TIGER

Journal Articles: 227 results
Easy-To-Make Cryophoruses  Rubin Battino and Trevor M. Letcher
This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels.
Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 561.
Lipids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids
Calculating and Visualizing Thermodynamic Equilibrium  João Paulo M. Ferreira
This article demonstrates that classical equilibrium thermodynamics is unable to predict the equilibrium state of an isolated composite system with a movable internal adiabatic wall unless supplemented with information about the process taking place. It also offers some simple methods for estimating the constrained equilibrium point.
Ferreira, João Paulo M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1834.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Determination of Solvent Effects on Keto—Enol Equilibria of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds Using NMR  A. Gilbert Cook and Paul M. Feltman
Expands the classic physical chemistry experiment using of proton NMR to determine the equilibrium position of tautomeric 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in various solvents.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Feltman, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Equilibrium |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Probing the Rate-Determining Step of the Claisen–Schmidt Condensation by Competition Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Wing-Fat Chan, Ka-Ying Lung, Wai-Yee Lam, Weng-Cheong Ng, and Siu-Fung Lee
This article describes a physical organic experiment to identify the rate-determining step of the ClaisenSchmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and acetophenone by studying the linear free energy relationship.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Chan, Wing-Fat; Lung, Ka-Ying; Lam, Wai-Yee; Ng, Weng-Cheong; Lee, Siu-Fung. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1819.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gas Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Control of Chemical Equilibrium by Solvent: A Basis for Teaching Physical Chemistry of Solutions  Oleg V. Prezhdo, Colleen F. Craig, Yuriy Fialkov, and Victor V. Prezhdo
The mechanisms by which solvent can be used to control chemical equilibria are analyzed from a thermodynamic perspective and illustrated with several examples. The solvent effect is described in terms of universal- and specific-solvation components, and the practical and pedagogical means of separating these components are discussed.
Prezhdo, Oleg V.; Craig, Colleen F.; Fialkov, Yuriy; Prezhdo, Victor V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1348.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Mass-Elastic Band Thermodynamics: A Visual Teaching Aid at the Introductory Level  William C. Galley
Demonstrations of five spontaneous isothermal processes involving the coupling of a mass and elastic band and arising from combinations of enthalpy and entropy changes are presented and then dissected. Analogies are drawn between these processes and common spontaneous molecular events such as chemical reactions and phase transitions.
Galley, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1147.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Conversion of Chemical Reaction Energy into Useful Work in the Van't Hoff Equilibrium Box  N. M. Bazhin and V. N. Parmon
The production of useful work by means of the ideal "van't Hoff equilibrium box" is considered in detail. It is shown that useful work arises according to the scheme reaction energy ? heat ? useful work without violation of the second law of thermodynamics.
Bazhin, N. M.; Parmon, V. N. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1053.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Peer-Developed and Peer-Led Labs in General Chemistry  Lorena Tribe and Kim Kostka
Describes a student-developed and led laboratory curriculum as a model for producing a more student-centered and rich laboratory experience in general chemistry laboratories.
Tribe, Lorena; Kostka, Kim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1031.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
"Mysteries" of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics  Rubin Battino
Over the years the subject of thermodynamics has taken on an aura of difficulty, subtlety, and mystery. This article discusses common misconceptions and how to introduce the topic to students.
Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Effect of a Perturbation on the Chemical Equilibrium: Comparison with Le Châtelier's Principle  Emilio Martínez Torres
This article develops a general thermodynamic treatment to predict the direction of shift in a chemical equilibrium when it is subjected to a stress. This treatment gives an inequality that relates the change in the perturbed variable and the change that the equilibrium shift produces in the conjugated variable.
Torres, Emilio Martínez. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 516.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Geometry and Thermodynamics: Exploring the Internal Energy Landscape  A. P. Hantsaridou and H. M. Polatoglou
This article examines the way undergraduate students of thermodynamics study the ideal gas case and handle its fundamental functions by using geometric objects like surfaces and common computer software. The results indicate that students find the graphical method of elaborating a fundamental function of a system efficient and easy to use.
Hantsaridou, A. P.; Polatoglou, H. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1082.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Semiempirical and DFT Investigations of the Dissociation of Alkyl Halides  Jack R. Waas
Enthalpy changes corresponding to the gas phase heats of dissociation of 12 organic halides were calculated using two semiempirical methods, the HartreeFock method, and two DFT methods. All five methods agreed generally with the expected empirically known trends in the dissociation of alkyl halides.
Waas, Jack R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1017.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Computational Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Modeling |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
No "Driving Forces" in General Chemistry  Evguenii I. Kozliak
A simple and easy-to-remember explanation, that precipitation of a solid and/or formation of water are driving forces of those reactions or drive them to completion, still occurs among instructors.
Kozliak, Evguenii I. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 702.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Microscopic Description of Le Châtelier's Principle  Igor Novak
The analysis based on microscopic descriptors (energy levels and their populations) is given that provides visualization of free energies and conceptual rationalization of Le Châtelier's principle. The misconception "nature favors equilibrium" is highlighted.
Novak, Igor. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1190.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
JavaScript Programs To Calculate Thermodynamic Properties Using Cubic Equations of State  
Cubic equations of state are widely used by chemists and chemical engineers to predict the thermodynamic properties of both pure substances and mixtures. In particular, these equations enable predictions concerning the temperature and pressure at which vaporliquid equilibrium occurs. These two educational JavaScript programs perform calculations using cubic equations of state and, equally importantly, explain how the calculations are performed.
J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 960.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
JavaScript Programs To Calculate Thermodynamic Properties Using Cubic Equations of State  Patrick J. Barrie
In this article, two JavaScript programs are described. The first program gives students the choice of five different cubic equations of state and performs calculations for pure substances. The second program predicts vaporliquid equilibrium for binary mixtures using a choice of three modern equations of state and the van der Waals mixing rules.
Barrie, Patrick J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 958.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Thermodynamics of the Relationship between Lattice Energy and Lattice Enthalpy  H. Donald B. Jenkins
Incorporation of lattice potential energy within a BornFajansHaber thermochemical cycle based on enthalpy changes necessitates correction of the energy of the lattice to an enthalpy term; the lattice enthalpy is given for a lattice containing s ions of type i in the formula unit.
Jenkins, H. Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 950.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry
On Teaching Ionic Activity Effects: What, When, and Where?  Robert de Levie
Ionic activity effects modify many quantitative chemical relationships involving ions, including those describing equilibria, pH measurements, titrations, diffusional mass transport, and reaction rates. Some of the resulting activity corrections are reviewed, and it is argued that their subtlety requires that they be introduced late rather than early in the chemistry curriculum and then are treated in more detail than is now customary. It is illustrated that interionic effects often cannot be taken into account by merely replacing all ionic concentrations by the corresponding ionic activities.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 878.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
pH |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Pedagogical Simulation of Maxwell's Demon Paradox  D. López and C. Criado
Teaching thermodynamics from the microscopic point of view can help students develop an intuitive understanding of its concepts. This program simulates, at the microscopic level, two gas chambers with an opening between them. The program allows students or their instructors to set up simulations that illustrate the thermodynamics and statistical behavior of the system. The user determines the basis for whether the demon permits or denies passage of particles through the opening using information from the microscopic level, such as specific particle velocity. Students can track and analyze how this affects particle distribution, thermal equilibrium, relaxation time, diffusion, and distribution of particle velocities.
López, D.; Criado, C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1679.
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto–Enol Tautomerization. A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  D. Atkinson and V. Chechik
A series of physical organic chemistry experiments suitable for second- or third-year undergraduate students is presented.
Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1030.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Pressure Dependence of Gas-Phase Reaction Rates  Stéphanie de Persis, Alain Dollet, and Francis Teyssandier
This article is intended to show that only simple concepts are required to qualitatively explain and describe the pressure dependence of gas-phase reaction rates.
de Persis, Stéphanie; Dollet, Alain; Teyssandier, Francis. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 832.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Entropy and Constraint of Motion  Frank L. Lambert
William Jensen's presentation of entropy increase as solely due to kinetic energy dispersion is stimulating.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 640.
Thermodynamics
Entropy and Constraint of Motion   William B. Jensen
I would like to make several observations supplementing and supporting the article by Frank Lambert on entropy as energy dissipation, since this is an approach that I have also used for many years when teaching a qualitative version of the entropy concept to students of general and introductory inorganic chemistry.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 639.
Thermodynamics
Variability of the Cell Potential of a Given Chemical Reaction  Ladislav H. Berka and Ilie Fishtik
It is demonstrated in this article that while the value of the free energy change for any chemical reaction is independent of path (a state function), the value of the standard cell potential of a reaction is dependent on the half-cell reactions used to carry out that reaction.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Fishtik, Ilie. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 584.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A Practical Integrated Approach to Supramolecular Chemistry III. Thermodynamics of Inclusion Phenomena  Jesús Hernández-Benito, M. Pilar García-Santos, Emma O'Brien, Emilio Calle, and Julio Casado
This is the third in a series of experiments aimed at introducing undergraduate students into the field of supramolecular chemistry. In the present article, we propose an experiment aiming to familiarize students with the thermodynamics of inclusion phenomena.
Hernández-Benito, Jesús; García-Santos, M. Pilar; O'Brien, Emma; Calle, Emilio; Casado, Julio. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 540.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Using Science Fiction To Teach Thermodynamics: Vonnegut, Ice-nine, and Global Warming  Charles A. Liberko
When covering the topic of thermodynamics at the introductory level, an example from Kurt Vonnegut, Jr's, fictional novel, Cat's Cradle, is used to take what the students have learned and apply it to a new situation.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 509.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming  Michael Golombok
We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity regimes: equilibrium determined and kinetically determined, respectively. The feed streams and reaction conditions are similar, but the products are different. The role of catalysis for the two processes is compared and the effects on the kinetics are discussed.
Golombok, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 228.
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Kinetics
Why Chemical Reactions Happen (James Keeler and Peter Wothers)  John Krenos
By concentrating on a limited number of model reactions, this book presents chemistry as a cohesive whole by tying together the fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and quantum chemistry, mainly through the use of molecular orbital interpretations.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 201.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
Playing-Card Equilibrium  Robert M. Hanson
A simple hands-on simulation suitable for either classroom use or laboratory investigation involves using a standard deck of playing cards to explore the statistical aspects of equilibrium. Concepts that can be easily demonstrated include fluctuation around a most probable distribution, Le Chtelier's principle, the equilibrium constant, prediction of the equilibrium constant based on probability, and the effect of sample size on equilibrium fluctuations.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1271.
Equilibrium |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Synthesis, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics: An Advanced Laboratory Investigation of the Cis–Trans Isomerization of Mo(CO)4(PR3)2   Ashfaq A. Bengali and Kim E. Mooney
The students synthesize the cis complex and then study its conversion to the trans isomer. This experiment illustrates the important relationship between kinetics and thermodynamics and the results emphasize the selfconsistency of the data.
Bengali, Ashfaq A.; Mooney, Kim E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1044.
Kinetics |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Thermodynamics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
Rate Controlling Factors in a Bunsen Burner Flame  Julio Andrade-Gamboa, Hugo L. Corso, and Fabiana C. Gennari
Analysis of a Bunsen burner flame and the kinetics of its combustion.
Andrade-Gamboa, Julio; Corso, Hugo L.; Gennari, Fabiana C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 524.
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Gases |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Rules of Thumb for Assessing Equilibrium Partitioning of Organic Compounds: Successes and Pitfalls  Kai-Uwe Goss and René P. Schwarzenbach
Factors to consider when predicting equilibrium partitioning of organic compounds between two phases, including volatility, polarity, and hydrophobicity; and a simple model for the evaluation of bulk phase partitioning.
Goss, Kai-Uwe; Schwarzenbach, René P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 450.
Equilibrium |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Separation Science |
Thermodynamics
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Warren Hirsch
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Hirsch, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Frank L. Lambert
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Frank L. Lambert
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Depletion: A Game with Natural Rules for Teaching Reaction Rate Theory  Donald J. Olbris and Judith Herzfeld
Game that reinforces central concepts of rate theory through simulation.
Olbris, Donald J.; Herzfeld, Judith. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1232.
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Rate Law |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Catalysis
Entropy Loss of Hydroxyl Groups of Balanol upon Binding to Protein Kinase A  Gergely Gidofalvi, Chung F. Wong, and J. Andrew McCammon
Summer project to give undergraduates hands-on experience in using several modern tools of molecular modeling for computer-aided drug design.
Gidofalvi, Gergely; Wong, Chung F.; McCammon, J. Andrew. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1122.
Computational Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Recognition |
Undergraduate Research |
Molecular Modeling |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics |
Proteins / Peptides
Understanding of Elementary Concepts in Heat and Temperature among College Students and K–12 Teachers  Paul G. Jasien and Graham E. Oberem
Report on a study of the understanding of elementary concepts related to heat and temperature (thermal equilibrium and energy transfer in the form of heat) in undergraduate and post-baccalaurate students as a function of their number of semesters of college-level physical science training.
Jasien, Paul G.; Oberem, Graham E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 889.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
H Is for Enthalpy, Thanks to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and Alfred W. Porter  Irmgard K. Howard
Origin of the word enthalpy.
Howard, Irmgard K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 697.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Chemically Relevant Model for Teaching the Second Law of Thermodynamics  Bryce E. Williamson and Tetsuo Morikawa
Presentation of a chemically relevant model that exemplifies many aspects of the second law: reversibility, path dependence, and extrapolation in terms of electrochemistry and calorimetry.
Williamson, Bryce E.; Morikawa, Tetsuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 339.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Spontaneous Assembly of Soda Straws  D. J. Campbell, E. R. Freidinger, J. M. Hastings, and M. K. Querns
Demonstrating spontaneous assembly using soda straws.
Campbell, D. J.; Freidinger, E. R.; Hastings, J. M.; Querns, M. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 201.
Materials Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics; Irreversible and Reversible Processes  Norman C. Craig and Eric A. Gislason
Analysis of the first law and its relation to reversible and irreversible processes.
Craig, Norman C.; Gislason, Eric A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 193.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Disorder--A Cracked Crutch for Supporting Entropy Discussions  Frank L. Lambert
Arguments against using disorder as a means of introducing and teaching entropy.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 187.
Thermodynamics
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Developing an Intuitive Understanding of Free Energy  Hilton M. Weiss
Conceptual model illustrating the combination of entropy and enthalpy to explain the feasibility or spontaneity of processes.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1362.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
An In-Depth Look at the Madelung Constant for Cubic Crystal Systems  Robert P. Grosso Jr., Justin T. Fermann, and William J. Vining
A simple, clear, and visual method by which the Madelung constant can be taught to students.
Grosso, Robert P., Jr.; Fermann, Justin T.; Vining, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1198.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
X-ray Crystallography
The Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter: A Versatile Instrument for Studying Processes in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology  Lars Wadsö, Allan L. Smith, Hamid Shirazi, S. Rose Mulligan, and Thomas Hofelich
A simple but sensitive isothermal heat-conduction calorimeter and five experiments for students to illustrate its use (heat capacity of solids, acid-base titration, enthalpy of vaporization of solvents, cement hydration, and insect metabolism).
Wadsö, Lars; Smith, Allan L.; Shirazi, Hamid; Mulligan, S. Rose; Hofelich, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1080.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Apparent Paradoxes and Instructive Puzzles in Physical Chemistry  Lawrence S. Bartell
Examples of puzzles in physical chemistry to challenge the imagination of students.
Bartell, Lawrence S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1067.
Thermodynamics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Stories to Make Thermodynamics and Related Subjects More Palatable  Lawrence S. Bartell
Collection of anecdotes regarding the history and human side of chemistry.
Bartell, Lawrence S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1059.
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Applications of Chemistry
S is for Entropy. U is for Energy. What Was Clausius Thinking?  Irmgard K. Howard
19th-century scientist Rudolf Clausius devised equations to describe the actions and relationships of heat and work; this paper traces his thinking from 1850 to 1879, particularly noting his ideas about parallel concepts of energy and entropy.
Howard, Irmgard K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 505.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences (by Gordon G. Hammes)  Vicky Minderhout
Book designed to introduce biological science students to some of the important concepts of physical chemistry used in biology.
Minderhout, Vicky. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 457.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Application of Hammond's Postulate. An Activity for Guided Discovery Learning in Organic Chemistry  J. E. Meany, Vicky Minderhout, and Y. Pocker
In this activity, students are given product distributions and other relevant experimental data concerning the free radical chlorination and bromination of propane. Students are guided in the use of Hammond's postulate to predict transition-state structures and to provide a rationale for the relationship between selectivity and reactivity in these and other reactions.
Meany, J. E.; Minderhout, Vicky; Pocker, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 204.
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Reactions
The Solubility Rules: Why Are All Acetates Soluble?  William G. Van Der Sluys
According to the solubility rules presented in many introductory chemistry texts, all (or most) acetate salts are soluble in aqueous solution. The thermodynamic factors that contribute to the solubility of acetates are compared with those of other slightly basic anions.
Van Der Sluys, William G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 111.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
An Introduction to the Understanding of Solubility  Trevor M. Letcher and Rubin Battino
This paper explores the solubility process from a number of perspectives, including the second law of thermodynamics and ideal solubility, real solutions and activity coefficients, intermolecular forces, and theories of gases or liquids or solids dissolving in liquids.
Letcher, Trevor M.; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 103.
Solutions / Solvents |
Learning Theories |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Noncovalent Interactions
Interpretation of Second Virial Coefficient  Vivek Utgikar
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Utgikar, Vivek. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Displacement of the Benzene Solvent Molecule from Cr(CO)5(benzene) by Piperidine: A Laser Flash Photolysis Experiment  Ashfaq A. Bengali and Samantha B. Charlton
This laboratory experiment utilizes a nitrogen laser to investigate the chemistry of the Cr(CO)5(benzene) complex on the microsecond time scale. The unique capabilities of a laser and the chemistry made possible by its use is demonstrated.
Bengali, Ashfaq A.; Charlton, Samantha B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1348.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions
A Visual Aid in Enthalpy Calculations  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for reactants and products as a visual aid in the teaching of reaction-enthalpy calculations. By the use of such diagrams the division of the process into a part involving a chemical reaction without a temperature change and a part involving only a temperature change is made visually concrete.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1178.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Evaporation Kinetics in Short-Chain Alcohols by Optical Interference  Ian M. Rosbrugh, S. Y. Nishimura, and A. M. Nishimura
The evaporation rates of volatile organic liquids may be determined through the observation of optical interference of spatially coincident light that is reflected from the top (air-liquid) and bottom (liquid-surface) of a liquid drop on a glass surface. As an example of what is possible with this technique, the evaporation for a series of short-chain alcohols and acetone is investigated.
Rosbrugh, Ian M.; Nishimura, S. Y.; Nishimura, Allan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1047.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Determination of Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 for the Dissolution of Calcium Hydroxide in Water: A General Chemistry Experiment  William B. Euler, Louis J. Kirschenbaum, and Ben Ruekberg
This exercise utilizes low-cost, relatively nonhazardous materials presenting few disposal problems. It reinforces the students' understanding of the interrelationship of solubility, Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0.
Euler, William B.; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1039.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Melting Point and Molecular Symmetry  R. J. C. Brown and R. F. C. Brown
In 1882 Thomas Carnelley observed that high molecular symmetry is associated with high melting point. The application of the rule to a number of different molecular crystals is discussed. The rule applies to different categories of crystal for different reasons, which can be explained by thermodynamic analysis.
Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, R. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 724.
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography
The Thermodynamics and Kinetics of "HeaterMeals": An Exercise in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry  William B. Jensen
The author traces his steps in unraveling the chemistry behind an innovative new commercial product called HeaterMeals, which makes use of an "inorganic oven" composed of magnesium metal, iron metal, and salt water as a way of heating prepackaged meals. The thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural roles played by each component are analyzed and correlated with various topics taught in a typical introductory inorganic course.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ionic Crystals: A Simple and Safe Lecture Demonstration of the Preparation of NaI from Its Elements  Zelek S. Herman
A simple and safe classroom demonstration showing the production of sodium iodide (NaI) crystals from elemental sodium and elemental (molecular) iodine is presented. The demonstration, which is quite impressive, naturally fits into the discussion of ionic bonding and the alkali halide crystals.
Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 619.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
Illustrating Thermodynamic Concepts Using a Hero's Engine  Pedro L. Muiño and James R. Hodgson
A modified Hero's engine is used to illustrate concepts of thermodynamics and engineering design suitable for introductory chemistry courses and more advanced physical chemistry courses. This demonstration is suitable to illustrate concepts like gas expansion, gas cooling through expansion, conversion of heat to work, interconversion between kinetic energy and potential energy, and feedback mechanisms.
Muio, Pedro L.; Hodgson, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 615.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An Introduction to Nonlinear Chemical Dynamics: Oscillations, Waves, Patterns, and Chaos (by I. R. Epstein and J. A. Pojman)  reviewed by Richard J. Field
The major strength of this treatment by Epstein and Pojman is a strong connection between theory and experiment. The mechanisms of many oscillating chemical reactions are described in detail.
Field, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 450.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Entropy, Disorder, and Freezing  Brian B. Laird
It is argued that the usual view that entropy is a measure of "disorder" is problematic and that there exist systems at high density, for which packing considerations dominate, where a spatially ordered state has a higher entropy than a disordered one.
Laird, Brian B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1388.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
Shuffled Cards, Messy Desks, and Disorderly Dorm Rooms - Examples of Entropy Increase? Nonsense!  Frank L. Lambert
Simply changing the location of everyday macro objects from an arrangement that we commonly judge as orderly to one that appears disorderly is a "zero change" in the thermodynamic entropy of the objects because the number of accessible energetic microstates in any of them has not been changed.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1385.
Nonmajor Courses |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
General Potential Energy Surfaces for Catalytic Processes  S. H. Bauer
Here we argue that one may describe, in general terms, how catalysts modify reaction mechanisms by entering and leaving a conversion sequence, using potential energy surfaces that are conceptually correct. Thermochemical and kinetic constraints providing bounds that limit catalytic processes are formulated. 3-D diagrams are proposed. These clearly illustrate the basic principle that catalysts initially associate with the substrates and thus directly participate in modified conversion pathways, but are regenerated in the final step, thereby providing for a turnover number greater than unity.
Bauer, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 440.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
How Thermodynamic Data and Equilibrium Constants Changed When the Standard-State Pressure Became 1 Bar  Richard S. Treptow
In 1982 the IUPAC recommended that the pressure used to define the standard state of a substance be changed from 1 atm to 1 bar. The principal effect of the change is a slight increase in the entropy and a slight decrease in the free energy of any gas.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 212.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity (the author replies)  Ochs, Raymond S.
The term "spontaneous" is historical baggage.
Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 659.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity  Earl, Boyd L.
The term "spontaneous" is worth keeping in the chemistry lexicon.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 658.
Thermodynamics
Letters to the Editor  
The term "spontaneous" is worth keeping in the chemistry lexicon.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 658.
Thermodynamics
A Mechanical Analogue for Chemical Potential  Samuel V. Glass and Roger L. DeKock
An analogy that relates the concepts of chemical potential, the extent of reaction, and Gibbs energy with spring force, the position of a block, and mechanical potential energy.
Glass, Samuel V.; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 190.
Thermodynamics
Measurement of Evaporation Rates of Organic Liquids by Optical Interference  Scott A. Riley, Nathan R. Franklin, Bobbie Oudinarath, Sally Wong, David Congalton, and A. M. Nishimura*
Laser light reflects and refracts at the air-surface interface; the latter beam then reflects at the lower liquid glass interface. These two beams are focused onto a photodiode. The optical interference occurs as a result of the different distances traveled by the two beams and the intensity at the detector oscillates as the liquid evaporates. The frequency of oscillation is used to determine the rate of evaporation.
Riley, Scott A.; Franklin, Nathan R.; Oudinarath, Bobbie; Wong, Sally; Congalton, David; Nishimura, A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1320.
Instrumental Methods |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Lasers
Metal Complexes of EDTA: An Exercise in Data Interpretation  Philip C. H. Mitchell
Stability constants of metal complexes of edta with main group and transition metals are correlated with properties of the elements and cations (ion charge, atomic and ionic radii, ionization energies and electronegativities) and interpreted with an ionic bonding model including a covalent contribution. It is shown how chemists recognize patterns in data with the help of a general theory and so develop a model.
Mitchell, Philip C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1235.
Metals |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Why Don't Things Go Wrong More Often? Activation Energies: Maxwell's Angels, Obstacles to Murphy's Law  Frank L. Lambert
The micro-complexity of fracturing utilitarian or beautiful objects prevents assigning a characteristic activation energy even to chemically identical artifacts. Nevertheless, a qualitative EACT SOLID can be developed. Its surmounting is correlated with the radical drop in human valuation of an object when it is broken.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 947.
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Thermodynamics
Determination of DeltaH for Reactions of the Born-Haber Cycle  Richard S. Treptow
Review of the many experimental methods used to determine ?H for the various steps of the cycle for the formation of sodium chloride. Two topics given special attention are the choice of standard state of the electron and the importance of distinguishing lattice enthalpy from lattice energy.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 919.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics
The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving  Robert Q. Thompson
Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 532.
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Applications of Chemistry
A Brief History of Thermodynamics Notation  Rubin Battino, Laurence E. Strong, Scott E. Wood
This paper gives a brief history of thermodynamic notation for the energy, E, enthalpy, H, entropy, S, Gibbs energy, G, Helmholtz energy, A, work, W, heat, Q, pressure, P, volume, V, and temperature, T. In particular, the paper answers the question, "Where did the symbol S for entropy come from?"
Battino, Rubin; Strong Laurence E.; Wood, Scott E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 304.
Thermodynamics
In Defense of Thermodynamics - An Animate Analogy  Sture Nordholm
In order to illustrate the deepest roots of thermodynamics and its great power and generality, it is applied by way of analogy to human behavior from an economic point of view.
Nordholm, Sture. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 273.
Thermodynamics
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
Thermoelectric Devices: Solid-State Refrigerators and Electrical Generators in the Classroom  Edmund J. Winder, Arthur B. Ellis, George C. Lisensky
Thermoelectric devices provide an engaging high-tech demonstration suitable for illustrating thermodynamic principles in the classroom.
Winder, Edmund J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 940.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Semiconductors |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Solid State Chemistry
Chemical Thermodynamics: Basic Theory and Methods, Fifth Edition (Klotz, Irving M.; Rosenberg, Robert M.)  Jones, Francis T.
Physical chemistry text on classical thermodynamics; extends this analysis into biology.
Jones, Francis T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A251.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics for Teachers: Basic Concepts Explained (MacDonald, J. J.)  Duffey, George H.
Conceptual presentation of thermodynamics.
Duffey, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A72.
Thermodynamics |
Professional Development
Photosynthesis: Why Does It Occur?  J. J. MacDonald
Explanation of why photosynthesis occurs; stating that it is merely the reverse of respiration is misleading.
MacDonald, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1113.
Plant Chemistry |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Energy and the Environment: Physical Chemistry for Environmental Science Majors  Leonard J. Soltzberg
A course that covers the major topics of applied thermodynamics and uses computer modeling software to allow students to learn the concepts of differential and integral calculus without spending the time to master the mechanics of integration and differentiation using STELLA II software.
Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 979.
Thermodynamics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
Make-up Exams: What's a Professor to Do?  Stephen W. Carper
Sample questions on chemical potential.
Carper, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 882.
Thermodynamics
Bond Energies and Enthalpies: An Often Neglected Difference  Treptow, Richard S.
Questions whether the enthalpy change under standard conditions is the correct property to associate with the strength of a bond.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 497.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment for the Direct Measurement of Monolayer-Formation Kinetics  Karpovich, D. S.; Blanchard, G. J.
Procedure that introduces the chemistry of modified surfaces to undergraduates; includes sample data and analysis.
Karpovich, D. S.; Blanchard, G. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 466.
Kinetics |
Surface Science
REACT: Exploring Practical Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Calculations  Ramette, Richard W.
Description of REACT software to balance complicated equations; determine thermodynamic data for all reactants and products; calculate changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for a reaction; and find equilibrium conditions for the a reaction.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 240.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
An Exceptional Theoretical Process with Internal Entropy Coupling  Belandria, Jose I.
Theoretical consideration of system in which internal entropy is created and destroyed during operation.
Belandria, Jose I. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 116.
Thermodynamics |
Theoretical Chemistry
Probing Student Misconceptions in Thermodynamics with In-Class Writing  Beall, Herbert
Examples of the use of in-class writing assignments in the teaching of thermodynamics in general chemistry are presented.
Beall, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1056.
Thermodynamics
Understanding Entropy Using Fundamental Stability Conditions  Sanchez, Karen S.; Vergenz, Robert A.
Introducing the second law of thermodynamics in a way that provides chemical intuition about the thermal meaning of entropy and is rigorously based on mathematical logic.
Sanchez, Karen S.; Vergenz, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 562.
Thermodynamics
Rubber Elasticity: A Simple Method for Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties  Byrne, John P.
A modified triple-beam balance that uses an optical lever to detect small changes in the length of a stretched rubber band.
Byrne, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 531.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
An Oscillating Reaction as a Demonstration of Principles Applied in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Weimer, Jeffrey J.
Platinum catalyzed decomposition of methanol.
Weimer, Jeffrey J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 325.
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis |
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Reactions
A Perfect (Gas) Analogy for Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control  Macomber, Roger S.
Physical analogy for giving students a better feel for the relationship between kinetic and thermodynamic control of a reaction.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 311.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Erroneous Explanations for the Limited Water Solubility of Organic Liquids  Alger, Donald B.
Explaining water solubility of organic liquids in terms of entropy.
Alger, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 281.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Thermodynamics
Polymer spherulites: II. Crystallization kinetics  Marentette, J. M.; Brown, G. R.
A commonplace polarized light microscope equipped with a hot stage permits examination of crystallization kinetics in addition to morphology and birefringence.
Marentette, J. M.; Brown, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 539.
Kinetics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Polymerization
Experimental Demonstration of the Principles of Thermal Energy Storage and Chemical Heat Pumps: Experiments for General, Inorganic, or Physical Chemistry and Materials Science  Casarin, Carlos; Ibanez, Jorge G.
The basic principles of a thermal energy storage system and a chemical heat pump are experimentally demonstrated and discussed using the reaction between CaCl2 and CH3OH as a model.
Casarin, Carlos; Ibanez, Jorge G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 158.
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Green Chemistry
Intensive and extensive: Underused concepts  Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
Methods for teaching intensive and extensive properties.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 957.
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Putting some snap into work.  Mitschele, Jonathan.
Suggestions for improving the instructional value of the demonstration presented.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 687.
Thermodynamics
Chelate ring size and metal ion selection: The basis of selectivity for metal ions in open-chain ligands and macrocycles.  Hancock, Robert D.
The thermodynamic chelate effect for an n-dentate chelating ligand.
Hancock, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 615.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Thermodynamics
Gibbs free energy: The criteria for spontaneity   Greaves, Ronald J.; Schlecht, Kenneth D.
This demonstration is useful in presenting a physical model for the four possible combinations of entropy and enthalpy to predict the spontaneity of a reaction.
Greaves, Ronald J.; Schlecht, Kenneth D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 417.
Thermodynamics
Competitive and coupled reactions  Spencer, J. N.
The misconception that one reaction, when coupled with another, may be "driven" against its free energy comes from a misunderstanding of the use of thermodynamic parameters to describe kinetic processes.
Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 281.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Reaction thermodynamics: A flawed derivation  Hornack, Fred M.
Students are presented with a proof that may lead to obvious contradictions. In the process of solving the proof students will learn some mathematical logic and thermodynamic principles.
Hornack, Fred M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 112.
Thermodynamics
The conversion of chemical energy: Part 1. Technological examples  Wink, Donald J.
When a chemical reaction occurs, the energy of the chemical species may change and energy can be released or absorbed from the surroundings. This can involve the exchange of chemical energy with another kind of energy or with another chemical system.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 108.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Photosynthesis
Studying odd-even effects and solubility behavior using alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids  Burrows, Hugh D.
Odd-even effect provides a satisfying way of introducing students to a large area of chemistry that encompasses both classical thermodynamics and applied aspects.
Burrows, Hugh D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 69.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Order and disorder and entropies of fusion  Gilson, D. F. R.
A simple alternative for discussing entropy, is to interpret the actual entropy changes of well-recognized, reversible physical processes for which entropy can be considered as a disordering process.
Gilson, D. F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 23.
Thermodynamics
Effects of "crowding" in protein solutions  Ralston, G. B.
The effects of macromolecular nonideality and crowding on chemical equilibria, association reactions, and enzyme kinetics.
Ralston, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 857.
Proteins / Peptides |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Enzymes |
Kinetics
A simple second-order kinetics experiment  Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim
The reaction studied in this experiment is the (reversible) dimerization of 2,5-dimethyl-3,4-diphenylcyclopentadienone; the monomer is colored while the dimer is not, so monitoring the reaction with a simple spectrophotometer provides the concentration of the monomer and therefore the rate of its disappearance.
Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 707.
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Experiments with "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.

Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 510.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Binding energy and enzymatic catalysis  Hansen, David E.; Raines, Ronald T.
The authors discuss the fundamental role that the favorable free energy of binding of the rate-determining transition state plays in catalysis and review the principle that many catalytic factors are realized by the use of this binding energy.
Hansen, David E.; Raines, Ronald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 483.
Enzymes |
Catalysis |
Thermodynamics
A discourse on the drinking bird  Vemulapalli, G. K.
The aims of this article are to describe the operation of the drinking bird in quantitative terms, and to show the similarities between heat engines and the bird.
Vemulapalli, G. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 457.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Rejoinder to the "Gibbs-function problem" discussion  Schomaker, Verner; Waser, Jurg
For the authors process as well as for most of the processes discussed in practical chemical thermodynamics, ?G, does not refer to the change in a particular mathematically defined function G, and the ideal of notational precision is by far unattained; in their process the inexplicit change is of a different sort form that expressed by the ?G for a certain chemical reaction.
Schomaker, Verner; Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 384.
Thermodynamics
Equilibrium, free energy, and entropy: Rates and differences  MacDonald, J. J.
Difference terms and rate terms have been distinguished by using an ordinary delta for the former and a filled-in delta for the latter. This strategy then allows the authors to explain more clearly that a minimum in the free energy function corresponds to a maximum in the total entropy function.
MacDonald, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 380.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Thermal decomposition of a natural manganese dioxide: A laboratory experiment for undergraduate students  Puerta, M. C.; Valerga, P.
This is a very instructive experiment that combines experimental work, theoretical discussion, and literature investigation.
Puerta, M. C.; Valerga, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 344.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermal Analysis |
Solid State Chemistry
The solvation of halide ions and its chemical significance  Sharpe, Alan G.
Most of this article is concerned with structural and thermodynamic aspects of halide ion solvation, first by water and the by other solvents.
Sharpe, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 309.
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding
Entropy measures amount of choice  Swanson, R. M.
The purpose of this paper is present a correct and simple interpretation of entropy in terms of per-molecule behavior, and to put entropy on a closer to equal footing with energy as an intuitively useful chemical concept.
Swanson, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 206.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Biophysical Chemistry
A mathematical verification of the second law of thermodynamics from the entropy of mixing  Clugston, Michael J.
The usual derivation of the form of the equilibrium constant depends on introducing the concept of a chemical potential. In this paper the equilibrium constant will be derived instead from the entropy of mixing.
Clugston, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 203.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Boltzmann's H theorem applied to simulations of polymer interchange reactions  Pojman, John
The mathematical complexity of the Boltzmann theory seems to preclude undergraduate consideration. In this paper the author considers a system of condensation polymers whose interactions are analogous to those of a hard-sphere gas.
Pojman, John J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 200.
Thermodynamics
The true meaning of isothermal   Lin, Shu-Kun
A clarification regarding student's misconceptions in thermodynamics.
Lin, Shu-Kun J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 183.
Thermodynamics
The direct relation between altitude and boiling point  Earl, Boyd L.
Since the physical parameter whose variation is responsible for the change in boiling point due to altitude is atmospheric pressure, one must make the connection between boiling point and altitude via the pressure, which is directly connected to both.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 45.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
With Clausius from energy to entropy  Baron, Maximo
Examination of entropy following the route taken by Clausius.
Baron, Maximo J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1001.
Thermodynamics
Isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate: An undergraduate experiment utilizing high performance liquid chromatography  Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M.
Introduces students to liquid chromatography, the stereoisomerization of alkenes, certain aspects of free radical chemistry, and thermodynamics.
Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 781.
HPLC |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Esters |
Stereochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Thermodynamics
Electrochemistry of the zinc-silver oxide system. Part 1. Thermodynamic studies using commercial miniature cells  Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A.
Using readily available, sealed, miniature or "button" cells to obtain accurate measurements of the enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy change of a chemical reaction.
Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 529.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Thermodynamics
An improved mnemonic diagram for thermodynamic relationships  Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.
A number of the most important expressions in thermodynamics of simple systems may developed directly from a simple mnemonic diagram.
Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 495.
Thermodynamics
The free energy prediction of reaction direction and the principle of Le Chtelier  Xianmin, Zheng
If we use the "unity amount" of free energy prediction value to predict the influence of temperature on reaction equilibrium, the result will be in exact agreement with the prediction of Le Chtelier's principle and does not cause any apparent contradictions.
Xianmin, Zheng J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 401.
Thermodynamics
Shine some light on entropy of mixing  Brady, K. T.
The apparatus described is relatively easy to construct and is quite useful in providing a visual demonstration of the concept of entropy of mixing and diffusion.
Brady, K. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 339.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple explanation of the salt water oscillator  Noyes, Richard M.
Yoshikawa et al. have described a simple device that undergoes repeated oscillations and that can also illustrate some of the principles essential to the oscillators driven by chemical reactions.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 207.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
The role of flow systems in far-from-equilibrium dynamics   Epstein, Irving R.
In this article the continuous-flow, stirred tank reactor or CSTR is discussed.
Epstein, Irving R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 191.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Self-organization in chemistry: The larger context   Soltzberg, Leonard J.
The following three papers in this symposium will serve the reader as a good introduction to self-organization in chemical systems.
Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 187.
Thermodynamics
Equations of state, collisional energy transfer, and chemical equilibrium in gases  Alvarino, Jose M.; Veguillas, Juan; Velasco, Santiago
The authors discuss the molecular and macroscopic arguments that give theoretical support to the apparent contradiction between the ideal gas model and chemical reactivity.
Alvarino, Jose M.; Veguillas, Juan; Velasco, Santiago J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 139.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Equilibrium
The entropy of dissolution of urea  Pickering, Miles
This experiment combines colorimetric techniques, thermochemical techniques, some volumetric work, and actual measurements of entropy.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 723.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics of "mixing" of ideal gases: A persistent pitfall  Meyer, Edwin F.
There seems to be a widespread misconception that mixing causes an increase in entropy, and thus is the driving force of the process.
Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 676.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
The chemists' delta  Craig, Norman C.
Thermodynamic quantities such as ?G and ?S are intensive functions and derivatives that depend on instantaneous values of the partial molar forms of various thermodynamic properties of reactions and products; they are not simple finite differences.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 668.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
General definitions of work and heat in thermodynamic processes  Gislason, Eric A.; Craig, Norman C.
Problems with earlier definitions of thermodynamic work, general definitions of thermodynamic work, interesting consequences of the definitions of heat and work, a more general view of work and heat, examples of work and heat, and pedagogical implications.
Gislason, Eric A.; Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 660.
Thermodynamics
The effect of temperature and pressure on equilibria: A derivation of the van't Hoff rules  Kemp, H. R.
Derivation of the van't Hoff rules for disturbed equilibria.
Kemp, H. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 482.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics of the rhodamine B lactone zwitterion equilibrium: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G.
An experiment to derive thermodynamic values from a thermochromic equilibrium that uses a commercially available dye, attains equilibrium rapidly, and employs a simple, single-beam spectrophotometer.
Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 362.
Thermodynamics |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium
Ligand replacement at a square planar metal center: A kinetic experiment for the inorganic chemistry laboratory  Kruger, H.; de Waal, D. J. A.
The ligand triphenyl phosphine is replaced from a rhodium metal center by a series of pyridine derivatives; this system will introduce students to stopped-flow spectrophotometry as a technique to study the kinetics of very fast reactions.
Kruger, H.; de Waal, D. J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 262.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Kinetics |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Thermodynamics and the bounce  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
Explaining the bouncing of a rubber ball using the laws of thermodynamics.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 43.
Thermodynamics
Stretched elastomers: A case of decreasing length upon heating  Clough, S. B.
Demonstrating and explaining the decrease in length of a heated rubber band.
Clough, S. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 42.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The production of oxygen gas: A student catalysis experiment  Onuchukwu, A. I.; Mshelia, P. B.
Synthesizing copper ferrite spinnel and using it as a catalyst in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen; the rate of generation is used to determine the kinetic activity of the catalyst.
Onuchukwu, A. I.; Mshelia, P. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 809.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Kinetics
Conversion of standard thermodynamic data to the new standard state pressure  Freeman, Robert D.
Analyzes the changes that will be required to convert standard thermodynamic data from units of atmospheres to the bar.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 681.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Energy interconversions in photosynthesis  Bering, Charles L.
Reviews the energetics of the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Bering, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 659.
Photosynthesis |
Photochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Bioenergetics
Le Châtelier's principle, temperature effects, and entropy  Campbell, J. Arthur
A useful extension of Le Chatelier's Principle to predict concentration, pressure, and temperature effects solely from the equation for the net reaction.
Campbell, J. Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 231.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
A gas kinetic explanation of simple thermodynamic processes  Waite, Boyd A.
Proposes a simplified, semi-quantitative description of heat, work, and internal energy from the viewpoint of gas kinetic theory; both heat and work should not be considered as forms of energy but rather as different mechanisms by which internal energy is transferred from system to surroundings.
Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 224.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics
Kinetics and mechanism-a games approach  Harsch, Gunther
Using statistical games to simulate and illustrate a variety of chemical kinetics.
Harsch, Gunther J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1039.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Kinetic stability, kinetic control, and descriptive inorganic chemistry  Webb, Michael J.
Examples, demonstrations, and laboratory work involving kinetic stability and kinetic control in inorganic chemistry.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 988.
Kinetics |
Descriptive Chemistry
Further reflections on heat  Hornack, Frederick M.
Confusion regarding the nature of heat and thermodynamics.
Hornack, Frederick M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 869.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermodynamic changes, kinetics, equilibrium, and LeChatelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
A series of demonstrations in which water in beakers and the flow of water between beakers is used to represent the components of an exothermic chemical reaction and the flow and quantity of thermal energy involved in chemical changes.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 804.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Equilibrium constants of chemical reactions involving condensed phases: Pressure dependence and choice of standard state  Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta
The thermodynamics of condensed phases, especially those involving solutes in dilute solution, is a neglected area in a large number of textbooks.
Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 782.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents
Use of the world "eager" instead of "spontaneous" for the description of exergonic reactions  Hamori, Eugene; Muldrey, James E.
Difficulties with the word spontaneous and why eager is a better term.
Hamori, Eugene; Muldrey, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 710.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
An addendum on measuring the entropy of mixing of a two-ion system  Pulfer, J. D.
Note to develop a simple data handling procedure when using concentration cells for measuring the entropy of mixing of a two-ion system.
Pulfer, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 69.
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Entropy and its relation to work  Richardson, W. S.
The relationship of entropy to the disorder of a system can be explained using a deck of playing cards.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 649.
Thermodynamics
Cesium neonide: Molecule or thermochemical exercise?  Blake, P. G.; Clack, D. W.
Examines the energetics of formation of hypothetical solids such as cesium neonide using a Born-Haber cycle to estimate the enthalpy of formation.
Blake, P. G.; Clack, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 637.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Calculation of statistical thermodynamic properties  Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B.
25. Bits and pieces, 9. A computer program for the calculation of specific heat, entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of polyatomic molecules.
Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 131.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Paradigms and paradoxes  Campbell, J. A.
Examines the commonly held tenets "systems tend to a minimum potential energy," "the entropy of a shuffled deck of cards is greater than that of a new deck," and "energy is the ability to do work."
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 41.
Thermodynamics
Bond free energies  Amador, Alberto
Provides standard free energies for the formation of common single and multiple bonds.
Amador, Alberto J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 453.
Covalent Bonding |
Thermodynamics
Compact Compacts  Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F.
A collection of three suggestions regarding demonstrating the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins and the first law of thermodynamics as applied to air conditioning.
Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thermodynamics
Entropy and rubbery elasticity  Nash, Leonard K.
Thermodynamic analysis of the polymeric molecules of rubber.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 363.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Statistical Mechanics
Participatory lecture demonstrations  Battino, Rubin
Examples of participatory lecture demonstrations in chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, the kinetic-molecular theory, Henry's law, electronic energy levels in atoms, translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of molecules, and organic chemistry.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 39.
Chromatography |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lecture table experimental demonstration of entropy  Dole, Malcolm
Apparatus for demonstrating entropy that involves heating a stretched rubber band with hot steam.
Dole, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 754.
Thermodynamics
Approach to teaching some of the principles of environmental chemistry  Klehr, Edwin H.
Indicates how a few concepts from systems analysis can be used to integrate some of the principles of environmental chemistry.
Klehr, Edwin H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 658.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Kinetics
Free energy surfaces and transition state theory  Cruickshank, F. R.; Hyde, A. J.; Pugh, D.
130/131. Unless free energy diagrams are very precisely labeled and explained they are seriously misleading and often incorporate a major error of principle. [Note: This should be #130 in the series, as shown in the table of contents. But p. 288 shows #131. The error was not caught, so the next one in the series is #132. The present article is both #130 and #131.]
Cruickshank, F. R.; Hyde, A. J.; Pugh, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 288.
Thermodynamics
Cycloamyloses  Bergeron, Raymond J.
Examines an unusual carbohydrate system of current interest in the hope of generating some enthusiasm for the topic.
Bergeron, Raymond J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 204.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
Chemiluminescence. An illuminating experiment  Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.
Examines the bright chemiluminescenct reaction between trisbipyridalruthenium(III) and sodium borohydride.
Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 480.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
Aluminothermic reduction. An illustrative experiment  Espelund, A. W.
The thermite reaction can be made into a very illustrative experiment, involving some typical calculations in high-temperature physical chemistry.
Espelund, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 400.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Content and context. Entropy principle experiments in a course for non- science students  Bell, Jerry A.
An approach that aims to give students a feel for the concept of entropy and how to analyze natural events to see entropic control.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 182.
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses
Thermodynamics, folk culture, and poetry  Smith, Wayne L.
The principles of the first, second, and third laws of thermodynamics are illustrated in songs and poems.
Smith, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 97.
Thermodynamics
Recrystallization: unexpected behavior. An undergraduate organic demonstration or experiment  Lilje, Kenneth C.; Macomber, R. S.
A simple method for providing a demonstration of an exception to the rule that solubility increases with temperature.
Lilje, Kenneth C.; Macomber, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 567.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
The first law. For scientists, citizens, poets and philosophers  Bent, Henry A.
Practical experiences and phenomena that serve to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 323.
Thermodynamics
Physical chemistry of the drinking duck  Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E.
The operation of the drinking bird is easily understood in terms of a few elementary physical chemistry principles.
Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 213.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
On thermodynamics of solution by gas-liquid chromatography  Meyer, Edwin F.
Discusses the standard and reference states commonly used in glc, and suggests the use of a more straightforward set of states for the evaluation of standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution when measured via glc.
Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 191.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Seven questions requiring the application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 769.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Astrochemistry
The solubility of sodium acetate in water and LeChatelier's principle  Mazo, Robert M.; Barnhard, Ralph
Resolves the apparent anomaly between the solubility of anhydrous sodium acetate in water as a function of temperature and the exothermic nature of this process.
Mazo, Robert M.; Barnhard, Ralph J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 639.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Entropy and a rubber band  Laswick, Patty Hall
A temperature change is noted when a rubber band held against the cheek is stretched and then released.
Laswick, Patty Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 469.
Thermodynamics
The effervescence of ocean surf  Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
A pure liquid will not foam, but all true solutions will, as dictated by the fundamental concepts of surface thermodynamics enunciated by Gibbs.
Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Miscellanea No. 6  Eberhardt, W. H.
A collection of clarified, underemphasized, and misunderstood topics, including cell electromotive force and disproportionate reactions; partially miscible liquids and upper consolute temperatures; enthalpy and free energy of formation; and magnetic moment.
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
Kinetics as an introductory course  Beatty, James W.; Powers, Jack W.; Scamehorn, Richard G.
Describes an introductory course entitled "Reaction Kinetics and the Mechanisms of Reactions."
Beatty, James W.; Powers, Jack W.; Scamehorn, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 797.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An alternative to free energy for undergraduate instruction  Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank
It is the purpose of this paper to question the usefulness of the Gibbs function for the student and to propose an alternative based on the use of entropy functions that help the student to focus more sharply on the features of a system that relate to its capacity to change.
Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 347.
Thermodynamics
The second law - How much, how soon, to how many?  Bent, Henry A.
Discussion of the conceptual components of thermodynamics, their mathematical requirements, and where they might be best placed in the curriculum.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 337.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
The effects of chloride ion and temperature on lead chloride solubility: A versatile quantitative experiment  West, Allen C.
The experiment described in this paper emphasizes quantitative technique and introduces complexometric titrations, elementary statistics describing precision and its measurement, ion activities and activity coefficients, free energy and equilibrium, a thermodynamic picture of the solution process, and the solubility product principle and its limitations.
West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 773.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents
The effect of cations on the thermal decomposition of salts with oxyanions: A semi-empirical correlation  Stern, Kurt H.
It is the purpose of this paper to reexamine the stability problem in a more quantitative way than has been previously done, particularly be examining relations between measures of thermal stability and ionic properties.
Stern, Kurt H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 645.
Thermodynamics
The principle of exponential change: Applications in chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity  Green, Frank O.
Examines the nature of exponential change and its applications to chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity, including radioactive decay, enzyme kinetics, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, and first order reaction kinetics.
Green, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 451.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
The kinetics of oxidation-reduction reactions: An alternate derivation of Marcus' cross relation  Newton, T. W.
The purpose of this article is to show how Marcus' cross relation can be derived from a simple, essentially mechanical model.
Newton, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 571.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Energy cycles  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Points out limitations and potential pitfalls associated with the use energy cycles to show the atomic and molecular energy factors that may influence an observable chemical property.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 420.
Thermodynamics
Bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reactions  Edwards, John O.
The bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reaction is important and should be included in any detailed discussion of kinetics and mechanism at an early undergraduate level.
Edwards, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 386.
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Is ?S naught or not?, part II: Five thermodynamicists comment  Campbell, J. A.
Five thermodynamicists comment on the question, Is ?S naught or not?
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 244.
Thermodynamics
The standard free energies of solution of anhydrous salts in water  Johnson, D. A.
In this paper, factors contributing to the variations in the ?G values for certain series of anhydrous salts are examined with the aid of a much simplified, semiempirical model.
Johnson, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 236.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility
The ion product constant of water: Thermodynamics of water ionization  Clever, H. Lawrence
Examines the determination of water ion product constants and summarizes their values.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 231.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Biological oxidations and energy conservation  Kirschbaum, Joel
Examines the oxidative steps leading to the synthesis of ATP in living organisms and their metabolic control.
Kirschbaum, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 28.
Bioenergetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Letter to the editor  Lielmezs, J.
Comments regarding the use of negative absolute temperatures.
Lielmezs, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 622.
Thermodynamics
A simple analogy of the relationship of ?G to the position of equilibrium  Marks, D. J.
This short note describes a simple demonstration to serve as an analogy of the relationship of ?G to the position of equilibrium.
Marks, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 402.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Lectures on Matter and Equilibrium (Hill, Terrell L.)  Rosenburg, Robert

Rosenburg, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1086.
Thermodynamics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The fundamental assumptions of chemical thermodynamics  MacRae, Duncan
Examines the fundamental terms, definitions, and assumptions of chemical thermodynamics.
MacRae, Duncan J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 586.
Thermodynamics
Bromination of alkanes: Experiment illustrating relative reactivities and synthetic utility  Warkentin, J.
The radical halogenation of alkanes lend themselves well to the teaching of basic material such as bond dissociation energies, potential energy profiles, enthalpy of reaction, activation energy, and reaction rate.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 331.
Electrochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
The enigmatic polymorphism of iron  Myers, Clifford E.
Unusual and nontypical, elemental iron can provide the impetus for discussing important chemical principles and properties, including basic thermodynamic concepts and the phenomenon and theory of ferromagnetism.
Myers, Clifford E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 303.
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
The use and misuse of the laws of thermodynamics  McGlashan, M. L.
Examines the first and second laws, the usefulness of thermodynamics, the calculation of equilibrium constants, and what entropy does not mean.
McGlashan, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 226.
Thermodynamics
Demonstrating concepts of statistical thermodynamics: More on the Maxwell Demon bottle  Sussman, M. V.
The Maxwell Demon bottle can illustrate the nature of entropy, the difference between a work effect and a heat effect, the difference between reversible and irreversible work effects, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and similar intangibles.
Sussman, M. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 105.
Thermodynamics
A thermodynamic dilemma?  Smith, Norman O.
Readers are challenged to detect the fallacy in a short thermodynamic argument.
Smith, Norman O. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 301.
Thermodynamics
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, LeChatelier's Principle. III. Halide-halate equilibria  Eberhardt, William H.
Compares four equilibria: KI + KIO3, KI + KBrO3, KBR + KBrO3, and KBr + KIO3.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A883.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, Le Châtelier's principle II  Eberhardt, William H.
This demonstration involves a reversible, temperature-based transformation from blue tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ to pink sixfold coordinated Co2+.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A591.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Reaction heats and bond strengths (Mortimer, C. T.)  Lacher, John R.

Lacher, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A130.
Thermodynamics |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Teaching the entropy concept  Plumb, Robert C.
Presents a macroscopic lecture demonstration illustrating both potential energy and entropy driving forces and showing their interrelationship.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 254.
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
A second order kinetics experiment  Teerlink, Wilford J.; Asay, Jeanette; Sugihara, James M.
Investigates the nucleophilic displacement reaction of ethyl p-toluenesulfonate by iodide in acetone.
Teerlink, Wilford J.; Asay, Jeanette; Sugihara, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 161.
Kinetics |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Work of compressing an ideal gas  Bauman, Robert P.
In formulating examples of compression problems there should be an explicit statement that the process is reversible, or at least slow.
Bauman, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 102.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Chemical kinetics in laboratory and classroom  Connick, Robert E.
Reviews laboratory experiments and lecture topics regarding kinetics presented in an undergraduate laboratory course on inorganic chemistry.
Connick, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 587.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Entropy: The significance of the concept of entropy and its applications in science and technology (Fast, J. D.)  Bent, Henry A.

Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 442.
Thermodynamics
A simple approach to the second law  Breck, W. G.
Uses a reversible Carnot cycle as a simple approach to explicating the second law.
Breck, W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 353.
Thermodynamics
Energy relations in teaching organic chemistry  Allinger, Norman L.
Discusses the use of energetics and reaction coordinate diagrams in the elementary organic course.
Allinger, Norman L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 201.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Kinetics in the study of organic reaction mechanisms  DeWolfe, Robert H.
Examines the question: What are some of the things that can, and cannot, be learned about a reaction by studying its kinetics?
DeWolfe, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 95.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A second lecture in thermodynamics  Burton, Milton
Outlines an introduction for the three laws of thermodynamics
Burton, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 500.
Thermodynamics
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discussion of the conventions, definitions, and symbols of thermodynamics.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
Cryogenic calorimetric contributions to chemical thermodynamics  Westrum, Edgar F., Jr.
It is the purpose of this paper to review current areas of research in cryogenic calorimetry.
Westrum, Edgar F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 443.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
A model for introducing the entropy concept  Bockhoff, Frank J.
Describes a model system for introducing the entropy concept.
Bockhoff, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 340.
Thermodynamics
Total and static thermodynamic properties: Old gas dynamic properties which may be new to the chemist  Fletcher, Edward A.
Introduces the instructor and student to some thermodynamic ideas that are not usually part of the chemistry curriculum, including total and static temperature and pressure.
Fletcher, Edward A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 257.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A heat engine run by rubber  Cox, E. G.
Describes a rotating wheel powered by the alternate heating and cooling of rubber bands.
Cox, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 307.
Thermodynamics
Praseodymium tetrafluoride  Perros, Theodore P.; Munson, Thomas R.; Naeser, Charles R.
In spite of the experimental failures to prepare praseodymium tetrafluoride, there is strong evidence for its possible formation to be found by calculating the equilibrium constants for some of the reactions by which this compound might be prepared.
Perros, Theodore P.; Munson, Thomas R.; Naeser, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 402.
Oxidation State |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics