TIGER

Journal Articles: 194 results
Assessing Nitration Products of Benzene Derivatives Using TLC Analysis  Rita K. Hessley
Thin layer chromatography is applied to an earlier published, guided discovery experiment using GCMS analyses to identify isomers formed by the nitration of mono-substituted benzenes.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1623.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds
Study of Molecular-Shape Selectivity of Zeolites by Gas Chromatography  Pei-Yu Chao, Yao-Yuan Chuang, Grace Hsiuying Ho, Shiow-Huey Chuang, Tseng-Chang Tsai, Chi-Young Lee, Shang-Tien Tsai, and Jun-Fu Huang
This analytical or physical chemistry sorption experiment uses hexane isomers as probe molecules to demonstrate the "molecular-shape selectivity" behavior of zeolites. Students can also modify the sorption protocol to build their own experiments.
Chao, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Yao-Yuan; Ho, Grace Hsiuying; Chuang, Shiow-Huey; Tsai, Tseng-Chang; Lee, Chi-Young; Tsai, Shang-Tien; Huang, Jun-Fu. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1558.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Recognition
Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy  Jean-Michel Lavoie, Esteban Chornet, and André Pelletier
Using a simple extraction and a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer, this protocol allows students in analytical or organic chemistry to quantify and qualify monoterpenes from the peels of limes, grapefruits, and oranges.
Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, André. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1555.
Alkenes |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Experimental Design and Optimization: Application to a Grignard Reaction  Naoual Bouzidi and Christel Gozzi
This 5-week project, which systematically investigates optimizing the synthesis of benzyl-1-cyclopentan-1-ol, constitutes an initiation into research methodology and experimental design to prepare the student-engineer for an industry internship. Other pedagogical goals include experience in synthetic techniques, obtaining reproducible yields, and using quantitative analysis methods.
Bouzidi, Naoual; Gozzi, Christel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1544.
Addition Reactions |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chemometrics |
Gas Chromatography |
Organometallics |
Synthesis
A One-Pot, Asymmetric Robinson Annulation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  Kiel E. Lazarski, Alan A. Rich, and Cheryl M. Mascarenhas
Describes a one-pot, enantioselective, Robinson annulation geared towards the second-year organic chemistry major and demonstrating aspects of green chemistry.
Lazarski, Kiel E.; Rich, Alan A.; Mascarenhas, Cheryl M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1531.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry
The Iodochlorination of Styrene: An Experiment That Makes a Difference  R. Gary Amiet and Sylvia Urban
This purpose of this laboratory exercise is to determine the various substitution and elimination products generated in the iodochlorination of styrene and their relative proportions through the application of mechanistic principles and a basic knowledge of GCMS and NMR.
Amiet, R. Gary; Urban, Sylvia. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 962.
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Student-Centered Learning
If You Were a Molecule in a Chromatography Column, What Would You See?  John Mattice
To visualize what takes place in a chromatography column, enlarge the molecules to human size and expand the columns to keep the ratio of size of molecule to size of column the same. Using such a model, this article explains how band broadening occurs as a result of resistance to mass transfer, multiple flow paths, and stagnant mobile phase.
Mattice, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 925.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Pyrolysis of Aryl Sulfonate Esters in the Absence of Solvent: E1 or E2? A Puzzle for the Organic Laboratory  John J. Nash, Marnie A. Leininger, and Kurt Keyes
An aryl sulfonate ester is synthesized and then pyrolyzed at reduced pressure. The volatile products are analyzed using gas chromatography to determine whether the thermal decomposition occurs via an E1 or E2 mechanism.
Nash, John J.; Leininger, Marnie A.; Keyes, Kurt . J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 552.
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Elimination Reactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
A Discovery-Based Experiment Involving Rearrangement in the Conversion of Alcohols to Alkyl Halides  Richard A. Kjonaas and Ryand J. F. Tucker
This article reports a discovery-based experiment in which students convert three alcohols to alkyl halides under acidic conditions and record the 13C NMR spectrum in each case. By comparing the number of resonances observed with the number of resonances predicted for each possible product, students draw several conclusions about the resulting rearrangement.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Tucker, Ryand J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 100.
Alcohols |
Carbocations |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation  Henry A. Carter
This article examines the applications of chemistry to paper preservation. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose accounts for the deterioration of paper in library books and other written records. To combat this threat to our written heritage, new permanent papers have been developed that are relatively chemically stable and undergo a very slow rate of deterioration.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1937.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
pH |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Probing the Rate-Determining Step of the Claisen–Schmidt Condensation by Competition Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Wing-Fat Chan, Ka-Ying Lung, Wai-Yee Lam, Weng-Cheong Ng, and Siu-Fung Lee
This article describes a physical organic experiment to identify the rate-determining step of the ClaisenSchmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and acetophenone by studying the linear free energy relationship.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Chan, Wing-Fat; Lung, Ka-Ying; Lam, Wai-Yee; Ng, Weng-Cheong; Lee, Siu-Fung. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1819.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gas Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones  Nicholas G. Angelo, Laura K. Henchey, Adam J. Waxman, James W. Canary, Paramjit S. Arora, and Donald Wink
Describes an experiment in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and ketone and make use of TLC, column chromatography, recrystallization, and characterization by 1H NMR, GCMS, and FTIR.
Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1816.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Discovering Electronic Effects of Substituents in Nitrations of Benzene Derivatives Using GC–MS Analysis  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
Describes an organic lab in which students pool mass spectral data to identify the distribution of isomer products generated by the nitration of six benzene derivatives whose substituents differ in their electronic effects. Students also determine which substituents direct nitration predominantly to the ortho- or para- and to the meta positions.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1679.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions  A. Gilbert Cook
The product of a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction is identified through a guided prelab exercise of the synthesis of the Hagemann ester, and then through the analysis of GCMS, NMR, and IR spectra. The stereochemistry of the product is determined through the NMR spectrum and Karplus curve, and the student is required to write a mechanism for the reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1477.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Analysis of a Versatile Imine for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Jacqueline Bennett, Kristen Meldi, and Christopher Kimmell II
In this experiment students prepare and analyze N-p-methoxyphenyl (N-PMP) alpha-imino ethyl glyoxalate, an imine that has been used in the synthesis of biologically active molecules. The stability and versatility of this imine allow it to be used in subsequent reactions, offering a variety of possible multistep synthetic strategies.
Bennett, Jacqueline; Meldi, Kristen; Kimmell, Christopher, II. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1221.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Rapid and Stereoselective Conversion of a trans-Cinnamic Acid to a β-Bromostyrene  Thomas A. Evans
The stereoselective synthesis of an aryl vinyl bromide is accomplished in a rapid microscale reaction of trans-4-methoxycinnamic acid with N-bromosuccinimide in dichloromethane. This guided-inquiry experiment links reactivity, stereochemistry, and mechanism in electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes and in E1 and E2 elimination reactions that form alkenes.
Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1062.
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Gas Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Stereospecific Synthesis of the Geometrical Isomers of a Natural Product  T. Grove, D. DiLella, and E. Volker
Presents an experiment for the synthesis of (Z) and (E) isomers that is presented to students as a puzzle in which they must determine the identity of the major component in anise oil. A necessary part of the analysis is the preparation the (E) and (Z) isomers of anethole. Molecular modeling is used to explore the conformation of and energy difference between isomers.
Grove, T.; DiLella, D.; Volker, E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1055.
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
A Simple Combinatorial Experiment Based on Fischer Esterification. An Experiment Suitable for the First-Semester Organic Chemistry Lab  Peter A. Wade, Susan A. Rutkowsky, and Daniel B. King
Describes a combinatorial experiment for the synthesis of esters by Fischer esterification in which a total of eight esters are prepared as six mixtures.
Wade, Peter A.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; King, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 927.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis
Analysis of the Thickening Agents in Automotive Greases by GC–MS  David Mayotte, Craig J. Donahue, and Cheryl A. Snyder
Describes a laboratory procedure for the identification of the thickening agents in lubricating greases by GCMS.
Mayotte, David; Donahue, Craig J.; Snyder, Cheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 902.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Fatty Acids
Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests  Craig Anderson
Tests for illegal drugs were performed on unknowns obtained from over-the-counter cold medicines. Substances that tested positive for the qualitative Marquis color test were found to be false positives for illegal substances, while scopolamine hydrochloride shows a false positive for cocaine hydrochloride with the cobalt thiocyanate reagent.
Anderson, Craig. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1809.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
A GC–MS Analysis of an SN2 Reaction for the Organic Laboratory  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
This experiment utilizes an SN2 reaction between an alkyl bromide and potassium acetate to introduce the use of mass spectrometry for structural identification. It also provides students with experience in organic synthesis, the use of IR to identify functional groups, and the use of gas chromatography and response factors to determine product ratios.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1676.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Gas Chromatography
The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC–MS  A. E. Witter
An undergraduate experiment for the quantitative determination of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in chewing gum is described. A simple extraction procedure was used that did not require sample derivatization for analysis.
Witter, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1538.
Food Science |
Free Radicals |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Ewing's Analytical Instrumentation Handbook, 3rd Edition (Jack Cazes)  Jack K. Steehler
This resource is a figurative and literal heavyweight. Its 31 chapters and more than 1000 large-size pages (filled with small text) provide an enormous amount of information. About a third of the book discusses spectroscopic techniques (11 chapters, all the standard types of spectroscopy); the second third covers various separation methods (10 chapters); and the remaining third hits a cross section of other topics, including four chapters on electrochemistry and three chapters on automation. The core of spectroscopy and separation science is appropriate and well chosen, covering the expected topics. There is even a chapter on Validation of Chromatographic Methods, an important topic for any lab working in a regulated environment. Additional, more unusual chapters include a chapter on Chiroptical Spectroscopy and a long chapter (100 pages) on Microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip methods, both of current research interest.
Steehler, Jack K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1315.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Use of Enzymes in Organic Synthesis: Reduction of Ketones by Baker's Yeast Revisited  James Patterson and Snorri Th. Sigurdsson
The undergraduate organic laboratory Bakers Yeast Reduction of Ethyl Acetoacetate has been improved in two different ways. First, the addition of small quantities of hexane to the aqueous yeast system along with an improved workup protocol has dramatically increased the yield and reproducibility of the ketone conversion to the corresponding alcohol with a high enantiomeric excess. Second, the enantiomeric excess of the alcohol product was ascertained by coupling the alcohol mixture with a chiral acid and analyzing the resulting mixture of diastereomeric esters by proton NMR.
Patterson, James; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1049.
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis
Quantitation of Phenol Levels in Oil of Wintergreen Using Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring. A Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Experiment  Robert M. Sobel, David S. Ballantine, and Victor Ryzhov
A quantitative analysis or instrumental analysis laboratory experiment was created to perform a gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis of phenol level found in natural products. The analysis utilizes selected ion monitoring for the determination of phenol concentration in natural oil of wintergreen. The experimental design addresses the industrys need for increasing awareness of gas chromatographymass spectrometry techniques with shortened analysis time.
Sobel, Robert M.; Ballantine, David S.; Ryzhov, Victor. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 601.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph   Natasa Gros and Margareta Vrtacnik
A small-scale low-cost portable gas chromatograph (the total cost of the instrument is approximately $65) was developed that is suitable for hands-on learning and teaching of the basic concepts of chromatography. The portability and miniaturization were ensured by the application of a small propane/butane cylinder to supply the carrier gas and by the use of optic fibers for light transmission to the electronic unit with a photoresistor as a sensor. The instrument proved that the measurements are sufficiently detailed and reliable for the basic chromatographic concepts to be introduced through a hands-on approach.
Gros, Natasa ; Vrtacnik, Margareta. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 291.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
Tetraglyme Trap for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Air. Projects for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry  Wilbert W. Hope, Clyde Johnson, and Leon P. Johnson
Students at Medgar Evers College use tetraglyme (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) to scrub a variety of VOCs from ambient air. The chilled tetraglyme traps VOCs as the air is bubbled through it. The VOCs are then dispersed in water, from which they are analyzed by purge-and-trap, followed by GC-MSD (gas chromatography-mass selective detector). This method has been used for a number of projects for the quantitative analysis course. Students are also introduced to the practical features of 23-factorial design of experiments to optimize the method; they monitor three variables (location, volume of tetraglyme, and sampling rate) simultaneously.
Hope, Wilbert W.; Johnson, Clyde; Johnson, Leon P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1182.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Separation and Identification of a Mixture of Group 6 Transition-Metal Carbonyl Compounds Using GC–MS in the General Chemistry Curriculum  Lawrence K. Fong
From the mass spectral data, our students are able to determine the atomic mass of the transition metal. In addition, utilizing Mo(CO)6 as an internal standard, our students are able to quantify the quantity of Cr(CO)6 and W(CO)6 in an unknown mixture.
Fong, Lawrence K. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 103.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Transition Elements |
Gas Chromatography
Investigation of Imposter Perfumes Using GC–MS  Kelley A. Mowery, Daniel E. Blanchard, Stephanie Smith, and Thomas A. Betts
The minimal sample preparation required for this experiment enables students to spend significantly more time becoming familiar with GCMS hardware and software. After performing the experiment students should be familiar with the operation of a modern GCMS, headspace sampling, data analysis using GCMS software tools, and mass spectral library searching.
Mowery, Kelley A.; Blanchard, Daniel E.; Smith, Stephanie; Betts, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 87.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
The Study of Elimination Reactions Using Gas Chromatography: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Devin Latimer
This article describes an investigation of elimination reactions of alkyl halides. 1-Bromopentane or 2-bromopentane are reacted with either sodium ethoxide or potassium tert-butoxide. Gas chromatography is used to monitor the relative amounts of 1-pentene, (E)-2-pentene, and (Z)-2-pentene produced.
Latimer, Devin. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1183.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Synthesis |
Gas Chromatography |
Elimination Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry
Measurement of Organics Using Three FTIR Techniques: Absorption, Attenuated Total Reflectance, and Diffuse Reflectance  M. E. Gebel, M. A. Kaleuati, and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts
Determination of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ethanol in vodka using attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and total hydrocarbons in soil samples using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).
Gebel, M. E.; Kaleuati, M. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 672.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Quantitative Determination of Nicotine and Cotinine in Urine and Sputum Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  A. E. Witter, D. M. Klinger, X. Fan, M. Lam, D. T. Mathers, and S. A. Mabury
Quantifying a naturally formed metabolite that is a biochemical indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke.
Witter, A. E.; Klinger, D. M.; Fan, X.; Lam, M.; Mathers, D. T.; Mabury, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1257.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching Experimental Design Using a GC–MS Analysis of Cocaine on Money: A Cross-Disciplinary Laboratory  Christopher A. Heimbuck and Nathan W. Bower
An opportunity for students to develop and use experimental designs to refine and optimize an extraction technique from the literature.
Heimbuck, Christopher A.; Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1254.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research
Synthesis and Characterization of a Gasoline Oxygenate, Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether  Craig J. Donahue, Teresa D'Amico, and Jennifer A. Exline
Procedure for the synthesis and characterization of ethyl tert-butyl ether.
Donahue, Craig J.; D'Amico, Teresa; Exline, Jennifer A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 724.
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Ethers |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Mass Spectral Fragmentation Patterns of Deuterated Butyl and Ethyl Acetates: An Easy Microscale Isotopic Labeling Experiment  Hengameh Zahedkargaran and Leverett R. Smith
Microscale experiment that illustrates the use of isotopic labeling to help confirm and interpret mass spectral fragmentation patterns.
Zahedkargaran, Hengameh; Smith, Leverett R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1379.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Gas Chromatography
Was the Driver Drunk? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Determination of Blood Alcohol Content  Jennifer L. Zabzdyr and Sheri J. Lillard
Forensic-based experiment to motivate correct analytical procedures and careful interpretation of data by using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.
Zabzdyr, Jennifer L.; Lillard, Sheri J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1225.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography
News from Online: Teaching with Chemical Instrumentation on the Web  Thomas G. Chasteen
Variety of web-based animations on analytical instrumentation; WWW addresses for software, plug-ins, sites for images and animations, references for designing sites, and sites regarding specific analytical techniques.
Chasteen, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1144.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Gas Chromatography and Molecular Modeling. A Correlation Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory  John M. Simpson and Oswaldo Rivera
Correlation of gas chromatographic retention times for a series of aromatic hydrocarbons to two molecular descriptors (calculated molecular surface area and boiling point).
Simpson, John M.; Rivera, Oswaldo. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 942.
Chromatography |
Molecular Modeling |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
From GC to the NMR: A Simple Semipreparative Gas Chromatography Collection Method Using NMR Tubes  Andrew R. Bressette
Semipreparative gas chromatography is an excellent technique for isolating small amounts of volatile compounds from mixtures. A new, inexpensive semipreparative GC collection tube was developed utilizing a standard 5-mm NMR tube to collect the purified samples.
Bressette, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 366.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Determination of the Regiochemistry of Disubstituted Arenes Generated by Addition of a Carbanion to the (h6-Anisole)Cr(CO)3 Complex  Ashfaq A. Bengali, Cindy Samet, and Samantha B. Charlton
A laboratory activity that integrates fundamental concepts of organic and organometallic chemistry and then employs standard instrumental techniques (GC) and molecular modeling to justify the results.
Bengali, Ashfaq A.; Samet, Cindy; Charlton, Samantha B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 68.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Modeling
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
Molecular Modeling to Predict Regioselectivity of Hydration Reactions  Kate J. Graham, Kathleen Skoglund, Chris P. Schaller, William P. Muldoon, and John B. Klassen
Students oxidize several isomeric alkenes using acid-catalyzed hydration, oxymercuration/demercuration, and hydroboration to compare the regioselectivity of the different techniques. The product mixtures are subsequently analyzed by GC and IR. To explain the results fully, students use the Spartan 5.0 molecular modeling package to predict the regioselectivity of these hydration reactions.
Graham, Kate J.; Skoglund, Kathleen; Schaller, Chris P.; Muldoon, William P.; Klassen, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 396.
Computational Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Recognition |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Introducing Chiroscience into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum  Kenny B. Lipkowitz, Tim Naylor, and Keith S. Anliker
"Chiroscience" is a young but robust industry linking science and technology with chemistry and biology; includes description of an asymmetric reduction of a ketone followed by an assessment of the enantiomeric excess by GC using a chiral stationary phase.
Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Naylor, Tim; Anliker, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 305.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones
An Undergraduate Field Experiment for Measuring Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Indoor Environments  Adam M. Marsella, Jiping Huang, David A. Ellis, and Scott A. Mabury
An undergraduate field experiment is described for the measurement of nicotine and various carbonyl compounds arising from environmental tobacco smoke. Students are introduced to practical techniques in HPLC-UV and GC-NPD. Also introduced are current methods in personal air sampling using small and portable field sampling pumps.
Marsella, Adam M.; Huang, Jiping; Ellis, David A.; Mabury, Scott A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1700.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Gas Chromatography
A Puzzling Alcohol Dehydration Reaction Solved by GC–MS Analysis  Michael W. Pelter and Rebecca M. Macudzinski
The reaction of 2-methyl-2-propanol with ~50% sulfuric acid at 100 C yields isobutylene, which reacts further by a "puzzling" reaction. By coupling the GC/MS analysis of the product mixture with their knowledge of the mechanism of alcohol dehydration and alkene reactivity, students are able to identify the major products of this reaction.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 826.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Alcohols |
Alkenes
Bridging Native American Culture and Chemistry: Gas Chromatography Experiments That Examine Native Foods  Andrew G. Sykes* and Gerald Caple
This article describes three chemistry experiments that link common foodstuffs traditionally and currently harvested by Native Americans in different parts of North America to modern chemical instrumentation and discovery methods. Methods of isolation and identification of fatty acids in pion pine seeds, furocoumarins in Psoralea species, and epicuticular waxes in maize are described in detail.
Sykes, Andrew G.; Caple, Gerald. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 392.
Chromatography |
Minorities in Chemistry |
Undergraduate Research |
Plant Chemistry |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography
A GC Instrument Simulator  D. Bruce Armitage
This simulator was developed to help students beginning the study of gas chromatographic instruments to understand their operation. It is not meant to teach chromatographic theory.
Armitage, D. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 287.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Incorporation of GC-MS into an Environmental Science Curriculum  Audrey E. McGowin and George G. Hess
Incorporating modern analytical instrumentation such as GC-MS into an interdisciplinary environmental science program presents many challenges. The most daunting challenge is the variety of disciplines from which students come and their limited understanding of chemistry and chemical analysis.
McGowin, Audrey E.; Hess, George G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 23.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
A New GC-MS Experiment for the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory in Environmental Chemistry: Methyl-t-butyl Ether and Benzene in Gasoline  Dinh T. Quach, Nancy A. Ciszkowski, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
In addition to illustrating the fundamentals of GC and MS, this experiment demonstrates (i) the use of internal standards to improve precision; (ii) the application of the method of standard additions; and (iii) the importance of techniques such as selected ion extraction/monitoring in the identification and measurement of specific highly volatile organic compounds in complex environmental mixtures.
Quach, Dinh T.; Ciszkowski, Nancy A.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1595.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers
Chemical Analysis of an Endangered Conifer: Environmental Laboratory Experiments  Royce S. Woosley and David J. Butcher
Elemental analysis of foliage was used to assess the effects of acidic deposition and pollution levels. Volatile compounds were identified and determined in foliage and other plant tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC. Chlorophylls a and b were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy by simultaneous analysis of a two-component mixture.
Woosley, Royce S.; Butcher, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1592.
Plant Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
An Inexpensive Detector for Gas Chromatography  Allan L. Smith, Edward J. Thorne, and Wolfgang Nadler
We have developed a low-cost (parts cost approximately $70) detector that can be used in a freshman level class to demonstrate the fundamental principles of gas chromatography (GC). The detector box can be used in a modification of experiments available in the literature which do not enable a quantitative method of analysis. We have used it with success in a freshman class of approximately 450 students in an experiment to separate chlorinated hydrocarbons via GC.
Smith, Allan L.; Thorne, Edward J.; Nadler, Wolfgang. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1129.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
The Analysis of Orange Oil and the Aqueous Solubility of d-Limonene. Two Complementary Gas Chromatography Experiments  Kathryn R. Williams and Russell E. Pierce
A quantitative gas chromatography experiment on the analysis of d-limonene in orange oil. Another experiment for the physical chemistry laboratory on the solubility of d-limonene in water is also reported.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Pierce, Russell E. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 223.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Quantitative Determination of Caffeine in Beverages Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  Janusz Pawliszyn, Min J. Yang, and Maureen L. Orton
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been applied to the analysis of various caffeinated beverages. Unlike the current methods, this technique is solvent free and requires no pH adjustments. The simplicity of the SPME-GC/MS method lends itself to a good undergraduate laboratory practice.
Pawliszyn, Janusz; Yang, Min J.; Orton, Maureen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1130.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils  Judith F. Rubinson and Jennifer Neyer-Hilvert

Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1106.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Identification of Volatile Flavor Components by Headspace Analysis: A Quick and Easy Experiment for Introducing GC/MS  Richard Kjonaas, Jean L. Soller, and Leslee A. McCoy
By placing a piece of chewing gum (Wrigley's) or a crushed piece of hard candy (LifeSavers or Runts) into a vial, followed by GC/MS analysis of a five microliter sample of the headspace, students are able to identify several of the volatile flavoring components which are present.
Kjonaas, Richard; Soller, Jean L.; McCoy, Leslee A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1104.
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Conversion of an Alkyl Chloride to a Bromide (or Vice-Versa) by Homogeneous Nucleophile Exchange  Roger C. Hahn
Quaternary salt-catalyzed bromide-chloride exchange between alkyl chlorides and alkyl bromides is used to demonstrate effects of temperature, catalyst, concentration, and substrate structure on reaction rates and chemoselectivity. Microscale reactions are monitored by GC analysis.
Hahn, Roger C. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 836.
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Microscale Lab |
Gas Chromatography |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
An Environmentally Significant Experiment Using GC/MS and GC Retention Indices in an Undergraduate Analytical Laboratory  Rebecca Guisto-Norkus, Giv Gounili, Peter Wisniecki, John A. Hubball, S. Ruven Smith, James D. Stuart
Students extract and analyze the additives from plastic food wrap, Tygon tubing and plastic soda bottles that have been crushed in a bottle return machine. The modifiers are extracted from the plastics using methylene chloride and/or methanol as solvents and the extracts are analyzed by GC/MS.
Guisto-Norkus, Rebecca; Gounili, Giv; Wisniecki, Peter; Hubball, John A.; Smith, S. Ruven; Stuart, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1176.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Data Acquisition in the Chemistry Laboratory Using LabVIEW Software  Mark A. Muyskens, Samuel V. Glass, Thomas W. Wietsma, Terry M. Gray
Our application of LabVIEW software for computer data-acquisition using several techniques used across our curriculum is described. The techniques are gas chromatography, calorimetry, titrations and other volume-dependent techniques, spectrometry for kinetics using a Spectronic 20(R), and emission spectroscopy.
Muyskens, Mark A.; Glass, Samuel V.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Gray, Terry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1112.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Gas Chromatography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics
Oxygenates in Gasoline: A Versatile Experiment Using Gas Chromatography  Linda C. Brazdil
An experiment for introductory chemistry in which oxygenates are extracted from gasoline and analyzed by gas chromatography is described. The extraction of oxygenates from gasoline with water prior to analysis by gas chromatography allows for their easy identification and quantification since only the oxygenates dissolve in water. Both qualitative and quantitative versions of the experiment are described.
Brazdil, Linda C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1056.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Labeling Histidines in Cytochrome c: An Integrated Laboratory Project  Amy M. Bonser and Owen A. Moe
This four-week laboratory project uses an inorganic protein labeling reagent, chloro(2,2':6,2''-terpyridine)-platinum(II)chloride dihydrate ([Pt(trpy)Cl]Cl(2H2O), to label histidine residues of the protein, cytochrome c. The goal of the experiment is to determine the stoichiometry of labeling.
Bonser, Amy M.; Moe, Owen A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 794.
Instrumental Methods |
Stoichiometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Determination of Free-Energy Relationships Using Gas Chromatography  Nicholas H. Snow
By performing a few straightforward analyses on a gas chromatograph, it is possible to calculate the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes that occur when a compound transfers between the mobile and stationary phases.
Snow, Nicholas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 592.
Gas Chromatography |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Qualitative Analysis
GC-MS and GC-FTIR Characterization of Products: From Classical Freshman and Sophomore Syntheses  D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo
The GC separation of ferrocene, acetylferrocene, and diacetylferrocene is accomplished in less than ten minutes. In addition to the operation of the instrument, the students are introduced to the interpretation of mass spectra and library aided spectral identification.
D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
1H NMR Analysis of R/S Ibuprofen by the Formation of Diasteriomeric Pairs: Microscale Stereochemistry Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Stephanie E. Sen and Keith S. Anliker
A multicomponent experiment is described which elucidates the chirality of the commercially available analgesic, ibuprofen.
Stephanie E. Sen and Keith S. Anliker. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 569.
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
Examination of a Reaction Mechanism by Polarimetry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Michael D. Mosher, Chad O. Kelly, and Melvyn W. Mosher
The experiment has been shown to be successful with chiral mandelic acid and POCl3 and with chiral lactic acid and HBr. The substitution mechanisms of these reactions proceed with 1% and 38% SN2 character respectively.
Mosher, Michael D.; Kelly, Chad O.; Mosher, Melvyn W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 567.
Instrumental Methods |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Gas Chromatography
Use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in Nonscience Major Course Laboratory Experiments  Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos
Our efforts have centered on introducing prospective science communicators (film, video, radio, television, and journalism majors) to science relative to their majors and personal interests. Quality lecture-discussion topics, "mystery"-based laboratory activities have assisted in introducing and/or explaining specific areas of chemistry that attempt to reduce fear of subject matter.
Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 565.
Nonmajor Courses |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Forensic Chemistry |
Separation Science
Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in River and Bay Sediments: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Environmental Chemistry Using Capillary Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection  Susan E. Kegley, Kristen J. Hansen, and Kevin L. Cunningham
This paper briefly discusses the history of PCB use and provides guidelines for finding and evaluating PCB-contaminated sites as a way to interest students by showing them an application of chemistry to the "real world."
Kegley, Susan E.; Hansen, Kristen J.; Cunningham, Kevin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 558.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Epoxidation of Alpha-Methylstyrene and its Lewis Acid Rearrangement to 2-Phenylpropanal  David L. Garin, Melissa Gamber, and Bradley J. Rowe
This undergraduate organic lab experiment includes procedures for the peracid epoxidation of an olefin and the Lewis acid rearrangement of an epoxide to a carbonyl compound.
Garin, David L.; Gamber, Melissa; Rowe, Bradley J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 555.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Capillary Gas Chromatography Injection: An Exercise for Students of Instrumental Analysis  Philip J. Marriot and Peter D. Carpenter
A laboratory exercise is described which illustrates the operation of a split/splitless capillary gas chromatography injection system.
Marriott, Philip J.; Carpenter, Peter D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 96.
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Richard F. Smith and Gaetano M. Cristalli
A laboratory to introduce the concept and technique of mass spectroscopy to introductory organic students; sample data and analysis included.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A160.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
LIMSport VII. Semiconductor Gas Sensors as GC Detectors and "Breathalyzers"  Ed Vitz and Helen Chan
178. Construction and use of a semiconductor gas sensor/computer interface in which data is collected and analyzed in a spreadsheet program.
Vitz, Ed; Chan, Helen. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 920.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Solid State Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry
GC/MS Analysis of the Aromatic Composition of Gasoline  Keith S. Kostecka, Ashraf Rabah, and Charles F. Palmer, Jr.
Procedure for examining 11 aromatics species in three unleaded regular-grade commercial fuels using GC/MS analysis; includes sample data.
Kostecka, Keith S.; Rabah, Ashraf; Palmer, Charles F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 853.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Using GC-MS to Determine Relative Reactivity Ratios   R. Daniel Bishop, Jr.
Experiment that demonstrates the use of GC-mass spectrometry in the separation and analysis of mixtures; also uses the GC-mass spectrometer to find the relative reactivity of primary, secondary, and tertiary hydrogens.
Bishop, R. Daniel, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 743.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry for Large Undergraduate Laboratory Sections  A. Illies, P. B. Shevlin, G. Childers, M. Peschke and J. Tsai
A gas chromatography - mass spectrometry experiment that allows each student in a large laboratory class to analyze the products of a simple organic synthesis.
Illies, A.; Shevlin, P. B.; Childers, G.; Peschke, M.; Tsai, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 717.
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Bromination of Disubstituted Arenes: Kinetics and Mechanism: GC/MS Experiments for the Instrumental Analysis and Organic Chemistry Labs  Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.
Experimental procedure using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to trace the progression of a reaction over time and determine the several possible steps of its mechanism; sample data and analysis included.
Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 460.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds
Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography  Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott
Experimental procedure for measuring carbon monoxide in auto exhaust by gas chromatography; includes sample data and analysis.
Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 364.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Separation Science |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: The Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressure  Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H.
Gas chromatography experiment that allows the discovery of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of a pure liquid; includes sample data and analysis.
Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 258.
Gases |
Liquids |
Gas Chromatography
Trihalomethanes Produced in Humic Acid Reactions: A GC-MS Experiment for Instrumental Analysis  Brush, Robert C.; Rice, Gary W.
This lab was developed for an instrumental analysis course to determine quantitatively trihalomethanes produced from the chlorination of humic acids in the presence of various levels of bromide.
Brush, Robert C.; Rice, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A293.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Manual Head Space Sampling for Gas Chromatographic Analysis  Corkill, Jeffrey A.; Raymond, Kenneth W.
A manual head space sampling technique that can eliminate many of the problems associated with manual injection of liquid samples.
Corkill, Jeffrey A.; Raymond, Kenneth W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A202.
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
A Microscale Isolation of Limonene from Orange Peels  Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad
A rapid and reliable extractive microscale isolation of limonene.
Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A146.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Natural Products |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
A Simple-to-Build Thermal-Conductivity GC Detector  Jones, Mark E.
The author describes an inexpensive, easy-to-build thermal-conductivity detector for gas chromatography.
Jones, Mark E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 995.
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Means of Reclaiming Microliter Syringes  Dronsfield, Alan T.; Parker, David A.
Over-enthusiastic pumping of 10-L GC syringes often causes the wire plunger to become bent. Such syringes can often be reclaimed using the following procedure.
Dronsfield, Alan T.; Parker, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 964.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
Many Students and Only One GC/MS  Lawrence, Stephen S.
A procedure that allows one lab section of 16-20 students to individually perform real-time analyses using one GC/MS instrument.
Lawrence, Stephen S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 530.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Management |
Administrative Issues
The Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol Revisited: The Evelyn Effect  Todd, David
Modification to an earlier procedure that allows students to observe the results of a hydride shift mechanism.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 440.
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes |
Elimination Reactions
The stereochemistry of commercial 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanone: An application of capillary gas chromatography   Garner, Charles M.
One example of how capillary gas chromatography can be employed in undergraduate organic laboratories.
Garner, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A310.
Gas Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
Applications of autosampling GC-MS in an introductory organic chemistry laboratory   Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J.
Incorporation of an automated GC-MS has allowed students to have access to state-of-the-art instrumentation in a cost-effective and pedagogically sound manner.
Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A290.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Microscale qualitative organic analysis   Goller, Edwin J.; Miller, John H.
Students gain critical thinking skills in an organic chemistry course by selecting their own chemical tests.
Goller, Edwin J.; Miller, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A159.
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab
GC/MS experiments for the organic laboratory: II. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of p-xylene   Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie
Experiments for the sophomore organic chemistry laboratory that make use of capillary gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy(MS), teach the use of MS fragmentation patterns in structure determination, and also illustrate the effects of reaction conditions on the product distribution in well-known reactions.
Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A150.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkylation
GC/MS experiments for the organic chemistry laboratory: I. E2 elimination of 2-bromo-2-methyloctane   Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie; Martin, Kristy A.; Green, John; Lytle, Scott
Two capillary GC/MS experiments that were designed for and tested in a sophomore organic laboratory course.
Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie; Martin, Kristy A.; Green, John; Lytle, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A103.
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols |
Elimination Reactions |
Synthesis
A convenient method of esterification of fatty acids: An undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Di Raddo, Pasquale
A convenient method of esterification of fatty acids for undergraduate organic chemistry lab.
Di Raddo, Pasquale J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1034.
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fatty Acids
Hydrochlorination of 1-propynylbenzene on alumina: A demonstration of kinetic and thermodynamic control using HCl produced in situ and molecular modeling  Pienta, Norbert J.; Crawford, Scott D.; Kropp, Paul J.
A hydrochlorination experiment that provides sufficient latitude in choice of conditions.
Pienta, Norbert J.; Crawford, Scott D.; Kropp, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 682.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkynes |
Alkenes |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab
An experiment in manual multiple headspace extraction for gas chromatography: An undergraduate laboratory experiment using simple equipment  Welch, William C.; Greco, Thomas G.
An experiment developed to give the undergraduate analytical student experience in headspace gas chromatography and gas-liquid extraction in the absence of sophisticated extraction and sample injection equipment.
Welch, William C.; Greco, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Detection of Common Chlorinated Pesticides in Water by Gas Chromatography  Neuzil, E. F.; Stone, D. J.
This experiment is easy and is met with student interest near the end of a full-year laboratory as an example of micro- analysis used in a qualitative and somewhat quantitative determination.
Neuzil, E. F.; Stone, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 167.
Gas Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.  Lee, Moses.
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.
Lee, Moses. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A172.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Atomic emission spectrometry with helium plasmas: An emerging approach for nonmetal determinations  Wu, Mingin; Gehlhausen, Jay M.; Carnahan, Jon W.
Capabilities of helium microwave-induced plasmas for the determination of nonmetals.
Wu, Mingin; Gehlhausen, Jay M.; Carnahan, Jon W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 757.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Constructing a complete temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture: A new experiment that uses quantitative gas chromatography.  Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang.
Experiment to help students appreciate fractional distillation and a fundamental application of gas chromatography.
Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 581.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
A semipreparative gas chromatography collection tube adapter  Lee, Sang-Ho; Hulce, Martin
A semipreparative gas chromatography collection tube adapter.
Lee, Sang-Ho; Hulce, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A142.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
Isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate: An undergraduate experiment illustrating amine-catalyzed alkene isomerization, stereochemical principles, sublimation, and product identification by spectroscopic methods  Fryhle, Craig B.; Rybak, Carol M.; Pulley, Kenneth E.
An undergraduate experiment illustrating amine-catalyzed alkene isomerization, stereochemical principles, sublimation, and product identification by spectroscopic methods.
Fryhle, Craig B.; Rybak, Carol M.; Pulley, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1050.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Catalysis
Friedel-Crafts alkylation products   Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.
Comments on how two recent papers could compliment one and another.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 86.
Alkylation |
Gas Chromatography |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds
Polarity and selectivity of ionic stationary phases used in gas chromatography: Evaluation of commercial detergents containing anionic surfactants as column packings  Furton, Kenneth G.; Mantilla, Adriana
Evaluation of commercial detergents containing anionic surfactants as column packings.
Furton, Kenneth G.; Mantilla, Adriana J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 74.
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Quantitative Analysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
Fabric softeners as phase transfer catalyst in organic synthesis  Lee, Albert W. M.; Yip, W. C.
Phase transfer catalysts such as quaternary ammonium compounds are often found in commercial fabric softeners due to their antistatic properties.
Lee, Albert W. M.; Yip, W. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 69.
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Catalysis |
Synthesis
A sonar detector for gas chromatographs  Yarnitzky, Chaim N.
Construction of a sonar detector that operates on measuring the velocity of sound in the analyzed gas.
Yarnitzky, Chaim N. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 712.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
Organic laboratory experiments: A simplified method for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs  Smith, Sherrel
How short pieces of Teflon tubing may be used for gas chromatograph collection tubes.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 615.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Qualitative amino acid analysis of small peptides by GC/MS  Mabbott, Gary A.
Besides being appealing to students the exercise described here gives them experiences in derivation methods that are often necessary in order to make nonvolatile samples amenable to gas chromatography separation.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 441.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
A modular apparatus for demonstrating gas chromatography using serial coupling of a thermal conductivity and flame ionizaton detector  Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea
The authors constructed a simple gas chromatograph for demonstrating the separation of gas mixtures at room temperature; therefore, heating or thermostating of the column is unnecessary.
Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 181.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Microcomputer interfacing programs  Ghaffari, Shahrokh
107. Bits and pieces, 42. Three programs designed to work with spectrophotometers, a Gow-Mac gas chromatograph, and a conductivity measurement. [October and November Computer Series both inadvertently called number 107. Numbering restored by skipping 109 and calling January 1990 number 110.]
Ghaffari, Shahrokh J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 837.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Conductivity
Antioxidants in plastic: An instrumental analysis project  Chan, Wing Hong; Lam, King Sum; Yu, Wai Keung
The authors have devised the following project in their instrumental analysis laboratory to investigate the antioxidant content in polypropylene products.
Chan, Wing Hong; Lam, King Sum; Yu, Wai Keung J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 172.
Phenols |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A conversion of methyl ketones into acetylenes: A project for a problem oriented or microscale organic chemistry course  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Orlando, Steven C.
The authors present their adaptation of an open-ended project on the conversion of methyl ketones into acetylenes for the microscale lab and describe its pedagogic utility.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Orlando, Steven C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 630.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography
Alkylation of chlorobenzene: An experiment illustrating kinetic versus thermodynamic control  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Standard, Jean M.; Field, Kurt W.
An experiment illustrating kinetic versus thermodynamic control through the alkylation of chlorobenze.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Standard, Jean M.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 367.
Alkylation |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gas Chromatography
Determination of methanol in gasoline by gas chromatography: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
Determining the methanol in gasoline by gas chromatography without pretreating the samples.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1059.
Quantitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography
Determination of impurities in whiskey using internal standard techniques: A GC experiment for quantitative analysis  Riee, Gary W.
Using gas chromatography to determine five impurities in American and Scotch whiskey.
Riee, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1055.
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Plasticizers in PVC: A combined IR and GC approach  Chan, W. H.
IR spectroscopy is used to screen plastic samples for phthalate plasticized PVC products, whereas gas chromatography is used to identify the isolated phthalates.
Chan, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 897.
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography
Concerning dehydration of 2-methycyclohexanol  Feigenbaum, A.
One half of class dehydrates 2-methycyclohexanol, the other half dehydrates 1-methycyclohexanol; gas chromatography retention times are then compared for the two product mixtures.
Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 273.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography
Characterization of gas chromatographic liquid phases using McReynolds constants: An experiment for instrumental analysis laboratory.  Erskine, Steven R.; Lennox, John C.; Bobbitt, Donald R.
This paper describes an experiment that is designed to aid in the development of an understanding of the fundamental processes involved in gas chromatographic separations by introducing the student to the Kovats retention index system.
Erskine, Steven R.; Lennox, John C.; Bobbitt, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1099.
Gas Chromatography
An introductory quantitative GC experiment for the organic chemistry laboratory  Leber, Phyllis. A.
GC instrumentation is complicated enough that students need introductory exposure to the technique before embarking on its applications. The authors accomplish this by developing an introductory GC experiment that allows students to explore the scope and limits of the technique.
Leber, Phyllis. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 550.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Use of laboratory-supplied natural gas in breakthrough phenomena  Eiceman, G. A.; Davani, B.; Gardea-Torresdey , J.
Discussion of breakthrough phenomenon and an experiment to identify the organic compounds present in natural gas through gas chromatography.
Eiceman, G. A.; Davani, B.; Gardea-Torresdey , J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 614.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Gas chromatographic determination of fatty acid compositions  Heinzen, Horacio; Moyna, Patrick; Grompone, Antonia
An experiment that includes a derivatization step and uses readily available reagents.
Heinzen, Horacio; Moyna, Patrick; Grompone, Antonia J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 449.
Gas Chromatography |
Lipids |
Instrumental Methods |
Fatty Acids
Analytical chemistry program set  Hardy, James K.
60. Bits and pieces, 23. A series of programs for use in the analytical laboratory.
Hardy, James K. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 411.
Gas Chromatography |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A modern GS/MS/data system  Karasek, Francis W.; Viau, Alan C.
Describes the design, use, and advantages of a gas chromatography / mass spectrometer / computerized data system.
Karasek, Francis W.; Viau, Alan C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A233.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive syringe for gas chromatography  Avila, Walter B.; Hamilton, Mark A.; Holwitt, Eric A.
Replacing expensive GC syringes with disposable, plastic insulin syringes.
Avila, Walter B.; Hamilton, Mark A.; Holwitt, Eric A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1109.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
An easy method for salvaging thermal conductivity detectors  Ronman, Peter; Sallastrom, Walter
Exchanging resistors in a gas chromatograph.
Ronman, Peter; Sallastrom, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 813.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Qualitative analysis by gas chromatography: GC versus the nose in formulating artificial fruit flavors  Rasmussen, P. W.
Using GC retention indexes for the identification of the volatile compounds responsible for the odor of the banana.
Rasmussen, P. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 62.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
A quantitative gas chromatographic ethanol determination: a contemporary analytical experiment  Leary, James J.
This note describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions.
Leary, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 675.
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
A reinvestigation of the synthesis of 4-methyl-3-heptanol  Hoffman, Robert V.; Alexander, M. D.; Buntain, Gregory; Hardenstein, Richard; Mattox, Cynthia; McLaughlin, Susan; McMinn, Denise; Spray, Scott; White, Steven
A previously reported laboratory may have reported gas chromatographic separation of the 4-methyl-3-heptanol diastereomiers in error. The side reactions in the Grignard reaction account for the observed results.
Hoffman, Robert V.; Alexander, M. D.; Buntain, Gregory; Hardenstein, Richard; Mattox, Cynthia; McLaughlin, Susan; McMinn, Denise; Spray, Scott; White, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 78.
Hormones |
Alcohols |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Natural Products
Manifold for gas chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R., Jr.
A manifold that allows one to operate four gas chromatographs on three tanks: one of hydrogen, one of compressed air, and one tank of carrier gas.
Conklin, Alfred R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 616.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Gases
Gas chromatographic determination of environmentally significant pesticides  Rudzinski, Walter E.; Beu, Steve
A procedure that can be adapted for the analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in orange juice.
Rudzinski, Walter E.; Beu, Steve J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 614.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Agricultural Chemistry
The construction of a simple pyrolysis gas chromatograph  Hedrick, Jack L.
Constructing and using a simple PGC system made from outmoded gas chromatographs.
Hedrick, Jack L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 612.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Gas chromatographic determination of methyl salicylate in rubbing alcohol: An experiment employing standard addition  Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis
Provides an exercise in standard addition as applied to the gas chromatographic analysis of the methyl salicylate in wintergreen rubbing alcohol.
Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 230.
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
A method to prevent septum bleeding in high temperature gas chromatography  Lafosse, M.
Applying a porous Teflon frit to prevent septum bleeding in high temperature gas chromatography.
Lafosse, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 202.
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Amine-catalyzed isomerization of diethylmaleate to diethylfumarate  Glover, Irving T.; Cushing, Gary W.; Windsor, Chris M.
The authors have used the reaction in this paper in their introductory organic chemistry course to illustrate principles of GLC , geometric isomerism, homogeneous catalysis, and activation energy determinations.
Glover, Irving T.; Cushing, Gary W.; Windsor, Chris M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 812.
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Catalysis |
Gas Chromatography
Gas chromatographic analysis of aerosol propellants  Miller, James M.
A simple procedure for the qualitative analysis of commercial propellants by gas chromatography.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 735.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Alkylation of methyl acetoacetate and gas chromatographic analysis of products. An organic laboratory experiment  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
Substituting commercially available sodium methoxide, absolute methanol, and methyl acetoacetate for sodium, ethanol, and acetoacetic ester in the acetoacetic ester synthesis of ketones and acids and the malonic ester synthesis of acids.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 446.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Laboratory Management
Gas chromatographic simulation program  Yuan, Mark
A Fortran simulation of gas chromatography.
Yuan, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 364.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Polyunsaturation in margarines: An undergraduate student experiment  Flynn, John J.
Gas chromatographic analysis of the methyl esters of the fatty acids is used to determine the degree of saturation in various commercial margarines.
Flynn, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 322.
Lipids |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Fatty Acids
A compact inexpensive gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer silicone rubber membrane separator  Scott, Richard B.; Brown, Peter
This interface should prove especially pertinent for those having a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph but unable to purchase a combination GC/MS instrument.
Scott, Richard B.; Brown, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 40.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Some aids in the teaching of analytical laboratory work  Harris, W. E.; Kratochvil, B.
The authors list some strategies for improving analytical techniques.
Harris, W. E.; Kratochvil, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 253.
Gas Chromatography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
Gas chromatographic analysis of gasoline. A laboratory experiment  Cassidy, Robert F., Jr.; Schuerch, Conrad
In this experiment the authors take advantage of the high resolving power and rapidity of gas chromatography to separate some commercial gasolines into individual compounds and simple mixtures of compounds of similar volatility.
Cassidy, Robert F., Jr.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 51.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Hydrocarbons in ambient air: A laboratory experiment  DiNardi, Salvatore R.; Briggs, Elaine S.
Students calibrate and the n use a gas chromatograph to analyze ambient air for hydrocarbons.
DiNardi, Salvatore R.; Briggs, Elaine S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 811.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
A novel communications-skills-based approach to the instrumental laboratory  Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E.
Describes the approach used in a course designed to stress the importance of good writing style in laboratory reports.
Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 801.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
A laboratory exercise for organic chemistry  Sands, Richard D.
Students analyze a mixture of two unknown liquids, which as the semester progresses they are to separate, analyze, and identify.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 732.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy
The latent heat of vaporization of an organic solid: An undergraduate experiment  Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O.
A series of experiments based on a mass spectrometer to help students visualize the latent heat of vaporization for a relatively involatile solid.
Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 730.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Illustrating gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. An undergraduate experiment  Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken
One lab period is used to separate and collect the components of a ketone mixture; the second lab period is used to explain and demonstrate the MS instrumentation and the interpretation of ketone spectra; and in part three the spectra of the separated ketones are analyzed by individual students.
Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 535.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Isomer analysis by spectral methods  Poulton, Gerald A.
The use of NMR, UV and mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography to introduce students to the use of spectra to determine the products of a reaction and their relative amounts.
Poulton, Gerald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 397.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
The determination of alcohol content of beer: A general and analytical experiment with high student interest value  Lokken, D. A.
Procedure that uses gas chromatography to determine the alcohol content of beer.
Lokken, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 329.
Gas Chromatography |
Alcohols |
Quantitative Analysis
Qualitative and quantitative gas chromatography for the undergraduate  Karasek, F. W.; De Decker, E. H.; Tiernay, J. M.
The authors present two experiments which provide beginning student a broad general knowledge of the gas chromatography field.
Karasek, F. W.; De Decker, E. H.; Tiernay, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 816.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
The recovery and identification of flammable liquids in suspected arsons. An undergraduate organic experiment  Blackledge, Robert D.
The described experiment here takes the place of two experiments commonly used in the beginning organic laboratory course, namely the experiment on steam distillation and the experiment on gas liquid chromatography.
Blackledge, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 549.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
The photoisomerization of cyclic ketones: An experiment in organic chemistry  Haas, J. W., Jr.
This experiment deals with parameters such as the nature of the excited state, effect of triplet quenchers on product formation, chemical structure and reaction rate and quantum yield when cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone are irradiated at 254nm. These cyclic ketones provide a variety of photolysis information in a short time span, are conveniently analyzed by gas chromatography, and are readily available at the requisite levels of purity.
Haas, J. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 346.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography
A simple and inexpensive collector for preparative gas chromatography  Rossley, Nicci L.; Higgins, Gibson W.; Rothberg, Irvin; Friedman, H. Martin
The authors present a more simple and inexpensive collector for studying alkylation of naphthalene with alkenenes.
Rossley, Nicci L.; Higgins, Gibson W.; Rothberg, Irvin; Friedman, H. Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 242.
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkylation |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The determination of pesticide residues. A laboratory experiment  Jarosch, Richard
The determination of pesticide residues using thin-layer and gas chromatography.
Jarosch, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 507.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
On thermodynamics of solution by gas-liquid chromatography  Meyer, Edwin F.
Discusses the standard and reference states commonly used in glc, and suggests the use of a more straightforward set of states for the evaluation of standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution when measured via glc.
Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 191.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography
A simple alarm to aid in preparative glpc fraction collection  Lustig, Robert S.
A simple alarm that can be adjusted to "sound off" when the recorder pen of a preparative gas chromatograph reaches a preset height above the base line.
Lustig, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 760.
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Reactivity ratios from copolymerization kinetics. A quantitative gas-liquid chromatography experiment  Mukatis, W. A.; Ohl, Temple
Gas-liquid chromatography is used to follow the rate of disappearance of two monomers as they polymerize.
Mukatis, W. A.; Ohl, Temple J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 367.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Instrumental techniques compared by analysis of a reaction mixture  Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O.
The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint the student with how a combination of instruments (glc, ir, and nmr) can be used to separate as well as to identify each compound in a reaction mixture.
Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 827.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Bibliography of experimental gas chromatography  Miller, James M.
Summarizes publications of homemade gas chromatography instruments and educational experiments involving their use.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 306.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A convenient method to obtain preparative samples by glc  Costanzo, Samuel J.
A simple device to collect samples directly from a gas chromatograph relies on a disposable pipet.
Costanzo, Samuel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 45.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mass spectrometers. Part 1  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines ion sources, sample handling, vacuum systems, and using the mass spectrometer to monitor the effluent from a gas chromatograph.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A69.
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
The dehydration of 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol  Taber, Richard L.; Grantham, Gary D.; Champion, William C.
Presents an experiment that demonstrates the usefulness of gas chromatography as an analytical technique, emphasizes structural rearrangement, makes use of elementary thermodynamics, and gives the student some experience in the original literature.
Taber, Richard L.; Grantham, Gary D.; Champion, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 849.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Gas Chromatography
An introduction to chromatography  Gaucher, G. M.
The object of this presentation is to serve as a preliminary practical introduction and guide to chromatography.
Gaucher, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 729.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Ion Exchange
A combustion-gas chromatography experiment  Bard, James R.
This experiment is based on the combustion of organic material over hot copper oxide in a helium atmosphere and the measurements of the resultant carbon dioxide by gas chromatography.
Bard, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 441.
Gas Chromatography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Inexpensive linear temperature programmer for gas chromatography  Hautala, E.; Weaver, M. L.
Describes the use of a capacitance-operated relay as a linear temperature programmer for gas chromatography.
Hautala, E.; Weaver, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 122.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
Computer simulation of experimental data  Shwendeman, R. H.
This note describes some of the techniques in programming used to generate a sufficient variety of experimental data to provide each student with his own set of numbers for analysis in conjunction with the demonstration laboratory.
Shwendeman, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 665.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Gas Chromatography
A versatile ionization detector system for gas chromatography  Nowak, A. V.; Malmstadt, H. V.
A versatile and inexpensive ionization detector is described that can increase the utility of any gas chromatograph to which it is attached.
Nowak, A. V.; Malmstadt, H. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 519.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The identification of vegetable oils: A gas chromatographic experiment  Cover, Richard E.
In this procedure the student is given a sample of oil which he saponifies and then esterfies to form the methyl esters of the fatty acids; the esters are then extracted, concentrated, and identified through gas chromatography.
Cover, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 120.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis
Quantitative gas chromatography  Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Barnes, Jack R.
This experiment consists of the determination of relative response factors for a multicomponent mixture and the use of these factors in determining the percent composition by weight of an unknown mixture.
Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Barnes, Jack R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 695.
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography
Dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol  Taber, Richard L.; Champion, William C.
This short article describes a simple alcohol dehydration that illustrates the Saytzeff Rule.
Taber, Richard L.; Champion, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 620.
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes
A simple gas-liquid chromatography device  Silberman, Robert
Describes a simple device for demonstrating the principle of gas chromatography.
Silberman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 590.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chart of gas law logs compiled  Beach, Darrell H.
Notes the availability of a chart of gas law logs to supplement a slide rule.
Beach, Darrell H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 604.
Gas Chromatography |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A radiochemical experiment in gas chromatography  Merrigan, J. A.; Nicholas, J. B.; Rack, E. P.
This article presents a method for building a radiogaschromatograph from materials generally available in a radiochemistry laboratory, and an experiment using this chromatograph that illustrates Szilard-Chalmers effects, energies associated with nuclear transformations, and characteristics of the chromatograph.
Merrigan, J. A.; Nicholas, J. B.; Rack, E. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 543.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Xylene analysis: Integrated experiment in instrumental analysis  Hanrahan, E. S.
Xylene containing major amounts of ethylbenzene, toluene, and three xylene isomers, is analyzed using infrared and gas chromatographic analysis.
Hanrahan, E. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 321.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds
Flame-ionization detector for gas chromatography  Hughes, D. E. P.
Describes the design of an extremely sensitive and readily visible flame-ionization detector for gas chromatography.
Hughes, D. E. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 450.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Apparatus for large scale gas chromatography  Bayer, Ernst
Examines the design and operation of large scale gas chromatography columns.
Bayer, Ernst J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A755.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Experimental gas chromatography (Miller, James M.)  Sawyer, Donald T.

Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A214.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Fractionating column efficiency: Quantitative experiment in elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Ault, Addison
This experiment estimates the efficiency of a fractionating column by slowly distilling a three-to-one mixture of toluene and benzene.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 432.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Dual column gas chromatography: A teaching tool  Miller, James M.
Presents advantages to and several experiments involving dual column gas chromatography.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 413.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Travel of molecules and disturbances in chromatographic columns: A paradox and its resolution  Helfferich, F.
The purpose of the present communication is to contribute toward a better understanding of some fundamental, but not obvious, aspects of nonlinear chromatography by presenting and then resolving what appears to be, at first sight, a surprising paradox.
Helfferich, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 410.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
A demonstration device for gas chromatography  Herbener, R. E.
This paper describes the construction and use of a simple gas chromatograph with removable covers for class demonstrations.
Herbener, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 162.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Chromatographic glossary  Lewin, S. Z.
Presents thin layer and gas chromatography terms in English, German, French, and Spanish.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A167.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography
A gas chromatography demonstration apparatus  McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L.
Describes an apparatus for the separation of volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography using oxygen or air as the carrier gas.
McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 539.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis
Physical and chemical methods of separation (Berg, Eugene W.)  Rogers, Lockhart B.

Rogers, Lockhart B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 501.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography
Gas chromatographs (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the read-out, zero suppression, read-out of peak areas, ball-and-disc integrator, electromagnetic integrators, all-electronic integrators, digital integrators, and various commercial, laboratory gas chromatographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A161.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Gas Chromatography (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the operating characteristics of the gas chromatography detector and various types of detectors, including thermal and flame conductivity detectors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A83.
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Gas Chromatography
Gas Chromatographs (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the nature of the packing in a gas chromatograph and its effects on the performance of the instrument.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A5.
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
A gas chromatography analysis for the elementary organic laboratory  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
This gas chromatography analysis examines a mixture of 2-methyl-1-butene and 2-methyl-2-butene.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 310.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography
Gas Chromatographs  Lewin, S. Z.
Topics examined include carrier gas, flow control, sample injection, and chromatographic columns.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A869.
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive versatile multi-column gas chromatograph for students  Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A.
Presents the design of a multi-column, gas chromatography unit constructed from common laboratory materials.
Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 506.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Gas chromatography: Basic principles and new developments  Pecsok, Robert L.
Summarizes some of the basic principles of and new apparatus for gas chromatography.
Pecsok, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 212.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Gases
A technique for packing columns for gas chromatography  Ven Horst, Sister Helene; Ven Horst, Helen; O'Connor, Karen
Describes a simple device that may be used to simplify the packing of columns for gas chromatography.
Ven Horst, Sister Helene; Ven Horst, Helen; O'Connor, Karen J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 593.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography
A simple katharometer design  Thomas, Carl O.; Smith, Hilton A.
Presents the design of a simple katharometer that requires no glass work.
Thomas, Carl O.; Smith, Hilton A. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 527.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
A gas chromatography demonstration apparatus  Cowan, Paul J.; Sugihara, James M.
An inexpensive apparatus effects a satisfactory separation of several organic liquids through visual changes in the nature and height of a hydrogen flame carrying each mixture's fractions.
Cowan, Paul J.; Sugihara, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 246.
Gas Chromatography
Gas-phase chromatography: A class experiment  Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles
Recommends an experimental procedure involving gas chromatography and presents the necessary apparatus.
Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 490.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Gas-phase chromatography  Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B.
Introduces gas chromatography and describes its associated apparatus and operation.
Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 485.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The nature of chromatography  Cassidy, Harold G.
Provides a definition of chromatography and a description of gas chromatography.
Cassidy, Harold G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 482.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography