-the rate at which a new equilibrium is established. Thus the Fizz Keeper is effective for storage of resealed pop containers for hours, but not for periods of weeks or months.
Howald, Reed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 208.
Transport Properties |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Spontaneity and log K  Klotz, Irving M.; Rosenberg, Robert M.
Why the degree of spontaneity and the equilibrium constant should have different temperature dependencies.
Klotz, Irving M.; Rosenberg, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 165.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
Conceptualizing Kinetics with Curve Fitting  Ed Vitz
This paper describes how to use the Excel "Solver" function for the analysis of kinetics data by nonlinear curve-fitting methods, as an alternative to the traditional linearization methods for zero-, first-, and second-order processes.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1661.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
The Blue Bottle Experiment-Simple Demonstration of Self-Organization  L'ubica Adamcíková and Peter Sevcík
This article describes a pattern that is formed in the blue bottle experiment.
Adamcíková, L'ubica; Sevcík, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1580.
Catalysis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics
Chemical Kinetics without Calculus  Igor Novak
We present an example of a general reaction network consisting of three species. The scheme (network) is used to illustrate, without the aid of calculus, several types of reactions that have simple kinetic laws.
Novak, Igor. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1574.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar  Natalie Hershlag, Ian Hurley, and Jonathan Woodward
In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter.
Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1270.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry
Why the Arrhenius Equation Is Always in the "Exponentially Increasing" Region in Chemical Kinetic Studies  Harvey F. Carroll
The Arrhenius equation in chemical kinetics, k = Ae-Ea/RT, has, as T gets larger, an inflection point where it changes from an "exponentially increasing" curve to one approaching an asymptote of A. The inflection point occurs at T = Ea/2R. For any activation energy, the inflection point occurs at such a high temperature that chemical kinetic studies would not be possible. Thus, the Arrhenius equation always appears to be exponentially increasing in any chemical kinetic studies of interest.
Carroll, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1186.
Kinetics
A Simple Electrochemical Approach to Heterogeneous Reaction Kinetics  K. J. Drok, I. M. Ritchie, and G. P. Power
The system studied is the dissolution of a known amount of copper in a solution of iron(III). The reaction time is determined by measuring the potential of the copper, which has been electrodeposited on an inert electrode, as a function of time
Drok, K. J.; Ritchie, Ian M.; Power, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1145.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Limiting Reagent and Kinetics: Social Implications and Malthus' Prediction  L. H. Holmes Jr.
Robert Malthus predicted in the early 1800s that man would outstrip his food supply. The amount of carbon on earth is the ultimate limiting reagent for the number of people the earth can have and in the sense that carbon is our "food", Malthus was right. However, the land area of the earth is a "limiting reagent" that will limit our population before carbon does. These concepts are discussed in the context of limiting reagents and chemical kinetics to show that if the rate of increase of population remains at what it is now, we have less than a thousand years to "solve" the problem.
Holmes, L. H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1004.
Kinetics
Kinetic Demonstration of Intermolecular General Acid (GA) Catalysis in Thiolysis of 9-Anilinoacridine   Mohammad Niyaz Khan
After nearly five decades of active research and numerous publications on GA-GB catalysis, introduction of an experiment on GA for students majoring in enzymology/physical organic chemistry at advanced undergraduate/postgraduate level is appropriate. A kinetic experiment involving the reaction of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) with 9-anilinoacridine (9-ANA) is designed to demonstrate intermolecular GA catalysis.
Khan, Mohammad Niyaz. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 632.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
An Analogy to Help Students Understand Reaction Orders  Charles J. Marzzacco
This article describes a simple analogy to help students understand the concept of the rate law for a chemical reaction. The analogy involves the mathematical relationships between various characteristics of a cube and the length of its edge.
Charles J. Marzzacco. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 482.
Learning Theories |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Mechanism Templates: Lecture Aids for Effective Presentation of Mechanism in Introductory Organic Chemistry  Brian J. McNelis
To promote active student learning of mechanism in introductory organic chemistry, hand-outs have been developed with incomplete structures for reaction processes depicted, which are called mechanism templates. The key to these lecture aids is to provide only enough detail in the diagram to facilitate notetaking, ensuring that these templates are dynamic learning tools that must be utilized by an engaged and alert student.
Brian J. McNelis. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 479.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Nucleophilic Addition vs. Substituion: A Puzzle for the Organic Laboratory  Ernest F. Silversmith
The chemistry of beta-carbonyl compounds is studied. Beta-carbonyl compounds react with hydrazines to give products with a 5-membered ring containing two nitrogens. The experiment makes students determine whether ethyl 2-acetyl-3-oxobutanoate reacts like a beta-diketone or like a beta-keto ester.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 221.
Learning Theories |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Controlled Enolates: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course  Augustine Silveira Jr., Michael A. Knopp, and Jhong Kim
A microscale preparation of thermodynamic and kinetic enolates is given as an undergraduate research laboratory. This experiment provides student involvement and discussion.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Knopp, Michael A.; Kim, Jhong. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 78.
Equilibrium |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Kinetics of p-Nitrophenol Degradation by Pseudomonas sp.: An Experiment Illustrating Bioremediation  Michelle H. Duong, Samuel L. Penrod, and Stanley B. Grant
This paper describes a simple experiment illustrating bioremediation which is well suited for undergraduate classes in environmental chemistry, microbiology, or engineering.
Duong, Michelle H.; Penrod, Samuel L.; Grant, Stanley B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1451.
Biotechnology |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Disadvantages of Double Reciprocal Plots  R. Bruce Martin
Because they involve grossly uneven weightings of points, the linear and formally similar double reciprocal Benesi-Hildebrand and Lineweaver-Burke plots should never be used to resolve equilibrium and enzyme kinetic results.
Martin, R. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1238.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Why Don't Things Go Wrong More Often? Activation Energies: Maxwell's Angels, Obstacles to Murphy's Law  Frank L. Lambert
The micro-complexity of fracturing utilitarian or beautiful objects prevents assigning a characteristic activation energy even to chemically identical artifacts. Nevertheless, a qualitative EACT SOLID can be developed. Its surmounting is correlated with the radical drop in human valuation of an object when it is broken.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 947.
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Thermodynamics
Conversion of an Alkyl Chloride to a Bromide (or Vice-Versa) by Homogeneous Nucleophile Exchange  Roger C. Hahn
Quaternary salt-catalyzed bromide-chloride exchange between alkyl chlorides and alkyl bromides is used to demonstrate effects of temperature, catalyst, concentration, and substrate structure on reaction rates and chemoselectivity. Microscale reactions are monitored by GC analysis.
Hahn, Roger C. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 836.
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Microscale Lab |
Gas Chromatography |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Illustrating Chemical Kinetic Principles with Ion Motions in Thin Membranes  Michael E. Starzak
Ions dissolved in thin membranes follow first order kinetics when they are moved between interfacial states by an applied electrical potential. The two state system is ideal to describe basic chemical kinetic concepts such as detailed balance at equilibrium and possible time dependence in the rate constants.
Starzak, Michael E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 410.
Kinetics |
Membranes |
Equilibrium
Fries Rearrangement Accelerated by Microwave Radiation in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Inder R. Trehan, Jasvinder S. Brar, Ajay K. Arora, Goverdhan L. Kad
An opportunity for undergraduate students to carry out a reaction using microwave radiation. The rapid rate of reaction prevents student boredom and inactivity. The rate increase appears to be due primarily to rapid attainment of high reaction temperatures.
Trehan, Inder R.; Brar, Jasvinder S.; Arora, Ajay K.; Kad, Goverdhan L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 324.
Rate Law
The Acid Catalyzed Dehydration of an Isomeric 2-Methylcyclohexanol Mixture: A Kinetic and Regiochemical Study of the Evelyn Effect  John J. Cawley and Patrick E. Linder
This paper details an experiment which serves as an introduction to organic laboratory research. The reaction is the dehydration of a cis, trans mixture of 2-methylcyclohexanols. At intervals of times the reactant mixture is sampled for the cis and trans reactants. At those same intervals of times the receiver flasks of product cyclohexanes being collected are changed, such that sequential fractions of material are obtained.
Cawley, John J.; Linder, Patrick E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 102.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Alcohols |
Stereochemistry
Visualizing the SN2 Inversion  Rosan, Alan M.
Slight modification to the construction of the model presented.
Rosan, Alan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A228.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Data Acquisition in the Chemistry Laboratory Using LabVIEW Software  Mark A. Muyskens, Samuel V. Glass, Thomas W. Wietsma, Terry M. Gray
Our application of LabVIEW software for computer data-acquisition using several techniques used across our curriculum is described. The techniques are gas chromatography, calorimetry, titrations and other volume-dependent techniques, spectrometry for kinetics using a Spectronic 20(R), and emission spectroscopy.
Muyskens, Mark A.; Glass, Samuel V.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Gray, Terry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1112.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Gas Chromatography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics
Iodine Clock Reaction  Richard S. Mitchell
The study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction has provided an interesting experience for students for many years.
Mitchell, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 783.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management
The Neglected Element in Sophomore Organic Chemistry  Kelly L. Bieda and Suzzane T. Purrington
There are many aspects of organic chemistry that would benefit from the inclusion of organofluorine chemistry. The properties of fluorine help in the clarification of many topics such as bond strength, leaving groups, substitution reactions, radical reactions, polymers, pharmaceuticals, and enzymes.
Bieda, Kelly L.; Purrington, Suzanne T. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 754.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Polymerization |
Nucleophilic Substitution
The Well-Read Biochemist  Gale Rhodes
This article describes how I use a collection of poems, essays, and fiction to inspire my biochemistry students to make connections between the arcane world of cellular chemistry and the wider world of literature and the humanities.
Rhodes, Gale. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 732.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Metabolism |
Proteins / Peptides |
Membranes
Chemical Kinetics in Real Time: Using the Differential Rate Law and Discovering the Reaction Orders  B. R. Ramachandran and Arthur M. Halpern
In this paper we describe the kinetic analysis, in real time, of the spectrometrically-acquired rate data based on the differential rate law, where no assumptions in initial reactant concentrations are necessary, except for their values.
B. R. Ramachandran and Arthur M. Halpern. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 686.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Spectroscopy
An Easily Demonstrated Zero-Order Reaction in Solution  Kathryn Hindmarsh and Donald A. House
Here we describe a reaction exhibiting all the characteristics of a typical zero-order reaction.
Hindmarsh, Kathryn; House, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 585.
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Rate Law
The Nitrogen-Laser Excited Luminescence of Pyrene: A Student Laboratory Study of Excimer Dynamics  John S. Muenter and John L. Deutsch
The resulting luminescence is studied as a function of wavelength, time, and pyrene concentration to observe the dynamics of both the excited pyrene monomer and the pyrene excimer.
Muenter, John S.; Deutsch, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 580.
Aromatic Compounds |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Lasers
Relative rates of effusion through punctured balloons  Deese, William C.; Washburn, Anna Marie
A simple method of demonstrating relative rates of gaseous effusion which requires no corrosive chemicals or glassware is reported here.
Deese, William C.; Washburn, Anna Marie J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 540.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Rate Law
The Esterification of Trifluoroacetic Acid: A Variable Temperature NMR Kinetics Study  Thomas N. Gallaher, David A. Gaul, and Serge Schreiner
This paper describes an addition to a previously published experiment in which NMR is used to follow the kinetics of the reaction of trifluoroacetic acid with alcohols. A variable temperature accessory is used to determine the energy of activation and reaction order with respect to the alcohol concentration.
Gallaher, Thomas N.; Gaul, David A.; Schreiner, Serge. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 465.
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Esters
Reduction of Viologen Bisphosphonate Dihalide with Aluminum Foil  Peter Abeta Iyere
An elegant undergraduate experiment similar to the popular "Iodine Clock Reaction" employs the reduction of methyl viologen by hydroxide ion. This demonstration can be used as prelaboratory discussion for an undergraduate kinetic experiment based on the same phenomenon.
Iyere, Peter Abeta. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 455.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Bacterial Toxicity Assessment Using Resazurin Reduction Kinetics: An Undergraduate Toxicity Experiment for the Chemistry-Biology Major  S. Helliwell and T. J. Harden
An undergraduate toxicity experiment is described using the redox indicator resazurin as an indicator of dehydrogenase activity. Two types of bacteria are utilized, the Gram positive Streptococcus cremoris and a Gram negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, to demonstrate the potentially different toxicological responses to the same chemical.
Helliwell, S.; Harden, T. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 368.
Toxicology |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
Synthesis and Kinetics of Hydrolysis of 3,5-Dimethyl-N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone Imine: An Undergraduate Laboratory  Jeanne M. Buccigross, Christa Metz, Lori Elliot, Pamela Becker, Angela S. Earley, Jerry W. Hayes, Michael Novak, and Gayl A. Underwood
The synthesis of the title compound by a three-step procedure is described. The hydrolysis kinetics, which involve two consecutive psuedo-first-order processes, are also described.
Buccigross, Jeanne M.; Metz, Christa; Elliot, Lori; Becker, Pamela; Earley, Angela S.; Hayes, Jerry W.; Novak, Michael; Underwood, Gayl A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 364.
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Iron(III) Chloride as a Lewis Acid in the Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reaction  William H. Miles, Charles F. Nutaitis, and Christian A. Anderton
The Friedel-Crafts reaction receives extensive coverage in sophomore organic chemistry. The most widely used Lewis acid for the Friedel-Crafts reaction is aluminum chloride. The safety and handling problems associated with using aluminum chloride prompted us to examine iron(III) chloride as an alternative Lewis acid for the Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction.
Miles, William H.; Nutaitis, Charles F.; Anderton, Christian A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 272.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Curve Fitting: An Alternative Approach to Analyzing Kinetic Data in Introductory Chemistry  Coleman, William F.
183. The availability of high quality software for performing nonlinear curve fitting on microcomputers allows students to take an alternative approach to data analysis, one that concentrates on functional forms that may be more natural than some of the algebraic machinations necessary to render relationships into linear forms. An example of the application of such an approach to the analysis of kinetic data is presented in this paper.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 243.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics
Monitoring Oxidation of Bromocresol Green with a Diode Laser: A General Chemistry IBM Personal Science Laboratory (PSL) Experiment  Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick
Procedure for monitoring the oxidation of bromocresol green using a diode laser and a radiometric probe; includes data and analysis.
Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A118.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Lasers
Simplifying Difficult Mathematical Concepts in Chemistry Courses  Russell W. Maatman
Two syllabi, "Origin of the Spatial Quantum Numbers n, l, and ml" and "Introduction to the Rate Laws of Chemical Reactions", that specifically and completely outline the mathematical development of these concepts.
Maatman, Russell W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1089.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Mechanism of Electrode Reactions and the Stoichiometric Number  P. Radhakrishnamurty and R. Arun Mozhi Selvan
Calculating the rate determining step for a multielectron transfer reaction.
Radhakrishnamurty, P.; Selvan, R. Arun Mozhi. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 895.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law |
Electrochemistry
A Method to Find the Rate Constants in Chemical Kinetics of a Complex Reaction  Sydney Bluestone and Kin Y. Yan
Method for extracting rate constants for a complex reaction from analytical and simulated data.
Bluestone, Sydney; Yan, Kin Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 884.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Chemometrics
Animation of Imaginary Frequencies at the Transition State  Higgins, Robert H.
176. Computer simulations of reactions mechanisms using HyperChem and ChemPlus software.
Higgins, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 703.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactive Intermediates |
Computational Chemistry |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Breaking Bonds versus Chopping Heads: The Enzyme as Butcher  Todd P. Silverstein
Analogy to help biochemistry students understand concepts of Michaelis-Menten kinetics; active site/binding site; activation energy; substrate saturation; cooperativity; allosteric effects; and inhibitors.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 645.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Promoting Higher-Order Thinking Skills: Uses of Mathcad and Classical Chemical Kinetics to Foster Student Development  Theresa Julia Zielinski
How Mathcad software can be used to develop higher-order chemical thinking skills in physical chemistry courses.
Zielinski, Theresa Julia. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 631.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Propylene Oxide Addition to Hydrochloric Acid: A Textbook Error  Rebecca E. Phillips and Robert L. Soulen
Procedure illustrating organic synthesis involving propylene oxide, a major industrial chemical, and important features of the SN1 and SN2 mechanisms (there are some differences on how this reaction is described in several organic textbooks).
Phillips, Rebecca E.; Soulen, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 624.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Some Comments on Hyperbolas in Chemistry   R. A. Day, Jr. and A. L. Underwood
Illustrates examples (Michaelis-Menten kinetics and "linear" titration curves) in which the relationship between a chemical model and the corresponding mathematical function (hyperbolas) is explicitly stated.
Day, R. A., Jr.; Underwood, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 596.
Kinetics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment for the Direct Measurement of Monolayer-Formation Kinetics  Karpovich, D. S.; Blanchard, G. J.
Procedure that introduces the chemistry of modified surfaces to undergraduates; includes sample data and analysis.
Karpovich, D. S.; Blanchard, G. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 466.
Kinetics |
Surface Science
Resistance Measurement as a Tool for Corrosion Studies  Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R.
Procedure for determining the rate of corrosion by measuring changes in the resistance of a thin wire or strip of metal; sample data and analysis included.
Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Bromination of Disubstituted Arenes: Kinetics and Mechanism: GC/MS Experiments for the Instrumental Analysis and Organic Chemistry Labs  Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.
Experimental procedure using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to trace the progression of a reaction over time and determine the several possible steps of its mechanism; sample data and analysis included.
Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 460.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds
Mass Transfer and Car Driving  Mukesh, D.
Explaining the concept of mass transfer using an analogy of driving a car.
Mukesh, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 436.
Kinetics |
Industrial Chemistry
A Model To Show the SN2 Inversion  Sands, Richard D.; Dressman, Devin C.; Wyatt, Shawn R.
Paper model illustrating the SN2 inversion.
Sands, Richard D.; Dressman, Devin C.; Wyatt, Shawn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 428.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Molecular Modeling
A Novel Method for Examination of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria  Knewstubb, P. F.
Method and apparatus for obtaining reasonably accurate vapor-liquid equilibrium data; sample data and analysis included.
Knewstubb, P. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 261.
Rate Law |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids
Thermal Dehydration of Crystalline Hydrates: Microscopic Studies and Introductory Experiments to the Kinetics of Solid-State Reactions  Tanaka, Haruhiko; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Galwey, Andrew K.
Description of solid-state reactions, particularly decompositions/dehydration, and sample studies of dehydration of several hydrates through the microscope; includes pictures and experimental procedure.
Tanaka, Haruhiko; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Galwey, Andrew K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 251.
Kinetics |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
A Simple Demonstration of the Effect of Impurities on Melting Point  Hardinger, Steven A.
Demonstration of melting point depression of a substance because of the presence of impurities.
Hardinger, Steven A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 250.
Rate Law |
Physical Properties
Raoult's Law Is a Deception  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Argument that Raoult's law should be omitted from introductory chemistry courses because of limited applicability and usefulness at that level of study.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 204.
Rate Law |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Temperature Control for a Small-Scale Kinetics Experiment  Flash, Patrick
A microscale version of the iodine clock kinetics experiment with iodine and peroxydisulfate under temperature- controlled conditions that also permits calculating the activation energy.
Flash, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A66.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Microscale Lab
Chart for Deciding Mechanism for Reaction of Alkyl Halide with Nucleophile/Base  McClelland, Bruce W.
The decision chart offered here is based upon the well-known and accepted characteristics of the reaction system mechanisms described in typical introductory organic chemistry textbooks.
McClelland, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1047.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
The Physical Chemistry Sequence at Liberal Arts Colleges: The Lake Forest College Approach  Shields, George C.
In this paper the author describes efforts at Lake Forest College to revamp the physical chemistry course.
Shields, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 951.
Quantum Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Spectroscopy
Chemical Equilibrium in the General Chemistry Course  Fainzilberg, Vladimir E.; Karp, Stewart
The first chapters on chemical equilibrium in first-year college chemistry texts make an "error" in the solution of certain types of equilibria problems.
Fainzilberg, Vladimir E.; Karp, Stewart J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 769.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Simulations and Interactive Resources  Martin, John S.
12 Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) including Periodic Table Displays, Electron Orbits and Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Barometers and Manometers, Vapor Pressure, Ideal Gas Behavior, Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction, Approach to Equilibrium, The Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Titration Curves, Electrochemical Cells, and Rate of Reaction.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 667.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Rate Law
Molecular Modeling and Chemical Activity: An Experiment for the Introductory Organic Course  Simpson, John
Students are asked to determine minimum steric energies for a series of compounds and to perform a subsequent correlation analysis of these ground state values with relative reaction rates from the literature.
Simpson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 607.
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry |
Rate Law
Photometric Determination of the Rate Expression for MnO4- Mediated Organic Oxidations  Crouch, R. David
Photometric procedure for studying the kinetics of the MnO4- mediated oxidation of mandelic acid in KOH.
Crouch, R. David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 597.
Rate Law |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics
A Unified Equation for Chemical Kinetics  Tan, Xinyi; Lindenbaum, Siegfried; Meltzer, Noel
An equation from which equations for zero-, first-, and higher order reactions can be readily derived that is also amenable to more complex situations not covered by simple rate law expressions.
Tan, Xinyi; Lindenbaum, Siegfried; Meltzer, Noel J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 566.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
On the Use of Least Squares To Fit Data in Linear Form  Chong, Delano P.
Analysis of Michaelis-Menten kinetics as an example of using least squares to fit data in a linear form.
Chong, Delano P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 489.
Chemometrics |
Enzymes |
Kinetics
A Kinetic Experiment To Determine Traces of Iron(lll) and Iron(ll): Using the "Pyrrole Blue" Reaction  Lampard, M.
The semi-quantitative determination of traces of iron(II) and iron(III) over a practical range of 1-10 micrograms.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 352.
Kinetics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Dyes / Pigments
An Experiment in trans-cis Isomerization: Synthesis and Kinetics of trans-Dichlorotetraamminecobalt(III) Chloride  Borer, Londa L.; Erdman, Howard W.
Synthesis and kinetics investigation of trans-dichlorotetraamminecobalt(III) chloride.
Borer, Londa L.; Erdman, Howard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 332.
Diastereomers |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Conductivity
An Oscillating Reaction as a Demonstration of Principles Applied in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Weimer, Jeffrey J.
Platinum catalyzed decomposition of methanol.
Weimer, Jeffrey J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 325.
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis |
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Reactions
A Perfect (Gas) Analogy for Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control  Macomber, Roger S.
Physical analogy for giving students a better feel for the relationship between kinetic and thermodynamic control of a reaction.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 311.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Galvanic Corrosion-A Kinetic Study  Randle, T. H.
A comprehensive investigation of the kinetics of galvanic corrosion and factors influencing the rate of such reactions.
Randle, T. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 261.
Kinetics |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
KineticsLab: The Crystal Violet/Sodium Hydroxide Reaction  Cannon, John F.; Gammon, Steven D.; Hunsberger, Lynn R.
A computer-assisted experiment to collect and analyze data for a kinetic study of the decolorization of crystal violet in basic solution.
Cannon, John F.; Gammon, Steven D.; Hunsberger, Lynn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 238.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
The Blue Bottle Experiment Revisited: How Blue? How Sweet?  Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E.
Determining whether other colors and carbohydrates are possible with the "Blue Bottle" reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 160.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Uncertainty of pH  Schmitz, Guy
Analysis of why measured pH values are always a little lower than the ones calculated.
Schmitz, Guy J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 117.
pH |
Chemometrics |
Kinetics
A New Approach To Teaching Organic Chemical Mechanisms  Wentland, Stephen H.
Describing the mechanisms of organic reactions using five simple steps or operations.
Wentland, Stephen H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 3.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A kinetic study of the isomerization of eugenol: The quantitative use of NMR, GC, and HPLC in a single organic laboratory experiment that demonstrates alternative approaches to solving a problem   Peterson, Thomas H.; Bryan, James H.; Keevil, Thomas A.
Description of an experiment that allows students to be aware that there is often more than one approach to designing an experiment,and that the quality of the experimental results often depend on the proper choice of instrument(s).
Peterson, Thomas H.; Bryan, James H.; Keevil, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A96.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Kinetics
The aromatic substitution game  Zanger, Murray; Gennaro, Alfonso R.; McKee, James R.
This paper describes a game used to bring attention to the need for students to reconsider substitution theories learned in earlier chapters.
Zanger, Murray; Gennaro, Alfonso R.; McKee, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 985.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Determining Hammett sigma and rho values: Improvements on a published student experiment  Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn
Modifications and improvements to laboratory experiments written for an organic chemistry lab text.
Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 953.
Esters |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
Photodegradation of methylene blue: Using solar light and semiconductor (TiO2)  Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F.
An experiment that can be used to introduce or explore concepts such as photochemistry, semiconductors, and kinetics.
Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 861.
Semiconductors |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
MO Theory
A suggested modification of the nitrito-nitro isomerization kinetic experiment   Goren, Smadar; Zayat, Marcos; Heitner-Wirguin, Carla
Some suggestions to enhance an experiment that appeared in the past in this Journal (September 1981, page 734).
Goren, Smadar; Zayat, Marcos; Heitner-Wirguin, Carla J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 606.
Catalysis |
Kinetics
Polymer spherulites: II. Crystallization kinetics  Marentette, J. M.; Brown, G. R.
A commonplace polarized light microscope equipped with a hot stage permits examination of crystallization kinetics in addition to morphology and birefringence.
Marentette, J. M.; Brown, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 539.
Kinetics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Polymerization
Using the electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 1. Colorimetry and thermometry experiments  Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III
The multimeter could be a very useful instrument for the chemistry laboratory bench. In this paper, the versatility of the multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory is demonstrated.
Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 514.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Kinetics of the reaction of p-nitrobenzyl chloride with cyanide ion: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Hurst, Michael O.; Hill, John W.
The title reaction is used to develop an undergraduate organic kinetics experiment in which the student determines the order and rate constant of the reaction, as well as the effect of solvent upon the rate of the reaction.
Hurst, Michael O.; Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 429.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Organosulfur Compounds
Monitoring self-association of a hydrophobic peptide with high performance liquid chromatography: An undergraduate kinetic experiment using the antibiotic gramicidin A  Braco, Lorenzo; Ba, M. Carmen; Abad, Concepcin
The authors propose a kinetic experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography to determine the rate and equilibrium constants in a very simple manner, and separate the molecular species under study.
Braco, Lorenzo; Ba, M. Carmen; Abad, Concepcin J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A113.
HPLC |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
The effect of SDS micelle on the rate of a reaction  Marzzacco, Charles J.
The effect of the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) on a chemical reaction.
Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1024.
Micelles |
Rate Law |
Surface Science |
Coordination Compounds
Reaction dynamics  Lacks, Daniel
Software that simulates collisions of an atom with a diatomic molecule, allowing students to set the initial conditions and the type of atom or molecule involved.
Lacks, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1010.
Reactions |
Rate Law
Synthesis of a heteropolytungstate and its use in outer-sphere redox kinetics  Walmsley, Frank
An inorganic chemistry experiment has been developed combining two topics usually included in inorganic chemistry: heteropoly ions and mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions of transition metal ions.
Walmsley, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 936.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
Kinetic study of the reaction between ethanol and chloroacetyl chloride in chloroform: A laboratory experiment using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  Garcia, M. V.; Tiemblo, P.
Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to study the reaction between ethanol and chloroacetyl chloride in chloroform.
Garcia, M. V.; Tiemblo, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 841.
Kinetics |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions
A biochemistry project to study mushroom tyrosinase: Enzyme localization, isoenzymes, and detergent activation  Rodriquez, Marta Olga; Flurkey, William H.
Investigating mushroom tyrosinase isoenzymes in different tissue sections of commercial mushrooms.
Rodriquez, Marta Olga; Flurkey, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 767.
Enzymes |
Electrophoresis |
Kinetics
The synthesis of E-beta-bromostyrene: An experiment illustrating the use of IR bending modes to distinguish E and Z isomers and the concept of kinetic and thermodynamic controlled reactions.  Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R.
An experiment illustrating the concept of thermodynamic and kinetically controlled reactions to produce E and Z isomers (respectively); the use of IR to distinguish E and Z isomers; and the different properties of E and Z isomers (only the E isomer has a pleasant odor).
Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 588.
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Three methods for studying the kinetics of the halogenation of acetone.  Birk, James P.; Walters, David L.
Three methods for carrying out a kinetic study of the reaction between propanone and elemental iodine.
Birk, James P.; Walters, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 585.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Rate Law
Applications of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution diagrams.  Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.
Although Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution diagrams are intuitively appealing, care must be taken to avoid several common errors and misconceptions.
Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 554.
Thermodynamics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis
Flash photochemical measurements in the physical chemistry laboratory: Kinetics of deactivation of electronically excited aromatic molecules by oxygen  Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L.
In this experiment, students examine the kinetics by which molecular oxygen deactivates the electronically excited triplet states of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene in hexane solution.
Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 336.
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A kinetic experiment to determine traces of Mo(VI)  Lampard, M.
This experiment deals with the estimation of Mo(VI) on a microchemical scale using visual color end-point detection.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 327.
Microscale Lab |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Rate acceleration by polar, aprotic solvents  Greenberg, Fred H.
The use of polar, aprotic solvents to increase anion nucleophilicity and basicity.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 320.
Solutions / Solvents |
Rate Law
A graphical solution of the second-reaction rate constant of a two-step consecutive first-order reaction  Marasinghe, P. A. B.; Wirth, L. M.
In this paper, a general unsophisticated method for the determination of the second-reaction rate constant k2 of a two-step consecutive first-order reaction is described.
Marasinghe, P. A. B.; Wirth, L. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 285.
Rate Law |
Reactions
Competitive and coupled reactions  Spencer, J. N.
The misconception that one reaction, when coupled with another, may be "driven" against its free energy comes from a misunderstanding of the use of thermodynamic parameters to describe kinetic processes.
Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 281.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Matrix formulation of chemical reaction rates: A mathematical chemical exercise  Pogliani, Lionello; Terenzi, Mario
An application of matrix algebra to first-order rate equations is presented here.
Pogliani, Lionello; Terenzi, Mario J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 278.
Chemometrics |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
A new twist to an old favorite: The hydrolysis of tert-butyl chloride.  Turner, J.
The author describes a common kinetics experiment in which NMR spectroscopy is used to study the reaction kinetics rather than a titration.
Turner, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 242.
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions
A demonstration of the SN2 reaction and the effects of structure, leaving group, and solvent  Wright, Stephen W.
This demonstration allows the effects of substrate structure, leaving group, and solvent upon the rate of the SN2 reaction to be demonstrated with a visible color change that indicates the completion of the reaction.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 235.
Reactions |
Rate Law
Do loops in spreadsheets  Sundheim, Benson R.
Four computations (rate equations, convolution, root extraction, and macros) using spreadsheets to do looping that are useful to chemists.
Sundheim, Benson R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A300.
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
Cobaloximes as vehicles for college teaching  Brown, T. M.; Dronsfield, A. T.; Cooksey, C. J.; Crich, D.
Cobaloximes are probably the most accessible and "least nasty" of all organometallic compounds, are highly colored, exhibit unusual oxidation states, demonstrate a vivid nucleophilic attack, and lend themselves to chromatographic investigation without the need for UV light.
Brown, T. M.; Dronsfield, A. T.; Cooksey, C. J.; Crich, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 973.
Coordination Compounds |
Organometallics |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Effects of "crowding" in protein solutions  Ralston, G. B.
The effects of macromolecular nonideality and crowding on chemical equilibria, association reactions, and enzyme kinetics.
Ralston, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 857.
Proteins / Peptides |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Enzymes |
Kinetics
Ants and chemical kinetics  Myers, R. Thomas
Data regarding the speed of ants at various temperatures are amenable to standards treatment on chemical kinetics.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 761.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A simple second-order kinetics experiment  Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim
The reaction studied in this experiment is the (reversible) dimerization of 2,5-dimethyl-3,4-diphenylcyclopentadienone; the monomer is colored while the dimer is not, so monitoring the reaction with a simple spectrophotometer provides the concentration of the monomer and therefore the rate of its disappearance.
Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 707.
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
A kinetic experiment for determination of traces of Cu2+  Lampard, M.
Adaptation of a spot technique used to identify trace amounts of cupric ion by its catalytic effect of the ferric ion / thiosulfate reaction.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 601.
Qualitative Analysis |
Catalysis |
Kinetics
Simple, inexpensive glass reactors for high-temperature aqueous kinetics experiments  Jeffers, Peter M.
The authors have devised methods to make, fill, and seal gas bulbs that have been subsequently heated to 200 degrees Celcius for kinetics studies of hydrolysis reactions.
Jeffers, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 522.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics
A simple method for analyzing first-order kinetics  Borderie, B.; Lavabre, D.; Levy, G.; Micheau, J. C.
The authors describe a new and simple method for accurate determination of the first-order rate constant.
Borderie, B.; Lavabre, D.; Levy, G.; Micheau, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 459.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Wet labs, computers, and spreadsheets  Durham, Bill
The following is a description of some commonly encountered experiments that have been modified for computerized data acquisition.
Durham, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 416.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Electrochemistry
The integration of kinetic rate equations by matrix methods  Berberan-Santos, M. N.; Martinho, J. M. G.
The aim of this paper is to present a general approach based on a matrix formulation of the differential kinetic equations.
Berberan-Santos, M. N.; Martinho, J. M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 375.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The kinetics of isotopic exchange reactions  Logan, S. R.
An isotopic exchange reaction progress toward equilibrium follows an equation comparable to that applicable to many reversible isomerization reactions.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 371.
Kinetics |
Isotopes |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Ferrimyoglobin-fluoride: An undergraduate kinetics experiment  Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.
The authors propose an experiment which concerns the reaction of the protein ferrimyoglobin with fluoride ion, in dilute aqueous solution.
Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 352.
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution: A microscale organic experiment  Avila, Walter B.; Crow, Jeffrey L.; Utermoehlen, Clifford M.
This experiment demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and is also an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry.
Avila, Walter B.; Crow, Jeffrey L.; Utermoehlen, Clifford M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 350.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Carboxylic Acids
Thermal decomposition of a natural manganese dioxide: A laboratory experiment for undergraduate students  Puerta, M. C.; Valerga, P.
This is a very instructive experiment that combines experimental work, theoretical discussion, and literature investigation.
Puerta, M. C.; Valerga, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 344.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermal Analysis |
Solid State Chemistry
Photohydration of pyridine: Modification of an undergraduate kinetics experiment  Morine, Gerald H.
In a previous article in this Journal an undergraduate experiment on photochemical kinetics was presented. This author is offering modifications to the original experiment.
Morine, Gerald H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 266.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Heterocycles
Partitioning ratios and a biochemical kinetic dilemma: The pH dependence of chymotrypsin catalysis  Breslow, Ronald
This example show the attractiveness and ease of the partitioning ratio alternative to the commonly used steady-state method.
Breslow, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 228.
Kinetics |
pH |
Catalysis
Two easy chemical rate experiments   Garver, Emerson E.
One can use the spectrophotometer to investigate the rates of colored chemical reactions in solution.
Garver, Emerson E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 183.
Rate Law |
Spectroscopy
Computer simulation of chemical equilibrium  Cullen, John F., Jr.
108. The "Great Chemical Bead Game" requires no instruments and presents the concepts of equilibrium and kinetics more clearly than an experiment. [October and November Computer Series both inadvertently called number 107. Numbering restored by skipping 109 and calling January 1990 number 110.]
Cullen, John F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1023.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A study of the E2 reaction for the microscale organic lab  Flash, Patrick; Galle, Fred; Radil, Mark
Students determine the pseudo-first-order rate constant for the elimination of HBr from 2-bromobutane and measure the yield and approximate composition of the alkene products, determine the yield of alkenes from 1-bromobutane under the same conditions, and examine the effect of changing solvent polarity on alkene yields for the two halides.
Flash, Patrick; Galle, Fred; Radil, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 958.
Elimination Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Catalysis: New reaction pathways not just a lowering of the activation energy  Haim, Albert
The explanation that the increased rate associated with a catalyzed reaction is the result of a lowering of the activation energy cannot always be correct.
Haim, Albert J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 935.
Catalysis |
Rate Law
The iodine clock reaction: A surprising variant  Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L.
Substituting malonic acid for sulfuric acid.
Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 852.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Kinetics of the fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution  Nicholson, Lois
The fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution can serve as the basis for an experiment illustrating first-order kinetics.
Nicholson, Lois J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 725.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
A dedicated educational expert system coupled to a simulator in chemical kinetics  Cachet, C.; Cabrol, D.; Milleliri, A.
104. Design of a computer-based learning environment that allows students the maximum freedom to design and execute simulated laboratory experiments.
Cachet, C.; Cabrol, D.; Milleliri, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 553.
Kinetics
The formaldehyde-sulfite clock reaction revisited  Warneck, Peter
The purpose of this present note is to discuss the mechanism and the change of pH during the reaction.
Warneck, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 334.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
pH |
Rate Law
Statistical calculation of unimolecular rate constant  Rayez, J. C.; Forst, W.
Over the years, the RRKM theory of unimolecular reactions has continued to represent a useful statistical approach to the microcanonical unimolecular rate constant which measures the rate of decomposition of molecules with specified total energy E.
Rayez, J. C.; Forst, W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 311.
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
Solving differential equations in kinetics by using power series  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
This article describes an approach for solving eq 2, a differential equation that arises in the discussion of a set of consecutive chemical reactions that are outlined in eq 1.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 46.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program  Henderson, John
An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of least-squares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the least-squares calculation.
Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Determination of the relative rates of alkaline hydrolysis of esters by the method of competition  Paredes, Rodrigo; Gil, Jimmy; Ocampo, Pamela
A method is presented for further illustration of the electronic and steric factors in the saponification of selected groups of esters.
Paredes, Rodrigo; Gil, Jimmy; Ocampo, Pamela J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1109.
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics
A conversion of methyl ketones into acetylenes: A project for a problem oriented or microscale organic chemistry course  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Orlando, Steven C.
The authors present their adaptation of an open-ended project on the conversion of methyl ketones into acetylenes for the microscale lab and describe its pedagogic utility.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Orlando, Steven C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 630.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography
Organic lecture demonstrations  Silversmith, Ernest F.
Organic chemistry may not be known for its spectacular, attention getting chemical reactions. Nevertheless, this author describes a few organic chemistry reactions that put points across and generate interest. This article provides a convenient sources of demonstrations and urges others to add to the collection. Demonstrations concerning: carbohydrates, spectroscopy, proteins, amines, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and much more.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 70.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Two working models for the SN2 mechanism  Anderson, Martin M.
Design of an articulated physical model demonstrating the mechanism of the SN2 reaction.
Anderson, Martin M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1023.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Modeling
Comment on the equilibrium assumption in chemical kinetics  Olivieri, Alejandro C.
Addresses a common student question regarding the equilibrium assumption in chemical kinetics.
Olivieri, Alejandro C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1002.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The kinetic rate law for autocatalytic reactions  Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F.
A method for obtaining accurate rate constants for autocatalytic reactions.
Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 925.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A low-cost laboratory experiment using a nephelo-turbidity meter  Das, Ishwar; Das, S. S.; Pushkarna, Anal
Principle of the nephelo-turbidity meter, description of the apparatus, and application to the kinetic study of the decomposition of sodium thiosulfate by mineral acid.
Das, Ishwar; Das, S. S.; Pushkarna, Anal J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 729.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics
Characterizing a tetrahedral intermediate in an acyl transfer reaction: An undergraduate 1H NMR demonstration  Rzepa, Henry S.; Lobo, Ana M.; Marques, M. Matilde; Prabhakar, Sundaresan
A simple experiment involving the detection by 1H NMR spectroscopy of a stable intermediate formed by nucleophilic attack and its characterization as a chiral species.
Rzepa, Henry S.; Lobo, Ana M.; Marques, M. Matilde; Prabhakar, Sundaresan J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 725.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Chirality / Optical Activity
The reactivity selectivity principle: Should it ever be used?  Buncel, Erwin; Wilson, Harold
Applications and failures of the reactivity selectivity principle; quantitative aspects of the reactivity selectivity principle; and rationalization of reactivity selectivity principle failures.
Buncel, Erwin; Wilson, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 475.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Carbocations |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Coupled oscillations  Onwood, D. P.
Demonstrating coupled oscillations using pendulums.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 351.
Kinetics
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Kinetics and mechanism of the iodine azide reaction: A videotaped experiment  Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L.
A clock reaction suitable for videotaping and presenting to a large lecture class of general chemistry for analysis.
Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 271.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Addition of iodine to alkenes: A pseudo-first-, second-, or third-order kinetics experiment  Field, Kurt W.; Wilder, Deborah; Utz, Arthur; Kolb, Kenneth E.
A simple, inexpensive, class-tested experiment for determining the kinetics of iodine addition to various alkenes in several solvents.
Field, Kurt W.; Wilder, Deborah; Utz, Arthur; Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 269.
Alkenes |
Kinetics
Ligand replacement at a square planar metal center: A kinetic experiment for the inorganic chemistry laboratory  Kruger, H.; de Waal, D. J. A.
The ligand triphenyl phosphine is replaced from a rhodium metal center by a series of pyridine derivatives; this system will introduce students to stopped-flow spectrophotometry as a technique to study the kinetics of very fast reactions.
Kruger, H.; de Waal, D. J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 262.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Kinetics |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Kinetics of oxidation of bromcresol green  Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David
Study of the bleaching of bromcresol green by hypochlorite.
Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 81.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Inorganic fireflies - A chemiluminescent clock reaction  Jones, Peter; Frew, Jane E.; Scowen, Nina
Adaptation of a clock reaction to illustrate the application to flow methods in the study of fast reactions and the release of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream in respiration.
Jones, Peter; Frew, Jane E.; Scowen, Nina J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 70.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Determination of reaction stoichiometries by flow injection analysis: A laboratory exercise  Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel
These authors took advantage of the features of Flow Injection Analysis and developed an easy and simple photometric method intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries.
Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 552.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods |
Photochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
The rate laws for reversible reactions  King, Edward L.
The author provides examples of real chemistry as these are often more effective than trying to explain concepts in rate laws through "A plus B equals C plus D" chemistry.
King, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 21.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Doing the dishes: An analogy for use in teaching reaction kinetics  Last, Arthur M.
An analogy between doing dishes and a two-step reaction.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1015.
Kinetics |
Reactions
The esterification of trifluoroacetic acid: An NMR kinetics experiment  Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C.
Procedure to determine pseudo-first-order rate constants for the esterification of trifluoroacetic acid.
Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 911.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Instrumental Methods
The production of oxygen gas: A student catalysis experiment  Onuchukwu, A. I.; Mshelia, P. B.
Synthesizing copper ferrite spinnel and using it as a catalyst in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen; the rate of generation is used to determine the kinetic activity of the catalyst.
Onuchukwu, A. I.; Mshelia, P. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 809.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Kinetics
Windowsill kinetics: A spectrophotometric study of the photochromism of mercury dithizonate  Petersen, Richard L.; Harris, Gaylon L.
Mercury dithizonate undergoes a color change from orange to an intense royal blue upon irradiation with visible light.
Petersen, Richard L.; Harris, Gaylon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 802.
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Coordination Compounds |
Raman Spectroscopy
One run kinetics - A computer program  O'Neill, Richard T.; Lodder, Robert A.; Scheifers, Steven M.
63. A computer program that will analyze the data from one kinetics experiment for 84 different rate laws.
O'Neill, Richard T.; Lodder, Robert A.; Scheifers, Steven M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 791.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The NBS reaction: A simple explanation for the predominance of allylic substitution over olefin addition by bromine at low concentrations  Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.
What factors govern the reaction of Br2 with an alkene to give either allylic substitution or double bond addition?
Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 650.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Alkenes
A simple low-cost device for temperature control in nonisothermic chemical kinetics in solution  Salvador, F.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Tel, L. M.
Design and operation of a temperature controller capable of reproducing a desired temperature / time heating curve.
Salvador, F.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Tel, L. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 613.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The hare and the tortoise: An apocryphal closer look at the famous race with a discussion of running rates and orders  Larsen, Russell D.
Comparing zero-order and first-order rates through analogy.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1046.
Rate Law
Kinetics and mechanism-a games approach  Harsch, Gunther
Using statistical games to simulate and illustrate a variety of chemical kinetics.
Harsch, Gunther J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1039.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Kinetic stability, kinetic control, and descriptive inorganic chemistry  Webb, Michael J.
Examples, demonstrations, and laboratory work involving kinetic stability and kinetic control in inorganic chemistry.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 988.
Kinetics |
Descriptive Chemistry
The emergence of stochastic theories: What are they and why are they special?  Freeman, Gordon R.
Examines the word stochastic and its opposite, deterministic, and points out why stochastic models are receiving new emphasis of late.
Freeman, Gordon R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 944.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A small electronic device for studying chemical kinetics  Prez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L.
Studying rates of reactions with a small electronic device and an oscilloscope overcomes the difficulty students encounter in solving the differential equations describing chemical equilibrium.
Prez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 808.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Thermodynamic changes, kinetics, equilibrium, and LeChatelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
A series of demonstrations in which water in beakers and the flow of water between beakers is used to represent the components of an exothermic chemical reaction and the flow and quantity of thermal energy involved in chemical changes.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 804.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Catalysis of radical chain reactions  Bardsley, W. D.; Failes, R. L.; Hunter, R.; Stimson, V. R.
Examples where "catalysts" enter into reaction in a consistent manner, to increase the rate in one case and decrease it in the other.
Bardsley, W. D.; Failes, R. L.; Hunter, R.; Stimson, V. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 657.
Catalysis |
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Cooking with chemistry  Grosser, Arthur E.
Two demonstrations involving cooking eggs and suggestions for many more examples of cooking that illustrate important principles of chemistry. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 362.
Food Science |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Aromatic substitution reactions: when you've said ortho, meta, and para you haven't said it all  Traynham, James G.
The author presents a range of examples for nucleophilic, electrophilic, and free-radical reactions where the ipso is an important, predominant, or even exclusive site of reaction.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 937.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Free Radicals |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry |
Reactions
Organic lecture demonstrations of common-ion effect, ionizing power of solvents, and first-order reaction kinetics  Danen, Wayne C.; Blecha, Sr. M. Therese
The hydrolysis of tert-butyl chloride is the basis of three demonstrations which each illustrate an important principle of organic chemistry: the common-ion or mass law effect, the effect of changing the ionizing power of a solvent on a solvolysis reaction, and the collecting and plotting of data to illustrate a first-order reaction.
Danen, Wayne C.; Blecha, Sr. M. Therese J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 659.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The mechanism of the formaldehyde clock reaction: Methylene glycol dehydration  Burnett, M. G.
Results of investigation to determine the mechanism of the formaldehyde clock reaction.
Burnett, M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 160.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Amperometric determination of phenol bromination kinetics  Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O.
A laboratory that allows students to explore bromination substitution reactions as examples of important non-aqueous solution kinetics including the role of a catalyst, the relationship between rate laws and mechanisms, and acid-base properties.
Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 823.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions
A statistical note on the time lag method for second-order kinetic rate constants  Schwartz, Lowell M.
A clever method for finding second-order kinetic rate constants by using a time lag method that avoids direct measurement of the end point reading P(infinity) can easily be programmed.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 588.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Some kinetic aspects relevant to contemporary analytical chemistry  Mottola, Horacio A.
Fundamental concepts of kinetics tend to get diluted or ignored in contemporary treatments of the subject.
Mottola, Horacio A. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 399.
Kinetics
Nucleophilic substitution reactions: Modifications and an extension  Newton, T. A.; Warren, H. W.
Modifications to a procedure comparing the reaction of n-butyl and t-butyl alcohol with equimolar amounts of HCl and HBr.
Newton, T. A.; Warren, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 747.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Reactions
A time-lag method for second-order kinetics  Espenson, James H.
Circumvents the need for a reliable endpoint for kinetic investigations of second-order reactions.
Espenson, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 160.
Kinetics
An introductory level kinetics investigation  McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C.
A kinetic study of the hydrolysis of 3-bromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid.
McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 155.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Rossini, William Tell and the iodine clock reaction: A lecture demonstration  Brice, L. K.
The iodine clock reaction is timed to coincide with three portions of the William Tell Overture.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The second year course in inorganic chemistry at the free university of Amsterdam  Bolster, M. W. G.
Includes an outline of the experiments used in the course.
Bolster, M. W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 734.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
The kinetics of running  Larsen, Russell D.
The consideration of running as a rate process has several advantages for a student studying chemical kinetics for the first time.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 651.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A dynamic carbon model capable of showing changes in hybridization  Fountain, K. R.
It is possible to construct a simple dynamic model of a carbon atom that demonstrates the Walden inversion, the SN1 reaction, and when joined with another units like itself demonstrates the full spectrum of elimination reactions.
Fountain, K. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 379.
Molecular Modeling |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions
Salt effects on the hydrolysis of sucrose  Dordick, Robert S.; Clarke, George A.
Under the appropriate conditions, the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose follows pseudo-first order kinetics.
Dordick, Robert S.; Clarke, George A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 352.
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Kinetics
The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl beta-gIucoside: An undergraduate experiment on the effect of temperature on reaction rate  Schram, Alfred. C.
The intensely colored p-nitrophenolate ion formed during basic hydrolysis allows a quick and convenient determination of the amount of product formed.
Schram, Alfred. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 351.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A few chemical magic tricks based on the clock reaction  Shigematsu, Euchi
Three tricks based on the clock reaction involving KIO3 and NaHSO3.
Shigematsu, Euchi J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 184.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Rates of reaction - Analogies  Smith, Douglas D.
Demonstrations of / analogies for zero- and first-order reactions.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 47.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Participatory lecture demonstrations  Battino, Rubin
Examples of participatory lecture demonstrations in chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, the kinetic-molecular theory, Henry's law, electronic energy levels in atoms, translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of molecules, and organic chemistry.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 39.
Chromatography |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Phase transfer catalysis. Part II: Synthetic applications  Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P.
In this month's continuation of an article, the authors have catalogued a number of illustrative examples so that the range of applicability of phase transfer catalysis will be.
Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 429.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Organometallics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkylation
Project for problem-oriented undergraduate organic or integrated undergraduate laboratory  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.
This paper reports on an open-ended project which allows a great degree of flexibility in the laboratory. The project provided about a 6-week study for groups of 24 students each.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 57.
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Addition Reactions |
MO Theory |
Elimination Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Nucleophilic substitution by phase transfer catalysis  Reeves, W. Preston; White, Mitchell R.; Bier, Deana
The preparation of alkyl thiocyanates to be an excellent and versatile experiment for first year organic students.
Reeves, W. Preston; White, Mitchell R.; Bier, Deana J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 56.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Catalysis
Approach to teaching some of the principles of environmental chemistry  Klehr, Edwin H.
Indicates how a few concepts from systems analysis can be used to integrate some of the principles of environmental chemistry.
Klehr, Edwin H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 658.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Kinetics
Cycloamyloses  Bergeron, Raymond J.
Examines an unusual carbohydrate system of current interest in the hope of generating some enthusiasm for the topic.
Bergeron, Raymond J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 204.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
The Old Nassau reaction  Alyea, Hubert N.
A description of the chemistry and history of the Old Nassau reactions.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 167.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Computer programs for evaluating luminescence decay times  Wyker, A. T.; Demas, J. N.
To computer programs LUMEN and DECAY are written in Basic and are available for evaluating luminescence decay times.
Wyker, A. T.; Demas, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 656.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Two examples of programmed learning in inorganic chemistry  Kaufmann-Goetz, H.; Kaufmann, G.
This paper looks to described a program allowing students in inorganic chemistry to learn individually and requiring them to reflect and participate. They go on to demonstration a simulation of the kinetic study of a chemical reaction.
Kaufmann-Goetz, H.; Kaufmann, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 179.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
212-215. Four questions requiring applications of chemistry and their solutions.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 727.
Rate Law |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Collision and transition state theory approaches to acid-base catalysis  Dunford, H. B.
Shows that the description of acid-catalyzed chemical reactions in terms of transition state acid dissociation constants is formally equivalent to the collision theory approach, in which dissociation constants of acid groups on initial reactants are utilized.
Dunford, H. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 578.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Fading of bromophenol blue. A combined synthesis and spectrophotometric kinetics experiment  Winans, Randall; Brown, Charles Allan
An experimental sequence involving the synthesis of phenosulfonphthalein, bromination of this to give bromophenol blue, and study of the fading of the latter in a strongly alkaline medium.
Winans, Randall; Brown, Charles Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 526.
Dyes / Pigments |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemiluminescence. An illuminating experiment  Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.
Examines the bright chemiluminescenct reaction between trisbipyridalruthenium(III) and sodium borohydride.
Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 480.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
A molecular model for SN2 reactions  Newman, Melvin S.
Plan for a homemade mechanical model designed to demonstrate many of the features of SN2 reactions.
Newman, Melvin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 462.
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
Capillary flow. A versatile analog for chemical kinetics  Davenport, Derek A.
A number of novel ways in which capillary flow can be used as a mechanical analog for chemical kinetics.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 379.
Kinetics
A simple lecture demonstration of aromatic nucleophilic substitution  Smith, N. H. P.
Colors produced when various aromatic substrates are attacked by various nucleophiles (DMF, DMSO, EtOH).
Smith, N. H. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 238.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Kinetics simulation program  Breneman, G. L.
A Basic program that simulates the spectrophotometric study of a reaction and allows the determination of rate law values from absorbance data.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 106.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The remarkable reactivity of aryl halides with nucleophiles   Bunnett, Joseph F.
Nucleophilic attack on carbon; nucleophilic attack on hydrogen; aryl formation by halide ion loss from o-halophenyl anions; nucleophilic attack on halogen; acceptance of an electron, and its consequences.
Bunnett, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 312.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Reactions
Heterogeneous catalysis: Resin-catalyzed saponification of methyl acetate  Nieto, Alberto
An experiment designed to illustrate a heterogeneous catalyzed reaction with a soluble acid.
Nieto, Alberto J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 846.
Catalysis |
Kinetics
Polymerization as a model chain reaction  Morton, Maurice
The building of long chain macromolecules offers the best opportunity for the study of chain reactions and the free radical mechanism.
Morton, Maurice J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 740.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
SN1 and SN2 reactions: Paper marionette for demonstration  Sone, Yachiyo; Sone, Kozo
Describes the construction of a paper marionette for demonstrating SN1 and SN2 reactions.
Sone, Yachiyo; Sone, Kozo J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 615.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Molecular Modeling
A stabilized linear direct reading conductance apparatus. The solvolysis of t-butyl chloride  Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M.
A simple ac conductivity apparatus for experiments in chemical kinetics is described; the instrument is sufficiently reliable that it can be used by first year students and assembled in a few hours.
Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
An oscillating iodine clock  Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C.
An oscillating iodine clock reaction that gives striking cyclic changes from colorless to gold to blue using simple reagents.
Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 496.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Cooking Succulent Roasts  Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle
Allowing a roast to gradually warm to the desired internal temperature produces superior results.
Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Applications of Chemistry
Cooking Succulent Roasts  Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle
Allowing a roast to gradually warm to the desired internal temperature produces superior results.
Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Applications of Chemistry
The definition of the rate of a chemical reaction  Canagaratna, S. G.
Most texts take it as obvious that the rate of a reaction may be defined in terms of changes in concentration; this definition is valid only if the reaction takes place without change of volume.
Canagaratna, S. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 200.
Rate Law |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
The bombardier beetle  Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L.
The chemistry behind the bombardier beetle's chemical defenses illustrates the principles of reaction rates, catalysis, and laboratory safety.
Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 705.
Applications of Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds
Experimental illustration of chemical principles in organic chemistry lectures  Haberfield, Paul
Lists a series of demonstrations used in the second semester of a one year organic chemistry course.
Haberfield, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 702.
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Pseudo first-order kinetics  Corbett, John F.
A kinetic study of second-order reactions under first-order conditions can yield accurate second-order rate constants provided an empirical allowance is made for the depletion of the reactant in excess.
Corbett, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 663.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Passage of fruit flies through a hole. A model for a reversible chemical reaction  Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf
The passage of fruit flies through a single orifice provides an excellent model for illustrating the principles of equilibrium and chemical dynamics; the results are found to be temperature dependent and reproducible.
Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 534.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Acid and base catalyzed isomerization of 5-cholesten-3-one. An experiment in UV/kinetics  Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A.
This experiment is designed to introduce the student to the principles of ultraviolet spectroscopy and point out its application to following the rate of a chemical change; the experiment also clearly demonstrates that a conjugated system is thermodynamically more stable than a nonconjugated system.
Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 373.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Reactivity ratios from copolymerization kinetics. A quantitative gas-liquid chromatography experiment  Mukatis, W. A.; Ohl, Temple
Gas-liquid chromatography is used to follow the rate of disappearance of two monomers as they polymerize.
Mukatis, W. A.; Ohl, Temple J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 367.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Nucleophilic substitution reactions at secondary carbon atoms. A modification of accepted views  Raber, Douglas J.; Harris, J. Milton
Considers reaction mechanisms that are intermediate between SN1 and SN2 and the possible role of ion pairs.
Raber, Douglas J.; Harris, J. Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 60.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A demonstration of enzyme activity for the "Sceptical Chymist"  Fried, Rainer; Howse, Margaret
A simple laboratory or demonstration that illustrates the nature and fundamental properties of enzymes through a color change.
Fried, Rainer; Howse, Margaret J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 847.
Enzymes |
Rate Law
Reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry. Concerted reactions  Caserio, Marjorie C.
Examines displacement and elimination, cyclization, and rearrangement reactions, as well as theoretical considerations and generalized selection rules.
Caserio, Marjorie C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 782.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions
Relative reactivates in free radical systems. An organic chemistry experiment  Hutchinson, Mary Jane; Mosha, Melvyn W.
An organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates the importance of reaction rates.
Hutchinson, Mary Jane; Mosha, Melvyn W. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 629.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Free-radical bromination of p-toluic acid. An experiment in organic chemistry  Tuleen, D. L.; Hess, B. A., Jr.
This paper describes the synthesis of a-bromo-p-toluic acid (II) and the subsequent displacement of bromide ion by three nucleophiles.
Tuleen, D. L.; Hess, B. A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 476.
Free Radicals |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Kinetic versus thermodynamic control. An organic chemistry experiment  McGrew, LeRoy A.; Kruger, T. L.
The authors report an experiment which does not involve the competition of different starting materials for a common reagent, but rather one in which a kinetically-controlled and a thermodynamically-controlled products may be obtained from exactly the same starting materials. The experiment has the added advantage of illustrating certain principles of the use of infrared and ultraviolet spectra for the identification of compounds of similar structures.
McGrew, LeRoy A.; Kruger, T. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 400.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Mechanistic implications and ambiguities in rate laws  Birk, James P.
Uses electrical analogs to reaction rates and presents a series of reactions that illustrate different mechanistic patterns.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 805.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Fast reactions: Rapid mixing and concentration jump experiments  Patel, Ramesh C.; Atkinson, Gordon; Boe, R. J.
Describes three experiments: the rate determination of dehydration of carbonic acid, the concentration jump experiment on carbonic acid, and the concentration jump experiment on pyruvic acid.
Patel, Ramesh C.; Atkinson, Gordon; Boe, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 800.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Kinetics as an introductory course  Beatty, James W.; Powers, Jack W.; Scamehorn, Richard G.
Describes an introductory course entitled "Reaction Kinetics and the Mechanisms of Reactions."
Beatty, James W.; Powers, Jack W.; Scamehorn, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 797.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Hydrolysis of benzenediazonium ion  Sheats, John E.; Harbison, Kenneth G.
Presents a more convenient approach to studying the kinetics of the hydrolysis of benzenediazonium ion.
Sheats, John E.; Harbison, Kenneth G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 779.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics
Donor-acceptor interactions in organic chemistry  Sunderwirth, S. G.
The purpose of this article is to aid teachers in making even more effective use of theoretical considerations in teaching organic chemistry; the primary objective is to emphasize the underlying principles that are common to the following four basic types of reactions: substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangement.
Sunderwirth, S. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 728.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Nucleophilic reactivities of the halide anions  Puar, Mohindar S.
Ranks the nucleophilic reactivities of free halide ions in various solvents.
Puar, Mohindar S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 473.
Nucleophilic Substitution
A model to demonstrate the Walden inversion  Hamon, D. P. G.
Presents the design of a model capable of illustrating the Walden inversion.
Hamon, D. P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 398.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Reactions
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Definition of reaction rate and the steady state assumption  Rasiel, Yecheskel; Freeman, Wade A.
Clarifies the definition of reaction rate and the steady state assumption.
Rasiel, Yecheskel; Freeman, Wade A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 159.
Rate Law |
Reactions
An experiment to illustrate nucleophilic aromatic substitution and tautomerism  Farmer, J. L.; Haws, E. J.
Students hydrolyze 2-chloropyridine and then examine the tautomeric mixture produced using infrared spectroscopy.
Farmer, J. L.; Haws, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 41.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
Correlation of composition of acid solutions with activity and acidity functions  O'Connor, Charmian J.
Presents correlation tables of percentage composition with molarity, molality, activity coefficient, water activity, and Hammett Acidity function for aqueous solutions of hydrochloric, perchloric, phosphoric, and sulfuric acids.
O'Connor, Charmian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 686.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Kinetics
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A.
(1) When is the rule valid that the rate of reaction approximately doubles with a ten-degree temperature rise? - answer by House. (2) On the colors of transition metal complexes. (3) On an electrolysis experiment in which an acid solution is used to minimize the hydrolysis of Cu 2+. - answer by Campbell.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 674.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Transition Elements |
Coordination Compounds |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases
Resolution and stereochemistry of asymmetric silicon, germanium, tin, and lead compounds  Belloli, Robert
It is the purpose of this review to summarize the results of stereochemical studies on compounds containing an asymmetric group IVA atom.
Belloli, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 640.
Stereochemistry |
Organometallics |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Encounters and slow reactions  Langford, Copper H.
This paper reviews the formation of a metal ion and a ligand in a mechanistic language, as much derived from the collision theory as from transition state theory.
Langford, Copper H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 557.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Coordination Compounds |
Solutions / Solvents
The principle of exponential change: Applications in chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity  Green, Frank O.
Examines the nature of exponential change and its applications to chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity, including radioactive decay, enzyme kinetics, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, and first order reaction kinetics.
Green, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 451.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
Hydrolysis of group IV chlorides: A laboratory experiment  Yoder, Claude H.
This experiment involves the determination of the relative extent and rates as well as the products of the hydrolyses of trimethylchlorosilane and trimethylchloromethane.
Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 382.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Kinetics of fast brominations: A potentiometric study  Burgess, A. E.; Latham, J. L.
Demonstrates that the kinetics of fast reactions such as the bromination of phenols in aqueous solution are easily determined by a simple potentiometric technique.
Burgess, A. E.; Latham, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 370.
Kinetics |
Electrochemistry |
Rate Law
Kinetic rate equations  Ganesen, L. R.
Illustrates the integration of a kinetic rate equation.
Ganesen, L. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 226.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Chemometrics
Preparation of p-anisole: An organic chemistry experiment  Smith, Richard F.; Bates, Alvin C.
In this experiment, p-anisaldehyde is converted to p-anisonitrile by a modification of the three-step aldehyde-nitrile synthesis of Smith and Walker.
Smith, Richard F.; Bates, Alvin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 174.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Catalysis
Kinetics of condensation polymerization: Preparation of a polyester  McCaffery, Edward L.
This experiment involves determining the reaction-rate constant for a condensation polymerization.
McCaffery, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 59.
Kinetics |
Polymerization |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Rate Law
The thermal decomposition of 2,5-dihydrofuran vapor: An experiment in gas kinetics  Rubin, Jay A.; Filseth, Stephen V.
Describes an experiment designed to illustrate manipulations with a vacuum system and the conduct of kinetic measurements.
Rubin, Jay A.; Filseth, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 57.
Kinetics |
Gases
Kinetics of Chemical Processes (Boudart, Michel)  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 814.
Kinetics
The kinetics of oxidation-reduction reactions: An alternate derivation of Marcus' cross relation  Newton, T. W.
The purpose of this article is to show how Marcus' cross relation can be derived from a simple, essentially mechanical model.
Newton, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 571.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Probabilistic derivation of the kinetic rate equations  Lee, Tieh-Sheng; Kuffner, Roy J.
The use of the probabilistic approach is readily applicable to reaction kinetics if one considers the probability of the survival of the reactant molecule instead of the survival of a radioactive nucleus.
Lee, Tieh-Sheng; Kuffner, Roy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 430.
Kinetics
Bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reactions  Edwards, John O.
The bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reaction is important and should be included in any detailed discussion of kinetics and mechanism at an early undergraduate level.
Edwards, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 386.
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
From stoichiometry and rate law to mechanism  Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John
Examines the rules used by chemists as guidelines in developing mechanisms from stoichiometric and rate law observations.
Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 381.
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Reactive Intermediates
Chemical reaction cross sections and rate constants  Kuppermann, A.; Greene, E. F.
Examines bimolecular collisions in a gas and the collision cross section; reaction rates and cross sections for chemical reactions; calculations of reaction cross sections; and experimental methods for the determination of reaction cross sections.
Kuppermann, A.; Greene, E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 361.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Recent developments in theoretical chemical kinetics  Marcus, R. A.
Examines some of the recent experiments, topics, and questions in theoretical kinetics.
Marcus, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 356.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Kinetics
Chromic acid oxidation of alcohols: A simple experiment on reaction rates  Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G.
In this experiment, students determine the relative rates of oxidation by adding quantities of several different alcohols to a solution of chromium(VI) in dilute sulfuric acid and visually monitoring the course of the reaction.
Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 269.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Instantaneous precipitation from homogeneous solution  Hiskey, C. F.; Cantwell, F. F.
Procedure for the iodine clock reaction.
Hiskey, C. F.; Cantwell, F. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A727.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics
Chemical kinetics; The metalloids; The noble gases (Harris, Gordon M.; Rochow, Eugene G.; Claassen, Howard H.)  Birdwhistell, R. K.

Birdwhistell, R. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A663.
Kinetics |
Metalloids / Semimetals |
Gases |
Nonmetals
Reaction Rates and Equilibria A. Rate of Reaction 1. Effect of concentration  Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction include H2O2+Cu(NH3)4++, Zn+acid, and the "long delay" iodine clock reaction.
Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A274.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Reaction rate analysis and instrumentation: An experiment for the analytical laboratory  Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Jones, David O.
This experiment exemplifies the use of operational amplifiers for measurement and analog computation in determining the glucose utilizing glucose enzyme.
Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Jones, David O. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 684.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates
Unimolecular gas reactions at low pressures  Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta
Discusses potential student confusion regarding the kinetics of unimolecular gas reactions at low pressures.
Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 605.
Gases |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Substitution reactions in octahedral complexes  Banerjea, D.
Commentary on the cited article by one of the authors that article referenced.
Banerjea, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 485.
Coordination Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Kinetics of inorganic reactions (Sykes, A. G.)  Duke, Frederick R.

Duke, Frederick R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 374.
Kinetics
Analytical chemistry: A kinetic viewpoint. A new approach to undergraduate instruction  Rechnitz, Garry A.
Identifies analytical topics and laboratory experiments suited to consideration from a kinetic perspective.
Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 317.
Kinetics
Alcohols to alkyl halides: A kinetics experiment for elementary chemistry courses  Cooley, J. H.; McCown, J. D.; Shill, R. M.
The rate measurement in this procedure is accomplished by direct observation of the change in length or volume of the insoluble layer of an alkyl bromide that is formed from a mixture of alcohol, hydrobromic acid, and sulfuric acid.
Cooley, J. H.; McCown, J. D.; Shill, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 280.
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Determination of glucose: A kinetics experiment for the analytical course  Toren, E. Clifford, Jr.
This determination of glucose demonstrates both kinetic and enzymatic methods of analysis.
Toren, E. Clifford, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 172.
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Teaching aromatic substitution: A molecular orbital approach  Meislich, Herbert
This paper presents a way of teaching aromatic substitution using the concepts of alternate polarity and electron delocalization through extended pi-bonding.
Meislich, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 153.
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Substitution reactions in octahedral complexes  Jones, G. R. H.
Examines the possibility of direct substitution, in aqueous solution, of a ligand in an octahedral complex by a nucleophile other than water or OH-.
Jones, G. R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 657.
Coordination Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Systems for automatic direct readout of rate data  Malmstadt, H. V.; Crouch, S. R.
Presents three systems for rate measurements that are based on comparison measurement principles.
Malmstadt, H. V.; Crouch, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 340.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Rate Law
Bromination of alkanes: Experiment illustrating relative reactivities and synthetic utility  Warkentin, J.
The radical halogenation of alkanes lend themselves well to the teaching of basic material such as bond dissociation energies, potential energy profiles, enthalpy of reaction, activation energy, and reaction rate.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 331.
Electrochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
Versatile magnetic stirrer and flexible coupler  Warkentin, J.
Describes a versatile magnetic stirrer and flexible coupler connected to a vacuum line that can be used to determine reaction rates by monitoring gas volume as a function of time.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 265.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry. I. The experimental approach  Caserio, Marjorie C.
Reviews a variety of method that may be employed to determine the mechanism of organic reactions.
Caserio, Marjorie C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 570.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Kinetics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Addition Reactions |
Elimination Reactions
Device for measuring instantaneous rates of gas-evolving reactions  Steiner, Edwin C.; Hartzell, Gordon E.
Presents a device for measuring instantaneous rates of gas-evolving reactions that relies on a hypodermic syringe capable of responding to extremely small pressure changes.
Steiner, Edwin C.; Hartzell, Gordon E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 559.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Formation of the chromium-EDTA complex: An undergraduate kinetics experiment  Hedrick, C. E.
The formation of the chromium-EDTA complex serves as the basis for a kinetics experiment in analytical chemistry.
Hedrick, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 479.
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Applying a steady state approach to polarography  Mason, John G.
The application of a simple steady-state rate treatment requires very little mathematics and offers much insight into polargraphic processes in particular and electrochemical processes in general.
Mason, John G. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 333.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Definition of variable-volume and constant-volume reaction rates  Peters, Max S.; Skorpinski, Edward J.
Examines disagreements regarding the fundamental definition of the reaction-rate expressions.
Peters, Max S.; Skorpinski, Edward J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 329.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Kinetics of corrosion of metals  Habashi, Fathi
It is the purpose of this paper to report that all corrosion processes that produce no insoluble end products and evolve hydrogen follow a single kinetic law.
Habashi, Fathi J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 318.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
Introduction to computer use: Programs for first order rate constants  Casanova, Joseph, Jr.; Weaver, E. R.
This article presents a simple but versatile computer program for the calculation of first order and pseudo-first order rate constants and least squares.
Casanova, Joseph, Jr.; Weaver, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 137.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
A simple model for the SN2 mechanism.  Nyquist, H. LeRoy
Presents a simple, physical model for the SN2 mechanism.
Nyquist, H. LeRoy J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 103.
Molecular Modeling |
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone  King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth
Presents a new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone.
King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A139.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Infrared spectrometry to study second order reaction kinetics  Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y.
The change studied is a synthesis reaction between menthol and phenyl isocyanate.
Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 613.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
The hydration of carbon dioxide: A double clock experiment  Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L.
This extension of the "Soda Water Clock" experiment provides a quantitative kinetics investigation.
Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 610.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstration of a parent-daughter radioactive equilibrium using 137Cs-137mBa  Choppin, Gregory R.; Nealy, Carson L.
Demonstrates the relationship between radioactive half life and both the rate of decay and growth of a radioactive daughter.
Choppin, Gregory R.; Nealy, Carson L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 598.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
An NMR demonstration of isotopic exchange  Lapidot, Aviva; Reuben, Jack; Samuel, David
Hydracrylonitrile (beta-hydroxypropionitrile) is used in a simple NMR experiment to demonstrate the isotopic exchange of deuterium.
Lapidot, Aviva; Reuben, Jack; Samuel, David J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 570.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A simple kinetic investigation of an organic reaction mechanism  Landgrebe, John A.
This kinetic experiment allows the student to determine what factors affect the rate of a reaction and how this information can be rationalized in terms of a logical sequence of molecular events.
Landgrebe, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 567.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion  Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H.
Presents the oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion as an ideal reaction to study as part of an experiment on kinetics.
Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 549.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Rates and equilibria of organic reactions (Leffler, John E.; Grunwald, Ernest)  Pilar, Frank L.

Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 407.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Nucleophlic substitution at a saturated carbon atom; Elimination reactions (Bunton, C. A.; Banthorpe, D. V.)  Bunnett, Joseph F.

Bunnett, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 406.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A pseudo first-order-second-order kinetics experiment: An illustration of the Guggenheim method  Ahmad, Mushlaq; Hamer, Jan
The rate of one of the typical reactions of the aromatic nitroso group is determined spectrophotometrically employing the Guggenheim method.
Ahmad, Mushlaq; Hamer, Jan J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 249.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aromatic Compounds |
Spectroscopy
A second order kinetics experiment  Teerlink, Wilford J.; Asay, Jeanette; Sugihara, James M.
Investigates the nucleophilic displacement reaction of ethyl p-toluenesulfonate by iodide in acetone.
Teerlink, Wilford J.; Asay, Jeanette; Sugihara, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 161.
Kinetics |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Nucleophilic reactions at trigonally bonded carbon  Cash, R. Vincent
Examines the mechanisms of nucleophilic displacement reactions, nucleophilic addition reactions, and nucleophilic addition with elimination, all at trigonally bonded carbon.
Cash, R. Vincent J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 108.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Elimination Reactions
Colorimetric chemical kinetics experiment  Corsaro, Gerald
This article describes an experiment in which a photocolorimetric technique is employed to follow a bimolecular reaction rate; the reactants are crystal violet and the hydroxide ion.
Corsaro, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 48.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
An amperometric-kinetic experiment emphasizing the importance of error treatment  Young, J. A.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Young, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Kinetics for the undergraduate: Introduction  King, Edward L.
Introduces the ACS symposium entitled "Kinetics in the Undergraduate Curriculum."
King, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 573.
Kinetics
Chemical kinetics in laboratory and classroom  Connick, Robert E.
Reviews laboratory experiments and lecture topics regarding kinetics presented in an undergraduate laboratory course on inorganic chemistry.
Connick, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 587.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
KineticsEarly and often  Campbell, J. A.
Describes an approach to investigating kinetics and its application to the "blue bottle" experiment.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 578.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Concepts of time in chemistry  Benfey, O. T.
Examines concepts of time and the presentation of kinetics in the curriculum at Earlham College.
Benfey, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 574.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Modern chemical kinetics (Eyring, Henry; Eyring, Edward M.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 498.
Kinetics
Flowing clock reactions  Haggett, M. L.; Jones, Peter; Oldham, K. B.
Describes an apparatus and its application to the study of the iodine and formaldehyde clock reactions.
Haggett, M. L.; Jones, Peter; Oldham, K. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 367.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The theory of the formaldehyde clock reaction  Jones, P.; Oldham, K. B.
Presents a theory for the formaldehyde clock reaction.
Jones, P.; Oldham, K. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 366.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Method for determining order of a reaction  Zimmerman, Howard K.
The method presented here is a substitution process that expresses various rate laws in terms of one initial concentration only.
Zimmerman, Howard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 356.
Kinetics
Letters to the editor  Arotsky, J.
Points out evidence against iodine cations existing in aqueous media.
Arotsky, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 270.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters to the editor  O'Ferrall, R. A. More; Miller, Sidney I.
Elaborates on the errors involved in the calculation of rate constants.
O'Ferrall, R. A. More; Miller, Sidney I. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 269.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Chemometrics
Multicenter and assisted mechanistic pathways in the reactions of organometallic compounds  Dessy, Raymond E.; Paulik, Frank
Examines a variety of nucleophilic and electrophilic, multicenter and assisted mechanistic pathways in the reactions of organometallic compounds.
Dessy, Raymond E.; Paulik, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 185.
Organometallics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Electrophilic Substitution
Kinetics in the study of organic reaction mechanisms  DeWolfe, Robert H.
Examines the question: What are some of the things that can, and cannot, be learned about a reaction by studying its kinetics?
DeWolfe, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 95.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Determining second order rate constants  Tobey, Stephen W.
Derives a method for determining second order rate constants that eliminates some of the restrictions of earlier methods and allows second order rate constants to be calculated from physical measurements in the absence of zero and infinite-time readings.
Tobey, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 473.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
Reaction kinetics from conductivity data: An apparatus for the student laboratory  Greenberg, David B.
In this paper a conductivity experiment in chemical reaction kinetics is described using an indicating type electrical instrument of simple circuit design.
Greenberg, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 140.
Conductivity |
Kinetics
Ratio errors in pseudo first order reactions  Sicilio, F.; Peterson, M. D.
Examines ratio errors in pseudo first order reactions.
Sicilio, F.; Peterson, M. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 576.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Rate Law
Nomographs for first and second order kinetics  Smith, S. G.; Stevens, I. D. R.
Presents a series of nomographs for first and second order kinetics.
Smith, S. G.; Stevens, I. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 574.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Crystal field theory and substitution reactions of metal ions  Pearson, Ralph G.
This article illustrates crystal field theory in studying substitution reactions of compounds of the metal ions.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 164.
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Metals |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A constant temperature reaction vessel for the thermal decomposition of solids  Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J.
Describes an apparatus suitable for studying the thermal decomposition of potassium permanganate in high vacuum.
Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 643.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Determination of reaction rates with an A.C. conductivity bridge: A student experiment  Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, A., Jr.
Describes a quantitative experiment in chemical kinetics suitable for advanced freshmen or physical chemistry; it involves a study of the solvolysis of tertiary butyl chloride by means of conductance measurements.
Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 242.
Conductivity |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The role of kinetics in teaching inorganic chemistry  Taube, Henry
The recommendation that is made in this paper for treating rate phenomena as an integral part of the course work in descriptive inorganic chemistry should be considered in the context of the philosophy of the entire course.
Taube, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 451.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Use of radioisotopes in the college chemistry laboratory  Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H.
Provides experiments and experiences working with constructed Geiger counters and radioisotopes.
Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 133.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Kinetics
The stability of solutions for the iodine clock reaction  Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R.
The results of attempts to stabilize solutions needed for the iodine clock reaction to allow long-term storage.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 577.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
On the second order rate equation  Said, Abdel S.
Presents a derivation of the rate equation of a second order reaction.
Said, Abdel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 251.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Chemometrics
Model of a potential energy surface  Dye, J. L.
Describes a physical, three-dimensional model of the potential energy surface for HBr.
Dye, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 215.
Kinetics |
Reactive Intermediates |
Reactions
A simple kinetic model for single and consecutive first order reactions  Kahn, Milton
It is the purpose of this paper to describe an experiment whereby the validity of several kinetic relationships can be demonstrated without resorting to radioactive materials or actual chemical experimentation.
Kahn, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 148.
Kinetics |
Gases |
Equilibrium
A graphical method for determining the order of homogeneous reactions  Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James
Provides a review of classical kinetics, derivation of the reaction order equation, and the determination of reaction order using a graph provided.
Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 542.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Textbook errors: VII. The laws of reaction rates and of equilibrium  Mysels, Karol J.
Examines the frequently misplaced emphasis on the rate law of mass action, its fallacious use to prove the existence and form of equilibrium constants, and the occasional confusion of the two concepts.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 178.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Aromatic substitution by free radicals  Nelson, Peter F.
This article summarizes recent investigations upon orientation and reaction rates with respect to homolytic substitution.
Nelson, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 606.
Free Radicals |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nucleophilic substitution in aromatic systems  Gillis, Richard G.
Classifies and examines various categories of nucleophilic substitution in aromatic systems.
Gillis, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 296.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
Introducing stereoisomerism  Schreiber, Kurt C.
Criticizes the traditional presentation of stereochemistry in isolation and offers a more integrated approach.
Schreiber, Kurt C. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 83.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution
A kinetic analogy  Lemlich, Robert
This analogy, which clearly demonstrates the principles involved in a first-order reaction, is based on Poiseuille's law for the viscous flow of fluids.
Lemlich, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 431.
Kinetics
An electronic interval marker  Marion, Alexander P.
The device described here provides a tone impulse at a rate variable from 30 to 120 per minute and an additional characteristic signal for submultiples within a range of 5 to 15 per minute.
Marion, Alexander P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 252.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics
Coulomb's law and the qualitative interpretation of reaction rates  Amis, Edward S.
Summarizes the effect upon the rate of reaction between like and unlike charged species in solution due to an increase and decrease in total ion concentration and an increase and decrease in the dielectric constant; also offers demonstrations of these effects.
Amis, Edward S. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 635.
Rate Law |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics
A clock reaction  Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot
Ferrous ions in an alkaline solution of a tartrate form of a soluble chelate complex that reacts sluggishly with iodine.
Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 386.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry