TIGER

Journal Articles: 154 results
Assessing Nitration Products of Benzene Derivatives Using TLC Analysis  Rita K. Hessley
Thin layer chromatography is applied to an earlier published, guided discovery experiment using GCMS analyses to identify isomers formed by the nitration of mono-substituted benzenes.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1623.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds
Borohydride Reduction of Estrone  Animesh Aditya, David E. Nichols, and G. Marc Loudon
This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity using chiral hindered ketones that undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride. The resulting diastereomeric estradiols can be analyzed and differentiated by thin-layer chromatography and melting point.
Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1535.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Steroids |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Comparative Nucleophilicity of Naphthoxide Derivatives in Reactions with a Fast-Red TR Dye  Cheryl M. Mascarenhas
In this experiment, organic chemistry students perform reactions between three naphthyl acetate derivatives and the diazonium salt Fast-Red TR. Students discover under what conditions the hydrolysis and electrophilic aromatic substitution is fastest and slowest, allowing them to conclude that latter, rather than the former, is rate-limiting.
Mascarenhas, Cheryl M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1271.
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography  Benjamin T. Burlingham and Joseph C. Rettig
Presents a microscale experiment in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions and the products determined through thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students evaluate proposed mechanisms for each dihydroxylation in light of the data collected.
Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 959.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography  James V. McCullagh and Nicholas Ramos
In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto seeds using column chromatography and then analyzed by UVvis and IR spectroscopy. The procedure has several advantages over previous pigment separation experiments.
McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 948.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Preparation and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Library of Esters  Elizabeth M. Sanford and Traci L. Smith
In this investigative case study, students work collaboratively to prepare and characterize a library of esters using Fischer esterification and alcoholysis of acid chlorides and their subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis by pig liver and orange peel esterases.
Sanford, Elizabeth M.; Smith, Traci L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 944.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Esters |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper  Mark Mascal and Richard Scown
In this experiment, waste newspaper is pulped with acid and its cellulose hydrolyzed to produce glucose syrup that is fermented and distilled to yield ethanol. In doing so, students are introduced to carbohydrate chemistry and the use of fermentation in organic synthesis.
Mascal, Mark; Scown, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Colorful Column Chromatography: A Classroom Demonstration of a Three-Component Separation  Lars V. Heumann
Describes a classroom demonstration for the separation of a ternary mixture consisting of intensely colored compounds using silica gel column chromatography.
Heumann, Lars V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 524.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts of Tricyclic Cationic Drugs: A One-Pot Synthesis for the Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Linda S. Brunauer, Abid C. Mogannam, Won B. Hwee, and James Y. Chen
Describes a one-pot conversion of tricyclic cationic drugs to their quaternary ammonium forms for a widely used bioactive drug, chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine-based antipsychotic. The conversion of parent drug to the methylated form was evaluated by qualitatively measuring its ability to induce alterations in the shape of mammalian erythrocytes.
Brunauer, Linda S.; Mogannam, Abid C.; Hwee, Won B.; Chen, James Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1992.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Maleic Acid at Moderate Pressures  Kwesi Amoa
This article demonstrates the reduction of maleic acid in about 90 minutes using moderate-pressure catalytic hydrogenation.
Amoa, Kwesi. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1948.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones  Nicholas G. Angelo, Laura K. Henchey, Adam J. Waxman, James W. Canary, Paramjit S. Arora, and Donald Wink
Describes an experiment in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and ketone and make use of TLC, column chromatography, recrystallization, and characterization by 1H NMR, GCMS, and FTIR.
Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1816.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC  Gregory T. Rushton, William G. Burns, Judi M. Lavin, Yong S. Chong, Perry Pellechia, and Ken D. Shimizu
After the synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, students estimate the rotational barrier about a CarylNimidesingle bond by studying the reequilibration of the two resulting isomers using two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, followed by a more accurate determination through a 1H NMR time study.
Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1499.
Alcohols |
Chromatography |
Conformational Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Revisiting the Separation of Ferrocene and Acetylferrocene by Adsorption Chromatography: Adding a Third Component  Rebecca Hwa and Haim Weizman
The separation of ferrocene and acetylferrocene by column chromatography has been expanded into a three-component mixture to increase the challenge of the experiment and to make TLC analysis necessary.
Hwa, Rebecca; Weizman, Haim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1497.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis of Anomeric Methyl Fructofuranosides and Their Separation on an Ion-exchange Resin  Erkki Nurminen, Päivi Poijärvi, Katja Koskua, and Jari Hovinen
Treatment of d-fructose with methanol in the presence of acid as a catalyst gives a mixture of methyl--d-fructopyranoside, methyl-a-D-fructofuranoside, and methyl--d- fructofuranoside, which are separated on an ion exchange column and characterized polarimetrically.
Nurminen, Erkki; Poijärvi, Päivi; Koskua, Katja; Hovinen, Jari. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1480.
Carbocations |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Ion Exchange |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Carbohydrates
Analysis and Identification of Acid–Base Indicator Dyes by Thin-Layer Chromatography  Daniel D. Clark
Presents an experiment that serves to illustrate the fundamentals and utility of thin-layer chromatography through the resolution and identification of brightly colored, acidbase indicator dyes on the basis of Rf values and color.
Clark, Daniel D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1186.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Vanillin Synthesis from 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde  Douglass F. Taber, Shweta Patel, Travis M. Hambleton, and Emma E. Winkel
Describes a simple and safe preparation of vanillin from 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde appropriate for undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories.
Taber, Douglass F.; Patel, Shweta; Hambleton, Travis M.; Winkel, Emma E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1158.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Food Science |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  Amber Victoria Irish Hess
Thin-layer chromatography enhanced by digital photography is ideal for high school and college labs and can perform qualitative and quantitative analysis comparable to more expensive, high-performance TLC equipment. Using common photo-editing software, one can quickly produce multi-spectral scans, densitograms, and calibration curves, output previously limited to HPTLC.
Hess, Amber Victoria Irish. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 842.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography
Isolation of Three Components from Spearmint Oil: An Exercise in Column and Thin-Layer Chromatography  Don R. Davies and Todd M. Johnson
In this exercise, the three major components of spearmint oil, (+)-limonene, L-(-)-carvone, and (1R,2R,4R)-dihydrocarveol, are separated by silica gel column chromatography. The separation is monitored by thin-layer chromatography, and IR analysis is employed to verify the identity of the separated components.
Davies, Don R.; Johnson, Todd M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 318.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Andri L. Smith and Paula Tan
Describes the synthesis of creatine monohydratea popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energyfor introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. The synthesis illustrates the electrophilic nature of nitriles, as well as the nucleophilic nature of amines.
Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1654.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Calix[4]pyrrole: Synthesis and Anion-Binding Properties. An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  James A. Shriver and Scott G. Westphal
Simple calixpyrrole macrocycles provide an easy-to-synthesize example of an anion-binding agent that can be included in the undergraduate laboratory curriculum. The inclusion of a test for anion binding also makes this procedure suitable for a more advanced audience and supplies a bridge for the introduction of supramolecular chemistry and a typical hostguest interaction.
Shriver, James A.; Westphal, Scott G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1330.
Aromatic Compounds |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Recognition |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Acetal Protecting Groups in the Organic Laboratory: Synthesis of Methyl 4,6-O-Benzylidene-α-D-Glucopyranoside  Alexei V. Demchenko, Papapida Pornsuriyasak, and Cristina De Meo
The synthesis of methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-a-D-glucopyranoside provides an opportunity to synthesize a cyclic acetal; stereoselectively introduce a chirality center; and learn extraction, evaporation, precipitation, optical rotation, melting point measurement, thin-layer chromatography, IR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and various NMR techniques.
Demchenko, Alexei V.; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; De Meo, Cristina. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 782.
Carbohydrates |
IR Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
A Greener Approach to Aspirin Synthesis Using Microwave Irradiation  Ingrid Montes, David Sanabria, Marilyn García,, Joaudimir Castro, and Johanna Fajardo
Presents an inquiry-based laboratory experience based on the use of a microwave oven as a means for a comparative study of the effect of different catalysts in the synthesis of aspirin.
Montes, Ingrid; Sanabria, David; García,, Marilyn; Castro, Joaudimir; Fajardo, Johanna. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 628.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Esters |
Green Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Grubbs's Cross Metathesis of Eugenol with cis-2-Butene-1,4-diol To Make a Natural Product. An Organometallic Experiment for the Undergraduate Lab   Douglass F. Taber and Kevin J. Frankowski
Describes the ruthenium catalyzed cross metathesis of eugenol with cis-1,4-butenediol. The experiment is an excellent example of the powerful selectivity possible with the Grubbs' catalyst, demonstrating the preference for trans over cis alkene formation and for cross metathesis over homodimerization.
Taber, Douglass F.; Frankowski, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 283.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
Comparative Methylation of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone: Chemoselectivity in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Grigoriy A. Sereda
Describes a laboratory experiment that gives organic chemistry students an example of an environmentally friendly pyrolytic procedure of organic synthesis. Another synthesis with the same reactants teaches the students that appropriate reaction conditions may allow the chemist to perform an organic reaction with high chemoselectivity.
Sereda, Grigoriy A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1839.
Reactions |
Ethers |
Green Chemistry |
Phenols |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Just Click It: Undergraduate Procedures for the Copper(I)-Catalyzed Formation of 1,2,3-Triazoles from Azides and Terminal Acetylenes  William D. Sharpless, Peng Wu, Trond Vidar Hansen, and James G. Lindberg
In keeping with the defining aspects of click chemistry, this reaction is high-yielding, requires no chromatography, is easily monitored by TLC, and displays distinct peaks in both IR and 1H-NMR. Virtually all products precipitate, and with just a few different starting blocks, every student, or pair of lab partners, can produce a unique "clicked" compound.
Sharpless, William D.; Wu, Peng; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Lindberg, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1833.
Catalysis |
Heterocycles |
Alkynes |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis  Brian F. Woodfield, Merritt B. Andrus, Gregory L. Waddoups, Melissa S. Moore, Richard Swan, Rob Allen, Greg Bodily, Tricia Andersen, Jordan Miller, Bryon Simmons, and Richard Stanger
Describes a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. The purpose of these simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments.
Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1728.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 6. Selective Reduction in Organic Chemistry: Reduction of Aldehydes in the Presence of Esters Using Sodium Borohydride  Ashvin R. Baru and Ram S. Mohan
Describes two discovery oriented lab experiments involving the chemoselective reduction of vanillin acetate and methyl 4-formylbenzoate in the presence of esters using sodium borohydride, followed by product identification using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
Baru, Ashvin R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1674.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
An Engaging Illustration of the Physical Differences among Menthol Stereoisomers  Edward M. Treadwell and T. Howard Black
The differences and similarities in the physical behavior of enantiomers and diastereomers can easily be demonstrated using the commercial stereoisomers (-)-menthol, (+)-menthol, (+)-isomenthol, and (+)-neomenthol. Thin-layer chromatography and melting point determinations clearly show that diastereomers have different physical properties from enantiomers and each other, but that enantiomers have identical physical properties in achiral environments. By obtaining a mixed melting point and optical rotations the difference in enantiomers can be observed.
Treadwell, Edward M.; Black, T. Howard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1046.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Physical Properties
An Improved Method for the Extraction and Thin-Layer Chromatography of Chlorophyll a and b from Spinach  Hao T. Quach, Robert L. Steeper, and G. William Griffin
A direct method of extracting plant pigments from spinach leaves into a dry organic solvent is presented. This method avoids liquidliquid extractions and subsequent drying as is found in previously reported methods.
Quach, Hao T.; Steeper, Robert L.; Griffin, G. William. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 385.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Mechanism of the Ritter Reaction in Combination with Wagner-Meerwein Rearrangements. A Cooperative Learning Experience  María I. Colombo, María L. Bohn, and Edmundo A. Rúveda
Procedure in which students develop analytical and problem-solving skills by investigating an organic reaction mechanism, predicting the most likely products, and suggesting experiments to test the postulated mechanistic pathways and possible intermediates.
Colombo, María I.; Bohn, María L.; Rúveda, Edmundo A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 484.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Amides |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
A Preparative TLC Applicator  Tom Lyons Fisher and Charles P. Gilman
The construction of a simple and inexpensive sample applicator for preparative thin layer chromatography is described.
Fisher, Tom Lyons; Gilman, Charles P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 367.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
What Factors Affect the Separation of Substances Using Thin-Layer Chromatography? An Undergraduate Experiment  John J. Nash, Jeanne A. Meyer, and Barbara Everson
The experiment reported here illustrates the potentially dramatic effects on TLC Rf values of not equilibrating the solvent atmosphere during development of a TLC plate.
Nash, John J.; Meyer, Jeanne A.; Everson, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 364.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Rapid, Simple Quantitation in Thin-Layer Chromatography Using a Flatbed Scanner  Mitchell E. Johnson
Simply scanning a visibly stained TLC plate into a computer substitutes for much more expensive plate readers. With common image analysis software, "elution" profiles can be obtained. The resulting "chromatograms" can be analyzed in the same manner as other chromatograms.
Johnson, Mitchell E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 368.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Identification of Pharmaceuticals via Computer-Aided Thin Layer Chromatography  Anthony J. Macherone Jr. and Theodore J. Siek
This analytical laboratory experiment demonstrates the methodology of TLC in its relation to toxicology and forensic chemistry. It is easily adapted for high school seniors or undergraduates and employs experimental techniques associated with TLC and post-lab data analysis with concomitant introduction of concepts.
Macherone, Anthony J., Jr.; Siek, Theodore J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 366.
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Toxicology |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Isolating trans-Anethole from Anise Seeds and Elucidating Its Structure: A Project Utilizing One- and Two-Dimensional NMR Spectrometry  Joseph W. LeFevre
This three-week project involves isolating and purifying a natural product and determining its structure. trans-Anethole is isolated from anise seeds by steam distillation and liquid-liquid extraction. The crude product is analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and purified by flash chromatography.
LeFevre, Joseph W. . J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 361.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Computational Investigations for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: Modeling a TLC Exercise to Investigate Molecular Structure and Intermolecular Forces  Rita K. Hessley
In this exercise students carry out a pre-lab exercise in which they compute the dipole moment for a set of similar models representing a variety of functional group categories. Using their data, and supported by guided class discussion, students propose a working hypothesis about how TLC can be used to demonstrate the manner in which the relevant forces lead to predictable rates (extent, Rf) of elution.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 203.
Computational Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Separation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons Using 2-Dimensional Thin-Layer Chromatography. An Environmental Chemistry Experiment  Geoffrey T. Crisp and Natalie M. Williamson
Students are given a soil sample from which they extract two (previously added) polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a Soxhlet apparatus. They determine the identity of the unknown PAHs by comparing the 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatograms of the soil sample extract and a standard solution, both of which they must run themselves.
Crisp, Geoffrey T.; Williamson, Natalie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1691.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Student Understanding of Chromatography: A Hands-On Approach  Robert D. Curtright, Randy Emry, and John Markwell*
This exercise sets up a collaborative activity that challenges students to develop a chromatographic solvent with the appropriate polarity to separate leaf chlorophyll and anthocyanin pigments by TLC. The suggested activity has been tested with both high-school advanced-chemistry students and with undergraduate students in an introductory biochemistry class.
Curtright, Robert D.; Emry, Randy; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 249.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Preparation of a Fluorescent Dye: A Microscale TLC Experiment  Daniel S. Calimente, Shannon M. Strand, Shao-Chieh Chang, and David E. Lewis
This paper describes an experiment that allows the instructor to introduce TLC as a technique for analyzing reaction mixtures by monitoring the formation of a fluorescent dye. The experiment also illustrates the effects of eluting solvent on elution order.
Calimente, Daniel S.; Strand, Shannon M.; Chang, Shao-Chieh; Lewis, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 82.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Photochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Simplified Method for the Microscale Extraction of Pigments from Spinach  Kimberley R. Cousins and Kathleen M. Pierson
A method is presented for microscale sample preparation for the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the pigments in spinach. A commercial vegetable juicer is used for the initial extraction from spinach. This is followed by filtration, liquid/liquid extraction, centrifugation, and evaporation.
Cousins, Kimberley R.; Pierson, Kathleen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1268.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A Simple Streaking Device For Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography  Yong J. Kim
If the right tool is not available, loading a sample on a TLC plate is fairly tedious and time consuming. This article describes a procedure for making a simple and convenient streaking device from a Pasteur pipet.
Kim, Yong, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 640.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Dip Reagents for Visualization in TLC  Levine, Samuel G.
When employing TLC (thin layer chromatography) for colorless compounds, a step to make the spots visible after development of the plate is necessary. In this article, we show how using a dipping technique makes the visualization possible without the disadvantages of other techniques.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A4.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Microscale Lab
Grignard Reaction of an Epoxide: A Mechanistic Study  James A. Ciaccio, Sabrina Volpi, Ransford Clarke
Unlike most undergraduate Grignard experiments which are performed merely for the sake of illustrating a textbook reaction, this Grignard synthesis is performed to probe the reactivity of styrene oxide. Students are required to analyze their products by TLC and NMR spectroscopy (instead of just submitting them for a grade) in order to obtain the data necessary for making mechanistic conclusions.
Ciaccio, James A.; Volpi, Sabrina; Clarke, Ransford. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1196.
Grignard Reagents |
Epoxides |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Containment of Spray Reagents in TLC Spot Detection  Josef G. Krause
If spraying a reagent with a power pac type device is preferred for this or some other reason, we suggest spraying the reagent inside of a twist tie-sealed, clear-plastic kitchen garbage bag.
Krause, Josef G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 979.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiments That Illustrate General Problems in Chromatography  M. Lederer, E. Leipzig-Pagani
A number of chromatography experiments using cellulose thin layers and aqueous eluents are proposed to illustrate how chromatography can be used for "pattern recognition" of the inks of felt-tip pens, the principle of displacement chromatography of the constituents of the antiseptic Mercurochrome, salting-out chromatography for the separation of halides, and the impossibility to use chromatography alone as a method of identification.
Lederer, M.; Leipzig-Pagani, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 974.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Staining TLC Plate Using a Cotton Ball  Albert W. M. Lee and Zhong Zengpei
This article offers an alternative method of applying the staining reagents. The two common ways of application are spraying and dipping, but here we outline staining through the use of a cotton ball.
Lee, Albert W. M.; Zengpei, Zhong. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 358.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
TLC Developing Chamber for Screening Column Chromatography Fractions  Samuel G. Levine
We describe here a novel TLC (thin layer chromatography) development chamber that greatly enhances the efficiency of this task.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 77.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Undergraduate Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiment: Olfactory Delights  Mary Anne Lynch, Wendy Gloffke, and Richard A. Rauner
Procedure for separating flavors and fragrances using thin-layer chromatography.
Lynch, Mary Anne; Gloffke, Wendy; Rauner, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1137.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin-Layer Chromatography of Analgesics--An Update  John W. Elder
Procedure for identifying ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, acetominaphen, aspirin, and caffeine on commercial chromatography sheets containing a fluorescent indicator.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1049.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds
A Simple, Discovery-Based Laboratory Exercise: The Molecular Mass Determination of Polystyrene  Greg A. Slough
Identification of an unknown polymer using silica gel TLC sheets and IR spectroscopy.
Slough, Greg A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1031.
Stoichiometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Identification of Aspirin-Free Bayer Products: An Alternative to the Classical TLC of Analgesics (1)  Cawley, John J.
Procedure for identifying several non-aspirin analgesics using using thin layer chromatography and an ultraviolet lamp.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 272.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
The ABC's of Chromatography: A Colorful Demonstration.  Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N.
This demonstration involves the separation of combinations of seven highly colored dyes by thin layer chromatography to help explain separation science while capturing the attention of the audience by spelling words with these dyes.
Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1075.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.  Lee, Moses.
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.
Lee, Moses. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A172.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Urinary excretion of paracetamol: A thin-layer chromatography exercise for nursing students.  Hickman, Raymond J. S.
Using thin-layer chromatography in a laboratory designed to confirm some important features of the usual textbook description of drug metabolism and excretion.
Hickman, Raymond J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 510.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Medicinal Chemistry
An internal comparison of the intermolecular forces of common organic functional groups: A thin-layer chromatography experiment  Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W.
Due to the latest trends in organic chemistry textbook content sequences, it has become desirable to develop an experiment that is rapid, simple, and general, that would compare and contrast the various functional group classes of organic molecules in terms of their relative polarities, dipole moments, and intermolecular forces of attraction.
Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 428.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene Diels-Alder adduct: An organic chemistry experiment utilizing NMR spectroscopy to assign endo stereochemistry  Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
An organic chemistry experiment utilizing NMR spectroscopy to assign endo stereochemistry via synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene Diels-Alder adduct.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 426.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Color reactions and thin-layer chromatography of amino acids: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment for students in the allied health sciences  Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith
Students identify unknowns by determining Rf's and applying color reagents to the chromatograms.
Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 978.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Identification of unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography in combination  Levine, Samuel G.
Identification from among 12 unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 972.
Physical Properties |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Determination of components in beverages by thin-layer chromatography: An undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment  Ma, Yinfa; Yeung, Edward S.
This is a description of a simple and interesting thin layer chromatography experiment using three different fluorescence detection principles for the determination of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages.
Ma, Yinfa; Yeung, Edward S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 428.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Food Science
Conical thin-layer chromatography  Heinzen, Horacio; Ferreira, Fernando; Vazquez, Alvaro; Moyna, Patrick
The use of common funnels makes it possible to run thin layer chromatography's (TLC's) with tridimensional characteristics using the same stationary phases, solvent systems, and detection methods as in planar TLC.
Heinzen, Horacio; Ferreira, Fernando; Vazquez, Alvaro; Moyna, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 167.
Thin Layer Chromatography
Microscale synthesis and analysis of a dipeptide  Blatchly, Richard A.; Allen, Timothy R.; Bergstrom, Dirk T.; Shinozaki, Yuji
The synthesis of a dipeptide from its component amino acids and its analysis by chiral-phase thin-layer chromatography.
Blatchly, Richard A.; Allen, Timothy R.; Bergstrom, Dirk T.; Shinozaki, Yuji J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 965.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids
An investigation into the mechanism of the Ritter reaction  Hathaway, Bruce A.
Students are asked to propose a reaction mechanism; experimentation then demonstrates the most reasonable proposal.
Hathaway, Bruce A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 776.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Photochemical and thermal isomerization of trans- and cis-1,2-dibenzoylethylene: A microscale approach  Klemm, Dennis V; Tuncay, Atilla
Both conversions are analyzed through thin layer chromatography.
Klemm, Dennis V; Tuncay, Atilla J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 519.
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Diastereomers
The analysis of ball-point inks for forensic purposes  Breedlove, C. H.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the typical steps used in the analysis of ball point ink.
Breedlove, C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 170.
Forensic Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Identification of courmarin in vanilla extracts by TLC and HPLC  McKone, Harold T.; Chambers, Timothy E.
A brief description for a lab identifying courmarin in vanilla extracts by TLC and HPLC.
McKone, Harold T.; Chambers, Timothy E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 628.
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Longer lasting TLC spots developed with iodine vapors  Maheshwari, Nitin; Krishnamurty, H. G.
Preserving iodine-induced, thin layer chromatography spot intensities for longer durations.
Maheshwari, Nitin; Krishnamurty, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1066.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R.
Separating and identifying the amino acids found in aspartame.
Conklin, Alfred R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1065.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Quantitative application of thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of organic compounds: Determining the molecular weights of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones and dicarboxylic acids  Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul
This simple, easy, and inexpensive method provides a good illustration of the importance of polarity on solubility and a unique demonstration of the effectiveness of TLC as a quantitative tool.
Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 625.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
The effect of pH and chloride ion concentration on the mobilities of various cations in soil  Brown, Melody; Sutherland, Mary; Leharne, Stephen
Measuring the mobilities of cations (particularly of toxic metals) in soils using soil thin layer chromatography.
Brown, Melody; Sutherland, Mary; Leharne, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 448.
pH |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Separation and identification of cinnamic acids by TLC  Bobbio, Florinda O.; Bobbio, Paulo A.; Souza, Sandra C. de
Chromatographic characteristics of cinnamic acid and its derivatives.
Bobbio, Florinda O.; Bobbio, Paulo A.; Souza, Sandra C. de J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 182.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Hydrogen bonding and retention on silica: A concept illustrated by TLC chromatography of nitrophenols  Feigenbaum, A.
The TLC experiments presented in this paper illustrate several important features regarding retention, elution, and selectivity on silica through the study of the chromatographic behavior of nitrophenols.
Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 815.
Heterocycles |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Hydrogen Bonding
Introducing plastic in the laboratory: Synthesis of a plasticizer, dioctylphthalate and evaluation of its effects on the physical properties of polystyrenes  Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L.
These authors are proposing a two-stage experimental approach that combines preparative organic chemistry and polymer characterization.
Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 811.
Esters |
Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin-layer chromatographic separation of phenols  Kurth, Mark J.
The structural complexity of typical TLC experiments precludes meaningful discussions of important aspects of TLC.
Kurth, Mark J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 360.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Phenols
Reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography  Cooley, J. H.; Wong, A. L.
Reversing the polarity of the stationary and mobile phases enhances learning from the types of experiments profiled in this note.
Cooley, J. H.; Wong, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 353.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Food Science
An undergraduate organic experiment using thin-layer chromatography  Jones, Taylor B.; Jones, Tappey H.
Separation of derivatives of aliphatic compounds, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.
Jones, Taylor B.; Jones, Tappey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 813.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Improvements in the separation of beta-carotene and lycopene by column chromtography  Ronman, Peter
Modification of an existing laboratory procedure involving the separation of beta-carotene and lycopene by column chromtography.
Ronman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 540.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
TLC of organic dyes in undergraduate labs  Sciam, Allen J.
Investigation into the effectiveness of varying the solvent composition in terms of resolving the components of a mixture of dyes using thin layer chromatography.
Sciam, Allen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 361.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Solutions / Solvents
Separation and identification of commonly used drugs: A thin-layer chromatography experiment for freshman chemistry  Bonicamp, Judith M.
Using a simplified and accelerated TLC kit for drug detection.
Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 160.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
An improved method for visualizing TLC plates using iodine  Roberbon, John
Mixing iodine with silica gel and pouring it onto a thin layer chromatography plate for faster visualization.
Roberbon, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 156.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
Chromatography: Use of a microcomputer to introduce laboratory techniques  Holdsworth, David K.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. Program to introduce paper, thin-layer, column, and gas-liquid chromatography.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 790.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A practical experiment for determining a pervasive, persistent pollutant  Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A.
Spectral identification by means of infrareds spectroscopy of the PCBs recovered from a TLC plate is enhanced due to the concentrating effect of a commercial sample-recovery system.
Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 738.
IR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A simple and inexpensive preparative TLC applicator  Monti, Diego
Using normograph pens for ink applications.
Monti, Diego J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 514.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Quick modification of a TLC plate by use of a disposable dipping chamber  Marmer, William N.
Using a disposable polyethylene bag.
Marmer, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 512.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Use of pseudophase TLC in teaching laboratories  Armstrong, Daniel W.; Bui, Khanh H.; Barry, Regina M.
Thin-layer chromatography using micellar and alpha-cyclodextrin mobile phases.
Armstrong, Daniel W.; Bui, Khanh H.; Barry, Regina M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 457.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Micelles
Investigating a mixture of polar and nonpolar compounds using the same thin-layer chromatography plate  Somanathan, Ratnasamy
Avoids needing several thin layer plates.
Somanathan, Ratnasamy J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 456.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Chlorophyll separation and spectral identification  Diehl-Jones, Susan M.
Extracting chlorophyl a and b from spinach and separating them using thin-layer and column chromatography.
Diehl-Jones, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 454.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
Identification of unknown black inks by thin-layer chromatography  Olesen, B.; Hopson, D.
A quick lab that will introduce students to TLC while demonstrating different properties and components of pen ink.
Olesen, B.; Hopson, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 232.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments
Separation and determination of hydroxyacetophenones: An experiment in preparative TLC and UV spectroscopy  Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J.
A mixture of o-, m-, and p-hydroxyacetophenones is separated through thin-layer chromatography, and the constituents are identified by UV spectroscopy.
Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 618.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A simple and inexpensive preparative TLC applicator  Lavallee, P.; Muzart, J.
A simple thin layer chromstography applicator that allows for the application of narrow streaks without holes or grooves, even when homemade plates are used.
Lavallee, P.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 250.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Isolation, separation and identification of synthetic food colors  Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G.
A simple, inexpensive experiment for the extraction of synthetic dyes permitted in foodstuffs, and their separation and identification using thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.
Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 67.
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
An undergraduate laboratory program project involving photocyclizations in independent syntheses of novel chrysenes and phenanthrenes  Letcher, R. M.
This experiment attempts to fulfill such objectives as providing meaningful and viable preparative reactions, providing an opportunity for independent laboratory work within a project framework and under conditions of nearly equal opportunity and experience.
Letcher, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1020.
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Analysis of analgesic mixtures: An organic chemistry experiment  Martin, Ned H.
The lab described here allows for students to work out experimental conditions themselves and introduces semi-micro techniques.
Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 818.
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Thin layer chromatographic separation of common analgesics-a comment  Roswell, D. F.; Zaczek, N. M.
The authors were unable to resolve phenacetin and salicylamide using a three component solvent system.
Roswell, D. F.; Zaczek, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 834.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Two sample applicators for chromatography  Malik, N. S. A.; Berrie, A. M. M.
Designs for two thin layer chromatography applicators that can be made with a minimum of workshop facilities are described, one for small syringes and the other for larger syringes.
Malik, N. S. A.; Berrie, A. M. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 680.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A student synthesis of the housefly sex attractant  Cormier, Russell A.; Duc Phan, M.; Graddis, Thomas; Singer, Richard
This multi-step synthetic sequence illustrates several important laboratory techniques, including ir and nmr spectroscopy, thin-layer and column chromatography, rotary evaporation, recrystallization, and vacuum distillation.
Cormier, Russell A.; Duc Phan, M.; Graddis, Thomas; Singer, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 345.
Synthesis |
Natural Products |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Z- and E-stereoisomerism: An experiment using photochemistry  Bourelle-Wargnier, F.; Feigenbaum, A.; Muzart, J.
The authors' report on the preparation of 2-benzylidenecyclohexanone E(I).
Bourelle-Wargnier, F.; Feigenbaum, A.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 339.
Stereochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
Computer simulation in organic chemistry - Thin layer chromatography   Bond, Douglas
The author shares his trials and victories in attempting to produce first class organic chemists.
Bond, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 323.
Thin Layer Chromatography
Isolation of dyes for analysis  Levinson, Alfred S.
The use of ion exchange resin for the isolation of dyes from beverages, gelatin desserts, and other foods.
Levinson, Alfred S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 460.
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Juglone: A comparison of natural and synthetic products  Wilbur, James M.; Sublett, Kerry Lyn
Isolating juglone from black walnut hulls and comparing it to synthetic material through melting point and thin layer chromatography.
Wilbur, James M.; Sublett, Kerry Lyn J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 156.
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A sample preparation technique for column chromatography  Beller, Nicholas R.; Hilleary, Christopher J.
The authors have found a simple and effective method of sample preparation for use in column chromatography which resembles the application of a sample to a thin layer chromatography plate, where the solid sample in solution is absorbed by the solid phase as the solvent evaporates.
Beller, Nicholas R.; Hilleary, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 498.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry
Photooxidation of methionine. An integrated organic-analytical-biochemistry laboratory experiment  Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H.
The experiments presented here familiarize the student with the organic reactions necessary to prepare the starting material; introduces the use of glass beads for immobilizing a catalyst; demonstrates the use of light and methylene blue as oxidizers; requires the implementation of an important analytical technique, thin layer chromatography; provides the student with a good example of the reactivity of one amino acid, methionine.
Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 395.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Catalysis
TLC analysis of carbaryl insecticide on sprayed foliage. A student experiment  Bidleman, T. F.; Rice, C. P.
The authors develop a relevant lab experience in order to introduce students to thin layer chromatography.
Bidleman, T. F.; Rice, C. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 173.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Toxicology |
Hormones |
Quantitative Analysis
A novel method for quantitative thin layer chromatography  Baum, D. E.; Shanks, R. A.
Weighing cut out spot images from thin layer chromatograms.
Baum, D. E.; Shanks, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 738.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Helpful TLC techniques  Martin, Ned H.
Procedure for obtaining a uniformly thick adsorbent layer on chromatography plates and locating zones on thin layer chromatography plates.
Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 467.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Thin-layer chromatogram visualization. A student experiment  Madsen, Brooks C.
This thin layer chromatography experiment separates mixtures of common over the counter analgesics and antipyretic preparations and related compounds, and has several advantages that many student oriented tlc experiments lack.
Madsen, Brooks C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 852.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Determining the molecular weight of N-fatty acids by thin layer chromatography  Singh, Eric J.; Zuspan, Frederick P.
Simple procedure for determining the molecular weight of N-fatty acids by thin layer chromatography.
Singh, Eric J.; Zuspan, Frederick P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 625.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Fatty Acids
The determination of pesticide residues. A laboratory experiment  Jarosch, Richard
The determination of pesticide residues using thin-layer and gas chromatography.
Jarosch, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 507.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
"Dry-column" chromatography. A new technique for the undergraduate laboratory  Bohen, J. M.; Joullie, M. M.; Kaplan, F. A.; Loev, B.
In this experiment, thin-layer chromatography is used to determine the number of compounds in a prepared dye mixture and "dry-column" chromatography is used to separate the mixture into its components.
Bohen, J. M.; Joullie, M. M.; Kaplan, F. A.; Loev, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 367.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments
An investigation of sebum and other facial lipids  Calsin, Dennis; Trinler, W. A.
An introductory thin layer chromatography experiment that illustrates the variety of surface facial lipids, produced chiefly by sebaceous glands.
Calsin, Dennis; Trinler, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 135.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Lipids |
Natural Products
TLC detection of caffeine in commercial products  Pavlik, James W.
An introductory experiment that involves the thin layer chromatography detection of caffeine in a variety of familiar pharmaceutical products.
Pavlik, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 134.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis
The thin-layer chromatography of drugs. A laboratory experiment  Neman, R. L.
Students are introduced to thin layer chromatography, are provided samples known to contain alkaloids and barbiturates, separate the mixtures using tlc, determine the components of their unknowns, and calculate Rf values for the components.
Neman, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 834.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Partial analysis of vinyl-asbestos floor tile. A tlc experiment for beginning organic chemistry  Foreman, William A.; Paulson, Donald R.
This laboratory introduces thin-layer chromatography while presenting the student with a typical industrial analysis problem.
Foreman, William A.; Paulson, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 572.
Industrial Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Small-scale thin-layer chromatography. Experiments for teaching purposes  Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G.
Describes a number of rapid thin-layer chromatography separations that can be conveniently used to introduce chromatography in the teaching laboratory.
Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 545.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Modification of TLC analyses of APC  Holmes, L. Paull
Solution to a difficulty encountered in adopting the cited experiment.
Holmes, L. Paull J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 379.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
Column and thin-layer chromatography. A combined experiment for the undergraduate organic laboratory  Ruppel, Irving B., Jr.; Cuneo, Frederick L.; Krause, Josef G.
The authors have been using the product mixture obtained from the nitration of phenol to demonstrate the techniques of column and thin-layer chromatography with excellent results. The authors feel the experiment has several advantages over the column chromatographic experiments usually described in undergraduate laboratory manuals.
Ruppel, Irving B., Jr.; Cuneo, Frederick L.; Krause, Josef G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 635.
Thin Layer Chromatography
Analysis of APC tablets. An inexpensive and practical thin-layer chromatography experiment  Lieu, Van T.
By using a commercial item, students are faced with a "live" problem connected with everyday living.
Lieu, Van T. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 478.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
Separation of leucine and isoleucine by thin-layer chromatography  Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr.
This experiment involves the separation of leucine and isoleucine through continuous ascending thin layer chromatography.
Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 840.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
Adsorbent extractor for preparative thin-layer chromatography  Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, Donald G.
Device to remove sample containing regions from cellulose thin-layer chromatograms and extract the samples that eliminates many of the problems associated with other methods.
Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 229.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A versatile and compact chromatographic chamber  Lehrfeld, J.
This simple and inexpensive glass chamber facilitates thin-layer chromatography separations of a large number of samples within 5 minutes.
Lehrfeld, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
An introduction to chromatography  Gaucher, G. M.
The object of this presentation is to serve as a preliminary practical introduction and guide to chromatography.
Gaucher, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 729.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Ion Exchange
Reflectance spectroscopic analysis of dyes separated by thin layer chromatography  Frodyma, M. M.; Frei, R. W.
This study attempts to verify the usefulness of reflectance spectroscopy as an analytical tool in the hands of the inexperienced analyst.
Frodyma, M. M.; Frei, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 522.
Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Simple developing chamber for thin layer chromatography  Aronson, John N.
This short note describes the design of a simple developing chamber for thin layer chromatography.
Aronson, John N. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 483.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Modifications of solution chromatography illustrated with chloroplast pigments  Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph
Using plant pigments to demonstrate various chromatographic techniques, including column adsorption, paper adsorption, paper partition, column partition, and thin layer chromatography.
Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 476.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The photoisomerization of azobenzene: A TLC experiment for the undergraduate organic laboratory  Janssen, Jerry F.
The photoisomerization of azobenzene provides a rare opportunity to explore molecular photochemistry in undergraduate organic chemistry.
Janssen, Jerry F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 117.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers
A simple, foot-controlled air-jet dryer to assist in applying solutions to TLC plates  Wittick, J. J.
This short note describes a simple, foot-controlled air-jet dryer to assist in applying solutions to thin layer chromatography plates.
Wittick, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 660.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Cylindrical thin-layer chromatography  Jordan, David
This short note describes the use and advantages of cylindrical thin-layer chromatography.
Jordan, David J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 510.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
The use of cellophane sheets for direct reading and recording of Rf values  Chortyk, O. T.; Kushnir, I.
Describes the use of cellophane sheets for direct reading and recording of Rf values.
Chortyk, O. T.; Kushnir, I. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 506.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple sprayer for quantitative thin-layer chromatography  Samuels, Stanley
A simple, inexpensive sprayer for chromatographic use that can be constructed by a student as a laboratory project.
Samuels, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 438.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simplified slotted lid for preparative thin-layer chromatography jars  Borka, Laszlo
Design for an all-glass lid for preparative thin-layer chromatography jars.
Borka, Laszlo J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 401.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
An inexpensive device for evaluating solvents for paper and thin-layer chromatography  DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis
A short note describing a device for evaluating solvents used to develop paper and thin-layer chromatograms.
DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 303.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Using TLC to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone  Davis, Michael
A short note regarding a simple procedure involving the use of thin layer chromatography to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone.
Davis, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 192.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Thin-layer chromatography (Randerath, Kurt)  Malins, Donald C.

Malins, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A912.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Test tube and glass rod tlc  Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer
Describes the use of test tubes and glass rods coated on their outer surfaces for thin layer chromatography.
Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 297.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The use of talc as a tlc adsorbent  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes the use of talc as a thin layer chromatography adsorbent, particularly with respect to the separation of flavonoids, sugars, and proteins.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 294.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Zone extractor for thin-layer chromatography  Ruchelman, Maryon W.
This communication describes a simple technique for elution columns prepared from commercially available disposable capillary pipets.
Ruchelman, Maryon W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 110.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple apparatus for scoring tlc plates  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes a simple apparatus for scoring thin layer chromatography plates.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 24.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Optimizing experimental conditions: The use of TLC to follow the course of a reaction  Herz, Joseph E.
A student research project that relies on the acetylation of ferrocene to illustrate the use of thin-layer chromatography to follow the course of a reaction.
Herz, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 599.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Homemade marker for chromatography plates  Miller, Frederick W.
Presents a marker for chromatography plates constructed from a pocket comb.
Miller, Frederick W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 29.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Determining the carbon number of n-fatty acids by TLC  Singh, Eric J.; Gershbein, Leon L.
Presents a method for determining the carbon number of n-fatty acids through thin layer chromatography.
Singh, Eric J.; Gershbein, Leon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 29.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
A spreader for TLC slides  Whistler, Roy L.; Lamchen, Max; Rowell, R. M.
Presents a spreader for thin layer chromatography slides made from Plexiglass sheets.
Whistler, Roy L.; Lamchen, Max; Rowell, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 28.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Thin-layer chromatography: A laboratory handbook (Stahl, Egon)  Malins, Donald C.

Malins, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 692.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Use of the unopette in thin-layer chromatography  Clitheroe, H. J.; Gerarde, H. W.
Describes the use of the Unopette capillary in applying samples to chromatographic plates.
Clitheroe, H. J.; Gerarde, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 613.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive TLC tank  Andersen, Kenneth K.; May, George S.
Presents a sandwich-type thin layer chromatography tank.
Andersen, Kenneth K.; May, George S. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 596.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Natural product chemistry: Laboratory research approach for elementary organic courses  O'Connor, Rod
Describes a program designed to introduce macro, semi-micro, and micro techniques of organic chemistry of the types commonly employed in research in natural product chemistry or in biologically-related fields.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 492.
Natural Products |
Undergraduate Research |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Cation analysis with thin layer chromatography  Goller, Edwin J.
Reported here is an adaptation of thin layer chromatography to an undergraduate laboratory operation for cation analysis.
Goller, Edwin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 442.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Thin layer chromatography (Bobbitt, James M.)  Wollish, E. G.

Wollish, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A396.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Electrophoresis using thin layer materials  Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Thin layer materials prepared for chromatography are used for electrophoresis.
Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Chromatographic glossary  Lewin, S. Z.
Presents thin layer and gas chromatography terms in English, German, French, and Spanish.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A167.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography
TLC separation of ink pigments  Druding, Leonard F.
The separation of inks into their component pigments was chosen for its simplicity in illustrating techniques and choice of solvent for thin layer chromatography; it also affords the student the opportunity to visually observe the course of the separation.
Druding, Leonard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 536.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
TLC on microscope slides: An organic chemistry experiment  Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S.
This experiment consists of three sections: separation of known and unknown dye mixtures; separation of known and unknown mixtures of phenols; separation of dyes and impurities.
Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 534.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Phenols
TLCVersatile tool  Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C.
Examines apparatus and techniques, lecture demonstrations, laboratory experiments and general applications associated with thin layer chromatography.
Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 531.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Thin layer chromatography apparatus  Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, D. G.; Perrings, J. D.
Describes the preparation of the grooved plate and adsorbent layer for a simple and inexpensive, thin layer chromatography apparatus.
Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, D. G.; Perrings, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 31.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Separation of plant pigments by thin layer chromatography  Anwar, M. H.
Describes a lab activity to separate chloroplast pigments over a thin layer of silicic acid.
Anwar, M. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 29.
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography