TIGER

Journal Articles: 702 results
Designing and Conducting a Purification Scheme as an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Practical  Kate J. Graham, Brian J. Johnson, T. Nicholas Jones, Edward J. McIntee, and Chris P. Schaller
Describes an open-ended laboratory practical that challenges students to evaluate when different purification techniques are appropriate.
Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Schaller, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1644.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
Assessing Nitration Products of Benzene Derivatives Using TLC Analysis  Rita K. Hessley
Thin layer chromatography is applied to an earlier published, guided discovery experiment using GCMS analyses to identify isomers formed by the nitration of mono-substituted benzenes.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1623.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds
Study of Molecular-Shape Selectivity of Zeolites by Gas Chromatography  Pei-Yu Chao, Yao-Yuan Chuang, Grace Hsiuying Ho, Shiow-Huey Chuang, Tseng-Chang Tsai, Chi-Young Lee, Shang-Tien Tsai, and Jun-Fu Huang
This analytical or physical chemistry sorption experiment uses hexane isomers as probe molecules to demonstrate the "molecular-shape selectivity" behavior of zeolites. Students can also modify the sorption protocol to build their own experiments.
Chao, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Yao-Yuan; Ho, Grace Hsiuying; Chuang, Shiow-Huey; Tsai, Tseng-Chang; Lee, Chi-Young; Tsai, Shang-Tien; Huang, Jun-Fu. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1558.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Recognition
Borohydride Reduction of Estrone  Animesh Aditya, David E. Nichols, and G. Marc Loudon
This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity using chiral hindered ketones that undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride. The resulting diastereomeric estradiols can be analyzed and differentiated by thin-layer chromatography and melting point.
Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1535.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Steroids |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Comparative Nucleophilicity of Naphthoxide Derivatives in Reactions with a Fast-Red TR Dye  Cheryl M. Mascarenhas
In this experiment, organic chemistry students perform reactions between three naphthyl acetate derivatives and the diazonium salt Fast-Red TR. Students discover under what conditions the hydrolysis and electrophilic aromatic substitution is fastest and slowest, allowing them to conclude that latter, rather than the former, is rate-limiting.
Mascarenhas, Cheryl M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1271.
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H2S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds  Indu Tucker Sidhwani and Sushmita Chowdhury
The classic technique for the qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures relies on highly toxic hydrogen sulfide. Increasing environmental awareness has prompted the development of a green scheme for the detection of cations by spot tests that is simple and fast.
Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1099.
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography  Benjamin T. Burlingham and Joseph C. Rettig
Presents a microscale experiment in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions and the products determined through thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students evaluate proposed mechanisms for each dihydroxylation in light of the data collected.
Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 959.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
HPLC Analysis of α- and β-Acids in Hops  Travis M. Danenhower, Leyna A. Force, Kenneth J. Petersen, Thomas A. Betts, and Gary A. Baker
Describes a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantitation of the predominant a-acids (humulone, cohumulone, and adhumulone) and -acids (lupulone, colupulone, and adlupulone) present in hops.
Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna A.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 954.
Chromatography |
Food Science |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Plant Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography  James V. McCullagh and Nicholas Ramos
In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto seeds using column chromatography and then analyzed by UVvis and IR spectroscopy. The procedure has several advantages over previous pigment separation experiments.
McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 948.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Preparation and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Library of Esters  Elizabeth M. Sanford and Traci L. Smith
In this investigative case study, students work collaboratively to prepare and characterize a library of esters using Fischer esterification and alcoholysis of acid chlorides and their subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis by pig liver and orange peel esterases.
Sanford, Elizabeth M.; Smith, Traci L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 944.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Esters |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Resolution of Ibuprofen, 2-(4′-Isobutylphenyl)propionic Acid  James V. McCullagh
In this experiment the over-the-counter pain reliever ibuprofen is resolved using (S)-(-)-a-phenethylamine as the resolving agent. This procedure has several key advantages over previous resolution experiments.
McCullagh, James V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 941.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enantiomers |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
If You Were a Molecule in a Chromatography Column, What Would You See?  John Mattice
To visualize what takes place in a chromatography column, enlarge the molecules to human size and expand the columns to keep the ratio of size of molecule to size of column the same. Using such a model, this article explains how band broadening occurs as a result of resistance to mass transfer, multiple flow paths, and stagnant mobile phase.
Mattice, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 925.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Mosher Amides: Determining the Absolute Stereochemistry of Optically-Active Amines  Damian A. Allen, Anthony E. Tomaso, Jr., Owen P. Priest, David F. Hindson, and Jamie L. Hurlburt
In this experiment, teams of students are given an optically-pure amine of known structure but unknown stereochemistry. Different teams derivatize samples of the amine with (R) and (S) conformations of Mosher's acid chloride. The resulting diastereomers are analyzed by NMR to determine the absolute configuration of the initial, unknown amine.
Allen, Damian A.; Tomaso, Anthony E., Jr.; Priest, Owen P.; Hindson, David F.; Hurlburt, Jamie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 698.
Amides |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Diastereomers |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper  Mark Mascal and Richard Scown
In this experiment, waste newspaper is pulped with acid and its cellulose hydrolyzed to produce glucose syrup that is fermented and distilled to yield ethanol. In doing so, students are introduced to carbohydrate chemistry and the use of fermentation in organic synthesis.
Mascal, Mark; Scown, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Colorful Column Chromatography: A Classroom Demonstration of a Three-Component Separation  Lars V. Heumann
Describes a classroom demonstration for the separation of a ternary mixture consisting of intensely colored compounds using silica gel column chromatography.
Heumann, Lars V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 524.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Simple Method for Drawing Chiral Mononuclear Octahedral Metal Complexes  Aminou Mohamadou and Arnaud Haudrechy
This article presents a simple and progressive method to draw all of the octahedral complexes of coordination units with at least two different monodentate ligands and show their chiral properties.
Mohamadou, Aminou; Haudrechy, Arnaud. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 436.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Coordination Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Transition Elements
Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts of Tricyclic Cationic Drugs: A One-Pot Synthesis for the Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Linda S. Brunauer, Abid C. Mogannam, Won B. Hwee, and James Y. Chen
Describes a one-pot conversion of tricyclic cationic drugs to their quaternary ammonium forms for a widely used bioactive drug, chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine-based antipsychotic. The conversion of parent drug to the methylated form was evaluated by qualitatively measuring its ability to induce alterations in the shape of mammalian erythrocytes.
Brunauer, Linda S.; Mogannam, Abid C.; Hwee, Won B.; Chen, James Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1992.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Maleic Acid at Moderate Pressures  Kwesi Amoa
This article demonstrates the reduction of maleic acid in about 90 minutes using moderate-pressure catalytic hydrogenation.
Amoa, Kwesi. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1948.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones  Nicholas G. Angelo, Laura K. Henchey, Adam J. Waxman, James W. Canary, Paramjit S. Arora, and Donald Wink
Describes an experiment in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and ketone and make use of TLC, column chromatography, recrystallization, and characterization by 1H NMR, GCMS, and FTIR.
Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1816.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC  Gregory T. Rushton, William G. Burns, Judi M. Lavin, Yong S. Chong, Perry Pellechia, and Ken D. Shimizu
After the synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, students estimate the rotational barrier about a CarylNimidesingle bond by studying the reequilibration of the two resulting isomers using two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, followed by a more accurate determination through a 1H NMR time study.
Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1499.
Alcohols |
Chromatography |
Conformational Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Revisiting the Separation of Ferrocene and Acetylferrocene by Adsorption Chromatography: Adding a Third Component  Rebecca Hwa and Haim Weizman
The separation of ferrocene and acetylferrocene by column chromatography has been expanded into a three-component mixture to increase the challenge of the experiment and to make TLC analysis necessary.
Hwa, Rebecca; Weizman, Haim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1497.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis of Anomeric Methyl Fructofuranosides and Their Separation on an Ion-exchange Resin  Erkki Nurminen, Päivi Poijärvi, Katja Koskua, and Jari Hovinen
Treatment of d-fructose with methanol in the presence of acid as a catalyst gives a mixture of methyl--d-fructopyranoside, methyl-a-D-fructofuranoside, and methyl--d- fructofuranoside, which are separated on an ion exchange column and characterized polarimetrically.
Nurminen, Erkki; Poijärvi, Päivi; Koskua, Katja; Hovinen, Jari. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1480.
Carbocations |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Ion Exchange |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Carbohydrates
Analysis and Identification of Acid–Base Indicator Dyes by Thin-Layer Chromatography  Daniel D. Clark
Presents an experiment that serves to illustrate the fundamentals and utility of thin-layer chromatography through the resolution and identification of brightly colored, acidbase indicator dyes on the basis of Rf values and color.
Clark, Daniel D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1186.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Vanillin Synthesis from 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde  Douglass F. Taber, Shweta Patel, Travis M. Hambleton, and Emma E. Winkel
Describes a simple and safe preparation of vanillin from 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde appropriate for undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories.
Taber, Douglass F.; Patel, Shweta; Hambleton, Travis M.; Winkel, Emma E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1158.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Food Science |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  Amber Victoria Irish Hess
Thin-layer chromatography enhanced by digital photography is ideal for high school and college labs and can perform qualitative and quantitative analysis comparable to more expensive, high-performance TLC equipment. Using common photo-editing software, one can quickly produce multi-spectral scans, densitograms, and calibration curves, output previously limited to HPTLC.
Hess, Amber Victoria Irish. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 842.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography
Isolation of Three Components from Spearmint Oil: An Exercise in Column and Thin-Layer Chromatography  Don R. Davies and Todd M. Johnson
In this exercise, the three major components of spearmint oil, (+)-limonene, L-(-)-carvone, and (1R,2R,4R)-dihydrocarveol, are separated by silica gel column chromatography. The separation is monitored by thin-layer chromatography, and IR analysis is employed to verify the identity of the separated components.
Davies, Don R.; Johnson, Todd M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 318.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Dynamic Stereochemistry: A Simple Approach To Delineating Relative Configuration  Dipak K. Mandal
A simple approach is presented for delineating relative stereochemistry of the product in reactions involving stereogenic center(s).
Mandal, Dipak K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 274.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Precision in Stereochemical Terminology  LeRoy G. Wade, Jr.
This article recommends that instructors use the precise terms asymmetric carbon atom and chirality center when they apply, and use the broader term stereocenter only when there is a need to include stereogenic atoms that are not chirality centers.
Wade, LeRoy G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1793.
Chemical Technicians |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity
An Inexpensive Device for Capillary Electrophoresis with Fluorescence Detection  Greg Anderson, Jonathan E. Thompson, and Khriesto Shurrush
Describes an inexpensive device for performing capillary electrophoresis separations with fluorescence detection. As a demonstration of utility, the device is used to determine the mass of riboflavin in a commercially available dietary supplement.
Anderson, Greg; Thompson, Jonathan E.; Shurrush, Khriesto. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1677.
Electrophoresis |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Using a Simulated Industrial Setting for the Development of an Improved Solvent System for the Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid: A Student-Centered Project  Timothy R. Hightower and Jay D. Heeren
Presents a peer-led, problem-solving organic laboratory exercise that provide students with an opportunity to produce a more efficient recrystallization solvent in an industrial environment.
Hightower, Timothy R.; Heeren, Jay D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1663.
Carboxylic Acids |
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Andri L. Smith and Paula Tan
Describes the synthesis of creatine monohydratea popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energyfor introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. The synthesis illustrates the electrophilic nature of nitriles, as well as the nucleophilic nature of amines.
Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1654.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Calix[4]pyrrole: Synthesis and Anion-Binding Properties. An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  James A. Shriver and Scott G. Westphal
Simple calixpyrrole macrocycles provide an easy-to-synthesize example of an anion-binding agent that can be included in the undergraduate laboratory curriculum. The inclusion of a test for anion binding also makes this procedure suitable for a more advanced audience and supplies a bridge for the introduction of supramolecular chemistry and a typical hostguest interaction.
Shriver, James A.; Westphal, Scott G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1330.
Aromatic Compounds |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Recognition |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Step-by-Step Robinson Annulation of Chalcone and Ethyl Acetoacetate. An Advanced Undergraduate Project in Organic Synthesis and Structural Analysis  Lionel Delaude, Jean Grandjean, and Alfred F. Noels
The Robinson annulation is a three-step process involving a Michael addition followed by an internal aldol condensation and a dehydration. It is possible to stop the reaction after every step and to isolate the three products, allowing students to confirm the validity of the stepwise mechanism and develop a more thorough understanding of the whole process.
Delaude, Lionel; Grandjean, Jean; Noels, Alfred F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1225.
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Conformational Analysis |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Analysis of the Thickening Agents in Automotive Greases by GC–MS  David Mayotte, Craig J. Donahue, and Cheryl A. Snyder
Describes a laboratory procedure for the identification of the thickening agents in lubricating greases by GCMS.
Mayotte, David; Donahue, Craig J.; Snyder, Cheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 902.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Fatty Acids
Acetal Protecting Groups in the Organic Laboratory: Synthesis of Methyl 4,6-O-Benzylidene-α-D-Glucopyranoside  Alexei V. Demchenko, Papapida Pornsuriyasak, and Cristina De Meo
The synthesis of methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-a-D-glucopyranoside provides an opportunity to synthesize a cyclic acetal; stereoselectively introduce a chirality center; and learn extraction, evaporation, precipitation, optical rotation, melting point measurement, thin-layer chromatography, IR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and various NMR techniques.
Demchenko, Alexei V.; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; De Meo, Cristina. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 782.
Carbohydrates |
IR Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
A Greener Approach to Aspirin Synthesis Using Microwave Irradiation  Ingrid Montes, David Sanabria, Marilyn García,, Joaudimir Castro, and Johanna Fajardo
Presents an inquiry-based laboratory experience based on the use of a microwave oven as a means for a comparative study of the effect of different catalysts in the synthesis of aspirin.
Montes, Ingrid; Sanabria, David; García,, Marilyn; Castro, Joaudimir; Fajardo, Johanna. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 628.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Esters |
Green Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Grubbs's Cross Metathesis of Eugenol with cis-2-Butene-1,4-diol To Make a Natural Product. An Organometallic Experiment for the Undergraduate Lab   Douglass F. Taber and Kevin J. Frankowski
Describes the ruthenium catalyzed cross metathesis of eugenol with cis-1,4-butenediol. The experiment is an excellent example of the powerful selectivity possible with the Grubbs' catalyst, demonstrating the preference for trans over cis alkene formation and for cross metathesis over homodimerization.
Taber, Douglass F.; Frankowski, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 283.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
The Chemistry of Highly Fluorinated Compounds  William F. Coleman
Highly fluorinated compounds modeled in this month's Feature include fluorous phenylboronic acid, fluorous alkyl phospine, fluorous acid, fluorous chlorosilane, and fluorous reverse-phase silica gel.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 92.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Fluorous Compounds and Their Role in Separation Chemistry  Maria Angeles Ubeda and Roman Dembinski
Reviews fluorous technology and outlines strategies towards organic synthesis.
Ubeda, Maria Angeles; Dembinski, Roman. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 84.
Amino Acids |
Catalysis |
Esters |
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Synthesis
Comparative Methylation of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone: Chemoselectivity in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Grigoriy A. Sereda
Describes a laboratory experiment that gives organic chemistry students an example of an environmentally friendly pyrolytic procedure of organic synthesis. Another synthesis with the same reactants teaches the students that appropriate reaction conditions may allow the chemist to perform an organic reaction with high chemoselectivity.
Sereda, Grigoriy A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1839.
Reactions |
Ethers |
Green Chemistry |
Phenols |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Just Click It: Undergraduate Procedures for the Copper(I)-Catalyzed Formation of 1,2,3-Triazoles from Azides and Terminal Acetylenes  William D. Sharpless, Peng Wu, Trond Vidar Hansen, and James G. Lindberg
In keeping with the defining aspects of click chemistry, this reaction is high-yielding, requires no chromatography, is easily monitored by TLC, and displays distinct peaks in both IR and 1H-NMR. Virtually all products precipitate, and with just a few different starting blocks, every student, or pair of lab partners, can produce a unique "clicked" compound.
Sharpless, William D.; Wu, Peng; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Lindberg, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1833.
Catalysis |
Heterocycles |
Alkynes |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis  Brian F. Woodfield, Merritt B. Andrus, Gregory L. Waddoups, Melissa S. Moore, Richard Swan, Rob Allen, Greg Bodily, Tricia Andersen, Jordan Miller, Bryon Simmons, and Richard Stanger
Describes a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. The purpose of these simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments.
Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1728.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 6. Selective Reduction in Organic Chemistry: Reduction of Aldehydes in the Presence of Esters Using Sodium Borohydride  Ashvin R. Baru and Ram S. Mohan
Describes two discovery oriented lab experiments involving the chemoselective reduction of vanillin acetate and methyl 4-formylbenzoate in the presence of esters using sodium borohydride, followed by product identification using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
Baru, Ashvin R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1674.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Monoterpene Unknowns Identified Using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, and HETCOR  Lisa T. Alty
This set of NMR experiments can be a capstone experience for a spectroscopy or advanced laboratory course following organic chemistry. Students are given a monoterpene to identify using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and DEPT data. Once the unknown is identified, they can fully interpret and assign each carbon and each proton signal to the structure using COSY and HETCOR along with the one-dimensional NMR data. The rigidity of the ring systems and the chiral centers in all of the compounds present diastereotopic hydrogens and, in some cases, diastereotopic methyl groups.
Alty, Lisa T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1387.
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research
Cis and Trans Isomers of Cycloalkenes  Susan E. Barrows and Thomas H. Eberlein
The purpose of this article is to provide that analysis. In order for a cycloalkene to accommodate a trans double bond one or more of the following nonideal geometries must occur: a twisted p bond; pyramidal sp2-carbon atoms; nonideal sp3 bond angles; or longer than normal CC single and double bonds. This article provides a list of experimentally determined relative energies of the cis and trans isomers within the series cycloheptenecycloundecene, along with computationally derived energies at several levels of theory. It also examines the geometric distortions through which cycloalkenes relieve the strain introduced by a trans double bond.
Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1334.
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers
Ewing's Analytical Instrumentation Handbook, 3rd Edition (Jack Cazes)  Jack K. Steehler
This resource is a figurative and literal heavyweight. Its 31 chapters and more than 1000 large-size pages (filled with small text) provide an enormous amount of information. About a third of the book discusses spectroscopic techniques (11 chapters, all the standard types of spectroscopy); the second third covers various separation methods (10 chapters); and the remaining third hits a cross section of other topics, including four chapters on electrochemistry and three chapters on automation. The core of spectroscopy and separation science is appropriate and well chosen, covering the expected topics. There is even a chapter on Validation of Chromatographic Methods, an important topic for any lab working in a regulated environment. Additional, more unusual chapters include a chapter on Chiroptical Spectroscopy and a long chapter (100 pages) on Microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip methods, both of current research interest.
Steehler, Jack K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1315.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Substituted Benzoic Acids. An Experiment for the Organic Synthesis Laboratory  Nancy S. Mills, John D. Spence, and Michelle M. Bushey
We have introduced an experiment into the organic chemistry sequence, in the synthesis laboratory, that utilizes capillary electrophoresis to evaluate the pKa shift on a series of student-prepared substituted benzoic acids. The pKa shift is examined in reference to the electrophoretic-migration behavior of benzoic acid and is a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the substituent. This strategy allows us to increase the exposure of students to modern methods of separation. We are using repeated exposure to increase students' knowledge of separation strategies and techniques.
Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1226.
Synthesis |
Electrophoresis |
Grignard Reagents |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene   Judith C. Amburgey-Peters and LeRoy W. Haynes
We investigated the reaction of (Z)-1,2-diphenylethene (cis-stilbene) with various brominating reagents and solvents following directions in standard organic chemistry manuals. We were particularly interested in learning which combination of brominating reagent and solvent gave the best yield of (d,l)-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane without the formation of significant amounts of meso-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane, which is essentially the sole product from the reaction of bromine with (E)-1,2-diphenylethene (trans-stilbene). Based on the results from the standard preparatory methods, some permutations of solvent and brominating reagent were tried.
Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1051.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
An Engaging Illustration of the Physical Differences among Menthol Stereoisomers  Edward M. Treadwell and T. Howard Black
The differences and similarities in the physical behavior of enantiomers and diastereomers can easily be demonstrated using the commercial stereoisomers (-)-menthol, (+)-menthol, (+)-isomenthol, and (+)-neomenthol. Thin-layer chromatography and melting point determinations clearly show that diastereomers have different physical properties from enantiomers and each other, but that enantiomers have identical physical properties in achiral environments. By obtaining a mixed melting point and optical rotations the difference in enantiomers can be observed.
Treadwell, Edward M.; Black, T. Howard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1046.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Physical Properties
Enantiomeric Resolution of (±)-Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(–)-Ephedrine. An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  Marsha R. Baar and Andrea L. Cerrone-Szakal
There has been an increasing need, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, to prepare chiral substances in single-isomer form. A chiral technique that makes an excellent introductory organic chemistry experiment is enantiomeric resolution. The classical resolution of ()-mandelic acid using the chiral amine, (1R,2S)-()-ephedrine, was adapted for use in introductory organic chemistry lab curricula.
Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1040.
Acids / Bases |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  David P. Elder
The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed.
Elder, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 575.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Ion Exchange |
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Separation and Determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with Cation-Exchange Chromatography and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. An Experiment for Quantitative Methods of Analysis  Ali Bazzi, Bette Kreuz, James Wuokila, and Ahmed Maqboul
This article reports on the separation and determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with cation-exchange chromatography and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. A sample containing the two ions is added to a column containing a cation-exchange resin; the Cr(VI) ions are not retained by the resin and are collected in the effluent. The Cr(III) ions are retained by the resin and eluted with an HCl solution. The separated ions are aspirated into an air/acetylene flame and the absorbance measurements are made at 357.9 nm and 0.2-nm slit width. The experiment has been implemented in a quantitative methods of analysis course.
Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Wuokila, James; Maqboul, Ahmed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 435.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
M&M Orange  Kurt R. Birdwhistell and Thomas G. Spence
We cannot confirm or dispute Elders assignment of the identity of the dye. Without doing a few experiments we cannot comment further.
Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Spence, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 209.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
M&M Orange  John W. Elder
The article A New Glow on the Chromatography of M&M Candies was of interest to us as we had run a similar experiment using Kool-Aid dyes for some time. Last year we included this experiment in our organic labs on chromatography with considerable success. But I was intrigued by the identity of the unidentified orange listed in the supplementary material as being found in orange and brown M&Ms.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 209.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Checkerboard Chromatography  Charles A. Smith
This hands-on activity allows students to simulate chromatographic simulations using a grid, colored pieces of paper, and a six-sided die. Students observe the separation as it is occurring and perform experiments on flow rate, column length, and mobile phase composition.
Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 384A.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples. An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory  Christopher J. Pursell, Bert Chandler, and Michelle M. Bushey
This experiment can be done in a lab, as a "dry-lab", or as an in-class exercise. Students explore a number of basic separation topics and work with figures of merit for real and meaningful samples. We have adopted a strategy where students encounter various instruments and methods of analyses multiple times throughout the curriculum. The level of sophistication in the exposures increases with the experience level of the students. Through this repeated exposure students will gain a better and fuller understanding of these methods than they would with a single exposure to the technique in the analytical or instrumental laboratory.
Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1783.
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chemometrics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples  Rebecca J. Whelan, Theresa E. Hannon, David J. Rakestraw, and Richard N. Zare
An experiment using ion chromatography in an undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory is described. The students, working in small groups, are responsible for identifying a real-world system of interest and for developing a strategy to investigate that system. The students gain specific skills and knowledge about chromatography as well as more general analytical skills including sample preparation, system calibration, determination of detection limits, and data analysis. Two specific examples of experiments done by students in the class are presented: the determination of lead in hair dye and the determination of anions in orange juice.
Whelan, Rebecca J.; Hannon, Theresa E.; Rakestraw, David J.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1299.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography  Paul R. Haddad, Matthew J. Shaw, John E. Madden, and Greg W. Dicinoski
An ion chromatography exercise is described that uses a free Internet-based software package, Virtual Column 2, to simulate retention behavior and to optimize separation conditions. Virtual Column 2 permits the detailed study of retention behavior of inorganic anions on a Dionex AS11 column using isocratic hydroxide eluents and also on a Dionex AS4ASC column using carbonate-bicarbonate eluents. Collection of retention data from Virtual Column 2 allows students to investigate the effects of variation in eluent composition on retention, to examine separation selectivity in ion chromatography, and to evaluate the performance of simple retention models.
Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1293.
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
The History of Ion Chromatography: The Engineering Perspective  Barton Evans
This article traces the history of the engineering development related to the several generations of ion chromatography instruments, columns, suppressers, and software. In so doing, several representative engineering challenges and their outcomes are discussed including: early directions (traveling without a road map, or "going where the applications are"), dealing with an extremely corrosive mobile phase (aka: the "eluent"), resolving the inherent incompatibilities of nonmetallic flow paths with the benefits of high-pressure, elevated temperature operation, managing the ever-evolving nature of the suppressor, coping with requirements for ultra high-end online systems, and providing extremely simple-to-use dedicated analyzer systems.
Evans, Barton. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1285.
Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Ion Chromatography: An Account of Its Conception and Early Development  Hamish Small
In the late 1950s, a small group of chemists at the Dow Chemical Company envisioned replacing these classical methods of inorganic analysis with but a single, universal chromatographic technique. They called their project "Inorganic Chromatography". This article describes how they developed this concept into a new technique, ready for commercial development into what we know today as "Ion Chromatography". In particular, the account will describe: how the Dow scientists adapted electrical conductance monitoring to chromatography, the introduction of the suppressor to chromatography, the invention of special stationary phases, and the evolution of strategies and principles that would shape and guide the practice of ion chromatography for many years to come.
Small, Hamish. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1277.
Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
An Improved Method for the Extraction and Thin-Layer Chromatography of Chlorophyll a and b from Spinach  Hao T. Quach, Robert L. Steeper, and G. William Griffin
A direct method of extracting plant pigments from spinach leaves into a dry organic solvent is presented. This method avoids liquidliquid extractions and subsequent drying as is found in previously reported methods.
Quach, Hao T.; Steeper, Robert L.; Griffin, G. William. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 385.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Novel Strategies for the Removal of Toxic Metals from Soils and Waters  D. Max Roundhill
This article surveys the toxicities of mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, cadmium, and the actinides. Strategies for the removal of these metals include surfactants, aqueous biphasic systems, and liquid membranes. For soils, both in situ stabilization and detection are discussed.
Roundhill, D. Max. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 275.
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Toxicology
Magnetic Particle Technology. A Simple Preparation of Magnetic Composites for the Adsorption of Water Contaminants  Luiz C. A. Oliveira, Rachel V. R. A. Rios, José D. Fabris, Rochel M. Lago, and Karim Sapag
In this article a simple undergraduate laboratory experiment to produce magnetic adsorbents is described. These magnetic materials efficiently adsorb contaminants from water and can be easily removed from the medium by a simple magnetic separation process.
Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Rios, Rachel V.R.A.; Fabris, José D.; Lago, Rochel M.; Sapag, Karim. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 248.
Green Chemistry |
Magnetic Properties |
Materials Science |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Patty L. Feist
Students are given a mixture of a solid ketone and a solid alcohol and asked to separate and identify the two components. First the students use TLC to determine the optimum solvent system to separate the two compounds, then they separate the unknowns on a microscale flash chromatography column. The students acquire the melting point, and if possible, the IR and 1H NMR spectra for each separated compound and identify them by matching the observed data with that of known compounds.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 109.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Manual Microscale Column Chromatography Pressurization Apparatus  Bruce W. Baldwin
Pressurization of a Pasteur pipet for microscale chromatography is simplified by connecting a 20- or 30-mL syringe to the pipet using a length of Tygon tubing. This simple system allows the student to easily dry-pack a column using common chromatography packing materials.
Baldwin, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1182.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
A Discovery Approach to Three Organic Laboratory Techniques: Extraction, Recrystallization, and Distillation  Gail Horowitz
In each experiment, one or more parameters, such as solvent volume, time, or boiling point difference, is varied. Students compare the results of all variations and draw conclusions as to the underlying principles. The article concludes with an assessment of the effectiveness of these experiments.
Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1039.
Separation Science
Simulating Chromatographic Separations in the Classroom  Charles A. Smith and F. Warren Villaescusa
Using this classroom simulation, students develop a set of rules used to investigate the effect of flow rate, column dimension, particle size, and mobile/stationary phase affinity on chromatographic separations. While performing the simulation, the concepts of longitudinal and eddy diffusion are dramatically illustrated.
Smith, Charles A.; Villaescusa, F. Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1023.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Rules of Thumb for Assessing Equilibrium Partitioning of Organic Compounds: Successes and Pitfalls  Kai-Uwe Goss and René P. Schwarzenbach
Factors to consider when predicting equilibrium partitioning of organic compounds between two phases, including volatility, polarity, and hydrophobicity; and a simple model for the evaluation of bulk phase partitioning.
Goss, Kai-Uwe; Schwarzenbach, René P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 450.
Equilibrium |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Separation Science |
Thermodynamics
Like Dissolves Like: A Guided Inquiry Experiment for Organic Chemistry  Ingrid Montes, Chunqiu Lai, and David Sanabria
A guided-inquiry experience designed to illustrate factors that influence the solubility of organic compounds.
Montes, Ingrid; Lai, Chunqiu; Sanabria, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 447.
Learning Theories |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Identification of Forensic Samples via Mitochondrial DNA in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory  Julie T. Millard and André M. Pilon
Identification of forensic samples via mitochondrial DNA in a hypothetical kidnapping case.
Millard, Julie T.; Pilon, André M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 444.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Biotechnology |
Forensic Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds  Megumi Fujita, Helen M. Mah, Paulo W. M. Sgarbi, Manjinder S. Lall, Tai Wei Ly, and Lois M. Browne
Software to help students understand the theoretical basis and actual procedures for separating organic compounds from a mixture using liquid-liquid extraction; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 107.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
Micelle-Mediated Extraction of Heavy Metals from Environmental Samples: An Environmental Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Dimosthenis L. Giokas, Evangelos K. Paleologos, and Miltiades I. Karayannis
A laboratory focussing on the determination of metallic elements in drinking water through cloud-point extraction.
Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Karayannis, Miltiades I. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 61.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Teaching Experimental Design Using a GC–MS Analysis of Cocaine on Money: A Cross-Disciplinary Laboratory  Christopher A. Heimbuck and Nathan W. Bower
An opportunity for students to develop and use experimental designs to refine and optimize an extraction technique from the literature.
Heimbuck, Christopher A.; Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1254.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
The Mechanism of the Ritter Reaction in Combination with Wagner-Meerwein Rearrangements. A Cooperative Learning Experience  María I. Colombo, María L. Bohn, and Edmundo A. Rúveda
Procedure in which students develop analytical and problem-solving skills by investigating an organic reaction mechanism, predicting the most likely products, and suggesting experiments to test the postulated mechanistic pathways and possible intermediates.
Colombo, María I.; Bohn, María L.; Rúveda, Edmundo A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 484.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Amides |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Isolation of Rubber from Milkweed Leaves. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab  Lisa Volaric and John P. Hagen
Experiment that teaches many basic laboratory techniques (refluxing, vacuum filtering, extracting, centrifuging, and IR fingerprinting) while introducing students to polymers and natural-product isolations.
Volaric, Lisa; Hagen, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 91.
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
Effect of Anisotropy on the Chemical Shift of Vinyl Protons in trans- and cis-1,2-Dibenzoylethylenes. A Small-Group or Recitation Activity  Roosevelt Shaw, David Roane, and Sean Nedd
Procedure to help students explain chemical shift differences for vinyl protons in alkene diastereomers.
Shaw, Roosevelt; Roane, David; Nedd, Sean. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 67.
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determination of Free Lime in Clinker and Cement by Iodometry. An Undergraduate Experiment in Redox Titrimetry  Oi-Wah Lau, Shiu-Fai Luk, Nina L. N. Cheng, and Hoi-Yin Woo
Experiment to determine the free lime in cement and clinker through iodometry.
Lau, Oi-Wah; Luk, Shiu-Fai; Cheng, Nina L. N.; Woo, Hoi-Yin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
Recovery and Reutilization of Waste Matter from Coffee Preparation. An Experiment for Environmental Science Courses  Santino Orecchio
Separation of fat from used coffee grounds, analysis of its characteristics and that of the remaining degreased residue, and transformation of the extracted fat into soap.
Orecchio, Santino. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1669.
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Fatty Acids
Using Capillary Electrophoresis to Determine the Purity of Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Frank Welder and Christa L. Colyer
Determination of the concentration of synthesized acetylsalicylic acid and unreacted salicylic acid using capillary electrophoresis.
Welder, Frank; Colyer, Christa L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1525.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
The Combined Effects of pH and Percent Methanol on the HPLC Separation of Benzoic Acid and Phenol  Seema M. Joseph and John A. Palasota
Investigating the combined effects of pH and percent methanol on the HPLC separation of benzoic acid and phenol.
Joseph, Seema M.; Palasota, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1381.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols
Thin-Layer Electrophoresis  Tom Lyons Fisher, Tara Leslie Fitzsimmons, and I. David Reingold
Thin-layer electrophoresis apparatus.
Fisher, Tom Lyons; Fitzsimmons, Tara Leslie; Reingold, I. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1241.
Amino Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Investigation of Secondary Metabolites in Plants. A General Protocol for Undergraduate Research in Natural Products  Jonathan Cannon, Du Li, Steven G. Wood, Noel L. Owen, Alexandra Gromova, and Vladislav Lutsky
Typical experimental procedures to extract and isolate individual chemical constituents from a plant, suggestions for some simple procedures to test for selected bioactivity, and explain how the molecular structures of natural products may be determined using spectroscopic techniques.
Cannon, Jonathan; Li, Du; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.; Gromova, Alexandra; Lutsky, Vladislav. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1234.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Separation Science
Correction to Computational Investigations for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: Modeling a TLC Exercise to Investigate Molecular Structure and Intermolecular Forces (J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 203-205)  Rita K. Hessley
Corrections to original article.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1183.
Chromatography |
Computational Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Separation Science
Correction to Computational Investigations for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: Modeling a TLC Exercise to Investigate Molecular Structure and Intermolecular Forces (J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 203-205)  Rita K. Hessley
Missing reference and incorrect citation in original article.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1183.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Learning Theories |
Chromatography |
Computational Chemistry |
Separation Science
A Useful System for Microscale and Semi-microscale Fractional Distillation of Air-Sensitive Substances with High Boiling Points  J. Alfredo Gutiérrez
A procedure to purify air-sensitive liquids with high boiling points using a horizontal distilling apparatus that avoids extreme refluxing and can efficiently separate the fractions of a mixture.
Gutiérrez, J. Alfredo. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 653.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Small-Scale Filtration Using a Modified Plastic Syringe  Mikael Begtrup
A simple procedure is described for manual, small-scale pressure filtration performed in a modified plastic syringe.
Begtrup, Mikael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 543.
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Simulating How a Virus Spreads through a Population: An Introduction to Acid-Base Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Ronald M. Jarret
The traditional lab exercise that achieves separation of a mixture of 4-aminoacetophenone and benzoic acid by chemically active extraction has been expanded to include an exercise that uses materials from the extraction experiment to simulate how a virus spreads through a population.
Jarret, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 525.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
A Preparative TLC Applicator  Tom Lyons Fisher and Charles P. Gilman
The construction of a simple and inexpensive sample applicator for preparative thin layer chromatography is described.
Fisher, Tom Lyons; Gilman, Charles P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 367.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
What Factors Affect the Separation of Substances Using Thin-Layer Chromatography? An Undergraduate Experiment  John J. Nash, Jeanne A. Meyer, and Barbara Everson
The experiment reported here illustrates the potentially dramatic effects on TLC Rf values of not equilibrating the solvent atmosphere during development of a TLC plate.
Nash, John J.; Meyer, Jeanne A.; Everson, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 364.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Safe and Efficient Flash Chromatography Equipment for the Research/Teaching Lab  Fritiof Pontén and Ulf Ellervik
A new method for performing flash chromatography is presented in which the solvent reservoir is at the side of the column, in a separate bottle, connected with a Teflon tube to an adapter for standard flash chromatography columns.
Pontén, Fritiof; Ellervik, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 363.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Drug Distribution: A Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiment in Coupled Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Equilibria  John Hein and Michael Jeannot
This experiment gives students an opportunity to study the distribution of a drug (a common antihistamine drug, diphenhydramine) in a two-phase system by measuring the concentrations of two chemical species and predicting the others by considering charge balance, mass balance, and equilibrium constant expressions.
Hein, John; Jeannot, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 224.
Acids / Bases |
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  Doble Mukesh
Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs.
Mukesh, Doble. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 211.
Separation Science |
Learning Theories
The Escalator--An Analogy for Explaining Electroosmotic Flow  Andrew J. Vetter and Garrett J. McGowan
An analogy of people on an escalator for teaching the concept of electroosmotic flow. The moving escalator is analogous to the overall bulk flow of solution through the capillary (electroosmotic flow) and partly responsible for the separation of species using capillary electrophoresis (CE).
Vetter, Andrew J.; McGowan, Garrett J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 209.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Transport Properties |
Electrochemistry
Fast Ionic Migration of Copper Chromate  Adolf Cortel
Among the many demonstrations of ionic migration in an electric field, the ones showing the migration of colored Cu+2 and CrO4-2 ions are popular. The demonstration described here introduces some modifications to allow a fast displacement of these ions.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 207.
Covalent Bonding |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
Practical Capillary Electrophoresis, 2nd Edition by Robert Weinberger  Luanne Tilstra
Overview of how capillary electrophoresis (CE) is unique, a history of technique development, a list of commercially available instruments, the basic concepts that one must understand to design and understand a CE experiment, and other reference information of significance to CE.
Tilstra, Luanne. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 35.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Analysis of Common Household Cleaner-Disinfectants by Capillary Electrophoresis  William P. Gardner and James E. Girard
Capillary electrophoresis analysis for benzalkonium compounds in common household cleaners and disinfectants.
Gardner, William P.; Girard, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1335.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds |
Consumer Chemistry
Candies to Dye for: Cooperative, Open-Ended Student Activities to Promote Understanding of Electrophoretic Fractionation  Randall Emry, Robert D. Curtright, Jonathan Wright, and John Markwell
A three-part series of laboratory activities is presented that allows students to learn why electrophoretic separations work and to manipulate the factors that influence the separation process.
Emry, Randall; Curtright, Robert D.; Wright, Jonathan; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1323.
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Elucidation of Molecular Structure Using NMR Long-Range Coupling: Determination of the Single Isomer Formed in a Regiospecific Reaction  Samuel Delagrange and Françoise Nepveu
The experiment presented in this article introduces students to the main concepts of two essential NMR techniques for investigating molecular structure. Heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC) and proton-coupled 13C NMR are used to determine which isomer, from a possible two, is formed by a regiospecific reaction. The demonstration, based on long-range coupling between quaternary carbons and protons on neighboring carbons, is presented step by step.
Delagrange, Samuel; Nepveu, Françoise. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 895.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Reactions |
Diastereomers
Enantiomeric and Diastereoisomeric Relationships: A Practical Approach  V. Durieu, G. Martiat, M. Ch. Vandergeten, F. Pirsoul, F. Toubeau, and Agnès Van Camp
An experiment in organic chemistry in which the students prepare, purify, and characterize optical isomers. The three optical isomers of the bisoxalamides obtained by the reaction of racemic 1-phenylethylamine with diethyloxalate are separable by flash chromatography into the racemic mixture of (R,R) + (S,S) oxalamides and the (R,S) meso compound.
Durieu, V.; Martiat, G.; Vandergeten, M. Ch.; Pirsoul, F.; Toubeau, F.; Van Camp, Agnès. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 752.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Synthesis
Analysis of Diet Tonic Water Using Capillary Electrophoresis. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Experiment  Harvey B. Herman, John R. Jezorek, and Zhe Tang
An experiment for instrumental analysis is described in which components of diet tonic water are determined using capillary electrophoresis. Separation of quinine, saccharin, and benzoate in pH 7 phosphate buffer, with phenol as internal standard, is accomplished in about 12 minutes.
Herman, Harvey B.; Jezorek, John R.; Tang, Zhe. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 743.
Instrumental Methods |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and Quantification of Preservatives Using Ion Pair HPLC and CZE: An Extended Investigation of Separation Mechanisms  Mary Boyce and Evadne Spickett
This paper describes the separation of preservatives in food and cosmetic creams by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion pair HPLC, and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The experiments described here are designed to promote understanding of the separation mechanisms involved and give students an opportunity to compare and evaluate the different techniques.
Boyce, Mary; Spickett, Evadne. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 740.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
HPLC |
Electrophoresis
Rapid, Simple Quantitation in Thin-Layer Chromatography Using a Flatbed Scanner  Mitchell E. Johnson
Simply scanning a visibly stained TLC plate into a computer substitutes for much more expensive plate readers. With common image analysis software, "elution" profiles can be obtained. The resulting "chromatograms" can be analyzed in the same manner as other chromatograms.
Johnson, Mitchell E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 368.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Identification of Pharmaceuticals via Computer-Aided Thin Layer Chromatography  Anthony J. Macherone Jr. and Theodore J. Siek
This analytical laboratory experiment demonstrates the methodology of TLC in its relation to toxicology and forensic chemistry. It is easily adapted for high school seniors or undergraduates and employs experimental techniques associated with TLC and post-lab data analysis with concomitant introduction of concepts.
Macherone, Anthony J., Jr.; Siek, Theodore J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 366.
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Toxicology |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Isolating trans-Anethole from Anise Seeds and Elucidating Its Structure: A Project Utilizing One- and Two-Dimensional NMR Spectrometry  Joseph W. LeFevre
This three-week project involves isolating and purifying a natural product and determining its structure. trans-Anethole is isolated from anise seeds by steam distillation and liquid-liquid extraction. The crude product is analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and purified by flash chromatography.
LeFevre, Joseph W. . J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 361.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Isolation of Curcumin from Turmeric  Andrew M. Anderson, Matthew S. Mitchell, and Ram S. Mohan
The active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin, which is approximately 2% by weight of the root of turmeric. We have developed two simple procedures for isolation of curcumin from turmeric, making this a new and interesting natural product isolation experiment.
Anderson, Andrew M.; Mitchell, Matthew S.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 359.
Chromatography |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds
Introducing Chiroscience into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum  Kenny B. Lipkowitz, Tim Naylor, and Keith S. Anliker
"Chiroscience" is a young but robust industry linking science and technology with chemistry and biology; includes description of an asymmetric reduction of a ketone followed by an assessment of the enantiomeric excess by GC using a chiral stationary phase.
Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Naylor, Tim; Anliker, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 305.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Undergraduate Separations Utilizing Flash Chromatography  Gail Horowitz
This article describes the procedures used to carry out four flash chromatography experiments: the isolation of the carotenes, chlorophylls and xanthophylls from a spinach extract; the separation of -carotene from tetraphenyl cyclopentadienone; the isolation of (+) and (-) carvone from caraway and spearmint oil; and the purification of benzil from benzoin.
Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 263.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Computational Investigations for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: Modeling a TLC Exercise to Investigate Molecular Structure and Intermolecular Forces  Rita K. Hessley
In this exercise students carry out a pre-lab exercise in which they compute the dipole moment for a set of similar models representing a variety of functional group categories. Using their data, and supported by guided class discussion, students propose a working hypothesis about how TLC can be used to demonstrate the manner in which the relevant forces lead to predictable rates (extent, Rf) of elution.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 203.
Computational Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Chromatographic Separations Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges: Separation of Wine Phenolics  Charles A. Brenneman and Susan E. Ebeler
We describe a simple laboratory experiment that demonstrates the principles of chromatographic separation using solid-phase extraction columns and red wine. By adjusting pH and mobile phase composition, the wine is separated into three fractions of differing polarity. The content of each fraction can be monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy.
Brenneman, Charles A.; Ebeler, Susan E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1710.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry
Separation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons Using 2-Dimensional Thin-Layer Chromatography. An Environmental Chemistry Experiment  Geoffrey T. Crisp and Natalie M. Williamson
Students are given a soil sample from which they extract two (previously added) polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a Soxhlet apparatus. They determine the identity of the unknown PAHs by comparing the 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatograms of the soil sample extract and a standard solution, both of which they must run themselves.
Crisp, Geoffrey T.; Williamson, Natalie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1691.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Demonstrating Chemical and Analytical Concepts in the Undergraduate Laboratory Using Capillary Electrophoresis and Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography  Christopher P. Palmer
Alkyl parabens (4-hydroxy alkyl benzoates), which are common ingredients in cosmetic formulations, are separated by capillary electrophoresis. The electrophoretic mobilities of the parabens can be explained on the basis of their relative size. 3-Hydroxy ethylbenzoate is also separated to demonstrate the effect of substituent position on the acid dissociation constant and the effect this has on electrophoretic mobility.
Palmer, Christopher P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1542.
Colloids |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-diamine  Treptow, Richard S.
First successful resolution of the diamine.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1484.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
The Development of a Microscale Continuous Hot Solvent Extractor  Steve S. Wesolowski, Thomas Mulcahy, Christina M. Zafoni, and Wayne E. Wesolowski
To minimize the waste solvent produced, we have developed a microscale continuous hot solvent extractor that effectively extracts 100-500-mg samples using about 4 mL of solvent.
Wesolowski, Steve S.; Mulcahy, Thomas; Zafoni, Christina M.; Wesolowski, Wayne E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1116.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A Microscale Vacuum Distillation Apparatus for Simple Separations  Ulf Ellervik and Hans Grundberg
To improve microscale distillation in a basic organic chemistry course, a simple and highly efficient vacuum distillation apparatus was designed.
Ellervik, Ulf; Grundberg, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 986.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Separation and Quantification of Simple Ions by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Mary Boyce
A wide range of samples can be rapidly separated and quantified by CE, requiring only small amounts of sample and solvent. The experiments described here give a suitable introduction to capillary electrophoresis and effectively illustrate the mechanism of separation.
Boyce, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 815.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
A Way To Predict the Relative Stabilities of Structural Isomers  John M. Lyon
This paper discusses a method to evaluate the relative stabilities of structural isomers of inorganic and organic compounds. The method uses a simple set of rules that can be applied with only a knowledge of the electron configuration of the atoms and the periodic trends in atomic size.
Lyon, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 364.
Covalent Bonding |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Student Understanding of Chromatography: A Hands-On Approach  Robert D. Curtright, Randy Emry, and John Markwell*
This exercise sets up a collaborative activity that challenges students to develop a chromatographic solvent with the appropriate polarity to separate leaf chlorophyll and anthocyanin pigments by TLC. The suggested activity has been tested with both high-school advanced-chemistry students and with undergraduate students in an introductory biochemistry class.
Curtright, Robert D.; Emry, Randy; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 249.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Preparation of a Fluorescent Dye: A Microscale TLC Experiment  Daniel S. Calimente, Shannon M. Strand, Shao-Chieh Chang, and David E. Lewis
This paper describes an experiment that allows the instructor to introduce TLC as a technique for analyzing reaction mixtures by monitoring the formation of a fluorescent dye. The experiment also illustrates the effects of eluting solvent on elution order.
Calimente, Daniel S.; Strand, Shannon M.; Chang, Shao-Chieh; Lewis, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 82.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Photochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis and Separation of a Diastereomeric Sulfonium Ion by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Francisco A. Valenzuela, Thomas K. Green, and Darwin B. Dahl
An undergraduate laboratory exercise utilizing capillary zone electrophoresis in the analysis of the student-synthesized sulfonium ion sec-butylmethyl-p-tolylsulfonium tetrafluoroborate is presented. The sulfonium ion contains two stereogenic centers and thereby yields four optical isomers.
Valenzuela, Francisco A.; Green, Thomas K.; Dahl, Darwin B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1590.
Electrophoresis |
Stereochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Separation Science |
Synthesis
Stereowordimers-Minding Your P's and Q's  Edward G. Neeland
The use of words having different colored sides is a excellent way to introduce stereochemical concepts that might not be easily grasped when using molecular examples. We have found that concepts such as enantiomers, diastereomers, identical molecules, chirality, achirality, mirror planes of symmetry, and internal planes of symmetry are readily understood by students when using stereowordimer examples.
Neeland, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1573.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Simplified Method for the Microscale Extraction of Pigments from Spinach  Kimberley R. Cousins and Kathleen M. Pierson
A method is presented for microscale sample preparation for the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the pigments in spinach. A commercial vegetable juicer is used for the initial extraction from spinach. This is followed by filtration, liquid/liquid extraction, centrifugation, and evaporation.
Cousins, Kimberley R.; Pierson, Kathleen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1268.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Separation Techniques for Undergraduates  Darwin B. Dahl, John T. Riley, and Thomas K. Green
Over the past several years the Chemistry Department at Western Kentucky University (WKU) has sought to strengthen its undergraduate program departmental through acquisition of FT-NMR, fluorescence, electrochemical, thermal analysis, laser Raman, microscale organic, and polymer laboratory instrumentation; this has enabled the department to build a successful undergraduate program.
Dahl, Darwin B.; Riley, John T.; Green, Thomas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1209.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Microscale Lab
An Inexpensive Detector for Gas Chromatography  Allan L. Smith, Edward J. Thorne, and Wolfgang Nadler
We have developed a low-cost (parts cost approximately $70) detector that can be used in a freshman level class to demonstrate the fundamental principles of gas chromatography (GC). The detector box can be used in a modification of experiments available in the literature which do not enable a quantitative method of analysis. We have used it with success in a freshman class of approximately 450 students in an experiment to separate chlorinated hydrocarbons via GC.
Smith, Allan L.; Thorne, Edward J.; Nadler, Wolfgang. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1129.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Capillary Electrophoresis in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams
Availability of capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrumentation allows students to have hands-on experience with this modern separation tool. They gain more than operational knowledge, however. Inherent in the instructional process is an emphasis on the relation of the chemistry of the sample to the fundamental mechanism of electrophoresis and the demonstration of how CE complements other methods for similar measurements.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1079.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Models and Molecules - A Workshop on Stereoisomers  Robert W. Baker, Adrian V. George, and Margaret M. Harding
A molecular model workshop aimed at first year university undergraduates has been devised to illustrate the concepts of organic stereochemistry. The students build models to teach the relationship within, and between, conformational isomers, enantiomers, and diastereomers.
Baker, Robert W.; George, Adrian V.; Harding, Margaret M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 853.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Basic Laboratory Chemistry  reviewed by Deborah McCool
Basic Laboratory Chemistry is a series of sixteen programs presenting demonstrations of many processes and experimental techniques used in the chemistry laboratory in both macroscale and microscale. Topics included in the programs are assembling macroscale and microscale apparatus, spectroscopy, chromatography, and procedures such as filtration, extraction, distillation, and titration.
McCool, Deborah. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 830.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  Greg P. Smestad and Michael Gratzel
A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer.
Smestad, Greg P.; Grtzel, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 752.
Photochemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Nanotechnology |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
A Simple Streaking Device For Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography  Yong J. Kim
If the right tool is not available, loading a sample on a TLC plate is fairly tedious and time consuming. This article describes a procedure for making a simple and convenient streaking device from a Pasteur pipet.
Kim, Yong, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 640.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Quantitative HPLC Analysis of an Analgesic/Caffeine Formulation: Determination of Caffeine  Glenda K. Ferguson
The experiment detailed herein involves the determination of caffeine in Goody's Extra Strength Headache Powders, a commercially available medication which contains acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine as active ingredients.
Glenda K. Ferguson. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 467.
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Separation Science
An Integrated Extraction/Crystallization/Distillation Experiment  Claude Amsterdamsky
An organic chemistry experiment that involves the extraction, crystallization, and distillation of a 3-component mixture over two 4-hour laboratory periods.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 219.
Separation Science
A Microscale Laboratory Heating System  Dwight Kinzer
A multifunctional heating system and a disposable still for use in the microscale laboratory are described. Time required for laboratory procedures is minimized. A novel microscale boiling point determination procedure is included.
Kinzer, Dwight. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Quantitative Determination of Caffeine in Beverages Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  Janusz Pawliszyn, Min J. Yang, and Maureen L. Orton
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been applied to the analysis of various caffeinated beverages. Unlike the current methods, this technique is solvent free and requires no pH adjustments. The simplicity of the SPME-GC/MS method lends itself to a good undergraduate laboratory practice.
Pawliszyn, Janusz; Yang, Min J.; Orton, Maureen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1130.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Separation of Enantiomeric Barbiturates by Capillary Electrophoresis Using a Cyclodextrin Containing Run Buffer  S. Contradi, Carla Vogt, and E. Rohde
This article is intended to demonstrate the potential of CE for the determination of enantiomers. The separation is based on the addition of a suitable chiral selector to the buffer. Cyclodextrins perform as excellent selectors forming diastereomeric complexes of different stability with the enantiomeric forms of the analyte.
Contradi, S.; Vogt, Carla; Rohde E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1122.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Medicinal Chemistry
Simultaneous Determination of Aspirin, Salicylamide, and Caffeine in Pain Relievers by Target Factor Analysis  Huggins Z. Msimanga, Melissa J. Charles, and Nea W. Martin
A factor analysis-based experiment for the undergraduate instrumental analysis labs is reported. Target factor analysis (TFA) is investigated as an option to the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the analysis of a pain reliever sample containing aspirin, caffeine, and salicylamide.
Msimanga, Huggins Z.; Charles, Melissa J.; Martin, Nea W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1114.
Separation Science |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry
Determination of Crude Fat in Food Products by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Gravimetric Analysis  Nicholas H. Snow, Maureen Dunn, and Sohita Patel
The use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), a recently developed analytical extraction method, in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is demonstrated.
Snow, Nicholas H.; Dunn, Maureen; Patel, Sohita. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1108.
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Gravimetric Analysis
Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils  Judith F. Rubinson and Jennifer Neyer-Hilvert

Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1106.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke  Jon W. Wong, Kenley K. Ngim, Jason P. Eiserich, Helen C. H. Yeo, Takayuki Shibamoto, and Scott A. Mabury
This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode).
Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1100.
Learning Theories |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry
Extraction, Isolation, and Characterization of Fullerene C60: A Safe and Reliable Separation Experiment  Jamey L. Anderson, Michele A. West, Christopher S. Foote
Appropriate for an advanced high school or introductory college chemistry laboratory, the experiment described here allows students to safely perform organic chemistry techniques in the absence of a fume hood.
Anderson, Jamey L.; West, Michele A.; Foote, Christopher S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 311.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
HPLC for Undergraduate Introductory Laboratories  Scott A. Van Arman and Marcus W. Thomsen
A set of simple HPLC separations as part of an introductory set of projects that serve as an introduction to chromatography early in the organic course; quantitative analysis has been introduced to the common separation of analgesics so that students may identify the composition of an unknown commercial tablet.
Van Arman, Scott A. and Thomsen, Marcus W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 49.
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC |
Separation Science
HPLC: EARLY AND RECENT PERSPECTIVES  Barry L. Karger
Personal reflections on the early days of HPLC and recent developments. HPLC has emerged from a technique that could only be imagined in the early 1960's to sales over $1.4 billion in 1994. Key to the advances has been the translation of theory to practice, in the ability to pack small particle diameter matrices of 5 mm to yield high efficiency columns.
Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 45.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Modern Practice of Liquid Chromatography: Before and after 1971  Lloyd R. Snyder
A selective history (1941 through 1990) is reported of the development of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from the perspective of the author. Emphasis is given to how a practical understanding of the technique emerged.
Snyder, Lloyd, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 37.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Micropath Distillation Apparatus  N. K. Hazra and D. Mal
A shortpath distillation apparatus in its inverted position can be used for microscale distillation of a liquid sample. This article describes the process.
Hazra, N. K.; Mal, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A103.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Synthesis and Use of Reverse-Phase Silica Gel for HPLC in Undergraduate Chemistry  Fernando Ortega, Ernesto Velez, and Ratnasamy Somanathan
Commercially available silica gel was derivatized with n-octadecyldimethylchlorosilane to produce inexpensive HPLC reverse-phase stationary support, which was used in separation experiments.
Ortega, Fernando; Velez, Ernesto; Somanathan, Ratnassamy. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A26.
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Dip Reagents for Visualization in TLC  Levine, Samuel G.
When employing TLC (thin layer chromatography) for colorless compounds, a step to make the spots visible after development of the plate is necessary. In this article, we show how using a dipping technique makes the visualization possible without the disadvantages of other techniques.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A4.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Microscale Lab
Air Stream-Assisted Sublimation on a Microscale: A Rapid Procedure Suitable for Sophomore Laboratory  Prem D. Sattsangi
Using familiar apparatus, such as a 3-mL reaction vial, an air condenser, a stream of clean air/nitrogen/argon, an aluminum heating block and a hot plate, several compounds in the microscale amounts (50 mg), with its melting points ranging from 50-240 C, have been successfully sublimed in 40 minutes.
Sattsangi, Prem D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A3.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Grignard Reaction of an Epoxide: A Mechanistic Study  James A. Ciaccio, Sabrina Volpi, Ransford Clarke
Unlike most undergraduate Grignard experiments which are performed merely for the sake of illustrating a textbook reaction, this Grignard synthesis is performed to probe the reactivity of styrene oxide. Students are required to analyze their products by TLC and NMR spectroscopy (instead of just submitting them for a grade) in order to obtain the data necessary for making mechanistic conclusions.
Ciaccio, James A.; Volpi, Sabrina; Clarke, Ransford. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1196.
Grignard Reagents |
Epoxides |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Chromatographic Separation of Phosphoric Acid from Cola Beverages  Diego Lozano-Calero, Pilar Martìn-Palomeque, Silvia Madueño-Lorguillo
The color of cola beverages interferes in the colorimetric determination of phosphoric acid. This interference is not significant if the sample is diluted sufficiently. However, a previous step where phosphoric acid is separated from the rest of the sample would be desirable. Therefore, we carried out the chromatographic separation of phosphoric acid by using an anionic exchange resin.
Lozano-Calero, Diego; Martìn-Palomeque, Pilar; Madueño-Lorguillo, Silvia. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1172.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants  D. J. Adam, J. Mainwaring, Michael N. Quigley
A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity.
Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1171.
Separation Science |
Physical Properties
Oxygenates in Gasoline: A Versatile Experiment Using Gas Chromatography  Linda C. Brazdil
An experiment for introductory chemistry in which oxygenates are extracted from gasoline and analyzed by gas chromatography is described. The extraction of oxygenates from gasoline with water prior to analysis by gas chromatography allows for their easy identification and quantification since only the oxygenates dissolve in water. Both qualitative and quantitative versions of the experiment are described.
Brazdil, Linda C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1056.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Containment of Spray Reagents in TLC Spot Detection  Josef G. Krause
If spraying a reagent with a power pac type device is preferred for this or some other reason, we suggest spraying the reagent inside of a twist tie-sealed, clear-plastic kitchen garbage bag.
Krause, Josef G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 979.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiments That Illustrate General Problems in Chromatography  M. Lederer, E. Leipzig-Pagani
A number of chromatography experiments using cellulose thin layers and aqueous eluents are proposed to illustrate how chromatography can be used for "pattern recognition" of the inks of felt-tip pens, the principle of displacement chromatography of the constituents of the antiseptic Mercurochrome, salting-out chromatography for the separation of halides, and the impossibility to use chromatography alone as a method of identification.
Lederer, M.; Leipzig-Pagani, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 974.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Visible ion exchange demonstration for large or small lecture halls  Driscoll, Jerry A.
This demonstration is a colorful illustration of how an ion exchange column works.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 640.
Equilibrium |
Conductivity |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
1H NMR Analysis of R/S Ibuprofen by the Formation of Diasteriomeric Pairs: Microscale Stereochemistry Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Stephanie E. Sen and Keith S. Anliker
A multicomponent experiment is described which elucidates the chirality of the commercially available analgesic, ibuprofen.
Stephanie E. Sen and Keith S. Anliker. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 569.
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
Use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in Nonscience Major Course Laboratory Experiments  Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos
Our efforts have centered on introducing prospective science communicators (film, video, radio, television, and journalism majors) to science relative to their majors and personal interests. Quality lecture-discussion topics, "mystery"-based laboratory activities have assisted in introducing and/or explaining specific areas of chemistry that attempt to reduce fear of subject matter.
Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 565.
Nonmajor Courses |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Forensic Chemistry |
Separation Science
Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in River and Bay Sediments: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Environmental Chemistry Using Capillary Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection  Susan E. Kegley, Kristen J. Hansen, and Kevin L. Cunningham
This paper briefly discusses the history of PCB use and provides guidelines for finding and evaluating PCB-contaminated sites as a way to interest students by showing them an application of chemistry to the "real world."
Kegley, Susan E.; Hansen, Kristen J.; Cunningham, Kevin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 558.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Separatory Flask and Beaker  Albert W. M. Lee
Separatory funnels are commonly used in the organic laboratory for separating organic and aqueous layers after extraction. We designed an alternative by adding a pouring sidearm to an Erlenmeyer flask or beaker that is described in this article.
Lee, Albert W. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 557.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Separation Science
Bench Top Vortexing Countercurrent Extractor for Controlled pH Extraction of a Mixture  Yock Chai Toong
A new liquid-liquid countercurrent process based on vortexing of liquid is described and an application of the process in separation of a mixture of acidic, basic, and neutral compounds by controlled pH extraction is given.
Toong, Yock Chai. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 476.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Experiment Demonstrating the Temperature Effect in Supramolecular Chemistry  Pawel K. Zarzycki and Henryk Lamparczyk
The aim of the experiment described in this article is to demonstrate the temperature influence on creation of an inclusion complex in which beta-cyclodextrin is the host molecule and phenolophtalein is the guest.
Zarzycki, Pawel K.; Lamparczyk, Henryk. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 459.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science
Staining TLC Plate Using a Cotton Ball  Albert W. M. Lee and Zhong Zengpei
This article offers an alternative method of applying the staining reagents. The two common ways of application are spraying and dipping, but here we outline staining through the use of a cotton ball.
Lee, Albert W. M.; Zengpei, Zhong. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 358.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
A Compact Steam Distillation Apparatus  Imran Ali
A very compact steam distillation apparatus is designed and reported in this paper.
Ali, Imran. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 285.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An Improved Method for the Separation of Lead-210 from Ra-DEF for Radioactive Equilibrium Experiments: Microscale Liquid-Liquid Extraction Using a Polymer-Supported Crown Ether  Mark L. Dietz and E. Philip Horwitz
A novel extraction chromatographic material, comprised of a solution of a lead-selective macrocyclic polyether (di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6) in isodecanol sorbed on an inert polymeric support, is shown to provide a rapid and simple means for the separation of lead-210 from its daughter products for subsequent radiochemical experimentation.
Dietz, Mark L.; Horwitz, E. Philip. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 182.
Separation Science |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
From the Lecture Hall to the Laboratory: The Pinacol Rearrangement: Fostering Problem Solving Abilities and Critical Thinking Skills of the Organic Chemistry Student  Brenda J. Wojciechowski and Todd S. Deal
This article describes an interesting experiment for elementary organic laboratories. While the reaction (the Pinacol Rearrangement) described is an old one, its application as a puzzle is a new one.
Wojciechowsi, Brenda J.; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 85.
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
TLC Developing Chamber for Screening Column Chromatography Fractions  Samuel G. Levine
We describe here a novel TLC (thin layer chromatography) development chamber that greatly enhances the efficiency of this task.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 77.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Organic Qualitative Analysis at the Microscale Level  Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K.
Project requiring students to identify pure unknowns and the components of mixtures using a variety of chromatography and spectrometry techniques.
Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A102.
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience  Linda C. Hodges
Using chromatography to isolate and analyze phosphatidylcholine from chickens raised on different diets.
Hodges, Linda C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1140.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Lipids
An Undergraduate Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiment: Olfactory Delights  Mary Anne Lynch, Wendy Gloffke, and Richard A. Rauner
Procedure for separating flavors and fragrances using thin-layer chromatography.
Lynch, Mary Anne; Gloffke, Wendy; Rauner, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1137.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin-Layer Chromatography of Analgesics--An Update  John W. Elder
Procedure for identifying ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, acetominaphen, aspirin, and caffeine on commercial chromatography sheets containing a fluorescent indicator.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1049.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds
A Simple, Discovery-Based Laboratory Exercise: The Molecular Mass Determination of Polystyrene  Greg A. Slough
Identification of an unknown polymer using silica gel TLC sheets and IR spectroscopy.
Slough, Greg A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1031.
Stoichiometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography to Determine the C60:C70 Ratio in Fullerene Soot: An Undergraduate Chemistry Lab  Michael C. Zumwalt and M. Bonner Denton
Apparatus for producing fullerene soot and procedure for determining its C60-C70 ratio.
Zumwalt, Michael C.; Denton, M. Bonner. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 939.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Main-Group Elements |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Alkenes |
HPLC |
Quantitative Analysis
Environmentally Acceptable Determination of Iron  Bader, Morris.
Elaboration upon original procedure.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 860.
Separation Science
GC/MS Analysis of the Aromatic Composition of Gasoline  Keith S. Kostecka, Ashraf Rabah, and Charles F. Palmer, Jr.
Procedure for examining 11 aromatics species in three unleaded regular-grade commercial fuels using GC/MS analysis; includes sample data.
Kostecka, Keith S.; Rabah, Ashraf; Palmer, Charles F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 853.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
The Extraction of Caffeine from Tea: An Old Undergraduate Experiment Revisited  Scott D. Murray and Peter J. Hansen
Procedure eliminating chloroform and dichloromethane from the extraction of caffeine from tea.
Murray, Scott D.; Hansen, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 851.
Separation Science
Using GC-MS to Determine Relative Reactivity Ratios   R. Daniel Bishop, Jr.
Experiment that demonstrates the use of GC-mass spectrometry in the separation and analysis of mixtures; also uses the GC-mass spectrometer to find the relative reactivity of primary, secondary, and tertiary hydrogens.
Bishop, R. Daniel, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 743.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry for Large Undergraduate Laboratory Sections  A. Illies, P. B. Shevlin, G. Childers, M. Peschke and J. Tsai
A gas chromatography - mass spectrometry experiment that allows each student in a large laboratory class to analyze the products of a simple organic synthesis.
Illies, A.; Shevlin, P. B.; Childers, G.; Peschke, M.; Tsai, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 717.
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Bromination of Disubstituted Arenes: Kinetics and Mechanism: GC/MS Experiments for the Instrumental Analysis and Organic Chemistry Labs  Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.
Experimental procedure using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to trace the progression of a reaction over time and determine the several possible steps of its mechanism; sample data and analysis included.
Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 460.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds
Flash Chromatographic Separation and Electronic Absorption Spectra of Carotenoids: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Evans, Jeffrey M.
Procedure for separating beta-carotene and lycopene from carrots and tomatoes to illustrate the operation and versatility of flash chromatography.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Evans, Jeffrey M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 374.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography  Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott
Experimental procedure for measuring carbon monoxide in auto exhaust by gas chromatography; includes sample data and analysis.
Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 364.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Separation Science |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Liquid-Liquid Extraction: Are n Extractions with V/n mL of Solvent Really More Effective Than One Extraction with V mL?  Palleros, Daniel R.
Demonstration that if the partition coefficient between two solvents is very large or very small, dividing up the total amount of solvent into small portions and carrying out several small extractions does not improve the efficiency over a single extraction.
Palleros, Daniel R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 319.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents
Liquid Chromatographic Determination of UV Absorbers in Sunscreens  Davis, Mary R.; Quigley, Michael N.
Using liquid chromatography with UV absorbence to determine the concentration of compounds that block UV radiation in commercial sunscreens; includes sample data.
Davis, Mary R.; Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 279.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
The Identification of Aspirin-Free Bayer Products: An Alternative to the Classical TLC of Analgesics (1)  Cawley, John J.
Procedure for identifying several non-aspirin analgesics using using thin layer chromatography and an ultraviolet lamp.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 272.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Put the Body to Them!  Perkins, Robert R.
Examples of chemistry demonstrations involving student participation, including quantized states and systems, boiling point trends, intermolecular vs. intramolecular changes, polar/nonpolar molecules, enantiomers and diastereomers, and chromatography.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 151.
Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Quantum Chemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Which Organic Molecule Should I Pick?  Perkins, Robert
Examples of questions requiring students to demonstrate their understanding of organic structures, nomenclature, isomerism, and chemical reactivity.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 124.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Enantiomeric Separation of Beta-Blockers by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: An Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Experiment  Tran, Chieu D.; Dotlich, Michael
Experimental procedure to familiarize students with the principle and application of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate isomers of a common pharmaceutical; includes data and analysis.
Tran, Chieu D.; Dotlich, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 71.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Separation Science |
HPLC
An Inexpensive Suction Microfilter  McDevitt, Eugene J.
Two disposable polyethylene transfer pipets can be used to form a single-use filtering funnel for several grams of solid yield.
McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A147.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A Better Way to Cut Filter Paper for Microscale Lab Use  Huisman, Richard D.
Using a power paper punch to cut microscale filter paper.
Huisman, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A147.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
A Microscale Isolation of Limonene from Orange Peels  Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad
A rapid and reliable extractive microscale isolation of limonene.
Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A146.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Natural Products |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
The Distribution of Cyclohexanone between Cyclohexane and Water  Worley, John D.
A microscale experiment that may be used to demonstrate extraction, spectrophotometric analysis, and the determination of a distribution constant.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A145.
Microscale Lab |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
A Microscale Purification and Qualitative Spectroscopic Examination of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene): An Experiment Suitable for Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Courses  Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D.
A simple and inexpensive purification procedure for isolating C60.
Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A141.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Microscale Column Chromatographic Isolation of a Red Pigment from Paprika  West, Kevin J.; Rauch, Paul
Modification of a macroscopic procedure to a microscale experiment.
West, Kevin J.; Rauch, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A59.
Microscale Lab |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Direct Collection of Distillation Fractions into Vials: A Method for the Micro/Semi-Micro Scale Laboratory  Jordan, David
An inexpensive and simple system for collection of distillation fractions directly into their storage containers.
Jordan, David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A5.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The ABC's of Chromatography: A Colorful Demonstration.  Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N.
This demonstration involves the separation of combinations of seven highly colored dyes by thin layer chromatography to help explain separation science while capturing the attention of the audience by spelling words with these dyes.
Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1075.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
A Simple Alternative to Separatory Funnels for Chemical Extractions  Bye, Ragnar
A novel magnetic bar-stirred extraction method using conventional Erlenmeyer flasks.
Bye, Ragnar J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 806.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Using Computers To Replace Some HPLC Laboratory Work  Bowater, Ian C.; McWilliam, Ian G.
164. Three exercises where students learn about HPLC through computer simulations.
Bowater, Ian C.; McWilliam, Ian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 674.
HPLC |
Separation Science
Recovering from Air Bubble Occlusion in Student-Made Chromatography Columns  Engelken, Dustin; Kovacs-Boerger, A. E.
Rejuvenating a chromatography column constructed from a disposable pipet that is blocked by bubbles.
Engelken, Dustin; Kovacs-Boerger, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 598.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Extraction of Organic Compounds from Aqueous Solutions  Love, Brian
Demonstration to separate an orange solution into its yellow and red components.
Love, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 517.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chromatographic Separation of Plant Pigments Using Sand as the Adsorbant: An Inexpensive Chromatographic Technique  Lalitha, Nagubandi
Separating grass pigments using sand as the adsorbant.
Lalitha, Nagubandi J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 432.
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An Experiment in trans-cis Isomerization: Synthesis and Kinetics of trans-Dichlorotetraamminecobalt(III) Chloride  Borer, Londa L.; Erdman, Howard W.
Synthesis and kinetics investigation of trans-dichlorotetraamminecobalt(III) chloride.
Borer, Londa L.; Erdman, Howard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 332.
Diastereomers |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Conductivity
Determination of a Partitioning Coefficient: A Laboratory Practical Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Smedberg, Ronald T.
Lab practical to determine the partitioning coefficient for mandelic acid.
Smedberg, Ronald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 269.
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Isomers of Benzene  Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H.
Summary of isomers and valence isomers of benzene.
Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 222.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Covalent Bonding
The stereochemistry of commercial 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanone: An application of capillary gas chromatography   Garner, Charles M.
One example of how capillary gas chromatography can be employed in undergraduate organic laboratories.
Garner, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A310.
Gas Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
A microscale suction filtration apparatus   Winkel, Cleve R.
This apparatus helps avoid some of the troublesome aspects of filtration that occur during the transfer stage.
Winkel, Cleve R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A161.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
A Microseparatory Funnel   Hulce, Martin
An apparatus for separations of liquids between 2-6mL total volume.
Hulce, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A39.
Separation Science
Microscale Multiple Extraction--An Experiment for the Microscale Organic Laboratory   Anderson, Steven W.; Johns, Philip T.; Boyd, Craig D.
Description of a microscale experiment in which a distribution constant is determined and the efficiencies of single and multiple extractions are compared.
Anderson, Steven W.; Johns, Philip T.; Boyd, Craig D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A33.
Separation Science
Cyclooctane conformational analysis via mechanical and computational models  Fitzgerald, Jeffrey P.
Description of an exercise in which students use both mechanical and computational models to identify and quantify various types of strains in different conformations of a molecule.
Fitzgerald, Jeffrey P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 988.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Diastereomers
Organometallic benzene complexes  Maslowsky, Edward, Jr.
A look at benzene's flexibility and subsequent interactions with metal atoms.
Maslowsky, Edward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 980.
Organometallics |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds
The enumeration of isomers-With special reference to the stereoisomers of decane  Whyte, J. R. C.; Clugston, M. J.
Structural isomers predicted through algorithms.
Whyte, J. R. C.; Clugston, M. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 874.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel   Kelly, T. Ross
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel.
Kelly, T. Ross J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 848.
Separation Science |
Acids / Bases
Isolation of piperine from black pepper  Epstein, William W.; Netz, David F.; Seidel, Jimmy L.
A new and interesting natural product for isolation in the organic chemistry lab. This procedure also introduces students to many important instruments and procedures in organic chemistry.
Epstein, William W.; Netz, David F.; Seidel, Jimmy L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 598.
Natural Products |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Maximum efficiency multiple extraction or 2.71828... revisited  Lykos, Peter
An examination of extraction data that may prove counter intuitive to some students.
Lykos, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 448.
Chemometrics |
Separation Science
Alkimers  Hiatt, Richard R.
Tutorial and practice program for isomerism and nomenclature.
Hiatt, Richard R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 125.
Diastereomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Microscale filtration  Duarte, Frederick F.; McCoy, Layton L.; Popp, Frank D.
Alternative to Craig tubes or filtered Pasteur pipets.
Duarte, Frederick F.; McCoy, Layton L.; Popp, Frank D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A314.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.  Lee, Moses.
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.
Lee, Moses. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A172.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Microscale distillation-Calculations and comparisons   Schwartz, Marietta H.
In this distillation experiment students perform both a simple and a fractional distillation using the microscale version of traditional glassware.
Schwartz, Marietta H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A127.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Size-exclusion chromatography: Separating large molecules from small  McLoughlin, Daniel J.
Description, theory, demonstration, and experimental procedure regarding size-exclusion chromatography.
McLoughlin, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 993.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Benzene isomers? (the author replies)  Potgieter, J. H.
Additional isomers of benzene.
Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 859.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers
Benzene isomers?  Reinecke, Manfred G.
Additional isomers of benzene.
Reinecke, Manfred G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 859.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Alkenes
The Willsttter "nail" and the Schwinger microfilter  Stock, John T.
Description of the Willsttter "nail" device and the Schwinger microfilter
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 822.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Identification of methylcyclohexanones by NMR  Gurst, Jerome E.
Distinguishing between three isomeric methylcyclohexanones using NMR.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 774.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers
Filtration of very fine particles from an air-sensitive reaction mixture.  Tessier, Claire A.
A filtration device to separate fine particles from air-sensitive mixtures.
Tessier, Claire A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 684.
Separation Science |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Separation of aspirin from acetaminophen and caffeine in an over-the-counter analgesic tablet.  Williams, John P.; West, Kevin J.; Erickson, Karen L.
An procedure that uses smaller volumes of "safer" solvents in performing the extraction and allows the use of simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis in the determination.
Williams, John P.; West, Kevin J.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 669.
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The square knot and the granny knot: An analogy for diastereomers.  Tavernier, Dirk.
Few of the diastereomorphs generated by joining two man-made chiral objects have different names; the author is aware of just one example - the square knot and the granny knot.
Tavernier, Dirk. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 627.
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity
An introduction to fullerene structures: Geometry and symmetry.  Boo, W. O. J.
The formidable task of organizing the fullerenes can be simplified greatly by categorizing them by their symmetries.
Boo, W. O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 605.
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
The synthesis of E-beta-bromostyrene: An experiment illustrating the use of IR bending modes to distinguish E and Z isomers and the concept of kinetic and thermodynamic controlled reactions.  Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R.
An experiment illustrating the concept of thermodynamic and kinetically controlled reactions to produce E and Z isomers (respectively); the use of IR to distinguish E and Z isomers; and the different properties of E and Z isomers (only the E isomer has a pleasant odor).
Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 588.
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Constructing a complete temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture: A new experiment that uses quantitative gas chromatography.  Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang.
Experiment to help students appreciate fractional distillation and a fundamental application of gas chromatography.
Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 581.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Using spin-spin decoupling NMR for structure elucidation in the extraction of cinnamaldehyde.  Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J.
Interesting extraction in which students learn to interpret spectra and see the power of second-order spectral analysis in NMR work.
Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 511.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Urinary excretion of paracetamol: A thin-layer chromatography exercise for nursing students.  Hickman, Raymond J. S.
Using thin-layer chromatography in a laboratory designed to confirm some important features of the usual textbook description of drug metabolism and excretion.
Hickman, Raymond J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 510.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Medicinal Chemistry
Principle of extraction of solute by solvent  Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna
Among the applications of Nernst's distribution law, the most important and interesting one is the extraction of a substance dissolved in one solvent by another solvent, the two solvents being partially miscible or immiscible.
Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 73.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
The use and utility of phase science  Laughlin, Robert G.
Phase diagrams describe the phase behavior, for a particular system of mixtures spanning a particular range of system variables. One must know how to read and interpret phase diagrams in order to extract and use the information they contain.
Laughlin, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 26.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
Microscale resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine and chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in undergraduate chemistry   Krumpolc, Miroslav
A standard experiment has been modified to incorporate microscale techniques and employ chiral high performance liquid chromatography to determine enantiomeric purity.
Krumpolc, Miroslav J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A176.
Enantiomers |
Amides |
Diastereomers |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
Isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate: An undergraduate experiment illustrating amine-catalyzed alkene isomerization, stereochemical principles, sublimation, and product identification by spectroscopic methods  Fryhle, Craig B.; Rybak, Carol M.; Pulley, Kenneth E.
An undergraduate experiment illustrating amine-catalyzed alkene isomerization, stereochemical principles, sublimation, and product identification by spectroscopic methods.
Fryhle, Craig B.; Rybak, Carol M.; Pulley, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1050.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Catalysis
The suitability of mineral oil as a halogen extraction solvent  Scott, Thomas M.
A procedure for halogen extraction using mineral (paraffin) oil.
Scott, Thomas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 950.
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
A projection for bond location in chair cyclohexane and related structures  Woolf, A. A.
Benefits and drawbacks of 2D representations for chair cyclohexane and related structures.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 646.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Constitutional Isomers
A simple method for producing efficient concentric tube distillation columns  Smith, Sherrel
The typically used columns packed with glass beads have several disadvantages. This paper offers a solution that proves to be a better teaching aid.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 616.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Recovering solvent from iodine solutions  Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Casares, Juan A.
Other articles may give the impression that iodine extraction is difficult, but that is not the case.
Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Casares, Juan A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 516.
Separation Science
An alternative to halogenated solvents for halogen/halide extractions   Petrovic, Steven C.; Bodner, George M.
Authors recommend using p-xylene instead of a halogenated solvent.
Petrovic, Steven C.; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 509.
Separation Science
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid  Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J.
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid.
Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 436.
Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Diastereomers
An internal comparison of the intermolecular forces of common organic functional groups: A thin-layer chromatography experiment  Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W.
Due to the latest trends in organic chemistry textbook content sequences, it has become desirable to develop an experiment that is rapid, simple, and general, that would compare and contrast the various functional group classes of organic molecules in terms of their relative polarities, dipole moments, and intermolecular forces of attraction.
Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 428.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene Diels-Alder adduct: An organic chemistry experiment utilizing NMR spectroscopy to assign endo stereochemistry  Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
An organic chemistry experiment utilizing NMR spectroscopy to assign endo stereochemistry via synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene Diels-Alder adduct.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 426.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Monoterpenes: An easily accessible but neglected class of natural products  Glidewell, Christopher
The class of products is structurally and spectroscopically straightforward and many in this group are key components of familiar flavors and odors. I.e., extraction of orange peel.
Glidewell, Christopher J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 267.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Representing isomeric structures  Thall, Edwin
"Representing isomeric structures" is the name of a technique this author has developed to help students learn to draw molecular structures of isomers in their first organic chemistry class.
Thall, Edwin J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 190.
Constitutional Isomers |
Diastereomers
Friedel-Crafts alkylation products   Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.
Comments on how two recent papers could compliment one and another.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 86.
Alkylation |
Gas Chromatography |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds
Column chromatography: Isolation of caffeine  Taber, Douglass F.; Hoerrner, R. Scott
An undergraduate laboratory procedure for isolating caffeine via column chromatography.
Taber, Douglass F.; Hoerrner, R. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 73.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Natural Products |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Food Science
Microscale synthesis of cis-diamminedihaloplatinum(II) and a corresponding trans isomer: A rapid and convenient method of preparing cisplatin - An anticancer drug. A laboratory experiment for inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry  Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M.
Involves drug synthesis, application of the trans effect, and preparation and characterization of isomers under different reaction conditions.
Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A261.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Diastereomers
A convenient and improved technique to reduce substantially the problem of bumping while using a rotary evaporator  Buchkremer, Rudiger; Brinker, Udo H.
A very simple type of laboratory equipment that does not trap the compounds but that performs better than commercially available rotary evaporator traps by keeping as much of the reaction mixture as possible from escaping the flask.
Buchkremer, Rudiger; Brinker, Udo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1071.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The determination of vanillin in vanilla extract: An analytical chemistry experiment  Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.
Determination of the concentration of vanillin in vanilla extract using ultraviolet spectroscopy.
Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1070.
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Color reactions and thin-layer chromatography of amino acids: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment for students in the allied health sciences  Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith
Students identify unknowns by determining Rf's and applying color reagents to the chromatograms.
Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 978.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Identification of unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography in combination  Levine, Samuel G.
Identification from among 12 unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 972.
Physical Properties |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Amino acid chromatography: The "best" technique for student labs  Helser, Terry L.
Comparisons of linear, conical, and circular chromatograms, as well as media and elutants.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 964.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A convenient method for comparison of efficiency of fractionating columns  Higgins, Robert H.
Demonstrating the ability of various fractionating columns (both packed and unpacked) to resolve a mixture into individual components and to correlate the resolving powers of column packings to their "hold-up" volumes.
Higgins, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 810.
Separation Science
A safety device for unattended distillation  Chan, Kwan-dick; Ng, Wing-yan; Yeung, Chi-hung
A safety device to monitor the flow rate of cooling water for a distillation using a liquid flow sensor.
Chan, Kwan-dick; Ng, Wing-yan; Yeung, Chi-hung J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 718.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Economical electrophoresis with a controlled-current power supply  Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H.
Electrophoresis power supply that features a controllable current (0-90 mA, dc), the use of a common 120 V, ac power supply, and a materials cost of approximately $50.
Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 703.
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Isopycnic ultracentrifugation: A simple and inexpensive demonstration of its princples  Berlot, Pedro E.; Locasscio, Guillermo A.
This demonstration allows one to visualize density gradient separations and to understand the differences between the principles of equilibrium and sedimentation velocity techniques.
Berlot, Pedro E.; Locasscio, Guillermo A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 627.
Separation Science |
Equilibrium |
Ion Exchange
Organic laboratory experiments: A simplified method for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs  Smith, Sherrel
How short pieces of Teflon tubing may be used for gas chromatograph collection tubes.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 615.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The stereochemistry of additions to trans-anethole  McGahey, Lawrence
Trans-anethole is brominated with pyridinium bromide perbromide in dichloromethane.
McGahey, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 554.
Addition Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
A convenient method to recover the solvent from halogen-CCl4 mixtures  Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W.
An alternative to disposal and distillation which is easy to perform, allowing the solvent to be recovered and stored within one hour after the completion of the experiment is presented here.
Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 532.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
A step-by-step dilution-extraction method for laboratory experiments  Jover, Aida; Meijide, Francisco; Mosquera, Victor; Tato, Jose Vazquez
The authors describe a sequential procedure for dilution and present its application to three typical educational experiments in physical chemistry.
Jover, Aida; Meijide, Francisco; Mosquera, Victor; Tato, Jose Vazquez J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 530.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Determination of components in beverages by thin-layer chromatography: An undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment  Ma, Yinfa; Yeung, Edward S.
This is a description of a simple and interesting thin layer chromatography experiment using three different fluorescence detection principles for the determination of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages.
Ma, Yinfa; Yeung, Edward S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 428.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Food Science
A useful method for obtaining crystals from viscous oils  Qian, Chengyi
The method of slowly evaporating solvents was tried in the present study with oily reaction residues, which did not crystallize on standing for some time.
Qian, Chengyi J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 355.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A simple model for visualizing an organic extraction  Hill, John W.; McGurran, Joseph P.
The authors have developed a model that provides a concrete and effective way to demonstrate the tendency of molecules of like polarity to associate with each other during extraction.
Hill, John W.; McGurran, Joseph P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 303.
Separation Science
Isolation of trimyristin and cholesterol: Two microscale extractions for one laboratory period  Vestling, Martha M.
The major expenses and major safety problems associated with these classic organic experiments are due to the quantities of organic solvents used per student. When these two experiments are converted to microscale, less than 10 mL of organic solvent per student is required for both experiments.
Vestling, Martha M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 274.
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
Separation Science
A modular apparatus for demonstrating gas chromatography using serial coupling of a thermal conductivity and flame ionizaton detector  Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea
The authors constructed a simple gas chromatograph for demonstrating the separation of gas mixtures at room temperature; therefore, heating or thermostating of the column is unnecessary.
Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 181.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Conical thin-layer chromatography  Heinzen, Horacio; Ferreira, Fernando; Vazquez, Alvaro; Moyna, Patrick
The use of common funnels makes it possible to run thin layer chromatography's (TLC's) with tridimensional characteristics using the same stationary phases, solvent systems, and detection methods as in planar TLC.
Heinzen, Horacio; Ferreira, Fernando; Vazquez, Alvaro; Moyna, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 167.
Thin Layer Chromatography
A simple apparatus to demonstrate differing gas diffusion rates (Graham's law)  Keller, Philip C.
The apparatus described in this note dramatically demonstrates relative diffusion rate effects for common gases like methane and carbon dioxide.
Keller, Philip C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 160.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Measurement of diffusivity of organic liquids through polymer membranes: A simple and inexpensive laboratory experiment  Aithal, U. Shanthamurthy; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M.
Characterization of liquid interaction with polymer membranes by using simple laboratory tests and a small sample of polymer membrane is of great value in understanding the actual behavior of a large industrial rubber sample.
Aithal, U. Shanthamurthy; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 82.
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science
An automatic water trap for steam distillation  Ruekberg, Ben
The unpleasant aspects of the water trap can be avoided with a simple, inexpensive device that renders the water trap automatically selfdraining.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 66.
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Drying ethanol by azeotropic distillation  Mattson, Guy; Hertel, George R.
The commercial process for producing absolute ethanol can be used as a basis for an unusual homework or take-home exam problem.
Mattson, Guy; Hertel, George R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 46.
Separation Science |
Alcohols
A derivation of the Masamune rule of multiplicativity in double asymmetric induction  Nakayama, Kensaku
The ability to prepare one diastereomeric or enantiomeric isomer in excess in a given chemical transformation where a stereoisomeric distribution of products is possible is currently one of the most highly sought goals in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.
Nakayama, Kensaku J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 20.
Synthesis |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
The most useful actinide isotope: Americium-241  Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T.
This paper briefly reviews Americium's discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and its uses with an emphasis on its production and separations chemistry.
Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 15.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
An introduction to supercritical fluid chromatography: Part 2. Applications and future trends   Palmieri, Margo D.
Part I of this article dealt with the basic theory and instrumentation of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). In part 2 selected applications and future trends in SFC will be discussed.
Palmieri, Margo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A141.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The resolution of a completely inorganic coordination compound: A modified classic experiment for the inorganic laboratory  Yasui, Takaji; Ama, Tomoharu; Kauffman, George B.
Reproducing Alfred Werner's experiment demonstrating the Co(III) possesses an octahedral configuration.
Yasui, Takaji; Ama, Tomoharu; Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1045.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Diastereomers
Microscale synthesis and analysis of a dipeptide  Blatchly, Richard A.; Allen, Timothy R.; Bergstrom, Dirk T.; Shinozaki, Yuji
The synthesis of a dipeptide from its component amino acids and its analysis by chiral-phase thin-layer chromatography.
Blatchly, Richard A.; Allen, Timothy R.; Bergstrom, Dirk T.; Shinozaki, Yuji J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 965.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids
Efficient microscale filtration  Belletire, John L.; Mahmoodi, Nosrat O.
A simple technique for the rapid filtration of small liquid samples.
Belletire, John L.; Mahmoodi, Nosrat O. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 964.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Separation of a five-component mixture in the microscale laboratory  O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U.
The separation and purification of a five-component mixture consisting of a strong organic acid (bezoic acid), a weak organic acid (2-naphthol), an organic base (pyridine), and two neutral compounds (1-chlorobutane and toluene).
O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 961.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases
An investigation into the mechanism of the Ritter reaction  Hathaway, Bruce A.
Students are asked to propose a reaction mechanism; experimentation then demonstrates the most reasonable proposal.
Hathaway, Bruce A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 776.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Modification of an ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of the active ingredients in APC tablets  Yarnelle, Michael K.; West, Kevin J.
Ultraviolet spectrophotometric procedure used to determine the aspirin, phenacetin, and caffeine in an APC tablet.
Yarnelle, Michael K.; West, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 601.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Photochemical and thermal isomerization of trans- and cis-1,2-dibenzoylethylene: A microscale approach  Klemm, Dennis V; Tuncay, Atilla
Both conversions are analyzed through thin layer chromatography.
Klemm, Dennis V; Tuncay, Atilla J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 519.
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Diastereomers
The interconversion of cis and trans isomers  McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B.
Trans-alkene oxides are converted to cis-alkenes on treatment with tributylphosphine, yet this reaction does not appear in most organic textbooks.
McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 486.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Laboratory simulations - Gel filtration  Griffith, Thomas W.
102. Bits and pieces, 40. This report describes the successful use of an IBM PC program that simulates the separation and analysis of unknowns by gel filtration.
Griffith, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 407.
Separation Science
A pressure regulator for vacuum distillation  Sommer, Toby J.
The authors have modified the basic Newman manostat.
Sommer, Toby J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 181.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The analysis of ball-point inks for forensic purposes  Breedlove, C. H.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the typical steps used in the analysis of ball point ink.
Breedlove, C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 170.
Forensic Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The separation of cobalt from nickel by anion exchange chromatography   Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L.
The authors have modified other experiments, using "macro" amounts of ions, and have determined the optimum conditions to produce a visually observable demonstration that illustrates several fundamental principles of the general chemistry course.
Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 166.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Visible spectrophotometric determination of the partition coefficient of methyl violet: A microscale extraction experiment  Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L.
This experiment is designed to demonstrate the principles of separation by solvent extraction, partition coefficient, and the construction and use of a Beer-Lambert standard curve.
Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 91.
Separation Science |
Chemometrics
Synthesis of azulene, a blue hydrocarbon  Lemal, David M.; Goldman, Glenn D.
A procedure of the synthesis of this simple, beautiful, and theoretically interesting compound with many unusual properties.
Lemal, David M.; Goldman, Glenn D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 923.
MO Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Synthesis
A simple method for purifying silica gel for column chromatography  Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F.
A quick and efficient way to get maximum use out of silica gel.
Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 891.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Stereochemistry of cyclic hydrocarbons   Perkins, Robert R.
The topic of stereochemistry always poses great difficulties for many students in introductory organic chemistry. The following problems can be used as a tutorial question after having introduced the various terms associated with stereochemistry. The question requires skills at the applications level in the Bloom taxonomy.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 860.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Constitutional Isomers
Identification of courmarin in vanilla extracts by TLC and HPLC  McKone, Harold T.; Chambers, Timothy E.
A brief description for a lab identifying courmarin in vanilla extracts by TLC and HPLC.
McKone, Harold T.; Chambers, Timothy E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 628.
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
cis and trans-Stilbenes: Chromatographic separation and photochemical isomerization  Levine, Samuel G.; Barhoriak, Kathleen Doubek; Cho, Ho S.
An organic chemistry laboratory that has historic significance.
Levine, Samuel G.; Barhoriak, Kathleen Doubek; Cho, Ho S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 79.
Separation Science |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Chromatography
Mnemonic for Z and E nomenclature  Thomas, C. W.
A visual reminder that makes it unnecessary to memorize the German terms.
Thomas, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 44.
Diastereomers |
Alkenes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Longer lasting TLC spots developed with iodine vapors  Maheshwari, Nitin; Krishnamurty, H. G.
Preserving iodine-induced, thin layer chromatography spot intensities for longer durations.
Maheshwari, Nitin; Krishnamurty, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1066.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R.
Separating and identifying the amino acids found in aspartame.
Conklin, Alfred R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1065.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A synthesis of chrysanthemic ester: An undergraduate experiment  Kelly, Lawrence F.
Procedure for producing a mixture of cis- and trans-ethyl chrysanthemates.
Kelly, Lawrence F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1061.
Esters |
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
A continuous ether/water extractor  Choney, J. H.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Design for a continuous ether/water extractor.
Choney, J. H.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 970.
Ethers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Quantitative application of thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of organic compounds: Determining the molecular weights of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones and dicarboxylic acids  Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul
This simple, easy, and inexpensive method provides a good illustration of the importance of polarity on solubility and a unique demonstration of the effectiveness of TLC as a quantitative tool.
Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 625.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
The effect of pH and chloride ion concentration on the mobilities of various cations in soil  Brown, Melody; Sutherland, Mary; Leharne, Stephen
Measuring the mobilities of cations (particularly of toxic metals) in soils using soil thin layer chromatography.
Brown, Melody; Sutherland, Mary; Leharne, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 448.
pH |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Laboratory steam distillation using electrically generated superheated steam  Lane, R. K.; Provence, P. D.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Design and use of a superheated steam generator.
Lane, R. K.; Provence, P. D.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Analysis of vitamin C by high-pressure liquid chromatography  Goodney, David E.
Using HPLC to determine the concentration of vitamin C in a variety of juices.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 187.
Vitamins |
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and identification of cinnamic acids by TLC  Bobbio, Florinda O.; Bobbio, Paulo A.; Souza, Sandra C. de
Chromatographic characteristics of cinnamic acid and its derivatives.
Bobbio, Florinda O.; Bobbio, Paulo A.; Souza, Sandra C. de J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 182.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Hydrogen bonding and retention on silica: A concept illustrated by TLC chromatography of nitrophenols  Feigenbaum, A.
The TLC experiments presented in this paper illustrate several important features regarding retention, elution, and selectivity on silica through the study of the chromatographic behavior of nitrophenols.
Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 815.
Heterocycles |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Hydrogen Bonding
Introducing plastic in the laboratory: Synthesis of a plasticizer, dioctylphthalate and evaluation of its effects on the physical properties of polystyrenes  Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L.
These authors are proposing a two-stage experimental approach that combines preparative organic chemistry and polymer characterization.
Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 811.
Esters |
Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Wittig reaction that gives only one stereoisomer  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This popular experiment can be extended to illustrate the use of spectroscopy to elucidate stereochemistry.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 645.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Separation Science
Stress the twofold axis of the threo isomer  Tavernier, D.
The author weighs in on the the controversy of the threo and erythro nomenclature.
Tavernier, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 511.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Relative activating ability of various ortho, para-directors  Zaezek, Norbert M.; Tyszkiewicz, Robert B.
The authors saw a need to develop an experiment for students to comprehensively learn about electrophilic aromatic substitution.
Zaezek, Norbert M.; Tyszkiewicz, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 510.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
Thin-layer chromatographic separation of phenols  Kurth, Mark J.
The structural complexity of typical TLC experiments precludes meaningful discussions of important aspects of TLC.
Kurth, Mark J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 360.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Phenols
Reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography  Cooley, J. H.; Wong, A. L.
Reversing the polarity of the stationary and mobile phases enhances learning from the types of experiments profiled in this note.
Cooley, J. H.; Wong, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 353.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Food Science
Construction of a temperature-composition diagram of a binary mixture: An organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Thorstenson, Patricia C.
The procedure described in this article offers a simple means of generating the liquid curve of a temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture of volatile liquids.
Thorstenson, Patricia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 170.
Separation Science |
Liquids
Normal-phase open column versus reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography: Separation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from their diastereomers  Schaber, Peter M.
Separation and isolation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from spinach leaves.
Schaber, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1110.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry
Countercurrent extraction of ink: A demonstration of the chromatographic mechanism  Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T.
A simple system that can demonstrate the significance of discontinuous countercurrent extraction.
Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1109.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
An inexpensive developing chamber for radial chromatography  Gadwood, Robert C.
Design and advantages of a radial chromatography chamber.
Gadwood, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 820.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An undergraduate organic experiment using thin-layer chromatography  Jones, Taylor B.; Jones, Tappey H.
Separation of derivatives of aliphatic compounds, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.
Jones, Taylor B.; Jones, Tappey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 813.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of lithium from magnesium sodium, and potassium  Werner, Wolfgang
Method for separating and detecting lithium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium
Werner, Wolfgang J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 808.
Separation Science |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Microscale group test for carbonyl compounds  Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X.
Rf values for separating various carbonyl compounds using thin layer chromatography.
Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 806.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Reverse-phase separation of FD & C dyes using a solvent gradient  Ondrus, Martin G.
An impressive separation of FD&C dyes in aqueous solution can be demonstrated with a C18 Sep Pak and a 10-mL disposable syringe.
Ondrus, Martin G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 798.
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science |
Chromatography
mer- and fac-[Co(NH3)3(NO2)3] Do they exist? A laboratory project with poster session  Laing, Michael
Students attempt the preparation of [Co(NH3)3(NO2)3] by three published methods, two for the mer and one for the fac isomers and find that none of the published recipes gives either pure compounds or reproducible results.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 707.
Coordination Compounds |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Determination of aspartame, caffeine, saccharin, and benzoic acid in beverages by high performance liquid chromatography: An undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment  Delaney, Michael F.; Pasko, Kathleen M.; Mauro, David M.; Gsell, Diane S.; Korologos, Philip C.; Morawski, John; Krolikowski, Linda J.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.
Separations can be applied to the analysis of soft drinks, artificial sweeteners, fruit juices, and coffee.
Delaney, Michael F.; Pasko, Kathleen M.; Mauro, David M.; Gsell, Diane S.; Korologos, Philip C.; Morawski, John; Krolikowski, Linda J.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 618.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science
Improvements in the separation of beta-carotene and lycopene by column chromtography  Ronman, Peter
Modification of an existing laboratory procedure involving the separation of beta-carotene and lycopene by column chromtography.
Ronman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 540.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Low-pressure extraction  Flamini, Alberto; Poli, Nicola
Modifications to a Soxhlet extractor that works at low pressure.
Flamini, Alberto; Poli, Nicola J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 533.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract  Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael
Constructing a simple column chromatograph from a disposable pipet.
Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 530.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
An efficient and inexpensive temperature-controlled chromatography column  Henderson, Bambi L.; McLoughlin, Daniel J.
Inexpensive temperature-controlled chromatography columns can be constructed from old distillation columns.
Henderson, Bambi L.; McLoughlin, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 430.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
TLC of organic dyes in undergraduate labs  Sciam, Allen J.
Investigation into the effectiveness of varying the solvent composition in terms of resolving the components of a mixture of dyes using thin layer chromatography.
Sciam, Allen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 361.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Solutions / Solvents
The Wittig reaction in the undergraduate organic laboratory  Warner, John C.; Anastas, Paul T.; Anselme, Jean-Pierre
Using phase-transfer catalysis to prepare cis- and trans-stilbenes from the Wittig condensation of benzaldehyde.
Warner, John C.; Anastas, Paul T.; Anselme, Jean-Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 346.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
Determination of stereochemical relationships  Ayorinde, Folahan O.
A sequence of steps to enable students to arrive with relative ease at correct stereochemical relationships.
Ayorinde, Folahan O. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 297.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
The determination of lead in gasoline by atomic absorption spectrometry  Coleman, M. F. M.
Involves the extraction of lead into an aqueous rather than a more hazardous organic solvent.
Coleman, M. F. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 261.
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Structural isomer identification via NMR: A nuclear magnetic resonance experiment for organic, analytical, or physical chemistry  Szafran, Zvi
This experiment examines the ability of NMR to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts.
Szafran, Zvi J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 260.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
Ion exchange chromatography and spectrophotometry: An introductory undergraduate laboratory experiment  Foster, N.; Pestel, B.; Mease, B.
Experiment designed for an introductory course in chemical equilibria in aqueous media in which students have already experienced the quantitative use of spectrophotometry in calculating equilibrium constants for the formation of colored complexes in solution.
Foster, N.; Pestel, B.; Mease, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 170.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Separation and identification of commonly used drugs: A thin-layer chromatography experiment for freshman chemistry  Bonicamp, Judith M.
Using a simplified and accelerated TLC kit for drug detection.
Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 160.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
An improved method for visualizing TLC plates using iodine  Roberbon, John
Mixing iodine with silica gel and pouring it onto a thin layer chromatography plate for faster visualization.
Roberbon, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 156.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
An inexpensive syringe for gas chromatography  Avila, Walter B.; Hamilton, Mark A.; Holwitt, Eric A.
Replacing expensive GC syringes with disposable, plastic insulin syringes.
Avila, Walter B.; Hamilton, Mark A.; Holwitt, Eric A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1109.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Models for illustrating chirality at two centers  Feldman, Martin R.
This note suggests common objects that can be used as models to illustrate chirality at two centers, and to introduce the concepts of diastereomers and the meso configuration.
Feldman, Martin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1050.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers
Gel filtration chromatography: A laboratory experiment  Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D.
A rapid, visual demonstration of protein separation by gel filtration chromatography.
Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1021.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides
An undergraduate column chromatography experiment  Danot, M.; Nahmias, S.; Zoller, U.
Introduces undergraduates to the theoretical and technical aspects of column chromatography.
Danot, M.; Nahmias, S.; Zoller, U. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1019.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
High performance thin layer chromatography  Costanzo, Samuel J.
Considers the various ways in which high performance has been achieved in thin layer chromatography, including the new TLC plates, sample application, plate development, and instrumental techniques.
Costanzo, Samuel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1015.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Examples of diastereomers  Bell, William
Using right- and left-handed doors as examples of familiar objects that exhibit enantiomerism.
Bell, William J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 901.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Chromatography: Use of a microcomputer to introduce laboratory techniques  Holdsworth, David K.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. Program to introduce paper, thin-layer, column, and gas-liquid chromatography.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 790.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A practical experiment for determining a pervasive, persistent pollutant  Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A.
Spectral identification by means of infrareds spectroscopy of the PCBs recovered from a TLC plate is enhanced due to the concentrating effect of a commercial sample-recovery system.
Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 738.
IR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
An inexpensive experiment for the introduction of high performance liquid chromatography  Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.
Separates the food dyes found in grape-flavored Kool-Aid using isocratic and gradient solution methods. [Debut]
Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 716.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
The extraction of gold and its simulation with copper  Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M.
The simulation of the extraction of gold by the use of its analog, copper, makes it possible to capitalize on the glamor of gold without sacrificing any chemical principles.
Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 634.
Separation Science |
Metallurgy |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
A simple and inexpensive preparative TLC applicator  Monti, Diego
Using normograph pens for ink applications.
Monti, Diego J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 514.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Quick modification of a TLC plate by use of a disposable dipping chamber  Marmer, William N.
Using a disposable polyethylene bag.
Marmer, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 512.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Use of pseudophase TLC in teaching laboratories  Armstrong, Daniel W.; Bui, Khanh H.; Barry, Regina M.
Thin-layer chromatography using micellar and alpha-cyclodextrin mobile phases.
Armstrong, Daniel W.; Bui, Khanh H.; Barry, Regina M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 457.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Micelles
Investigating a mixture of polar and nonpolar compounds using the same thin-layer chromatography plate  Somanathan, Ratnasamy
Avoids needing several thin layer plates.
Somanathan, Ratnasamy J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 456.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Chlorophyll separation and spectral identification  Diehl-Jones, Susan M.
Extracting chlorophyl a and b from spinach and separating them using thin-layer and column chromatography.
Diehl-Jones, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 454.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
A simple apparatus for filtering air-sensitive solids  Cossy, J.; Feigenbaum, A.
Makes use of a double-tipped needle.
Cossy, J.; Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 453.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
HPLC analysis of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and beta-carotene in collard greens  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Koehler, Jerry A.; Beadel, Edward F., Jr.; Monroe, Pearle A.
Expands the traditional experiment using column or thin layer chromatography to demonstrate the versatility of HPLC as an analytical technique.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Koehler, Jerry A.; Beadel, Edward F., Jr.; Monroe, Pearle A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 264.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis by gas chromatography: GC versus the nose in formulating artificial fruit flavors  Rasmussen, P. W.
Using GC retention indexes for the identification of the volatile compounds responsible for the odor of the banana.
Rasmussen, P. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 62.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Aromatic substitution reactions: when you've said ortho, meta, and para you haven't said it all  Traynham, James G.
The author presents a range of examples for nucleophilic, electrophilic, and free-radical reactions where the ipso is an important, predominant, or even exclusive site of reaction.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 937.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Free Radicals |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry |
Reactions
Ethanol from corn: one route to gasohol  Maslowsky, Edward, Jr.
The experiment in this article illustrates the preparation of ethanol through the action of enzymes and yeast in whole kernel corn. The purpose is to illustrate as closely as practical the method used either industrially or on the farm to convert corn into ethanol, while a second is to illustrate distillation.
Maslowsky, Edward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 752.
Applications of Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Separation Science
Separation and analysis of citral isomers: an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A.
In this laboratory, the authors have introduced students to HPLC, mass spectrometric analysis, and the separation of thermally sensitive materials by vacuum distillation.
Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 434.
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Identification of unknown black inks by thin-layer chromatography  Olesen, B.; Hopson, D.
A quick lab that will introduce students to TLC while demonstrating different properties and components of pen ink.
Olesen, B.; Hopson, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 232.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments
Production of aromatic hydrocarbons according to extractive distillation process  Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J.
A theme that deals with the study of the recovery of benzene from petroleum hydrocarbon mixture by means of an extractive distillation processes emerges from a pilot project that has been proposed to the graduating students.
Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 148.
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds
Degas' dancers: an illustration for rotational isomers  Hargittai, Istvan
Two drawings by Degas provide an opportunity to introduce the concepts of staggered and eclipsed conformations of A2B-BC2 molecules in a concrete, interesting, and aesthetic way.
Hargittai, Istvan J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 94.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Constitutional Isomers |
Diastereomers
Structure elucidation of a natural product  Letcher, Roy M.
This experiment is an attempt to simulate a real-life structure elucidation problem through the isolation, characterization, and chemical transformation of an unknown naturally occurring monoterpene, with extensive use being made of spectroscopy and aided by biogenetic considerations.
Letcher, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 79.
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Reactions
Activity coefficients of acetone-chloroform solutions: an undergraduate experiment  Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A.
The simple experiment described in this article gives unsurprisingly good results for the acetone-chloroform system.
Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 72.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
The design of an inexpensive, reliable, and rapid-acting fraction collector  Bell, Duncan H.
Features a spring-driven collector head with a clock-style escapement mechanism for the precise and rapid advancement of the collection tubes.
Bell, Duncan H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1082.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
An experiment on isomerism in metal-amino acid complexes: Preparation and characterization of cobalt(III) complexes containing N-bonded monodentate, O-bonded monodentate and N,O-chelated glycine ligands  Harrison, R. Graeme; Nolan, Kevin B.
Synthesis of three cobalt(III) complexes that illustrate three possible modes of bonding of glycine to a metal ion, as well as methods for distinguishing among the products.
Harrison, R. Graeme; Nolan, Kevin B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1054.
Stereochemistry |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
The preparation and characterization of the geometric isomers of a coordination complex: cis- and trans-bis-glycinato copper(II) monohydrates  O'Brien, Paul
The preparation of the cis and trans isomers of the kinetically labile bis glycinato copper(II) has a number of advantages including its facility, economy, ready theoretical interpretation, and biological relevance.
O'Brien, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1052.
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Lecture experiment in gas-liquid chromatography with a simple gas chromatograph at room temperature  Wollrah, Adalbert
Apparatus and method for separating mixtures of pentane / hexane and methyl chloride / carbon tetrachloride.
Wollrah, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1042.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Partition coefficients - A lecture demonstration  Newton, Thomas A.
The extraction of aqueous solutions of indophenol and its sodium salt with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Classroom chromatography  Bauer, Christopher F.
A classroom demonstration in which students are used to illustrate the operation of a chromatographic column.
Bauer, Christopher F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 846.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An easily conducted free radical substitution for organic chemistry courses  Pavlis, Robert R.
The photobromination of 1,2-diphenylethane into its dibromo derivative, (2R) (3S) 1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane.
Pavlis, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 658.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Photochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds
Separation and determination of hydroxyacetophenones: An experiment in preparative TLC and UV spectroscopy  Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J.
A mixture of o-, m-, and p-hydroxyacetophenones is separated through thin-layer chromatography, and the constituents are identified by UV spectroscopy.
Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 618.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and IR analysis of a mixture of organic compounds  Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John
Introduces students to fractional distillation and analysis of each fraction by gas-liquid chromatography.
Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 617.
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids
Manifold for gas chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R., Jr.
A manifold that allows one to operate four gas chromatographs on three tanks: one of hydrogen, one of compressed air, and one tank of carrier gas.
Conklin, Alfred R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 616.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Gases
The construction of a simple pyrolysis gas chromatograph  Hedrick, Jack L.
Constructing and using a simple PGC system made from outmoded gas chromatographs.
Hedrick, Jack L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 612.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A colorful extraction experiment  Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D.
Separating differently colored organic compounds (azobenzene, benzoic acid, and m-nitroaniline).
Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
The separation and identification of straight chain hydrocarbons: An experiment using gas-liquid chromatography  Benson, G. A.
Gas liquid chromatography used to separate and identify a mixture of C5 to C10 straight chain hydrocarbons.
Benson, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 344.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Chromatography
The evaluation of the parameters in the van Deemter equation  Moody, Harvey W.
This experiment considers the efficiency of chromatographic columns and allows one to calculate the parameters in the van Deemter equation.
Moody, Harvey W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 290.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple and inexpensive preparative TLC applicator  Lavallee, P.; Muzart, J.
A simple thin layer chromstography applicator that allows for the application of narrow streaks without holes or grooves, even when homemade plates are used.
Lavallee, P.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 250.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive liquid chromatography apparatus for undergraduate teaching  McCamish, Malcolm; Cannell, G. R.; Bretherton, L.
Description of a low-pressure liquid chromatography pump, slurry filler, stainless steel columns, and injector system suited to an undergraduate laboratory or routine analysis.
McCamish, Malcolm; Cannell, G. R.; Bretherton, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 249.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Rotary evaporator repair  Rothchild, Robert
Two methods for removing a defective seal on a rotary evaporator.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 241.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
A simple semimicro distillation apparatus  Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J.
A small distillation unit for fractional distillation of small amounts of material under vacuum.
Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 164.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Evaporation of chromatography fractions simplified  Vogel, George
Using an ordinary Erlenmeyer flask and a polyethylene stopper.
Vogel, George J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 69.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Isolation, separation and identification of synthetic food colors  Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G.
A simple, inexpensive experiment for the extraction of synthetic dyes permitted in foodstuffs, and their separation and identification using thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.
Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 67.
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A simple method for sample application in chromatography  Lo, J. M.
A simple applicator made of a rubber bulb and glass capillary tube.
Lo, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 66.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Separating copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis  Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L.
A different method for the separation of copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis based on the reductive potential precipitation of copper(II) as copper(I) thiocyanate.
Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 59.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Diastereomers, geometric isomers, and rotation about bonds  McCullough, John J.
A simple and consistent introduction to the stereochemistry of carbon, diastereomers, and geometric isomers.
McCullough, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 37.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A practical introduction to separation and purification techniques for the beginning organic chemistry laboratory  Leonard, Jack E.
Separation techniques have always been important for a successful chemical career. This author addresses some important considerations for training students.
Leonard, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1022.
Separation Science
An undergraduate laboratory program project involving photocyclizations in independent syntheses of novel chrysenes and phenanthrenes  Letcher, R. M.
This experiment attempts to fulfill such objectives as providing meaningful and viable preparative reactions, providing an opportunity for independent laboratory work within a project framework and under conditions of nearly equal opportunity and experience.
Letcher, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1020.
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Analysis of analgesic mixtures: An organic chemistry experiment  Martin, Ned H.
The lab described here allows for students to work out experimental conditions themselves and introduces semi-micro techniques.
Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 818.
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Determination of the extraction constant for zinc pyrrolidinecarbodithioate: An atomic absorption experiment for instrumental analysis  Hoskins, Claron L.; Reichardt, Paul B.; Stolzberg, Richard J.
This lab allows students to explore the theory that the degree of extraction depends on pH and the concentration of ligands.
Hoskins, Claron L.; Reichardt, Paul B.; Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 580.
Coordination Compounds |
pH |
Separation Science
A helpful stereochemical instructional tool  England, Don
The figure found in this note has been helpful in aiding student understanding of stereochemistry.
England, Don J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 31.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
A laboratory introduction to quantitative column chromatography  Johnson, Judith Faye; Rubinson, Kenneth A.
Involves a Beer's Law plot calibration, a elutropic series, and microvolumetric techniques.
Johnson, Judith Faye; Rubinson, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 909.
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
An inorganic laboratory experiment involving photochemistry, liquid chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy  Post, Elroy W.
An experiment involving photochemical ligand displacement on a metal carbonyl, separation of the product by mixture by chromatography, and identification of the components using IR spectroscopy and group theory.
Post, Elroy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 819.
Photochemistry |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Separation Science
Conversion of (+)-Limonene to (-)-Carvone: An organic laboratory sequence of local interest  Rothenberger, Otis S.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rollins, Ronald B.
Orange oil is converted to one of the components of spearmint oil; the detectable odor difference is due to stereochemical factors.
Rothenberger, Otis S.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rollins, Ronald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 741.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Enantiomers
An inexpensive Kugelrohr still  Guida, Wayne C.; Gawley, Robert E.
Plan for a simple unit that is superior to some commercial devices.
Guida, Wayne C.; Gawley, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 554.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An introduction to high performance liquid chromatography: Separation of some FD&C dyes  McKone, Harold T.; Ivie, Kert
Separation of five common FD&C dyes: Red 40, Yellow 5, Yellow 6, Blue 2, and Red 2, and some common "food" items in which they are found.
McKone, Harold T.; Ivie, Kert J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 321.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Ion exchange separation of the oxidation states of vanadium  Cornelius, Richard
An experiment designed to emphasize the discrete nature of the different oxidation states of vanadium by giving students an opportunity to separate the four species by ion exchange chromatography.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 316.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
An economical and efficient reflux/distillation apparatus  Marabella, Charles P.
A modified standard distillation head and vacuum takeoff adapter.
Marabella, Charles P. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 221.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Steam distillation of essential oils - Anethole from anise followed by permanganate oxidation to anisic acid  Garin, David L.
Provides the procedure for the oxidation step to this experiment.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 138.
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
An improved microbulb vacuum distillation apparatus  Saplay, Kishore M.
Improved version of an earlier modified Kugelrohr.
Saplay, Kishore M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 124.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Stereochemical nonequivalence of ligands and faces (heterotopicity)  Eliel, Ernest L.
Reviews the concepts associated with stereochemical non-equivalence (heterotopicity).
Eliel, Ernest L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 52.
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Constitutional Isomers |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Thin layer chromatographic separation of common analgesics-a comment  Roswell, D. F.; Zaczek, N. M.
The authors were unable to resolve phenacetin and salicylamide using a three component solvent system.
Roswell, D. F.; Zaczek, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 834.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Column chromatography aid  Wiedmann, Jerome L.
Using a polyethylene bottle as a solvent reservoir.
Wiedmann, Jerome L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 766.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
An organic chemistry experiment for forensic science majors  Rothchild, Robert
Qualitative analysis of over-the-counter analgesics using thin-layer chromatography.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 757.
Forensic Chemistry |
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
High performance liquid chromatography of essential oils  McKone, Harold T.
Separating essential oils from a variety of common spices using HPLC.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 698.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Two sample applicators for chromatography  Malik, N. S. A.; Berrie, A. M. M.
Designs for two thin layer chromatography applicators that can be made with a minimum of workshop facilities are described, one for small syringes and the other for larger syringes.
Malik, N. S. A.; Berrie, A. M. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 680.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
The rapid isolation of carotenoids from foods  McKone, Harold T.
Isolating carotene and lycopene from carrots and tomato paste without heating the organic solvents, and eliminating grinding with sand for the isolation of carotenoids from citrus fruit skins.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 676.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of caffeine in cola drinks: An organic analytical experiment  Van Atta, Robert E.
Procedure may also be applied to No-Doz tablets and tea.
Van Atta, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 666.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Optical illusions in drawings of cyclohexane derivatives  Feldman, Martin R.
An optical illusion in the representation of chair cyclohexanes.
Feldman, Martin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 659.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Fractionation of gels following electrophoresis  Racusen, David
A simple and inexpensive technique for slicing electrophoresis gels.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 628.
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Biotechnology
Mixed stationary liquid phases for gas-liquid chromatography  Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.
Using window diagrams to quantitate the selectivity of a column of liquid phase.
Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 623.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Purification of chloroform for NMR spectroscopy  Burfield, David R.
Chloroform can be readily purified by simply standing the solvent over activated molecular sieves.
Burfield, David R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 486.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
Isoenzymes  Daugherty, N. A.
The separation, identification, and measurement of isoenzymes is an appropriate topic for a special lecture in general chemistry.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 442.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Conformations of substituted ethanes  Kingsbury, Charles A.
Provides a state-of-the-art view of conformational analysis, with an emphasis on sp3 hybridized acyclic molecules.
Kingsbury, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 431.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Diastereomers
Computation of the number of isomers of coordination compounds containing different monodentate ligands  Chung, Chung-Sun

Chung, Chung-Sun J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 398.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
The electrophoresis of indicators: An analogy to isoenzyme separation  Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K.
A lecture demonstration that illustrates the principles involved in the separation of isoenzymes but avoids the problems inherent in isoenzyme separations.
Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Enzymes |
Separation Science
A student synthesis of the housefly sex attractant  Cormier, Russell A.; Duc Phan, M.; Graddis, Thomas; Singer, Richard
This multi-step synthetic sequence illustrates several important laboratory techniques, including ir and nmr spectroscopy, thin-layer and column chromatography, rotary evaporation, recrystallization, and vacuum distillation.
Cormier, Russell A.; Duc Phan, M.; Graddis, Thomas; Singer, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 345.
Synthesis |
Natural Products |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The separation of chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen: An affinity chromatography experiment for biological chemistry students  Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney
An experiment that can be used as either a demonstration or a laboratory illustrating the principles of affinity chromatography to purify an enzyme.
Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 281.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Proteins / Peptides
Acne lotion - Great for pimples and making polymers!  May, Jeffrey
Benzoyl peroxide can easily be separated from acne lotion.
May, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Polymerization |
Consumer Chemistry |
Separation Science
Identification of geometrical isomers of the cobalt(III)-iminodiacetate system: An inorganic experiment  Lawrance, Geoffrey A.; Rix, Colin J.
Procedure for the preparation and isolation of two differently colored geometric isomers of Co(IDA)2- and their characterization using pmr and visible spectroscopy.
Lawrance, Geoffrey A.; Rix, Colin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 211.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Coordination Compounds |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
p-Carboxystyrene. A Wittig procedure in aqueous medium  Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc
In this paper, the authors present a student preparation of p-carboxyl group, as it makes the reaction product soluble in alkaline and insoluble in acid medium, provides for an easy way of separation.
Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Separation Science
Amine-catalyzed isomerization of diethylmaleate to diethylfumarate  Glover, Irving T.; Cushing, Gary W.; Windsor, Chris M.
The authors have used the reaction in this paper in their introductory organic chemistry course to illustrate principles of GLC , geometric isomerism, homogeneous catalysis, and activation energy determinations.
Glover, Irving T.; Cushing, Gary W.; Windsor, Chris M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 812.
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Catalysis |
Gas Chromatography
Schemes and transformations in the (CH)8 series. The "valence isomers" of cyclooctatetraene  Smith, Leverett R.
The authors provide a scheme for deriving valence isomers.
Smith, Leverett R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 569.
Aromatic Compounds |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
Phase transfer catalysis: An interim project  Reeves, W. Preston
The authors have found that experiments in phase transfer catalysis provide students with a very profitable interim project.
Reeves, W. Preston J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 433.
Catalysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Separation Science
Z- and E-stereoisomerism: An experiment using photochemistry  Bourelle-Wargnier, F.; Feigenbaum, A.; Muzart, J.
The authors' report on the preparation of 2-benzylidenecyclohexanone E(I).
Bourelle-Wargnier, F.; Feigenbaum, A.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 339.
Stereochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
Computer simulation in organic chemistry - Thin layer chromatography   Bond, Douglas
The author shares his trials and victories in attempting to produce first class organic chemists.
Bond, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 323.
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthetic lemon grass oil  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
Instructions for a synthetic lemon grass extraction.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 306.
Synthesis |
Separation Science
Project for problem-oriented undergraduate organic or integrated undergraduate laboratory  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.
This paper reports on an open-ended project which allows a great degree of flexibility in the laboratory. The project provided about a 6-week study for groups of 24 students each.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 57.
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Addition Reactions |
MO Theory |
Elimination Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
High performance liquid chromatography of urinary compounds. An undergraduate experiment  Bastian, Douglas W.; Miller, Rochelle L.; Halline, Allan G.; Senftleber, Fred C.; Veening, Hans
An instrumental analysis experiment in which a mixture of five clinically important urinary compounds can be separated and determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.
Bastian, Douglas W.; Miller, Rochelle L.; Halline, Allan G.; Senftleber, Fred C.; Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 766.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
HPLC
Dye unknowns for use in column chromatography  Freese, J. M.; Oleson, B.; Pinnick, H. R., Jr.; Uneted, J. T.
A list of dyes whose mixtures are readily separated on adsorption alumina.
Freese, J. M.; Oleson, B.; Pinnick, H. R., Jr.; Uneted, J. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 684.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Selectivity and specificity in organic reactions  Ault, Addison
Distinguishes between various forms of selectivity and specificity (e.g. the us of and differences between stereoselective and stereospecific).
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 614.
Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Procedures to expedite column chromatographic separations  Dorko, Ernest A.; Baker, William W.
Adding a small amount of the column packing material to the mixture to be separated before evaporating its solvent and using an inflated inner tube to pressurize the column is found to expedite column chromatographic separations.
Dorko, Ernest A.; Baker, William W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 564.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Isolation of dyes for analysis  Levinson, Alfred S.
The use of ion exchange resin for the isolation of dyes from beverages, gelatin desserts, and other foods.
Levinson, Alfred S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 460.
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Alkylation of methyl acetoacetate and gas chromatographic analysis of products. An organic laboratory experiment  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
Substituting commercially available sodium methoxide, absolute methanol, and methyl acetoacetate for sodium, ethanol, and acetoacetic ester in the acetoacetic ester synthesis of ketones and acids and the malonic ester synthesis of acids.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 446.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Laboratory Management
Pre-filter for removing suspended solids from HPLC samples  Bailey, Leonard C.
A pre-filter attached to the inlet of an HPLC injector.
Bailey, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 428.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
HPLC |
Chromatography
Experiments with electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions  Cox, B.; Kubler, D. G.; Wilson, C. A.
Comparing the bromination and nitration of benzene.
Cox, B.; Kubler, D. G.; Wilson, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 379.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
Gas chromatographic simulation program  Yuan, Mark
A Fortran simulation of gas chromatography.
Yuan, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 364.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Simple, inexpensive and reliable do-it-yourself chromatography columns  Lehky, Pavel
Reliable chromatography columns of sizes ranging from 3 to 30 mm ID can be assembled within a few minutes using current laboratory material.
Lehky, Pavel J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 227.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Versatile, automatic chromatographic column packing device  Barry, Eugene F.; Goulet, Susan; Blood, William N.
Design for a versatile, automatic chromatographic column packing device.
Barry, Eugene F.; Goulet, Susan; Blood, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 194.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Simulated research experience for chemists and non-chemists  Thorne, James M.; Matheson, Kenneth Lee
Students extract a toxin (sodium oxalate) from the weed Halogeton, determine its chemical formula, and suggest possible antidotes.
Thorne, James M.; Matheson, Kenneth Lee J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 165.
Undergraduate Research |
Applications of Chemistry |
Toxicology |
Separation Science
Juglone: A comparison of natural and synthetic products  Wilbur, James M.; Sublett, Kerry Lyn
Isolating juglone from black walnut hulls and comparing it to synthetic material through melting point and thin layer chromatography.
Wilbur, James M.; Sublett, Kerry Lyn J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 156.
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Paper chromatography of carbohydrates  Croft, L. R.; Haghighi, S.
A simple detection reagent for carbohydrates.
Croft, L. R.; Haghighi, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 112.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Carbohydrates
Isomerism about a double bond: Use of cis and trans   Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Limitations of the cis and trans nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 727.
Diastereomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Separation of waste plastics. An experiment in solvent fractionation  Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan
The authors share their design for a scheme for separation of specific plastics from a mixture. This activity engages students and relates to recycling.
Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 653.
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
A simple and inexpensive steam generator for essential oils extraction  Craveiro, Afranio A.; Matos, F. J. A.; de Alencar, J. W.
This apparatus aids in essential oil extraction.
Craveiro, Afranio A.; Matos, F. J. A.; de Alencar, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 652.
Natural Products |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A sample preparation technique for column chromatography  Beller, Nicholas R.; Hilleary, Christopher J.
The authors have found a simple and effective method of sample preparation for use in column chromatography which resembles the application of a sample to a thin layer chromatography plate, where the solid sample in solution is absorbed by the solid phase as the solvent evaporates.
Beller, Nicholas R.; Hilleary, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 498.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry
Photooxidation of methionine. An integrated organic-analytical-biochemistry laboratory experiment  Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H.
The experiments presented here familiarize the student with the organic reactions necessary to prepare the starting material; introduces the use of glass beads for immobilizing a catalyst; demonstrates the use of light and methylene blue as oxidizers; requires the implementation of an important analytical technique, thin layer chromatography; provides the student with a good example of the reactivity of one amino acid, methionine.
Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 395.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Catalysis
Isolation of oil of clove and separation of eugenol and acetyl eugenol. An instructive experiment for beginning chemistry undergraduates  Ntamila, M. S.; Hassanali, A.
The study in this article is simple to perform, requires small quantities of readily available material and may be completed within a normal laboratory period.
Ntamila, M. S.; Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 263.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
TLC analysis of carbaryl insecticide on sprayed foliage. A student experiment  Bidleman, T. F.; Rice, C. P.
The authors develop a relevant lab experience in order to introduce students to thin layer chromatography.
Bidleman, T. F.; Rice, C. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 173.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Toxicology |
Hormones |
Quantitative Analysis
Steam distillation of essential oils - Carvone from caraway  Garin, David L.
An economical way to perform popular essential oil extraction experiments.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 105.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Gas chromatographic analysis of gasoline. A laboratory experiment  Cassidy, Robert F., Jr.; Schuerch, Conrad
In this experiment the authors take advantage of the high resolving power and rapidity of gas chromatography to separate some commercial gasolines into individual compounds and simple mixtures of compounds of similar volatility.
Cassidy, Robert F., Jr.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 51.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
A novel method for quantitative thin layer chromatography  Baum, D. E.; Shanks, R. A.
Weighing cut out spot images from thin layer chromatograms.
Baum, D. E.; Shanks, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 738.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
A laboratory exercise for organic chemistry  Sands, Richard D.
Students analyze a mixture of two unknown liquids, which as the semester progresses they are to separate, analyze, and identify.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 732.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy
An industrial steam distillation: Separation of rosin and turpentine from pine gum  Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad
Procedure for converting a tacky intractable mass - pine gum - into two recognizable and useful materials - a fragrant water-white liquid (turpentine) and a hard amber-colored resin (rosin).
Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 672.
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Small scale organic techniques: Filtration and crystallization  Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.
Steps in the filter stick method for hot filtration and crystallization.
Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 664.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management |
Crystals / Crystallography
Ion-exchange resins - A simple apparatus  Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo
A modified procedure and apparatus for speeding up the use of ion-exchange resins.
Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Calculation of the number of cis-trans isomers in a "symmetric" polyene  Har-zvi, Ron; Wittes, Janet Turk
A problem in which students are to derive a general expression for the number of cis-trans isomers in a "symmetric" straight chain polyene when there are n double bonds.
Har-zvi, Ron; Wittes, Janet Turk J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 545.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Alkenes
Helpful TLC techniques  Martin, Ned H.
Procedure for obtaining a uniformly thick adsorbent layer on chromatography plates and locating zones on thin layer chromatography plates.
Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 467.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Fractionating column heater for student use  Mowery, Dwight F., Jr.
Using the standard condenser found in all ground-joint organic laboratory kits to heat a fractionating column.
Mowery, Dwight F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 436.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An experiment illustrating countercurrent chromatography with simple apparatus  Godinho, Oswaldo E. S.; Braga, Gilberto L.
Illustrates countercurrent chromatography with a simple apparatus and an experiment involving the separation of the indicators Phenol Red and Bromcresol Purple.
Godinho, Oswaldo E. S.; Braga, Gilberto L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 258.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes. Separation by paper electrophoresis and estimate of stability constants  Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J.
Differently charged species of thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes are separated by paper electrophoresis.
Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 122.
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrophoresis
Determining homotopic, enantiotopic, and diastereotopic faces in organic molecules  Ayral Kaloustian, Semiramis; Kaloustian, Moses K.
Presents a simple set of rules, based on considerations of symmetry, that allows a succinct classification of the five types of molecular faces of interest to the organic chemist and the biochemist.
Ayral Kaloustian, Semiramis; Kaloustian, Moses K. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 56.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers
Isolation of benzoic and boric acids from Listerine. An introductory organic chemistry experiment  Weichman, Roger L.
The experiment described here is a separation scheme which introduces the student to fractional distillation, extraction, decolorization with activated carbon, hot gravity filtration, vacuum, filtration, crystallization, recrystallization, melting point, mixed melting point, refractive index, gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy.
Weichman, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 589.
Separation Science
Radiochemical investigation of some sample destruction procedures  Servant, D. M.
A simple undergraduate experiment is described here for assessing a number of methods for the recovery of silver from organic matrices.
Servant, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 550.
Separation Science
The recovery and identification of flammable liquids in suspected arsons. An undergraduate organic experiment  Blackledge, Robert D.
The described experiment here takes the place of two experiments commonly used in the beginning organic laboratory course, namely the experiment on steam distillation and the experiment on gas liquid chromatography.
Blackledge, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 549.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
The photoisomerization of cyclic ketones: An experiment in organic chemistry  Haas, J. W., Jr.
This experiment deals with parameters such as the nature of the excited state, effect of triplet quenchers on product formation, chemical structure and reaction rate and quantum yield when cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone are irradiated at 254nm. These cyclic ketones provide a variety of photolysis information in a short time span, are conveniently analyzed by gas chromatography, and are readily available at the requisite levels of purity.
Haas, J. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 346.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography
Recent developments in instrumentation for liquid chromatography  Veening, Hans
Considers various accessories for gradient elution systems.
Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A429.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Simple and safe electrophoresis of low and high voltage gradients  Tibbs, Jack
Considers procedures and apparatus for cellulose acetate strip electrophoresis and silica gel thin layer electrophoresis.
Tibbs, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 862.
Electrophoresis |
Electrochemistry |
Separation Science
Thin-layer chromatogram visualization. A student experiment  Madsen, Brooks C.
This thin layer chromatography experiment separates mixtures of common over the counter analgesics and antipyretic preparations and related compounds, and has several advantages that many student oriented tlc experiments lack.
Madsen, Brooks C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 852.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Hydrolysis of a chromium(III) complex. Using atomic absorption and ion exchange  Davies, Michael B.; Lethbridge, J. W.
This experiment emphasizes three major advantages of atomic absorption spectroscopy and provides a valuable exercise in the use of ion exchange chromatography.
Davies, Michael B.; Lethbridge, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 793.
Ion Exchange |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Coffee, Tea, or Cocoa. A trio of experiments including the isolation of theobromine from cocoa  Pavia, Donald L.
Isolating caffeine from tea and coffee and theobromine from cocoa.
Pavia, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 791.
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry
A simple liquid-liquid continuous extractor  Holder, Richard W.
For extractions of a material from a more-dense to a less-dense solvent, the setup depicted is convenient and can be constructed entirely from readily available glassware.
Holder, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 639.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Determining the molecular weight of N-fatty acids by thin layer chromatography  Singh, Eric J.; Zuspan, Frederick P.
Simple procedure for determining the molecular weight of N-fatty acids by thin layer chromatography.
Singh, Eric J.; Zuspan, Frederick P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 625.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Fatty Acids
Separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group  Antikainen, P. J.
This procedure applies paper- and ion-exchange chromatography to the separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group.
Antikainen, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 595.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography
Lyophilization apparatus  Lunelli, Bruno
A method based on an easily constructed apparatus that allows laboratory-scale lyophilizations to be carried out.
Lunelli, Bruno J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 577.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Management
Photochemical and thermal interconversion of cis and trans isomers. An organic laboratory experiment  Silversmith, Ernest F.; Dunson, Fay C.
The photoisomerization of trans-1,4-diphenyl-2-butene-1,4-dione to the cis isomer.
Silversmith, Ernest F.; Dunson, Fay C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 568.
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
The determination of pesticide residues. A laboratory experiment  Jarosch, Richard
The determination of pesticide residues using thin-layer and gas chromatography.
Jarosch, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 507.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple application device for paper chromatography and electrophoresis  Barbeau, Donald L.
The application holder presented eliminates the awkwardness of handling filter paper strips while applying either large quantities of unknown samples or smaller quantities of amino acid standards.
Barbeau, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 391.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
The separation of ferrocene, acetylferrocene, and diacetylferrocene. A dry-column chromatography experiment  Gilbert, J. C.; Monti, S. A.
Applies dry-column chromatography to the separation and purification of the reaction mixture obtained from the acylation of ferrocene.
Gilbert, J. C.; Monti, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 369.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
"Dry-column" chromatography. A new technique for the undergraduate laboratory  Bohen, J. M.; Joullie, M. M.; Kaplan, F. A.; Loev, B.
In this experiment, thin-layer chromatography is used to determine the number of compounds in a prepared dye mixture and "dry-column" chromatography is used to separate the mixture into its components.
Bohen, J. M.; Joullie, M. M.; Kaplan, F. A.; Loev, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 367.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments
An investigation of sebum and other facial lipids  Calsin, Dennis; Trinler, W. A.
An introductory thin layer chromatography experiment that illustrates the variety of surface facial lipids, produced chiefly by sebaceous glands.
Calsin, Dennis; Trinler, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 135.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Lipids |
Natural Products
TLC detection of caffeine in commercial products  Pavlik, James W.
An introductory experiment that involves the thin layer chromatography detection of caffeine in a variety of familiar pharmaceutical products.
Pavlik, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 134.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis
Geometry in chromatography  Campbell, Bruce Henry
This paper reports investigations into conical chromatography and the advantages and disadvantages of such a geometry.
Campbell, Bruce Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 133.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An inexpensive conductivity monitor for column operation  Ford, A.; Meloan, C. E.
Circuit diagrams for a column chromatography conductivity monitor.
Ford, A.; Meloan, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 85.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Filtration centrituge tube  Giese, Roger W.
The tube presented is assembled from common laboratory equipment and can be employed for small scale crystallizations and filtrations under ordinary as well as low-temperature/inert-gas conditions.
Giese, Roger W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 81.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography
The odor of optical isomers. An experiment in organic chemistry  Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles
The experiment described involves the separation and characterization of l-carvone from spearmint oil and d-carvone from caraway seed oil.
Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 74.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Laboratory directions for analytical separations and determinations: A manual for quantitative analysis (Kenner, C. T.)  Krivis, Alan F.

Krivis, Alan F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A38.
Separation Science
The thin-layer chromatography of drugs. A laboratory experiment  Neman, R. L.
Students are introduced to thin layer chromatography, are provided samples known to contain alkaloids and barbiturates, separate the mixtures using tlc, determine the components of their unknowns, and calculate Rf values for the components.
Neman, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 834.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
A simple alarm to aid in preparative glpc fraction collection  Lustig, Robert S.
A simple alarm that can be adjusted to "sound off" when the recorder pen of a preparative gas chromatograph reaches a preset height above the base line.
Lustig, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 760.
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Caffeine and benzoic acid in soft drinks  Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A.
Simple procedures for isolating caffeine and benzoic acid from commercial soft drinks.
Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 708.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Partial analysis of vinyl-asbestos floor tile. A tlc experiment for beginning organic chemistry  Foreman, William A.; Paulson, Donald R.
This laboratory introduces thin-layer chromatography while presenting the student with a typical industrial analysis problem.
Foreman, William A.; Paulson, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 572.
Industrial Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
On diastereomeric meso compounds  Andrist, A. Harry
A table of the number of diastereomeric meso diacids possible from the oxidation of carbohydrates containing different numbers of asymmetric carbon atoms.
Andrist, A. Harry J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 551.
Oxidation State |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Carbohydrates
Quick paper chromatography of amino acids  Heimer, E. P.
Applies acetonitrile-buffer systems for the relatively rapid separation of amino acids.
Heimer, E. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 547.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Small-scale thin-layer chromatography. Experiments for teaching purposes  Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G.
Describes a number of rapid thin-layer chromatography separations that can be conveniently used to introduce chromatography in the teaching laboratory.
Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 545.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
An apparatus for determining the composition of solutions  Castell, Jerry; Amis, Edward S.
An evaporating apparatus constructed from a beaker and a glass fritted crucible.
Castell, Jerry; Amis, Edward S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 500.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
A unified apparatus for paper and gel electrophoresis  Racusen, David; White, Lee
Presents an apparatus that can be used for either paper and gel electrophoresis.
Racusen, David; White, Lee J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 439.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Modification of TLC analyses of APC  Holmes, L. Paull
Solution to a difficulty encountered in adopting the cited experiment.
Holmes, L. Paull J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 379.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
Circular chromatography of inks  Wan, Alfred S. C.
Circular chromatography provides a very convenient and rapid method for demonstrating the principles of paper chromatography.
Wan, Alfred S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 335.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
A multi-purpose separatory funnel  Kim, Young S.; Zeitlin, Harry
Design of a multi-purpose separatory funnel equipped with a Teflon stopcock in which a number of operations can be carried out conveniently.
Kim, Young S.; Zeitlin, Harry J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 296.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Reclamation of gold  Shaw, C. Frank III; Tobias, R. Stuart
An improved procedure for the recovery of gold from laboratory reaction residues.
Shaw, C. Frank III; Tobias, R. Stuart J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 286.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Extraction of caffeine  Moye, Alfred L.
Much greater yields can be obtained by extracting caffeine from No-Doz tablets than coffee or tea.
Moye, Alfred L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 194.
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Procedure for recovering elemental silver from silver residues  Steed, S. Paul; Hayes, Janan M.
A procedure for recovering silver from a mixture of silver salts.
Steed, S. Paul; Hayes, Janan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 156.
Metals |
Separation Science
Solvent extraction apparatus  Tobey, Stephen W.
Describes a solvent extraction head that provides an apparatus in which all regular laboratory continuous solvent extractions can be performed.
Tobey, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 141.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple apparatus for teaching the principles of chromatography  Kellomaki, Aarre
A device that follows the elution of electrolytes through liquid column chromatography by continuously measuring the conductivity of the effluent.
Kellomaki, Aarre J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 139.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The separation of a sodium-rubidium mixture on an ion-exchanger. A laboratory experiment  Coetzee, C. J.
This experiment demonstrates the separation of sodium and rubidium from each other on an AMP-asbestos ion exchange column.
Coetzee, C. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 33.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Instrumental techniques compared by analysis of a reaction mixture  Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O.
The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint the student with how a combination of instruments (glc, ir, and nmr) can be used to separate as well as to identify each compound in a reaction mixture.
Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 827.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Column and thin-layer chromatography. A combined experiment for the undergraduate organic laboratory  Ruppel, Irving B., Jr.; Cuneo, Frederick L.; Krause, Josef G.
The authors have been using the product mixture obtained from the nitration of phenol to demonstrate the techniques of column and thin-layer chromatography with excellent results. The authors feel the experiment has several advantages over the column chromatographic experiments usually described in undergraduate laboratory manuals.
Ruppel, Irving B., Jr.; Cuneo, Frederick L.; Krause, Josef G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 635.
Thin Layer Chromatography
"Show 'N' tell". An organic chemical presentation for the layman  Harrison, Aline M.
The author presents a separation technique from organic chemistry.
Harrison, Aline M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 612.
Separation Science
Analysis of APC tablets. An inexpensive and practical thin-layer chromatography experiment  Lieu, Van T.
By using a commercial item, students are faced with a "live" problem connected with everyday living.
Lieu, Van T. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 478.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
Pigments from some marine specimens. The isolation and spectral characterization of spinochromes  Chang, C. W. J.; Moore, J. C.
This experiment allows students to examine some common pigments extracted from marine animals.
Chang, C. W. J.; Moore, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 408.
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Trimyristin from nutmeg  Frank, Forrest; Roberts, Theodore; Snell, Jane; Yates, Christy; Collins, Joseph
The author proposes the isolation and saponification of trimytistin from nutmeg as an excellent experiment to introduce general chemistry students to laboratory techniques or for use with the organic chemistry course in which case more techniques an be introduces.
Frank, Forrest; Roberts, Theodore; Snell, Jane; Yates, Christy; Collins, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 255.
Natural Products |
Food Science |
Separation Science
An integrated nmr and photochemical organic chemistry experiment  Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H.
The authors describe a photochemical experiment involving a compound that was prepared in the authors' previous paper.
Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 204.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers
The preparation and isomerization of allyl thiocyanate. An organic chemistry experiment  Emergon, David W.
The present experiment has been devised to focus attention on two displacement reactions, one at carbon and one at sulfur and the facile allylic rearrangement of allyl thiocyanate (III) to allyl isothiocyanate (IV) which occurs during the distillation. Equations are shown in the article.
Emergon, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 81.
Separation Science
Liquid chromatography detectors - Part one  Veening, Hans
Surveys photometric liquid chromatography detectors.
Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A549.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Current trends in gel permeation chromatography. Part two: Methodology  Cazes, Jack
Examines the subjects of calibration, estimation of molecular weight distribution, fractionation of low molecular weight substances, and recycling chromatography.
Cazes, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A505.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Calibration
Current trends in gel permeation chromatography. Part one: Theory and equipment  Cazes, Jack
This report is presented as a supplement to an earlier pair of papers on gel permeation chromatography and considers the mechanism of separation, resolution, equipment, and column substrates
Cazes, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A461.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chemical separation methods (Dean, John A.)  Culp, Robert A.

Culp, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A396.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Chromatography (Browning, D. R.)  Karger, Barry L.

Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A306.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of leucine and isoleucine by thin-layer chromatography  Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr.
This experiment involves the separation of leucine and isoleucine through continuous ascending thin layer chromatography.
Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 840.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
Procedure for recovering silver nitrate from silver-silver oxide residues  Henderson, K. O.; Garin, David L.
Presents a procedure for recovering silver nitrate from silver-silver oxide residues.
Henderson, K. O.; Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 741.
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Experiments in paper chromatography  Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K.
Briefly summarizes a series of paper chromatography experiments that demonstrate basic physical and inorganic principles, as well as providing an introduction to a useful separation technique.
Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 688.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The effect of pH on the extraction of copper oxinate into chloroform  Dilts, Robert V.
To illustrate the theoretical aspects of metal chelate extractions, an experiment to determine the percent extraction-pH curve for copper 8-hydroxyquinolate is presented.
Dilts, Robert V. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 661.
pH |
Separation Science |
Metals
Vacuum distillation experiment  Schoffstall, Allen M.; Specht, James D.
The primary purpose of this experiment is to provide the student with a feeling similar to that of a researcher who is attempting to separate by distillation a mixture containing a product of unknown structure for identification.
Schoffstall, Allen M.; Specht, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 539.
Separation Science
A weevil's loss is our gain or sex strikes the pages on the Journal.  Brasted, Robert C.
The trans-isomer of the boll weevil sex attractant is a million times more active than the cis-isomer.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 447.
Natural Products |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
A simple streaker for preparative layer chromatography  Altman, L. J.; Trudell, James R.
Presents a simple streaker for preparative layer chromatography and explains its use.
Altman, L. J.; Trudell, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 404.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Bibliography of experimental gas chromatography  Miller, James M.
Summarizes publications of homemade gas chromatography instruments and educational experiments involving their use.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 306.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Adsorbent extractor for preparative thin-layer chromatography  Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, Donald G.
Device to remove sample containing regions from cellulose thin-layer chromatograms and extract the samples that eliminates many of the problems associated with other methods.
Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 229.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A short, intensive experiment in paper chromatography  McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre
A paper chromatographic system capable of separating a challenging mixture of components (amino acids) in less than three hours.
McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 141.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
A convenient method to obtain preparative samples by glc  Costanzo, Samuel J.
A simple device to collect samples directly from a gas chromatograph relies on a disposable pipet.
Costanzo, Samuel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 45.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple laboratory experiment on PVP column chromatography  Lerner, Joseph
This experiment deals with the separation of three colored biochemicals, two of which are vitamins, the other a protein.
Lerner, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 32.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Vitamins
A versatile and compact chromatographic chamber  Lehrfeld, J.
This simple and inexpensive glass chamber facilitates thin-layer chromatography separations of a large number of samples within 5 minutes.
Lehrfeld, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The essential oils: A series of laboratory experiments  Runquist, Olaf
Describes a variety of "research type" laboratory problems for the second term introductory organic chemistry course involving essential oils.
Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 846.
Lipids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A simple, inexpensive zone extractor for preparative thin-layer chromatography  Kan, G.; Snieckus, V.
This short note presents the design of a simple, inexpensive zone extractor for preparative thin-layer chromatography.
Kan, G.; Snieckus, V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 763.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An introduction to chromatography  Gaucher, G. M.
The object of this presentation is to serve as a preliminary practical introduction and guide to chromatography.
Gaucher, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 729.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Ion Exchange
Purification of low-melting compounds  Kaye, Irving Allan
Presents a procedure that addresses difficulties to purification by recrystallization caused by the tendency of some low-melting compounds to precipitate from solution as oils.
Kaye, Irving Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 696.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management |
Precipitation / Solubility
A modern look at Markovnikov's rule and the peroxide effect  Isenberg, Norbert; Grdinic, Marcel
Presents a "carbonium ion" definition of Markovnikov's Rule and examines the peroxide effect.
Isenberg, Norbert; Grdinic, Marcel J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 601.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions
Counter-current distribution as a student laboratory experiment  Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran
This experiment demonstrates the principles of extraction and counter-current distribution as well as spectrophotometric analysis.
Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 525.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Reflectance spectroscopic analysis of dyes separated by thin layer chromatography  Frodyma, M. M.; Frei, R. W.
This study attempts to verify the usefulness of reflectance spectroscopy as an analytical tool in the hands of the inexperienced analyst.
Frodyma, M. M.; Frei, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 522.
Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A semi-micro filtration apparatus  Kocon, Richard W.
An inexpensive vacuum filtration apparatus that combines the features of small surface area in the filter, rapid passage of solution through the filter, and concentration of the filtrate in a relatively small area.
Kocon, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 516.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Simple developing chamber for thin layer chromatography  Aronson, John N.
This short note describes the design of a simple developing chamber for thin layer chromatography.
Aronson, John N. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 483.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Modifications of solution chromatography illustrated with chloroplast pigments  Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph
Using plant pigments to demonstrate various chromatographic techniques, including column adsorption, paper adsorption, paper partition, column partition, and thin layer chromatography.
Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 476.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Teflon enclosed steel spiral as column packing  Greenberg, Fred H.
Using steel wire enclosed in Teflon in place of a tantalum wire spiral as fractionating column packing.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 464.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The photoisomerization of azobenzene: A TLC experiment for the undergraduate organic laboratory  Janssen, Jerry F.
The photoisomerization of azobenzene provides a rare opportunity to explore molecular photochemistry in undergraduate organic chemistry.
Janssen, Jerry F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 117.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers
Column chromatography spectrometry for separating two cobalt complexes: A laboratory experiment  Schmitt, Donald L.; Jonassen, Hans B.
This paper presents the details of the separation of [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 from [Co(NH3)5]Cl2 using molecular sieves.
Schmitt, Donald L.; Jonassen, Hans B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 47.
Chromatography |
Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds
Disc electrophoresis  Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B.
Describes the procedures involved in separating proteins or nucleic acids through disc electrophoresis.
Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 41.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Separation Science
Introduction to Chromatography (Bobbitt, James M.; Schwarting, Arthur E.; Gritter, Roy J.)  Silberman, Robert

Silberman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A986.
Organometallics |
Separation Science
Effect of shock on CS2 vapor  Viswanathan, Arcot
An explosive shock separates CS2 into its constituent elements.
Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A901.
Gases |
Separation Science
A simple, foot-controlled air-jet dryer to assist in applying solutions to TLC plates  Wittick, J. J.
This short note describes a simple, foot-controlled air-jet dryer to assist in applying solutions to thin layer chromatography plates.
Wittick, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 660.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Natural products isolation - orange oil: An undergraduate organic experiment  Greenberg, F. H.
This procedure involves the isolation of orange oil from orange peel an the identification of a major component - limonene.
Greenberg, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 537.
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Cylindrical thin-layer chromatography  Jordan, David
This short note describes the use and advantages of cylindrical thin-layer chromatography.
Jordan, David J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 510.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Simple models for polymer stereochemistry  Rodriguez, F.
Models made by drawing on folding transparent plastic sheets are proposed as being an alternative for illustrating polymer structures.
Rodriguez, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 507.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers
The use of cellophane sheets for direct reading and recording of Rf values  Chortyk, O. T.; Kushnir, I.
Describes the use of cellophane sheets for direct reading and recording of Rf values.
Chortyk, O. T.; Kushnir, I. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 506.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple sprayer for quantitative thin-layer chromatography  Samuels, Stanley
A simple, inexpensive sprayer for chromatographic use that can be constructed by a student as a laboratory project.
Samuels, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 438.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simplified slotted lid for preparative thin-layer chromatography jars  Borka, Laszlo
Design for an all-glass lid for preparative thin-layer chromatography jars.
Borka, Laszlo J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 401.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
An inexpensive sprayer for chromatography  DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis
This short note presents a simple and inexpensive sprayer for paper and thin-layer chromatography.
DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 321.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An inexpensive device for evaluating solvents for paper and thin-layer chromatography  DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis
A short note describing a device for evaluating solvents used to develop paper and thin-layer chromatograms.
DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 303.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Using TLC to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone  Davis, Michael
A short note regarding a simple procedure involving the use of thin layer chromatography to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone.
Davis, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 192.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Analytical chemistry  Rogers, L. B.
Many of the guiding principles for optimizing chromatographic separations are appropriate for inclusion in an undergraduate analytical course.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 7.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Thin-layer chromatography (Randerath, Kurt)  Malins, Donald C.

Malins, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A912.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic methods (Stock, R.)  Sherma, Joseph

Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 624.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple gas-liquid chromatography device  Silberman, Robert
Describes a simple device for demonstrating the principle of gas chromatography.
Silberman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 590.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Conformational analysis and chemical reactivity  Idoux, John P.
Uses acyclic chemistry to illustrate important concepts regarding conformational analysis and chemical reactivity.
Idoux, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 495.
Conformational Analysis |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
Qualitative analysis with paper chromatography  Poonia, N. S.
A spot of an unknown mixture is subjected to radial development, and the circular chromatogram is divided into a number of segments used for the detection of different cations or groups of cations.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 477.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Techniques for internal distillation-condensation  Johnson, B. L.
Presents modifications and apparatus for the semi-micro collection of pure substances and macro extraction.
Johnson, B. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 465.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Methods of separation: The sophomore analytical course  Dilts, Robert V.
Describes the development of a course in separation methods.
Dilts, Robert V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 313.
Separation Science
Test tube and glass rod tlc  Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer
Describes the use of test tubes and glass rods coated on their outer surfaces for thin layer chromatography.
Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 297.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The use of talc as a tlc adsorbent  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes the use of talc as a thin layer chromatography adsorbent, particularly with respect to the separation of flavonoids, sugars, and proteins.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 294.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Liquid-liquid extraction  Joseph-Nathan, P.
Describes how liquid-liquid extraction can be done using commercially available substances and an apparatus of small dimensions that still allows an experiment to be followed visually.
Joseph-Nathan, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 176.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A practical method of removing oxygen from inert gases  Broadbent, A. D.
Describes the use of BTS-catalyst to remove oxygen from nitrogen and other inert gases.
Broadbent, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 145.
Gases |
Separation Science |
Catalysis
Zone extractor for thin-layer chromatography  Ruchelman, Maryon W.
This communication describes a simple technique for elution columns prepared from commercially available disposable capillary pipets.
Ruchelman, Maryon W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 110.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple apparatus for scoring tlc plates  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes a simple apparatus for scoring thin layer chromatography plates.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 24.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Unattended laboratory operations. Part 1. The safe operation of laboratory distillations over night  Conlon, D. R.
Examines issues related to the safe operation of laboratory distillations over night.
Conlon, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A589.
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Enamine reactions for the undergraduate organic laboratory: A student water separator  Darling, S. D.
This note describes the design and efficiency of a device that facilitates the removal of water in reactions such as enamine preparation or esterfications.
Darling, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 665.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Separation Science
Optimizing experimental conditions: The use of TLC to follow the course of a reaction  Herz, Joseph E.
A student research project that relies on the acetylation of ferrocene to illustrate the use of thin-layer chromatography to follow the course of a reaction.
Herz, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 599.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis and ion migration  Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V.
Ferric hydroxide and arsenious sulfide are separated using a 9-volt battery.
Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 436.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Colloids
Paper chromatography and spot tests: A useful combination of techniques  Poonia, N. S.
Reports on the specificity of identification afforded by spot test reagents and provides Rf values for 36 inorganic ions.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 423.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Metals
A versatile continuous percolator-extractor  Ciereszko, Leon S.
An apparatus that may be used either for the continuous percolation of solids or for the continuous extraction of liquids is presented.
Ciereszko, Leon S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 252.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Solids |
Liquids
Concepts of species and state in chemistry and molecular physics  Goodfriend, P. L.
This article examines the concepts of species and state in chemistry and molecular physics.
Goodfriend, P. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 95.
Quantum Chemistry |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Acetylation of ferrocene: A chromatography experiment for elementary organic laboratory  Bozak, Richard E.
The acetylation of ferrocene with acetic anhydride and phosphoric acid produces a mixture of unchanged ferrocene and acetylferrocene that is readily separated in a regular chromatography column.
Bozak, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 73.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Resolution in linear elution chromatography  Karger, Barry L.
Examines fundamentals of resolution that are common to all chromatographic methods.
Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 47.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Homemade marker for chromatography plates  Miller, Frederick W.
Presents a marker for chromatography plates constructed from a pocket comb.
Miller, Frederick W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 29.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Determining the carbon number of n-fatty acids by TLC  Singh, Eric J.; Gershbein, Leon L.
Presents a method for determining the carbon number of n-fatty acids through thin layer chromatography.
Singh, Eric J.; Gershbein, Leon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 29.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
A spreader for TLC slides  Whistler, Roy L.; Lamchen, Max; Rowell, R. M.
Presents a spreader for thin layer chromatography slides made from Plexiglass sheets.
Whistler, Roy L.; Lamchen, Max; Rowell, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 28.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Thin-layer chromatography: A laboratory handbook (Stahl, Egon)  Malins, Donald C.

Malins, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 692.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Use of the unopette in thin-layer chromatography  Clitheroe, H. J.; Gerarde, H. W.
Describes the use of the Unopette capillary in applying samples to chromatographic plates.
Clitheroe, H. J.; Gerarde, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 613.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive TLC tank  Andersen, Kenneth K.; May, George S.
Presents a sandwich-type thin layer chromatography tank.
Andersen, Kenneth K.; May, George S. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 596.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Natural product chemistry: Laboratory research approach for elementary organic courses  O'Connor, Rod
Describes a program designed to introduce macro, semi-micro, and micro techniques of organic chemistry of the types commonly employed in research in natural product chemistry or in biologically-related fields.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 492.
Natural Products |
Undergraduate Research |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Experiments in inorganic paper chromatography  Walton, Harold F.
Experiments typical of those done in geochemical work involve the detection and estimation of uranium, copper, cobalt, and nickel.
Walton, Harold F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 477.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Geochemistry |
Metals
A simple high frequency transistor recorder for chromatography  Jackson, A.
Describes the design and operation of a simple high frequency transistor recorder for chromatography.
Jackson, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 447.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Automatic fraction collector for column chromatography  Herbener, R. E.
This article describes the construction of an automatically timed fraction collector for use with chromatographic columns.
Herbener, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 445.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Cation analysis with thin layer chromatography  Goller, Edwin J.
Reported here is an adaptation of thin layer chromatography to an undergraduate laboratory operation for cation analysis.
Goller, Edwin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 442.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
An aid to visualizing fused ring systems  Vogel, George
Presents a method for visualizing fused ring systems without the use of models.
Vogel, George J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 278.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) chloride  Guenther, William B.
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) from 8 M HCl solution is a simple method of separating iron from the other components of stainless steel alloys.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 277.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Iron(III) determination using liquid-liquid extraction and colorimetry  Holt, Robert L.; Easley, William K.
The determination of iron(III) employing 8-hydroxyquinoline combines liquid / liquid extraction with the use of a pH meter as well as introducing the student to the formation and properties of complexes.
Holt, Robert L.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 276.
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds
Apparatus for steam distillation  Mallory, Frank B.
This apparatus for steam distillation eliminates the time required to bore corks with a more traditional apparatus.
Mallory, Frank B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 108.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Thin layer chromatography (Bobbitt, James M.)  Wollish, E. G.

Wollish, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A396.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Experimental gas chromatography (Miller, James M.)  Sawyer, Donald T.

Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A214.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Crystalline molecular sieves  Breck, D. W.
This article introduces zeolites - crystalline aluminosilicates that function as molecular sieves.
Breck, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 678.
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Ion Exchange |
Catalysis
An inexpensive centrifuge for micro qualitative analysis  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Presents an inexpensive micro centrifuge.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Electrophoresis using thin layer materials  Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Thin layer materials prepared for chromatography are used for electrophoresis.
Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Ion exchange by a natural clay mineral: A demonstration experiment  Mucci, Joseph F.; Hollister, Charlotte; Marshall, Louise R.
This demonstration experiment illustrates the exchange properties of the natural clay mineral montmorillonite as well as vividly displaying the relative ease of replacing cesium by cobalt and cobalt by cesiums using this exchanger.
Mucci, Joseph F.; Hollister, Charlotte; Marshall, Louise R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 602.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
A novel distillation flask  Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A.
Presents a design for a distillation flask that relies on boiling the liquid in an inverted conical flask heated by a Nichrome wire element.
Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Resolving coordination compounds by a second order asymmetric synthesis  Kauffman, George B.; Sugisaka, Nobuyuki; Reid, Ian K.
This experiment involves the resolution of an optically active complex cation, the trisoxalatochromate(III) ion and provides the student with an excellent introduction to the phenomenon of second order asymmetric synthesis.
Kauffman, George B.; Sugisaka, Nobuyuki; Reid, Ian K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 461.
Diastereomers |
Coordination Compounds |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Separation and identification of copper and cadmium  Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L.
Describes three semimicro procedures for the separation and identification of copper and cadmium.
Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 439.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Column chromatographic analysis of the metal ions  Marie, Sister Eleanor, S. S. J.
Presents a column chromatographic analysis of the metal ions that is superior to conventional methods.
Marie, Sister Eleanor, S. S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 436.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Metals |
Separation Science
Fractionating column efficiency: Quantitative experiment in elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Ault, Addison
This experiment estimates the efficiency of a fractionating column by slowly distilling a three-to-one mixture of toluene and benzene.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 432.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Dual column gas chromatography: A teaching tool  Miller, James M.
Presents advantages to and several experiments involving dual column gas chromatography.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 413.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Travel of molecules and disturbances in chromatographic columns: A paradox and its resolution  Helfferich, F.
The purpose of the present communication is to contribute toward a better understanding of some fundamental, but not obvious, aspects of nonlinear chromatography by presenting and then resolving what appears to be, at first sight, a surprising paradox.
Helfferich, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 410.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
An anion exchange radiochemical experiment: Separation of manganese, zinc, and iron  Morie, Gerald P.; Sweet, Thomas R.; Pitstick, Gerald F.
The separation of manganese, zinc, and iron is based on distribution coefficients reported for tartrate complexes.
Morie, Gerald P.; Sweet, Thomas R.; Pitstick, Gerald F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 389.
Ion Exchange |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science
A demonstration device for gas chromatography  Herbener, R. E.
This paper describes the construction and use of a simple gas chromatograph with removable covers for class demonstrations.
Herbener, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 162.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Zone refining  Christian, John D.
Demonstrates the process of zone refining.
Christian, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A409.
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry
The extraction of metals from ores  Keubel, A.
Provides suggestions for research based on earlier published articles.
Keubel, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A186.
Undergraduate Research |
Metals |
Separation Science
Zone refining  Christian, J. D.
Provides suggestions for research based on an earlier published article.
Christian, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A186.
Undergraduate Research |
Separation Science
Chromatographic glossary  Lewin, S. Z.
Presents thin layer and gas chromatography terms in English, German, French, and Spanish.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A167.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography
Chromatography (Heftmann, Erich, ed.)  Dehority, Burk A.

Dehority, Burk A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A63.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Clathrates: Compounds in cages  Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M.
Introduces clathrate compounds and examines some of their uses and applications.
Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 643.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
A gas chromatography demonstration apparatus  McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L.
Describes an apparatus for the separation of volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography using oxygen or air as the carrier gas.
McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 539.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis
Electrophoretic study of synthetic food dyes  Anwar, M. H.; Norman, S.; Anwar, B.; Laplaca, P.
Describes an experiment in which mixtures of synthetic food dyes are separated through electrophoresis.
Anwar, M. H.; Norman, S.; Anwar, B.; Laplaca, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 537.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
TLC separation of ink pigments  Druding, Leonard F.
The separation of inks into their component pigments was chosen for its simplicity in illustrating techniques and choice of solvent for thin layer chromatography; it also affords the student the opportunity to visually observe the course of the separation.
Druding, Leonard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 536.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
TLC on microscope slides: An organic chemistry experiment  Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S.
This experiment consists of three sections: separation of known and unknown dye mixtures; separation of known and unknown mixtures of phenols; separation of dyes and impurities.
Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 534.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Phenols
TLCVersatile tool  Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C.
Examines apparatus and techniques, lecture demonstrations, laboratory experiments and general applications associated with thin layer chromatography.
Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 531.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Physical and chemical methods of separation (Berg, Eugene W.)  Rogers, Lockhart B.

Rogers, Lockhart B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 501.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography
The lighter lanthanides: A laboratory experiment in rare earth chemistry  Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C.
Presents a laboratory experiment designed to illustrate the separation and properties of the rare earths.
Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 433.
Transition Elements |
Separation Science
Simple evaporator for heat sensitive compounds  Begeman, Charles R.
Presents a simple evaporator for heat sensitive compounds that is similar to common flask rotating devices.
Begeman, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 427.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Apparatus for molecular distillation and vacuum sublimation  Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F.
A simple, inexpensive yet highly effective apparatus for laboratory scale purifications by molecular distillation or vacuum sublimation has been designed.
Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Qualitative detection of Ba, Sr, and Ca ions  Pariza, Richard
This short note presents a procedure for the separation of Ba++, Ca++, and Sr++ in pairs or combination of the three.
Pariza, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 417.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A simple separation of the group II-A sulfides  O'Donnell, T. A.
Presents a group separation scheme for the separation of lead from bismuth and copper from cadmium.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 415.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Dissolving difficultly soluble salts with chelating ion exchange resins  Rich, Ronald
Chelating resins such as Dowex A-1 and Chelex 100 provide a new way of separating the ions of some difficultly soluble salts.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 414.
Ion Exchange |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Separation Science
Separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium  Abrao, Alcidio
Suggests techniques for the separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium without relying on HCN.
Abrao, Alcidio J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 413.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
A quantitative experiment with paper chromatography  Frierson, W. Joe; Marable, Nina; Bruce, Becky
A procedure developed for the separation and determination of cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc has been combined with more recent methods for the spectrophotometric determination of cobalt and nickel and adapted to student use.
Frierson, W. Joe; Marable, Nina; Bruce, Becky J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 408.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Metals |
Spectroscopy
Demonstration of radioautography and paper chromatography using a Polaroid camera  Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M.
Presents a simple combined demonstration of paper chromatography and radioautography illustrating the separation of two C-14 labeled amino acids.
Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 243.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Letters to the editor (the author replies)  Racusen, David
Answers criticisms leveled at an earlier published paper.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Letters to the editor  Sherma, Joseph
Questions the conclusion regarding the utility of paper chromatography reached by an earlier published paper.
Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separatory funnel for successive extraction of the heavier phase  Hanrahan, Robert J.
Presents a double separatory funnel for re-extraction of the heavier phase.
Hanrahan, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 69.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Thin layer chromatography apparatus  Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, D. G.; Perrings, J. D.
Describes the preparation of the grooved plate and adsorbent layer for a simple and inexpensive, thin layer chromatography apparatus.
Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, D. G.; Perrings, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 31.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Separation of plant pigments by thin layer chromatography  Anwar, M. H.
Describes a lab activity to separate chloroplast pigments over a thin layer of silicic acid.
Anwar, M. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 29.
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
Ion-exchange papers  Sherma, Joseph A., Jr.
Demonstrates the separation of cobalt(II) and iron(III) using ion-exchange paper.
Sherma, Joseph A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Paper electrophoresis (Ribiero, L. P.; Mitidieri, E.; Affonso, O. R.)  Tarr, Donald A.

Tarr, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A228.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Gas Chromatographs (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the nature of the packing in a gas chromatograph and its effects on the performance of the instrument.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A5.
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Letters  Dence, Joseph B.
The author provides some suggestions regarding the distillation of benzyl alcohol following the Cannizzaro reaction.
Dence, Joseph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 320.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Simple method for determining number of theoretical plates  Williamson, A. G.
Describes a method for obtaining the number of theoretical plates in a distillation column from measurements of the equilibrium temperatures at the top and bottom of the column.
Williamson, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 579.
Separation Science
A large capacity laboratory extraction apparatus  Diaper, Dennis G. M.; Kuksis, Arnis
Presents a non-commercial design for a large capacity, Soxhlet extractor.
Diaper, Dennis G. M.; Kuksis, Arnis J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 532.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The investigation of unknowns by paper chromatography  Racusen, David
Presents a scheme for the systematic study of an unknown through paper chromatography.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 484.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A new technique for centrifugal chromatography  Christensen, G. M.; Swor, R.
Describes a method modifying a standard laboratory centrifuge to be used for centrifugal chromatography.
Christensen, G. M.; Swor, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 347.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Resolution by the method of racemic modification: A demonstration of analogy  Williams, Francis T.
Using shaking hands to demonstrate resolution by the method of racemic modification.
Williams, Francis T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 211.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Countercurrent distribution: Apparatus for a simple experiment  Verzele, M.; Schamp, N.
Presents an apparatus and its application to perform a countercurrent distribution.
Verzele, M.; Schamp, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 97.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Liquids
Chromatographic equipment (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines high voltage pherographs, column electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatographs, photometric effluent sensing systems, and refractometric effluent sensors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A789.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic equipment (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: design considerations for stabilized medium pherographs, specialized types of pherographs, continuous flow electrochromatographs, the continuous flow chromatograph, and fraction collectors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A713.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Qualitative Analysis and Analytical Chemical Separations (West, Philip W.; Vick, Maurice M.)  Frank, Richard E.

Frank, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A642.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Equipment (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines ascending, descending, and horizontal paper chromatographs; and centrifugally-, thermally-, and electrilytically-accelerated chromatographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A567.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Chomatographic Equipment  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: selectivity in the distribution of components between two phases, chromatographic development, types of chromatographic systems, the production of counter-current flow, the scale of chromatographic separations, the components of chromatographs, the two-phase system, and containers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A515.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Dipole moments of symmetrical organic molecules  Moulton, W. N.
Examines the use of dipole moments to assign cis or trans configurations to olefins.
Moulton, W. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 522.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers
An inexpensive versatile multi-column gas chromatograph for students  Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A.
Presents the design of a multi-column, gas chromatography unit constructed from common laboratory materials.
Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 506.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Contemporary analysis and the chemistry curriculum  Rogers, L. B.
Examines a variety of curricular issues regarding analytical chemistry.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 455.
Qualitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Preparative separations replace typical qualitative analysis  Mahr, Carl
Discusses the use of preparative separations in qualitative analysis.
Mahr, Carl J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 407.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Ion exchange paper chromatography  Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P.
Describes an experiment/demonstration in ion exchange paper chromatography separating amino acids.
Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 406.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
A convenient device for the evaporation of solvents  Sprinkzak, Yair
Presents the design of a device attached to a rotatory evaporator.
Sprinkzak, Yair J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 606.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Hydrocarbons in petroleum  Rossini, Frederick D.
Examines research and industrial processes involving the separation of petroleum into its constituent components.
Rossini, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 554.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Natural Products
A simple extraction experiment  Ellis, Lillian N.; Fox, Marjorie
In this experiment demonstrating the principles of extraction, the amount of solute remaining after single and multiple extractions is evaluated colorimetrically.
Ellis, Lillian N.; Fox, Marjorie J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 510.
Separation Science
A non-cyanide separation of copper from cadmium  Waggoner, William H.
A procedure has been developed for the separation of copper from cadmium that is based on the observation that thiocyanate ion will precipitate copper but not cadmium from an acidic solution.
Waggoner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 411.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A study of various methods for the analysis for Group III cations  Hahn, Richard B.; Sanders, Charlie H.
Results of a study comparing three methods for separating group III ions.
Hahn, Richard B.; Sanders, Charlie H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 408.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Separation Science
Letters  Broadbank, R. W. C.; Dhabanandana, S.
The authors present a method for extracting protactinium-234 from uranyl nitrate solution.
Broadbank, R. W. C.; Dhabanandana, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 161.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Separation Science
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
The separation of arsenic in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
A separation of arsenic as As(III) has been developed based upon the observation that As(III) is extracted selectively from hydrochloric acid solution of the common cations encountered in the usual qualitative analysis scheme.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 384.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
The unraveling of geometric isomerism and tautomerism  Ihde, Aaron J.
Examines the work of Van't Hoff in unraveling isomerism due to carbon-carbon double bonds using fumaric and maleic acids as exemplars.
Ihde, Aaron J. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 330.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
A simple rapid method for loading paper chromatograms  Chesbro, William
Presents a rapid method for applying small, uniform samples onto chromatography paper.
Chesbro, William J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 83.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of copper(II) from cadmium (II) in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
This procedure is based on the observation that copper(II) ion is extracted selectively from solutions containing copper(II) and cadmium(II) by a solution of 8-hydroxyquinoline in chloroform.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 406.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A new short method of separating lead from bismuth, copper, and cadmium  Lehrman, Leo
The scheme presented here depends upon the separation of lead ion as a sulfate using ammonium sulfate, rather than sulfuric acid.
Lehrman, Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 406.
Separation Science |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A chromatographic chamber for the student laboratory  Wiggans, Donald S.
The construction of an effective chromatographic tank can be accomplished by means of two beakers.
Wiggans, Donald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 536.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Qualitative analysis and analytical chemical separations without the use of sulfides  Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W.
The authors argue for the need of qualitative analysis, examine systems of qualitative analysis, and present a qualitative scheme that eliminates the need for sulfides.
Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 393.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Method for decolorizing chromatography solutions  Radell, Jack; Hunt, P. D.
The decolorizing of a solution of an organic compound prior to chromatography requires heating the prepared solution with carbon black or carbon black and filter aid.
Radell, Jack; Hunt, P. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 380.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Use of ion exchange resins with nonaqueous and mixed solvents  Bonner, O. D.
This review examines some of the recent developments in the use of synthetic ion exchangers for three types of separations: the separation of ionic substances in nonaqueous or mixed solvents, the separation of nonionic substances in nonaqueous or mixed solutions, and the separation of ionic from nonionic materials in solution.
Bonner, O. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 174.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Apparatus for the triple distillation of mercury  Joncich, M. J.; Alley, C. A.; Kowaka, M.
The rising cost of mercury coupled with the extensive use of this element in a variety of laboratory applications emphasizes the need for an efficient apparatus for purification.
Joncich, M. J.; Alley, C. A.; Kowaka, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 607.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Gas-phase chromatography: A class experiment  Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles
Recommends an experimental procedure involving gas chromatography and presents the necessary apparatus.
Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 490.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Gas-phase chromatography  Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B.
Introduces gas chromatography and describes its associated apparatus and operation.
Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 485.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The nature of chromatography  Cassidy, Harold G.
Provides a definition of chromatography and a description of gas chromatography.
Cassidy, Harold G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 482.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Principles of the systematic separation of cations  Weisz, Herbert
Lays out approaches to be used in the systematic separation of cations.
Weisz, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 334.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Partition chromatography: A demonstration  Tracy, Sister Mary Joanna; Sueltenfuss, Sister Elizabeth Anne
This paper describes a method for the preparation of a cellulose column to demonstrate the formation of zones from a cake-dye mixture by development with a butanol-acetic acid-distilled water mixture.
Tracy, Sister Mary Joanna; Sueltenfuss, Sister Elizabeth Anne J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 281.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Zone refining  Christian, John D.
A brief description of zone refining.
Christian, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 32.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
The qualitative separation and detection of zinc  Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K.
This paper investigates stages in the inorganic scheme of analysis where the zinc ion could be adsorbed on or coprecipitated with precipitates of other ions.
Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 613.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Precipitation / Solubility
Proportional divider for rapid determination of chromatographic Rf values  Houston, David F.
A simple device is described for the rapid determination of chromatography Rf values.
Houston, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 411.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation and detection of the aluminum ion in qualitative analysis  Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M.
Describes a study that seeks to eliminate the interference of iron and chromium in the detection of aluminum when using the "aluminon" test.
Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 380.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations  Hubbard, Edward M.
Describes an automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations that avoids a key difficulty in the earlier Nickels trap.
Hubbard, Edward M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 376.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A setup for two-dimensional paper chromatography  Mathew, E. C.; Das, B. M.
A cylinder of filter paper is developed in an enclosure consisting of a desiccator bottom covered by a bell jar.
Mathew, E. C.; Das, B. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 352.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A chromatographic demonstration  Forss, David A.
Describes a chromatographic demonstration that does not really on flammable and odorous organic solvents.
Forss, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 306.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Circular-paper chromatography in qualitative analysis  Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J.
Describes procedures for and examples of circular-paper chromatography.
Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 95.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Recent advances in petroleum refining  Shoemaker, B. H.; d'Ouville, E. L.; Marschner, Robert F.
Examines various means of separating, converting, and finishing the many compounds found in petroleum.
Shoemaker, B. H.; d'Ouville, E. L.; Marschner, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 30.
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science
A sublimation apparatus for rapid separations  Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III
Presents the design of a macrosublimation apparatus constructed to allow accurate temperature control and ease recovery of the residue.
Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Student experiments on derivatives of 1,2-diphenylethane  Fieser, Louis F.
Johannes Thiele's classical demonstration of 1,4-addition by reductive acetylation of benzil is used to present a number of interesting theoretical points and an opportunity to separate cis- and trans- isomers through chromatography.
Fieser, Louis F. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 291.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Chromatography
Isomers of octahedral complexes with nonbranching ligands  Trimble, Russell F., Jr.
The purpose of this paper is to present a tabulation of the various ways in which ligands can be distributed about an octahedral frame.
Trimble, Russell F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 176.
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Biology |
Diastereomers
Experiments in paper partition chromatography with tagged material  Lima, Fausto W.
Suggests several experiments in inorganic chromatography using radioactive isotopes that can be performed in any laboratory with ordinary counting equipment and X-ray film.
Lima, Fausto W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 153.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Paper chromatography for students  Blackwell, R. Quentin
Describes a simple method whereby various mixtures can be separated using paper chromatography under a variety of conditions.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 614.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The vitamin C content of wild rose hips  Markham, Sister Clare.; Markham, Sister M. Justin
Describes the extraction and determination of the vitamin C content of wild rose hips.
Markham, Sister Clare.; Markham, Sister M. Justin J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 580.
Vitamins |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
A visual demonstration of fractional distillation  Osburn, James O.
Describes the design of a glass bubble-cap column, a glass-packed column, and an equilibrium diagram for an engineering department open-house.
Osburn, James O. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 412.
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis  Hahn, Richard B.
Suggests a method for the separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis that relies on 72% rather than 100% nitric acid.
Hahn, Richard B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 349.
Metals |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Aspects of isomerism and mesomerism. III. Stereoisomerism  Bent, Richard L.
Examines the tetrahedral nature of carbon, multiple bonds, enantiomorphism, diastereoisomerism, and geometric isomerism.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 328.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Constitutional Isomers
Aspects of isomerism and mesomerism. II. Structural isomerism  Bent, Richard L.
Examines the relationship between structural, optical, and geometric isomerism.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 284.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Constitutional Isomers |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
A convenient apparatus for the distillation of solids  Barkley, Lloyd B.; Sneed, James K.; McGrath, Thomas F.; Levine, Robert
This apparatus is designed to overcome common difficulties in the distillation of solids or mixtures of solids.
Barkley, Lloyd B.; Sneed, James K.; McGrath, Thomas F.; Levine, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 115.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Inorganic paper chromatography. II. Separation of groups III, IV, and V  Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert
This paper concerns itself with the separation and identification of the cations of Groups IIIa, IIIb, IV, and V.
Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 20.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A lecture demonstration of ion exchange  Smith, James Boyd
This paper presents specific procedures for three experiments that may be employed for lecture demonstrations of ion exchange.
Smith, James Boyd J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 292.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
A continuous ether-extraction apparatus  Holliman, F. G.
The apparatus presented has been constructed to provide both speed of assembly and versatility in respect of volume of solution being extracted.
Holliman, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 96.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ethers |
Separation Science
The separation of anions by paper partition chromatography  DeLoach, Will S.; Drinkard, Charles
Describes a procedure for the separation of phosphate, arsenate, sulfide, ferricyanide, ferrocyanide, and iodide ions by paper partition chromatography.
DeLoach, Will S.; Drinkard, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 461.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
A simplified construction for vacuum distilling apparatus  Wendland, Ray
Describes a simplified construction for vacuum distilling apparatus and its use with a fractionating column.
Wendland, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 332.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A chromatographic separation of some dyestuffs  Shott, John, III; Heine, Harold W.
Separations considered include water-soluble fluorescein and methylene blue, methyl orange and methylene blue, and methyl orange and Victoria Blue B.
Shott, John, III; Heine, Harold W. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 39.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science