TIGER

Journal Articles: 992 results
A Web-Based Interactive Module to Teach Acid–Base Principles of Drug Action  Maria A. Hernandez and Jolanta Czerwinska
Describes interactive compressed video teleconferencing as the distance learning format for an entry-level doctor of pharmacy program.
Hernandez, Maria A.; Czerwinska, Jolanta. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1704.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Designing and Conducting a Purification Scheme as an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Practical  Kate J. Graham, Brian J. Johnson, T. Nicholas Jones, Edward J. McIntee, and Chris P. Schaller
Describes an open-ended laboratory practical that challenges students to evaluate when different purification techniques are appropriate.
Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Schaller, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1644.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
Study of Molecular-Shape Selectivity of Zeolites by Gas Chromatography  Pei-Yu Chao, Yao-Yuan Chuang, Grace Hsiuying Ho, Shiow-Huey Chuang, Tseng-Chang Tsai, Chi-Young Lee, Shang-Tien Tsai, and Jun-Fu Huang
This analytical or physical chemistry sorption experiment uses hexane isomers as probe molecules to demonstrate the "molecular-shape selectivity" behavior of zeolites. Students can also modify the sorption protocol to build their own experiments.
Chao, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Yao-Yuan; Ho, Grace Hsiuying; Chuang, Shiow-Huey; Tsai, Tseng-Chang; Lee, Chi-Young; Tsai, Shang-Tien; Huang, Jun-Fu. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1558.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Recognition
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of trans-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates  James E. Christensen, Matthew G. Huddle, Jamie L. Rogers, Herbie Yung, and Ram S. Mohan
Presents a microscale, green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates, especially bismuth triflate, as a Lewis acid catalyst. Bismuth compounds are especially attractive for use as catalysts in organic synthesis because of their low toxicity, low cost, and ease of handling.
Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1274.
Catalysis |
Epoxides |
Green Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy
Construction of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Gas Sensor  Shabnam Virji, Bruce H. Weiller, Jiaxing Huang, Richard Blair, Heather Shepherd, Tanya Faltens, Philip C. Haussmann, Richard B. Kaner, and Sarah H. Tolbert
The objectives of this lab are to synthesize different diameter polyaniline nanofibers and compare them as sensor materials. Its advantages include simplicity and low cost, making it suitable for both high school and college students, particularly in departments with modest means.
Virji, Shabnam; Weiller, Bruce H.; Huang, Jiaxing; Blair, Richard; Shepherd, Heather; Faltens, Tanya; Haussmann, Philip C.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1102.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
pH |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H2S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds  Indu Tucker Sidhwani and Sushmita Chowdhury
The classic technique for the qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures relies on highly toxic hydrogen sulfide. Increasing environmental awareness has prompted the development of a green scheme for the detection of cations by spot tests that is simple and fast.
Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1099.
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
HPLC Analysis of α- and β-Acids in Hops  Travis M. Danenhower, Leyna A. Force, Kenneth J. Petersen, Thomas A. Betts, and Gary A. Baker
Describes a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantitation of the predominant a-acids (humulone, cohumulone, and adhumulone) and -acids (lupulone, colupulone, and adlupulone) present in hops.
Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna A.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 954.
Chromatography |
Food Science |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Plant Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography  James V. McCullagh and Nicholas Ramos
In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto seeds using column chromatography and then analyzed by UVvis and IR spectroscopy. The procedure has several advantages over previous pigment separation experiments.
McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 948.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Resolution of Ibuprofen, 2-(4′-Isobutylphenyl)propionic Acid  James V. McCullagh
In this experiment the over-the-counter pain reliever ibuprofen is resolved using (S)-(-)-a-phenethylamine as the resolving agent. This procedure has several key advantages over previous resolution experiments.
McCullagh, James V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 941.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enantiomers |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
If You Were a Molecule in a Chromatography Column, What Would You See?  John Mattice
To visualize what takes place in a chromatography column, enlarge the molecules to human size and expand the columns to keep the ratio of size of molecule to size of column the same. Using such a model, this article explains how band broadening occurs as a result of resistance to mass transfer, multiple flow paths, and stagnant mobile phase.
Mattice, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 925.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper  Mark Mascal and Richard Scown
In this experiment, waste newspaper is pulped with acid and its cellulose hydrolyzed to produce glucose syrup that is fermented and distilled to yield ethanol. In doing so, students are introduced to carbohydrate chemistry and the use of fermentation in organic synthesis.
Mascal, Mark; Scown, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Colorful Column Chromatography: A Classroom Demonstration of a Three-Component Separation  Lars V. Heumann
Describes a classroom demonstration for the separation of a ternary mixture consisting of intensely colored compounds using silica gel column chromatography.
Heumann, Lars V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 524.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Perchloric Acid (60–72% Aqueous Solution)  Jay A. Young
Safe handling and laboratory use of perchloric acid (6072% aqueous solution) is discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 493.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Picric Acid  Jay A. Young
Safe handling and laboratory use of picric acid is discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 492.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions  Emeric Schultz
Describes the dynamic reaction figure, a flexible learning tool that can be used to balance chemical equations, predict the results of potential reactions, present the underlying mechanism of reactions, and solve quantitative problems in a number of areas.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nonmajor Courses
Chemical Speciation and Calculation of pH of a Sport Drink  José L. Guiñón Segura
A recently published laboratory procedure allows students to see that the pointer function has a minimum value at the solution pH. However, the resolution of the pointer function requires the plotting the logarithmic concentration diagram, which is time-consuming and tedious.
Segura, José L Guiñón. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 371.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis
Acylation of Ferrocene: A Greener Approach  Kurt R. Birdwhistell, Andy Nguyen, Eric J. Ramos, and Robert Kobelja
This article describes an acylation of ferrocene that is more eco-friendly than the conventional experiment, which has been modified by replacing mineral acid with a polymeric acid catalyst and using microwave instead of conventional heating.
Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Nguyen, Andy; Ramos, Eric J.; Kobelja, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 261.
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class  Jeffrey J. Keaffaber, Ramiro Palma, and Kathryn R. Williams
Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. This article uses a hypothetical tank to house ocean sunfish as a model to show students the calculations and other considerations that are needed when designing a marine aquarium.
Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation  Henry A. Carter
This article examines the applications of chemistry to paper preservation. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose accounts for the deterioration of paper in library books and other written records. To combat this threat to our written heritage, new permanent papers have been developed that are relatively chemically stable and undergo a very slow rate of deterioration.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1937.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
pH |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Synthesis of Triarylmethane and Xanthene Dyes Using Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions  James V. McCullagh and Kelly A. Daggett
In this experiment, electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions are used to synthesize several triarylmethane and xanthene dyes (fluorescein, erythrosin B, thymolphthalein, and rhodamine B) using common equipment while avoiding often troublesome, hydroscopic Lewis acids. Subsequent UVvis analysis produce spectra that match commercially available dye samples.
McCullagh, James V.; Daggett, Kelly A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1799.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Equilibrium |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Lactic Acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of lactic acid are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1420.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Concerning Lewis Acid–Base Theory for Proton Transfer  Lawrence J. Sacks
Counterpoint commentary in response to a suggestion that the Lewis acidbase approach be applied to reactions such as ammoniawater and HClwater.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1415.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
J. Chem Ed. 2007, 84, 1056–1061  
The article Getting the Weights of Lewis Structures out of Hckel Theory: HckelLewis Configuration Interaction (HL-CI) has an incorrectly printed table on p. 1059.
J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1277.
Lewis Acids / Bases
Analysis and Identification of Acid–Base Indicator Dyes by Thin-Layer Chromatography  Daniel D. Clark
Presents an experiment that serves to illustrate the fundamentals and utility of thin-layer chromatography through the resolution and identification of brightly colored, acidbase indicator dyes on the basis of Rf values and color.
Clark, Daniel D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1186.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Peer-Developed and Peer-Led Labs in General Chemistry  Lorena Tribe and Kim Kostka
Describes a student-developed and led laboratory curriculum as a model for producing a more student-centered and rich laboratory experience in general chemistry laboratories.
Tribe, Lorena; Kostka, Kim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1031.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Isolation of Three Components from Spearmint Oil: An Exercise in Column and Thin-Layer Chromatography  Don R. Davies and Todd M. Johnson
In this exercise, the three major components of spearmint oil, (+)-limonene, L-(-)-carvone, and (1R,2R,4R)-dihydrocarveol, are separated by silica gel column chromatography. The separation is monitored by thin-layer chromatography, and IR analysis is employed to verify the identity of the separated components.
Davies, Don R.; Johnson, Todd M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 318.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
More Thoughts on the Narra Tree Fluorescence  A. Ulises Acuña
The source of L. nephriticum and the substance responsible for the intense blue fluorescence in an earlier published demonstration may require further consideration.
Acuña, A. Ulises. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 231.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Speciation Analysis of Sports Drinks by Acid–Base Titrimetry and Ion Chromatography: A Challenging Beverage Formulation Project  Howard Drossman
Describes a three-part laboratory project that integrates a full chemical speciation analysis of Gatorade and Powerade, including base standardization, potentiometric or colorimetric titration, and ion chromatography.
Drossman, Howard. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 124.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chromatography
Titration of a Solid Acid Monitored By X-Ray Diffraction  Keenan E. Dungey and Paul Epstein
Presents a solid-state laboratory in which students react fixed amounts of zirconium phosphate with increasing equivalents of NaOH(aq). From X-ray diffraction patterns, students calculate the interplanar spacings before and after the reaction. The spacings increase until the molar equivalence point is reached, indicating incorporation of the sodium ion into the crystal.
Dungey, Keenan E.; Epstein, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 122.
Acids / Bases |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
X-ray Crystallography |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chemical Aspects of General Anesthesia: Part I. From Ether to Halothane  Robert Brunsvold and Daryl L. Ostercamp
Summarizes general anesthesia from 1846 to 1956. Events leading up to the adoption of a "balanced" approach, where a sequence of individual compounds is used rather than a single agent, are described.
Brunsvold, Robert; Ostercamp, Daryl L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1821.
Acids / Bases |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Synthesis
Chemical Aspects of Local and Regional Anesthesia  Robert Brunsvold and Daryl L. Ostercamp
The chemistry that underlies the development of local and regional anesthesia is explored. Emphasis is placed upon the importance of acidity constants and lipophilic versus hydrophilic character in interpreting what affect a particular compound has upon biological processes.
Brunsvold, Robert; Ostercamp, Daryl L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1816.
Acids / Bases |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry
An Inexpensive Device for Capillary Electrophoresis with Fluorescence Detection  Greg Anderson, Jonathan E. Thompson, and Khriesto Shurrush
Describes an inexpensive device for performing capillary electrophoresis separations with fluorescence detection. As a demonstration of utility, the device is used to determine the mass of riboflavin in a commercially available dietary supplement.
Anderson, Greg; Thompson, Jonathan E.; Shurrush, Khriesto. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1677.
Electrophoresis |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Using a Simulated Industrial Setting for the Development of an Improved Solvent System for the Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid: A Student-Centered Project  Timothy R. Hightower and Jay D. Heeren
Presents a peer-led, problem-solving organic laboratory exercise that provide students with an opportunity to produce a more efficient recrystallization solvent in an industrial environment.
Hightower, Timothy R.; Heeren, Jay D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1663.
Carboxylic Acids |
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Astrochemistry Examples in the Classroom  Reggie L. Hudson
In this article some recent developments in astrochemistry are suggested as examples for the teaching of acid-base chemistry, molecular structure, and chemical reactivity. Suggestions for additional reading are provided, with an emphasis on readily-accessible materials.
Hudson, Reggie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1611.
Acids / Bases |
Astrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Boric Acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of boric acid are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1459.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
p-Sulfanilic Acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of p-sulfanilic acid are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 990.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Analysis of the Thickening Agents in Automotive Greases by GC–MS  David Mayotte, Craig J. Donahue, and Cheryl A. Snyder
Describes a laboratory procedure for the identification of the thickening agents in lubricating greases by GCMS.
Mayotte, David; Donahue, Craig J.; Snyder, Cheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 902.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Fatty Acids
The Fluorescence of Lignum nephriticum: A Flash Back to the Past and a Simple Demonstration of Natural Substance Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
This article describes a simple but visually striking demonstration of fluorescence from the aqueous extract of the tropical hardwood Pterocarpus indicus.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 765.
Acids / Bases |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
pH Paradoxes: Demonstrating That It Is Not True That pH ≡ -log[H+]  Christopher G. McCarty and Ed Vitz
Six demonstrations highlighting paradoxes that arise if pH is incorrectly defined as -log[H+] are presented as justification for the recommendation that pH should be correctly defined as pH = -log aH+ in textbooks.
McCarty, Christopher G.; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 752.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemical Characterization of Activated Carbon Fibers and Activated Carbons  J. M. Valente Nabais and P. J. M. Carrott
The main objective of this laboratory is the chemical characterization of carbon materials, mainly activated carbons and activated carbon fibers, using several methods to obtain the information without using expensive instruments.
Valente Nabais, J. M.; Carrott, P. J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 436.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
4-Dimethylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Syntheses of Esters: A Comparison  Annemieke W. C. van den Berg and Ulf Hanefeld
Students compare acid-catalyzed ester synthesis and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed reaction. Based on the outcome of the experiments, students discuss the different reaction mechanisms and reason why different products are formed.
van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 292.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance  William H. Miles and Katelyn B. Connell
Describes the synthesis of a family of fragrances, including the commercially important Methyl Diantilis, and provides an excellent introduction to intellectual property laws.
Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 285.
Alcohols |
Food Science |
Catalysis |
Ethers |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Derivatization of Fullerenes: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Charles T. Cox Jr. and Melanie M. Cooper
Presents two undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories detailing the synthesis of fullerene derivatives, using the Bingel (carbene insertion) and Prato (1,3-dipolar addition) protocols.
Cox, Charles T., Jr.; Cooper, Melanie M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 99.
Acids / Bases |
Addition Reactions |
Chromatography |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Chemistry of Highly Fluorinated Compounds  William F. Coleman
Highly fluorinated compounds modeled in this month's Feature include fluorous phenylboronic acid, fluorous alkyl phospine, fluorous acid, fluorous chlorosilane, and fluorous reverse-phase silica gel.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 92.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Fluorous Compounds and Their Role in Separation Chemistry  Maria Angeles Ubeda and Roman Dembinski
Reviews fluorous technology and outlines strategies towards organic synthesis.
Ubeda, Maria Angeles; Dembinski, Roman. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 84.
Amino Acids |
Catalysis |
Esters |
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Synthesis
Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests  Craig Anderson
Tests for illegal drugs were performed on unknowns obtained from over-the-counter cold medicines. Substances that tested positive for the qualitative Marquis color test were found to be false positives for illegal substances, while scopolamine hydrochloride shows a false positive for cocaine hydrochloride with the cobalt thiocyanate reagent.
Anderson, Craig. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1809.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Using "Basic Principles" To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies  Jeffrey I. Seeman
The HendersonHasselbalch equation calculates the equilibrium distribution of 50:50 for nicotine in its nonprotonated (free base form), relative to its monoprotonated form, at pH of 8 in dilute aqueous solution. This ratio has then been used in the literature to predict the effect of ammonia compounds in tobacco and in smoke on nicotine pyrolysis and smoke chemistry. Experiments demonstrate that neither the thermal chemistry of tobacco alkaloids nor the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to smoke can be explained by the position of the nonprotonated versus monoprotonated form equilibrium in aqueous extracts of tobacco. The high thermal stability of nicotine in air allows nicotine salts to be converted to nonprotonated nicotine and volatilize during heating prior to any substantial decomposition of the nicotine moiety. In contrast, cocaine hydrochloride is thermally unstable and will rapidly decompose upon heating; cocaine hydrochloride must first be converted to its nonprotonated form prior to heating and volatilization.
Seeman, Jeffrey I. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1577.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heterocycles |
pH |
Natural Products |
Gases
Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated 13C Chemical Shifts and pKa Values of para-Substituted Benzoic Acids  Hongyi Wang
An application of ChemDraw NMR Tool was demonstrated by correlation of program-generated 13C NMR chemical shifts and pKa values of para-substituted benzoic acids. Experimental 13C NMR chemical shifts were analyzed in the same way for comparison. The project can be used as an assignment at the end of the first-year organic chemistry course to review topics or explore new techniques: Hammett equation, acidbase equilibrium theory, electronic nature of functional groups, inductive and resonance effects, structurereactivity relationship, NMR spectroscopy, literature search, database search, and ChemDraw software.
Wang, Hongyi. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1340.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Ewing's Analytical Instrumentation Handbook, 3rd Edition (Jack Cazes)  Jack K. Steehler
This resource is a figurative and literal heavyweight. Its 31 chapters and more than 1000 large-size pages (filled with small text) provide an enormous amount of information. About a third of the book discusses spectroscopic techniques (11 chapters, all the standard types of spectroscopy); the second third covers various separation methods (10 chapters); and the remaining third hits a cross section of other topics, including four chapters on electrochemistry and three chapters on automation. The core of spectroscopy and separation science is appropriate and well chosen, covering the expected topics. There is even a chapter on Validation of Chromatographic Methods, an important topic for any lab working in a regulated environment. Additional, more unusual chapters include a chapter on Chiroptical Spectroscopy and a long chapter (100 pages) on Microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip methods, both of current research interest.
Steehler, Jack K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1315.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Substituted Benzoic Acids. An Experiment for the Organic Synthesis Laboratory  Nancy S. Mills, John D. Spence, and Michelle M. Bushey
We have introduced an experiment into the organic chemistry sequence, in the synthesis laboratory, that utilizes capillary electrophoresis to evaluate the pKa shift on a series of student-prepared substituted benzoic acids. The pKa shift is examined in reference to the electrophoretic-migration behavior of benzoic acid and is a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the substituent. This strategy allows us to increase the exposure of students to modern methods of separation. We are using repeated exposure to increase students' knowledge of separation strategies and techniques.
Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1226.
Synthesis |
Electrophoresis |
Grignard Reagents |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Enantiomeric Resolution of (±)-Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(–)-Ephedrine. An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  Marsha R. Baar and Andrea L. Cerrone-Szakal
There has been an increasing need, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, to prepare chiral substances in single-isomer form. A chiral technique that makes an excellent introductory organic chemistry experiment is enantiomeric resolution. The classical resolution of ()-mandelic acid using the chiral amine, (1R,2S)-()-ephedrine, was adapted for use in introductory organic chemistry lab curricula.
Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1040.
Acids / Bases |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Demonstrating Encapsulation and Release: A New Take on Alginate Complexation and the Nylon Rope Trick  Andrienne C. Friedli and Inge R. Schlager
Three variations on a classroom demonstration of the encapsulation of droplets and evidence for release of the interior solution are described. The first two demonstrations mimic biocompatible applications of encapsulation. A third encapsulation exercise exploits the irreversible interfacial polymerization of diamine and diacid chloride to form membranes and illustrates the detection of diamine release from the capsule using an indicator.
Friedli, Andrienne C.; Schlager, Inge R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1017.
Biotechnology |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Consumer Chemistry |
Membranes
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity  David Keeports
General chemistry instructors are faced with a dilemma when introducing the topic of equilibrium constants: These constants are correctly written in terms of activities, yet activity is a complex topic better treated rigorously in a physical chemistry course than superficially in a general chemistry course. Thus, to introduce equilibrium calculations, it is necessary to use approximate forms for equilibrium constants. However, I find that some commonly used textbooks provide incorrect arguments leading to approximate equilibrium constants for aqueous reactions.
Keeports, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 999.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry
Reaction to "Chemistry Is Not a Laboratory Science"  Lawrence J. Sacks
Stephen Hawkes has stirred us to reconsider whether, in fact, chemistry is a laboratory science by positing that lab work does not enhance students understanding of chemistrys centrality, but makes chemistry an irrelevance. This sweeping generalization of what some (maybe even most) labs do is further confounded by a fallacious premise; hence, the major thrust of the proposition likely will beand well should beviewed with utmost skepticism.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 997.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nonmajor Courses |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
Reaction to "Chemistry Is Not a Laboratory Science"  Lawrence J. Sacks
In response to Stephen Hawkes Commentary, I think the crucial point is whether the students learn to appreciate the intellectual beauty of science and understand the relatively small number of simple yet profound scientific principles which govern so much of our everyday experiences. Many non-science majors are obviously disinterested in the laboratory work in introductory courses.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 997.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Student-Centered Learning |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nonmajor Courses |
Theoretical Chemistry
On Teaching Ionic Activity Effects: What, When, and Where?  Robert de Levie
Ionic activity effects modify many quantitative chemical relationships involving ions, including those describing equilibria, pH measurements, titrations, diffusional mass transport, and reaction rates. Some of the resulting activity corrections are reviewed, and it is argued that their subtlety requires that they be introduced late rather than early in the chemistry curriculum and then are treated in more detail than is now customary. It is illustrated that interionic effects often cannot be taken into account by merely replacing all ionic concentrations by the corresponding ionic activities.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 878.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
pH |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Teaching pH Measurements with a Student-Assembled Combination Quinhydrone Electrode  Fritz Scholz, Tim Steinhardt, Heike Kahlert, Jens R. Pörksen, and Jürgen Behnert
A combination pH electrode that can be assembled by the student is described. It consists of a glass holder and two sensors in the form of rubber stoppers that contain quinhydrone and graphite. The combination electrode is suitable to teach potentiometric measurements, pH measurements, and the interplay of acidbase and redox equilibria. The electrode meets highest safety standards and overcomes the troubles associated with the use of the conventional quinhydrone electrode.
Scholz, Fritz; Steinhardt, Tim; Kahlert, Heike; Pörksen, Jens R.; Behnert, Jürgen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 782.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
A Closer Look at AcidBase Olfactory Titrations  Kerry Neppel, Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo, Connie Queen, and Nicole Reed
This laboratory experiment uses the sense of smell to determine end points of acidbase titrations. Olfactory indicators include garlic, onions, and vanillin. Results show that garlic and vanillin gave the most accurate results when calculated NaOH molarities were compared to the standardized values. These olfactory indicators in acidbase titrations gave consistent results when tested by a diverse student population. The preparation times, cost, and safety issues are comparable to traditional titration experiments.
Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 607.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  David P. Elder
The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed.
Elder, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 575.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Ion Exchange |
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Separation and Determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with Cation-Exchange Chromatography and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. An Experiment for Quantitative Methods of Analysis  Ali Bazzi, Bette Kreuz, James Wuokila, and Ahmed Maqboul
This article reports on the separation and determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with cation-exchange chromatography and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. A sample containing the two ions is added to a column containing a cation-exchange resin; the Cr(VI) ions are not retained by the resin and are collected in the effluent. The Cr(III) ions are retained by the resin and eluted with an HCl solution. The separated ions are aspirated into an air/acetylene flame and the absorbance measurements are made at 357.9 nm and 0.2-nm slit width. The experiment has been implemented in a quantitative methods of analysis course.
Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Wuokila, James; Maqboul, Ahmed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 435.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A Quantitative Examination of Multiple Methods for Standardizing a Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Solution in an Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Nancy E. Meagher, Dana B. Bowens, and B. Shawn Clark
The objective of the project was to compare the different published methods for standardizing dilute hydrochloric acid solutions. There are three different suitable bases available for the process and multiple indicator choices. This article attempts to identify the most accurate method(s) for use in the undergraduate laboratory. Students were given an "unknown" solution of dilute HCl and assigned to standardize it by eight methods (32 titrations), reporting both their experimental results and preference for the different indicatorbase combinations.
Meagher, Nancy E.; Bowens, Dana B.; Clark, B. Shawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 428.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Analysis of Natural Buffer Systems and the Impact of Acid Rain. An Environmental Project for First-Year Chemistry Students  David C. Powers, Andrew T. Higgs, Matt L. Obley, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
The purpose of this project is to investigate the basic principles involved in acidbase buffer systems within the context of an environmental issue. It is designed for use in an introductory chemistry course. The students will learn about acidbase interactions and examine how a buffer system composed of a weak acid and its conjugate base can neutralize large quantities of strong acid while resisting drastic change in the pH of the system. Students will also analyze experimentally the various components of the most commonly occurring natural buffer system.
Powers, David C.; Higgs, Andrew T.; Obley, Matt L.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 274.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
M&M Orange  Kurt R. Birdwhistell and Thomas G. Spence
We cannot confirm or dispute Elders assignment of the identity of the dye. Without doing a few experiments we cannot comment further.
Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Spence, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 209.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
M&M Orange  John W. Elder
The article A New Glow on the Chromatography of M&M Candies was of interest to us as we had run a similar experiment using Kool-Aid dyes for some time. Last year we included this experiment in our organic labs on chromatography with considerable success. But I was intrigued by the identity of the unidentified orange listed in the supplementary material as being found in orange and brown M&Ms.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 209.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Checkerboard Chromatography  Charles A. Smith
This hands-on activity allows students to simulate chromatographic simulations using a grid, colored pieces of paper, and a six-sided die. Students observe the separation as it is occurring and perform experiments on flow rate, column length, and mobile phase composition.
Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 384A.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples. An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory  Christopher J. Pursell, Bert Chandler, and Michelle M. Bushey
This experiment can be done in a lab, as a "dry-lab", or as an in-class exercise. Students explore a number of basic separation topics and work with figures of merit for real and meaningful samples. We have adopted a strategy where students encounter various instruments and methods of analyses multiple times throughout the curriculum. The level of sophistication in the exposures increases with the experience level of the students. Through this repeated exposure students will gain a better and fuller understanding of these methods than they would with a single exposure to the technique in the analytical or instrumental laboratory.
Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1783.
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chemometrics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Analysis of Gold Ores by Fire Assay  Kristy M. Blyth, David N. Phillips, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
This article describes a laboratory exercise for the analysis of gold using the fire-assay technique. This method of analysis not only provides students with an introduction to the technique of fire assay, but also covers some very interesting acidbase and redox chemistry. The gold is collected in a lead button while the remainder of the constituents find their way into a slag. The gold is recovered from the lead by absorption in a boneash cupel.
Blyth, Kristy M.; Phillips, David N.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1780.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Use of a Tea Infuser To Submerge Low-Density Dry Ice  Carl P. Fictorie
A tea infuser is used as a container to hold low-density dry ice. When used with the classic demonstration where dry ice is used to acidify a solution in a graduated cylinder, the dry ice is suspended in the middle of the cylinder, allowing the solution in the upper half of the cylinder to change color while the lower half remains unchanged. Phase changes, acidbase chemistry, and diffusion phenomena are all illustrated.
Fictorie, Carl P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1473.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base Equilibria  Harry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai
This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero.
Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples  Rebecca J. Whelan, Theresa E. Hannon, David J. Rakestraw, and Richard N. Zare
An experiment using ion chromatography in an undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory is described. The students, working in small groups, are responsible for identifying a real-world system of interest and for developing a strategy to investigate that system. The students gain specific skills and knowledge about chromatography as well as more general analytical skills including sample preparation, system calibration, determination of detection limits, and data analysis. Two specific examples of experiments done by students in the class are presented: the determination of lead in hair dye and the determination of anions in orange juice.
Whelan, Rebecca J.; Hannon, Theresa E.; Rakestraw, David J.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1299.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography  Paul R. Haddad, Matthew J. Shaw, John E. Madden, and Greg W. Dicinoski
An ion chromatography exercise is described that uses a free Internet-based software package, Virtual Column 2, to simulate retention behavior and to optimize separation conditions. Virtual Column 2 permits the detailed study of retention behavior of inorganic anions on a Dionex AS11 column using isocratic hydroxide eluents and also on a Dionex AS4ASC column using carbonate-bicarbonate eluents. Collection of retention data from Virtual Column 2 allows students to investigate the effects of variation in eluent composition on retention, to examine separation selectivity in ion chromatography, and to evaluate the performance of simple retention models.
Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1293.
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
The History of Ion Chromatography: The Engineering Perspective  Barton Evans
This article traces the history of the engineering development related to the several generations of ion chromatography instruments, columns, suppressers, and software. In so doing, several representative engineering challenges and their outcomes are discussed including: early directions (traveling without a road map, or "going where the applications are"), dealing with an extremely corrosive mobile phase (aka: the "eluent"), resolving the inherent incompatibilities of nonmetallic flow paths with the benefits of high-pressure, elevated temperature operation, managing the ever-evolving nature of the suppressor, coping with requirements for ultra high-end online systems, and providing extremely simple-to-use dedicated analyzer systems.
Evans, Barton. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1285.
Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Ion Chromatography: An Account of Its Conception and Early Development  Hamish Small
In the late 1950s, a small group of chemists at the Dow Chemical Company envisioned replacing these classical methods of inorganic analysis with but a single, universal chromatographic technique. They called their project "Inorganic Chromatography". This article describes how they developed this concept into a new technique, ready for commercial development into what we know today as "Ion Chromatography". In particular, the account will describe: how the Dow scientists adapted electrical conductance monitoring to chromatography, the introduction of the suppressor to chromatography, the invention of special stationary phases, and the evolution of strategies and principles that would shape and guide the practice of ion chromatography for many years to come.
Small, Hamish. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1277.
Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution  I. A. Leenson
The principal goal of this article is to elucidate some uncommon phenomena that can be observed in the process of diluting sulfuric acid with water.
Leenson, I. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 991.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Class Projects in Physical Organic Chemistry: The Hydrolysis of Aspirin  Peter S. Marrs
The students prepare a pHrate profile for the hydrolysis of aspirin and analyze this profile to determine the mechanism and type of catalysis of the hydrolysis at different pH values.
Marrs, Peter S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 870.
pH |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Lewis Acid–Base, Molecular Modeling, and Isotopic Labeling in a Sophomore Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Chip Nataro, Michelle A. Ferguson, Katherine M. Bocage, Brian J. Hess, Vincent J. Ross, and Daniel T. Swarr
Computational methods can be introduced to simulate IR spectra and to view the HOMO of the Lewis base and the LUMO of the Lewis acid. In addition to the computational exercise, NaBD4 can be used in the synthesis of the adduct in place of NaBH4. This allows the students to observe the effect of isotopic labeling on IR spectra.
Nataro, Chip; Ferguson, Michelle A.; Bocage, Katherine M.; Hess, Brian J.; Ross, Vincent J.; Swarr, Daniel T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 722.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Molecular Modeling |
Isotopes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Keynotes in Organic Chemistry (Andrew F. Parsons)  Joel M. Karty
As a result of the trend towards modularization of chemistry courses, the text attempts to meet the need for smaller, highly focused and accessible organic chemistry textbooks, which complement the very detailed standard texts, to guide students through the key principles of the subject.
Karty, Joel M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 651.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Chloroacetic acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of chloroacetic acid are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 631.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Improved Method for the Extraction and Thin-Layer Chromatography of Chlorophyll a and b from Spinach  Hao T. Quach, Robert L. Steeper, and G. William Griffin
A direct method of extracting plant pigments from spinach leaves into a dry organic solvent is presented. This method avoids liquidliquid extractions and subsequent drying as is found in previously reported methods.
Quach, Hao T.; Steeper, Robert L.; Griffin, G. William. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 385.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Novel Strategies for the Removal of Toxic Metals from Soils and Waters  D. Max Roundhill
This article surveys the toxicities of mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, cadmium, and the actinides. Strategies for the removal of these metals include surfactants, aqueous biphasic systems, and liquid membranes. For soils, both in situ stabilization and detection are discussed.
Roundhill, D. Max. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 275.
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Toxicology
Magnetic Particle Technology. A Simple Preparation of Magnetic Composites for the Adsorption of Water Contaminants  Luiz C. A. Oliveira, Rachel V. R. A. Rios, José D. Fabris, Rochel M. Lago, and Karim Sapag
In this article a simple undergraduate laboratory experiment to produce magnetic adsorbents is described. These magnetic materials efficiently adsorb contaminants from water and can be easily removed from the medium by a simple magnetic separation process.
Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Rios, Rachel V.R.A.; Fabris, José D.; Lago, Rochel M.; Sapag, Karim. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 248.
Green Chemistry |
Magnetic Properties |
Materials Science |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Patty L. Feist
Students are given a mixture of a solid ketone and a solid alcohol and asked to separate and identify the two components. First the students use TLC to determine the optimum solvent system to separate the two compounds, then they separate the unknowns on a microscale flash chromatography column. The students acquire the melting point, and if possible, the IR and 1H NMR spectra for each separated compound and identify them by matching the observed data with that of known compounds.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 109.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Acid–Base and Precipitation Equilibria in Wine  Miguel Palma and Carmelo G. Barroso
A simple but effective experiment demonstrates the interactions between simultaneous equilibria involving hydrogen tartrate and helps students realize the importance of multiple equilibria in real-world systems.
Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 94.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids
An Acid Hydrocarbon: A Chemical Paradox  Jeffrey T. Burke
This article explores the use of paradox as a teaching and learning strategy. Specifically, students observe the acid-like paradoxical behavior of the hydrocarbon cyclopentadiene. This observation then serves as a springboard to an understanding of the non-benzenoid aromatics.
Burke, Jeffrey T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 65.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds
Stearic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for stearic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 25.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties
Simple Experiments To Demonstrate Proton Flux in Pseudomonas after Alkaline or Acidic Stress  Gabriela Previtali, Walter Giordano, and Carlos E. Domenech
A laboratory experiment to ascertain the bacterial response to the stress produced by suspension in different pH solutions has been developed. This laboratory experiment has the pedagogical advantage of giving chemistry students experience with the application of various pH levels to a biological system and enables the students to expand their understanding of pH to mean more than a strictly chemical concept.
Previtali, Gabriela; Giordano, Walter; Domenech, Carlos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1468.
Acids / Bases
The pH at the First Equivalence Point in the Titration of a Diprotic Acid  Addison Ault
I read with interest the paper entitled Easy Derivation of pH  (pKa1 + pKa2)/2 Using Autoprotolysis of HA: Doubtful Value of the Supposedly More Rigorous Equation. I believe the validity of this simple result can be seen even more easily than this paper indicates.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1382.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
An Aquatic Chemistry Spreadsheet for General Chemistry Classes  Chulsung Kim
The Aquatic Chemistry Spreadsheet was produced to help students work through the activities of producing a graph of a titration curve, a distribution diagram, and buffer intensity as a function of pH. These activities help students better understand acidbase equilibrium by exploring the relationship between pKa/pKb, pH, ionization fractions, and buffer intensity.
Kim, Chulsung. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1351.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Using Hydrocarbon Acidities To Demonstrate Principles of Organic Structure and Bonding  Andrew P. Dicks
This article demonstrates the utility of hydrocarbon acidity as a teaching tool within the undergraduate classroom. Acidities of compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon vary by at least 50 orders of magnitude. Differences in acidities are rationalized by invoking principles of hybridization, resonance, induction, and aromaticity.
Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1322.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Comparing the Titrations of Mixed-Acid Solutions Using Dropwise and Constant-Flow Techniques   Paul Charlesworth, Matthew J. Seguin, and David J. Chesney
Real-time titration techniques are found to result in significantly decreased analysis times while maintaining a low experimental error.
Charlesworth, Paul; Seguin, Matthew J.; Chesney, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1311.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Palm-Based Data Acquisition Solutions for the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Susan Hudgins, Yu Qin, Eric Bakker, and Curtis Shannon
Handheld computers provide a compact and cost-effective means to log data in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Handheld computers have the ability to record multiple forms of data, be programmed for specific projects, and later have data transferred to a personal computer for manipulation and analysis.
Hudgins, Susan; Qin, Yu; Bakker, Eric; Shannon, Curtis. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1303.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Manual Microscale Column Chromatography Pressurization Apparatus  Bruce W. Baldwin
Pressurization of a Pasteur pipet for microscale chromatography is simplified by connecting a 20- or 30-mL syringe to the pipet using a length of Tygon tubing. This simple system allows the student to easily dry-pack a column using common chromatography packing materials.
Baldwin, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1182.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
A Discovery Approach to Three Organic Laboratory Techniques: Extraction, Recrystallization, and Distillation  Gail Horowitz
In each experiment, one or more parameters, such as solvent volume, time, or boiling point difference, is varied. Students compare the results of all variations and draw conclusions as to the underlying principles. The article concludes with an assessment of the effectiveness of these experiments.
Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1039.
Separation Science
Simulating Chromatographic Separations in the Classroom  Charles A. Smith and F. Warren Villaescusa
Using this classroom simulation, students develop a set of rules used to investigate the effect of flow rate, column dimension, particle size, and mobile/stationary phase affinity on chromatographic separations. While performing the simulation, the concepts of longitudinal and eddy diffusion are dramatically illustrated.
Smith, Charles A.; Villaescusa, F. Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1023.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Acid–Base Titrations in Nonaqueous Solvents and Solvent Mixtures  Lajos Barcza and Ágnes Buvári-Barcza
Discussion of acid-base theory, the role of hydrogen bonding in acid-base reactions, and promoting, leveling, and differentiating effects.
Barcza, Lajos; Buvári-Barcza, Ágnes. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 822.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: 'Blooming' beyond a Simple Taxonomy  Michael D. Pungente and Rodney A. Badger
Applying Bloom's taxonomy to introductory organic chemistry classes in order to help students construct their own understanding of the material rather than simply memorize it; includes examples of questions at the various cognitive levels.
Pungente, Michael D.; Badger, Rodney A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 779.
Acids / Bases |
Learning Theories
Rules of Thumb for Assessing Equilibrium Partitioning of Organic Compounds: Successes and Pitfalls  Kai-Uwe Goss and René P. Schwarzenbach
Factors to consider when predicting equilibrium partitioning of organic compounds between two phases, including volatility, polarity, and hydrophobicity; and a simple model for the evaluation of bulk phase partitioning.
Goss, Kai-Uwe; Schwarzenbach, René P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 450.
Equilibrium |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Separation Science |
Thermodynamics
Like Dissolves Like: A Guided Inquiry Experiment for Organic Chemistry  Ingrid Montes, Chunqiu Lai, and David Sanabria
A guided-inquiry experience designed to illustrate factors that influence the solubility of organic compounds.
Montes, Ingrid; Lai, Chunqiu; Sanabria, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 447.
Learning Theories |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Identification of Forensic Samples via Mitochondrial DNA in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory  Julie T. Millard and André M. Pilon
Identification of forensic samples via mitochondrial DNA in a hypothetical kidnapping case.
Millard, Julie T.; Pilon, André M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 444.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Biotechnology |
Forensic Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
C–H and C–D Bonds: An Experimental Approach to the Identity of C–H Bonds by Their Conversion to C–D Bonds  Alex T. Rowland
Three experiments that allow students to determine the relative reactivity of C-H bonds that are aliphatic, alpha, benzylic, or aromatic by the ease of substitution of deuterium for oxygen.
Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 311.
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
A Demonstration of Structure–Reactivity Relationships in Organic Chemistry  Thomas A. Newton
Demonstration of the correlation between the conductivity of aqueous solutions and the pKa values of various organic compounds.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 294.
Acids / Bases |
Conductivity |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity
The Henderson—Hasselbalch Equation: Its History and Limitations  Robert de Levie
Points out that the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is an approximation and not equivalent to the mass action law.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds  Megumi Fujita, Helen M. Mah, Paulo W. M. Sgarbi, Manjinder S. Lall, Tai Wei Ly, and Lois M. Browne
Software to help students understand the theoretical basis and actual procedures for separating organic compounds from a mixture using liquid-liquid extraction; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 107.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
An Easy Determination of the Surface Chemical Properties of Simple and Natural Solids  Mélanie Davranche, Stella Lacour, François Bordas, and Jean-Claude Bollinger
Method for determining the surface acidity constants and pH of zero point charge for solid samples.
Davranche, Mélanie; Lacour, Stella; Bordas, François; Bollinger, Jean-Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 76.
Acids / Bases |
Geochemistry |
Solids |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Surface Science |
pH
Micelle-Mediated Extraction of Heavy Metals from Environmental Samples: An Environmental Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Dimosthenis L. Giokas, Evangelos K. Paleologos, and Miltiades I. Karayannis
A laboratory focussing on the determination of metallic elements in drinking water through cloud-point extraction.
Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Karayannis, Miltiades I. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 61.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Nitric Acid (approx. 70%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for nitric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1413.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Teaching Experimental Design Using a GC–MS Analysis of Cocaine on Money: A Cross-Disciplinary Laboratory  Christopher A. Heimbuck and Nathan W. Bower
An opportunity for students to develop and use experimental designs to refine and optimize an extraction technique from the literature.
Heimbuck, Christopher A.; Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1254.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research
Correction to Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Anthracene (re J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 553)  
Response to the question "Can an indicator solution change color upon dilution?"
J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1071.
Acids / Bases
Color Changes in Indicator Solutions  Addison Ault
Addresses the question "Can an indicator solution change color upon dilution?"
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1070.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets  Peter de B. Harrington, Erin Kolbrich, and Jennifer Cline
Determining the acidity of three vinegar samples using multiplexed titrations and an MS Excel spreadsheet.
Harrington, Peter de B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 863.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet  Edward B. Flint, Carrie L. Kortz, and Max A. Taylor
A technique for microscale pH titrations using 1-5 mL of analyte and titrant.
Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 705.
Acids / Bases |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 426.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Mechanism of Aqueous Hydrolysis of Nitro Derivatives of Phenyl Phenylmethanesulfonate. An Organic Laboratory Experiment  S. D. Mulder, B. E. Hoogenboom, and A. G. Splittgerber
Synthesis, purification, and characterization of three esters.
Mulder, S. D.; Hoogenboom, B. E.; Splittgerber, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 218.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Reactive Intermediates |
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Aromatic Compounds |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Easy Derivation... (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183)  Stephen J. Hawkes
Analysis of pH derivation by averaging pK values.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 162.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Easy Derivation... (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183)  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Analysis of pH derivation by averaging pK values.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 161.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Formic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for formic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 157.
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids
The Isolation of Rubber from Milkweed Leaves. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab  Lisa Volaric and John P. Hagen
Experiment that teaches many basic laboratory techniques (refluxing, vacuum filtering, extracting, centrifuging, and IR fingerprinting) while introducing students to polymers and natural-product isolations.
Volaric, Lisa; Hagen, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 91.
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
pH of Sodium Acetate Solutions  Guy Schmitz
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Schmitz, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Oleic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for oleic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 24.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Determination of Free Lime in Clinker and Cement by Iodometry. An Undergraduate Experiment in Redox Titrimetry  Oi-Wah Lau, Shiu-Fai Luk, Nina L. N. Cheng, and Hoi-Yin Woo
Experiment to determine the free lime in cement and clinker through iodometry.
Lau, Oi-Wah; Luk, Shiu-Fai; Cheng, Nina L. N.; Woo, Hoi-Yin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
Recovery and Reutilization of Waste Matter from Coffee Preparation. An Experiment for Environmental Science Courses  Santino Orecchio
Separation of fat from used coffee grounds, analysis of its characteristics and that of the remaining degreased residue, and transformation of the extracted fat into soap.
Orecchio, Santino. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1669.
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Fatty Acids
Using Capillary Electrophoresis to Determine the Purity of Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Frank Welder and Christa L. Colyer
Determination of the concentration of synthesized acetylsalicylic acid and unreacted salicylic acid using capillary electrophoresis.
Welder, Frank; Colyer, Christa L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1525.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
The Relative Acidities of Water and Methanol  Henry I. Abrash
Analysis of the disparity between the way the acidity constant of water is presented in general chemistry and organic chemistry textbooks.
Abrash, Henry I. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1496.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Teaching Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory in a Direct Comprehensive Way  Jamie L. Adcock
Unifying all the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base concepts in a quantitative way.
Adcock, Jamie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1495.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Combined Effects of pH and Percent Methanol on the HPLC Separation of Benzoic Acid and Phenol  Seema M. Joseph and John A. Palasota
Investigating the combined effects of pH and percent methanol on the HPLC separation of benzoic acid and phenol.
Joseph, Seema M.; Palasota, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1381.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols
Thin-Layer Electrophoresis  Tom Lyons Fisher, Tara Leslie Fitzsimmons, and I. David Reingold
Thin-layer electrophoresis apparatus.
Fisher, Tom Lyons; Fitzsimmons, Tara Leslie; Reingold, I. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1241.
Amino Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Investigation of Secondary Metabolites in Plants. A General Protocol for Undergraduate Research in Natural Products  Jonathan Cannon, Du Li, Steven G. Wood, Noel L. Owen, Alexandra Gromova, and Vladislav Lutsky
Typical experimental procedures to extract and isolate individual chemical constituents from a plant, suggestions for some simple procedures to test for selected bioactivity, and explain how the molecular structures of natural products may be determined using spectroscopic techniques.
Cannon, Jonathan; Li, Du; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.; Gromova, Alexandra; Lutsky, Vladislav. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1234.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Separation Science
Blood-Chemistry Tutorials: Teaching Biological Applications of General Chemistry Material  Rachel E. Casiday, Dewey Holten, Richard Krathen, and Regina F. Frey
Four, Web-based tutorials that deal with chemical processes in the blood and provide an integrated biological context for a variety of chemical concepts.
Casiday, Rachel E.; Holten, Dewey; Krathen, Richard; Frey, Regina F. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1210.
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Correction to Computational Investigations for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: Modeling a TLC Exercise to Investigate Molecular Structure and Intermolecular Forces (J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 203-205)  Rita K. Hessley
Corrections to original article.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1183.
Chromatography |
Computational Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Separation Science
Correction to Computational Investigations for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: Modeling a TLC Exercise to Investigate Molecular Structure and Intermolecular Forces (J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 203-205)  Rita K. Hessley
Missing reference and incorrect citation in original article.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1183.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Learning Theories |
Chromatography |
Computational Chemistry |
Separation Science
Effect of Dissolved CO2 on Gran Plots  Motomichi Inoue and Quintus Fernando
Effect of dissolved CO2 on Gran plots.
Inoue, Motomichi; Fernando, Quintus. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1132.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Color Changes in Indicator Solutions. An Intriguing and Elucidative General Chemistry Experiment  César R. Silva, Renato B. Pereira, and Edvaldo Sabadini
Investigation of a solution in which there is a color change resulting simply from dilution with water.
Silva, Cesar R.; Pereira, Renato B.; Sabadini, Edvaldo. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 939.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Hydrochloric Acid (approx 36%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for hydrochloric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sulfuric Acid (approx. 98%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for concentrated sulfuric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 722.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Acid (glacial)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic acid (glacial).
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 721.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Carboxylic Acids
A Useful System for Microscale and Semi-microscale Fractional Distillation of Air-Sensitive Substances with High Boiling Points  J. Alfredo Gutiérrez
A procedure to purify air-sensitive liquids with high boiling points using a horizontal distilling apparatus that avoids extreme refluxing and can efficiently separate the fractions of a mixture.
Gutiérrez, J. Alfredo. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 653.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Evaluating Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Diprotic Acid Salts  Jean M. Nigretto
The use of logarithmic concentration diagrams as a convenient tool for finding approximate solutions to the pH of solutions containing sparingly soluble diprotic acid salts in pure water; an application of this method based on a series of carbonate salts is presented.
Nigretto, Jean M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 631.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH
Small-Scale Filtration Using a Modified Plastic Syringe  Mikael Begtrup
A simple procedure is described for manual, small-scale pressure filtration performed in a modified plastic syringe.
Begtrup, Mikael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 543.
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Simulating How a Virus Spreads through a Population: An Introduction to Acid-Base Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Ronald M. Jarret
The traditional lab exercise that achieves separation of a mixture of 4-aminoacetophenone and benzoic acid by chemically active extraction has been expanded to include an exercise that uses materials from the extraction experiment to simulate how a virus spreads through a population.
Jarret, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 525.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Phenolphthalein Solution  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for phenolphthalein solution.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 448.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium Hydroxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
A Preparative TLC Applicator  Tom Lyons Fisher and Charles P. Gilman
The construction of a simple and inexpensive sample applicator for preparative thin layer chromatography is described.
Fisher, Tom Lyons; Gilman, Charles P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 367.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Safe and Efficient Flash Chromatography Equipment for the Research/Teaching Lab  Fritiof Pontén and Ulf Ellervik
A new method for performing flash chromatography is presented in which the solvent reservoir is at the side of the column, in a separate bottle, connected with a Teflon tube to an adapter for standard flash chromatography columns.
Pontén, Fritiof; Ellervik, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 363.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Drug Distribution: A Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiment in Coupled Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Equilibria  John Hein and Michael Jeannot
This experiment gives students an opportunity to study the distribution of a drug (a common antihistamine drug, diphenhydramine) in a two-phase system by measuring the concentrations of two chemical species and predicting the others by considering charge balance, mass balance, and equilibrium constant expressions.
Hein, John; Jeannot, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 224.
Acids / Bases |
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  Doble Mukesh
Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs.
Mukesh, Doble. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 211.
Separation Science |
Learning Theories
The Escalator--An Analogy for Explaining Electroosmotic Flow  Andrew J. Vetter and Garrett J. McGowan
An analogy of people on an escalator for teaching the concept of electroosmotic flow. The moving escalator is analogous to the overall bulk flow of solution through the capillary (electroosmotic flow) and partly responsible for the separation of species using capillary electrophoresis (CE).
Vetter, Andrew J.; McGowan, Garrett J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 209.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Transport Properties |
Electrochemistry
Fast Ionic Migration of Copper Chromate  Adolf Cortel
Among the many demonstrations of ionic migration in an electric field, the ones showing the migration of colored Cu+2 and CrO4-2 ions are popular. The demonstration described here introduces some modifications to allow a fast displacement of these ions.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 207.
Covalent Bonding |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
The Strength of the Hydrohalic Acids  Roland Schmid and Arzu M. Miah
This article brings to mind that the textbook acidity constants of the hydrohalic acids (except for HF) are erroneous because of outmoded conjectures about the HX solubilities. Here we invoke theoretical calculations of HX solubilities based on current solvation models.
Schmid, Roland; Miah, Arzu M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 116.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
Practical Capillary Electrophoresis, 2nd Edition by Robert Weinberger  Luanne Tilstra
Overview of how capillary electrophoresis (CE) is unique, a history of technique development, a list of commercially available instruments, the basic concepts that one must understand to design and understand a CE experiment, and other reference information of significance to CE.
Tilstra, Luanne. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 35.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Comparisons and Demonstrations of Scientific Calculators  Myung-Hoon Kim, Suw-Young Ly, and Tae-Kee Hong
Scientific calculators are compared in terms of their capacities, featuring many advantages of the graphic calculator over simple nongraphic calculators. Applications in this paper include a simulation of acid-base titration curves, and graphic display of a time course of concentrations of reactants and products for a chemical reaction with first-order kinetics.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Ly, Suw-Young; Hong, Tae-Kee. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Analysis of Common Household Cleaner-Disinfectants by Capillary Electrophoresis  William P. Gardner and James E. Girard
Capillary electrophoresis analysis for benzalkonium compounds in common household cleaners and disinfectants.
Gardner, William P.; Girard, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1335.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds |
Consumer Chemistry
Candies to Dye for: Cooperative, Open-Ended Student Activities to Promote Understanding of Electrophoretic Fractionation  Randall Emry, Robert D. Curtright, Jonathan Wright, and John Markwell
A three-part series of laboratory activities is presented that allows students to learn why electrophoretic separations work and to manipulate the factors that influence the separation process.
Emry, Randall; Curtright, Robert D.; Wright, Jonathan; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1323.
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Easy Derivation of pH Is Approxiimately Equal To (pKa1 + pKa2) / 2 Using Autoprotolysis of HA-: Doubtful Value of the Supposedly More Rigorous Equation  Stephen J. Hawkes
[H+]2 Ka1Ka2 can be derived in only two lines by recognizing that the principal reaction in a solution of HA- is its autoprotolysis. The supposedly rigorous equation derived in many texts gives pH values that are no more reliable.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
When A + B  Is Not Equal To B + A  Erling Antony, Lindsay Mitchell, and Lauren Nettenstrom
Many acid-base chemistry demonstrations and laboratory manuals include the "baking soda volcano". Others use the formation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in human breath. This demonstration uses principles from both as well as stoichiometry to answer the question "Does the order of mixing of reagents make a difference?"
Antony, Erling; Mitchell, Lindsay; Nettenstrom, Lauren. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1180.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Every Year Begins a Millennium  Jerry A. Bell
This article outlines a series of demonstrations and their contexts, leading to recommendations about what we teach and how we teach.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1098.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Learning Theories
Two Faces of Alkaloids  Jirí Dostál
The article discusses and compares the salts and free bases of six well-known alkaloids: nicotine, morphine, cocaine, sanguinarine, allocryptopine, and magnoflorine. Relevance for the biological and medical uses of these compounds is emphasized.
Dostál, Jirí. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 993.
Acids / Bases |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Natural Products |
Aromatic Compounds |
Medicinal Chemistry
Organic Acids without a Carboxylic Acid Functional Group  G. V. Perez and Alice L. Perez
This paper presents several organic molecules that have been labeled as acids but do not contain a carboxylic acid functional group. Various chemical principles such as pKa, tautomerization, aromaticity, conformation, resonance, and induction are explored.
Perez, G. V.; Perez, Alice L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 910.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Phenols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds
Enantiomeric and Diastereoisomeric Relationships: A Practical Approach  V. Durieu, G. Martiat, M. Ch. Vandergeten, F. Pirsoul, F. Toubeau, and Agnès Van Camp
An experiment in organic chemistry in which the students prepare, purify, and characterize optical isomers. The three optical isomers of the bisoxalamides obtained by the reaction of racemic 1-phenylethylamine with diethyloxalate are separable by flash chromatography into the racemic mixture of (R,R) + (S,S) oxalamides and the (R,S) meso compound.
Durieu, V.; Martiat, G.; Vandergeten, M. Ch.; Pirsoul, F.; Toubeau, F.; Van Camp, Agnès. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 752.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Synthesis
Analysis of Diet Tonic Water Using Capillary Electrophoresis. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Experiment  Harvey B. Herman, John R. Jezorek, and Zhe Tang
An experiment for instrumental analysis is described in which components of diet tonic water are determined using capillary electrophoresis. Separation of quinine, saccharin, and benzoate in pH 7 phosphate buffer, with phenol as internal standard, is accomplished in about 12 minutes.
Herman, Harvey B.; Jezorek, John R.; Tang, Zhe. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 743.
Instrumental Methods |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and Quantification of Preservatives Using Ion Pair HPLC and CZE: An Extended Investigation of Separation Mechanisms  Mary Boyce and Evadne Spickett
This paper describes the separation of preservatives in food and cosmetic creams by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion pair HPLC, and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The experiments described here are designed to promote understanding of the separation mechanisms involved and give students an opportunity to compare and evaluate the different techniques.
Boyce, Mary; Spickett, Evadne. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 740.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
HPLC |
Electrophoresis
A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and R. M. Pike
This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 625.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Simple Laboratory-Constructed Automatic Titrator  Kurt L. Headrick, Terry K. Davies, and Aaron N. Haegele
The construction of a simple automatic titrator is described. The buret is replaced with a metering pump to provide a constant flow of titrant. The output from the pH meter is sent to a recorder via a laboratory- constructed differentiator, allowing the results to be plotted as potential versus time, first or second derivative
Headrick, Kurt L.; Davies, Terry K.; Haegele, Aaron N. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 389.
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Identification of Pharmaceuticals via Computer-Aided Thin Layer Chromatography  Anthony J. Macherone Jr. and Theodore J. Siek
This analytical laboratory experiment demonstrates the methodology of TLC in its relation to toxicology and forensic chemistry. It is easily adapted for high school seniors or undergraduates and employs experimental techniques associated with TLC and post-lab data analysis with concomitant introduction of concepts.
Macherone, Anthony J., Jr.; Siek, Theodore J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 366.
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Toxicology |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Isolating trans-Anethole from Anise Seeds and Elucidating Its Structure: A Project Utilizing One- and Two-Dimensional NMR Spectrometry  Joseph W. LeFevre
This three-week project involves isolating and purifying a natural product and determining its structure. trans-Anethole is isolated from anise seeds by steam distillation and liquid-liquid extraction. The crude product is analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and purified by flash chromatography.
LeFevre, Joseph W. . J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 361.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Isolation of Curcumin from Turmeric  Andrew M. Anderson, Matthew S. Mitchell, and Ram S. Mohan
The active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin, which is approximately 2% by weight of the root of turmeric. We have developed two simple procedures for isolation of curcumin from turmeric, making this a new and interesting natural product isolation experiment.
Anderson, Andrew M.; Mitchell, Matthew S.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 359.
Chromatography |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds
Introducing Chiroscience into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum  Kenny B. Lipkowitz, Tim Naylor, and Keith S. Anliker
"Chiroscience" is a young but robust industry linking science and technology with chemistry and biology; includes description of an asymmetric reduction of a ketone followed by an assessment of the enantiomeric excess by GC using a chiral stationary phase.
Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Naylor, Tim; Anliker, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 305.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Undergraduate Separations Utilizing Flash Chromatography  Gail Horowitz
This article describes the procedures used to carry out four flash chromatography experiments: the isolation of the carotenes, chlorophylls and xanthophylls from a spinach extract; the separation of -carotene from tetraphenyl cyclopentadienone; the isolation of (+) and (-) carvone from caraway and spearmint oil; and the purification of benzil from benzoin.
Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 263.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Linking the Lab Experience with Everyday Life: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for Agronomy Students  Sônia Maria N. Gimenez, Maria Josefa S. Yabe, Neide K. Kondo, Rodrigo O. Mouriño, and Graziela Cristina R. Moura
Samples of soils and plants prepared by students were introduced. Soil was treated with molasses residue, organic matter (chicken manure and humus obtained from goat excrement), and lime. The response of plants to the different soil treatments increased student interest in chemical analyses.
Gimenez, Sônia Maria N.; Yabe, Maria Josefa S.; Kondo, Neide K.; Mouriño, Rodrigo O.; Moura, Graziela Cristina R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 181.
Acids / Bases |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories
Synthesis of Derivatives of (1R)-(-)- and (1S)-(+)-10-Camphorsulfonic Acid  Steven C. Cermak and David F. Wiemer
The preparation of optically active (camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridines from commercially available (1R)-(-) and/or (1S)-(+)10-camphorsulfonic acid provides a clear demonstration of the lack of relationship between absolute configuration and optical rotation. The parent sulfonic acid can be converted to the corresponding acid chloride and then to the sulfonamide, sulfonylimine, and finally to an oxaziridine in a series of practical organic laboratory experiments.
Cermak, Steven C.; Wiemer, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1715.
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases
Chromatographic Separations Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges: Separation of Wine Phenolics  Charles A. Brenneman and Susan E. Ebeler
We describe a simple laboratory experiment that demonstrates the principles of chromatographic separation using solid-phase extraction columns and red wine. By adjusting pH and mobile phase composition, the wine is separated into three fractions of differing polarity. The content of each fraction can be monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy.
Brenneman, Charles A.; Ebeler, Susan E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1710.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry
Separation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons Using 2-Dimensional Thin-Layer Chromatography. An Environmental Chemistry Experiment  Geoffrey T. Crisp and Natalie M. Williamson
Students are given a soil sample from which they extract two (previously added) polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a Soxhlet apparatus. They determine the identity of the unknown PAHs by comparing the 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatograms of the soil sample extract and a standard solution, both of which they must run themselves.
Crisp, Geoffrey T.; Williamson, Natalie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1691.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Environmental Chemistry Using Ultrasound  Belinda K. Wilmer, Edward Poziomek, and Grazyna E. Orzechowska
In this demonstration, we describe a simple method for presenting the usefulness of sonication in environmental chemistry. When an aqueous solution of carbon tetrachloride is sonicated, it degrades to produce HCl and HOCl. These products cause a reduction of pH, which can be observed visually with a pH indicator.
Wilmer, Belinda K.; Poziomek, Edward; Orzechowska, Grazyna E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1657.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Antacids Revisited with Modern Chemical Instruments: GCMS, AAS, and CCT  Stanley L. Burden and Christopher J. Petzold
This paper describes a novel experiment that requires students to obtain and interpret data from several analytical techniques to identify the brand name of a commercial antacid. They are required to design a set of experiments utilizing computer controlled titrations (CCT), atomic absorption (AA), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS), and careful quantitative manual titrations using a visual indicator of their choice to determine the brand name of their sample from a list of six to eight choices.
Burden, Stanley L.; Petzold, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1544.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Demonstrating Chemical and Analytical Concepts in the Undergraduate Laboratory Using Capillary Electrophoresis and Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography  Christopher P. Palmer
Alkyl parabens (4-hydroxy alkyl benzoates), which are common ingredients in cosmetic formulations, are separated by capillary electrophoresis. The electrophoretic mobilities of the parabens can be explained on the basis of their relative size. 3-Hydroxy ethylbenzoate is also separated to demonstrate the effect of substituent position on the acid dissociation constant and the effect this has on electrophoretic mobility.
Palmer, Christopher P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1542.
Colloids |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-diamine  Treptow, Richard S.
First successful resolution of the diamine.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1484.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry
Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations: An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry  Cesar R. Silva, Jose A. Simoni, Carol H. Collins, and Pedro L. O. Volpe
Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid.
Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
The Softening of Hard Water and Complexometric Titrations: An Undergraduate Experiment  Helena Ceretti, Enrique A. Hughes, and Anita Zalts
An experiment in which (i) water hardness is explained and demonstrated; (ii) ion-exchange resin properties are visually demonstrated and then used for softening water; (iii) complexometric titrations are used for evaluating water hardness before and after softening; and (iv) acid-base titration can be used to show that the Ca/Mg ions removed by the ion exchanger are replaced by H ions.
Ceretti, Helena; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1420.
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
Thermochromism in Commercial Products  Mary Anne White and Monique LeBlanc
Many commercial products change color with a change of temperature. How do they do it? The processes responsible for the two major categories of commercial thermochromic coloring agents are presented, along with a description of applications of thermochromic materials.
White, Mary Anne; LeBlanc, Monique. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1201.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Spreadsheet Techniques for Evaluating the Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Salts of Weak Acids  José L. Guinón, José García-Antón, and Valentín Pérez-Herranz
A spreadsheet of Microsoft Excel for determining the solubility of sparingly soluble salts is described. The chart and worksheet are shown simultaneously on the screen. The worksheet can be used for any salt by merely changing the data for the solubility product constant and ionization constants.
Guinn, Jos L.; Garca-Antn, Jos; Prez-Herranz, Valentn. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1157.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Comments on the Treatment of Aromaticity and Acid-Base Character of Pyridine and Pyrrole in Contemporary Organic Chemistry Textbooks  Hugh J. Anderson and Ludwig Bauer
Presentations of aromaticity and acid-base character of pyridine and pyrrole in 18 contemporary organic chemistry textbooks were surveyed.
Anderson, Hugh J.; Bauer, Ludwig. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1151.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds
The Development of a Microscale Continuous Hot Solvent Extractor  Steve S. Wesolowski, Thomas Mulcahy, Christina M. Zafoni, and Wayne E. Wesolowski
To minimize the waste solvent produced, we have developed a microscale continuous hot solvent extractor that effectively extracts 100-500-mg samples using about 4 mL of solvent.
Wesolowski, Steve S.; Mulcahy, Thomas; Zafoni, Christina M.; Wesolowski, Wayne E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1116.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A New Concept for pH-Potential Calculations  K. L. Cheng
This paper discusses the concept of pH-potential calculations and indicates that the pH electrode is a capacitor, not a half-cell as currently believed.
Cheng, K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1029.
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
pH
A General Simulator for Acid-Base Titrations  Robert de Levie
General formal expressions are provided to facilitate the automatic computer calculation of acid-base titration curves of arbitrary mixtures of acids, bases, and salts, without and with activity corrections based on the Davies equation.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 987.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Microscale Vacuum Distillation Apparatus for Simple Separations  Ulf Ellervik and Hans Grundberg
To improve microscale distillation in a basic organic chemistry course, a simple and highly efficient vacuum distillation apparatus was designed.
Ellervik, Ulf; Grundberg, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 986.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Predicting Acid-Base Titration Curves without Calculations  Dennis W. Barnum
In this paper a qualitative and systematic method for sketching titration curves is presented. Even the more complex cases such as salts or polyprotic acids and bases are treated just as easily as simple monoprotic acids. Having students predict the shape of titration curves from known equilibrium constants helps to focus attention on the general principles without distraction by the mathematics.
Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 938.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Do pH in Your Head  Addison Ault
Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 936.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Why Not Replace pH and pOH by Just One Real Acidity Grade, AG?  Henk van Lubeck
The disadvantages of pH and pOH disappear after replacing them with AG, the acidity grade: AG = log [H+]/[OH-]. AG of neutral solutions equals 0 at all temperatures, whereas AG of acidic solutions is positive and of alkaline solutions, negative. AG offers some other minor advantages as well.
van Lubeck, Henk. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 892.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
A Simple and Convenient Method for Generation and NMR Observation of Stable Carbanions  Hamid S. Kasmai
A simple and convenient method for the generation and NMR study of stable carbanions is described. The data and sample spectra illustrate that reliable and good quality NMR spectra of stable carbanions may be obtained. The experiments described provide a good opportunity for students to apply the basic principles of 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry and the interesting topic of the exchange phenomenon in NMR.
Kasmai, Hamid S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Reactive Intermediates |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Separation and Quantification of Simple Ions by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Mary Boyce
A wide range of samples can be rapidly separated and quantified by CE, requiring only small amounts of sample and solvent. The experiments described here give a suitable introduction to capillary electrophoresis and effectively illustrate the mechanism of separation.
Boyce, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 815.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Redox Buffer Strength  Robert de Levie
The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication the redox buffer strength is defined by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 574.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Enzymes
A Simplified Method for Finding the pKa of an Acid-Base Indicator by Spectrophotometry  George S. Patterson
Experiments on determining the pKa of an acid-base indicator by visible spectroscopy are often found in analytical and physical chemistry lab texts. The procedure described here is a modification suitable for general chemistry lab students.
Patterson, George S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 395.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Re-Blue-ing Blue Litmus Paper  Myers, David R.; Crane, Joseph
Re-blue-ing blue litmus paper using ammonium carbonate.
Myers, David R.; Crane, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 319.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Student Understanding of Chromatography: A Hands-On Approach  Robert D. Curtright, Randy Emry, and John Markwell*
This exercise sets up a collaborative activity that challenges students to develop a chromatographic solvent with the appropriate polarity to separate leaf chlorophyll and anthocyanin pigments by TLC. The suggested activity has been tested with both high-school advanced-chemistry students and with undergraduate students in an introductory biochemistry class.
Curtright, Robert D.; Emry, Randy; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 249.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure  M. Dale Alexander
The ammonia smoke fountain demonstration utilizes a modification of the apparatus used in the standard ammonia fountain. The modification allows for the introduction of hydrogen chloride gas into a flask of ammonia rather than water. The flow rate of hydrogen chloride gas into the flask in the smoke fountain is not constant, but periodic; that is, the smoke puffs from the end of the tube. This unexpected behavior elicits an interesting thermodynamic explanation.
Alexander, M. Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 210.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Is It Real Gold?  Harold H. Harris
The oxidation-reduction couples involved in the corrosion of gold alloys and the dissolution of "noble" metals are related to an inquiry to the newspaper columnist, Ann Landers. the origin of several contemporary phrases (touch stone, acid test, Hallmark) are found in the chemistry of gold.
Harris, Harold H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 198.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
A Unified Titration Formula  P. Glaister
In a number of standard titrations, a volume of a monoprotic base MOH at a specific concentration is added to a volume of a monoprotic acid HA at a specific concentrations. Four different types of titration are possible, depending on whether the acid and base are strong or weak. A single unifying formula covering all four cases has been determined.
Glaister, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 132.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Synthesis and Separation of a Diastereomeric Sulfonium Ion by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Francisco A. Valenzuela, Thomas K. Green, and Darwin B. Dahl
An undergraduate laboratory exercise utilizing capillary zone electrophoresis in the analysis of the student-synthesized sulfonium ion sec-butylmethyl-p-tolylsulfonium tetrafluoroborate is presented. The sulfonium ion contains two stereogenic centers and thereby yields four optical isomers.
Valenzuela, Francisco A.; Green, Thomas K.; Dahl, Darwin B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1590.
Electrophoresis |
Stereochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Separation Science |
Synthesis
Buffers Plus  Richard W. Ramette
In 1989 JCE Software published The Acid-Base Package: A Collection of Useful Programs for Proton Transfer Systems. This DOS program has been fully upgraded by the same author to the world of Windows 95.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1504.
Acids / Bases
Using Bad Science To Teach Good Chemistry  Michael S. Epstein
This paper presents examples of bad science ranging from "unintentional mistakes" to "fraud" that can be used as part of traditional courses in general and analytical chemistry to encourage scientific reasoning and ethical behavior, and to provide a classroom atmosphere that encourages students to think and learn.
Epstein, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1399.
Acids / Bases
A Simplified Method for the Microscale Extraction of Pigments from Spinach  Kimberley R. Cousins and Kathleen M. Pierson
A method is presented for microscale sample preparation for the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the pigments in spinach. A commercial vegetable juicer is used for the initial extraction from spinach. This is followed by filtration, liquid/liquid extraction, centrifugation, and evaporation.
Cousins, Kimberley R.; Pierson, Kathleen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1268.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Separation Techniques for Undergraduates  Darwin B. Dahl, John T. Riley, and Thomas K. Green
Over the past several years the Chemistry Department at Western Kentucky University (WKU) has sought to strengthen its undergraduate program departmental through acquisition of FT-NMR, fluorescence, electrochemical, thermal analysis, laser Raman, microscale organic, and polymer laboratory instrumentation; this has enabled the department to build a successful undergraduate program.
Dahl, Darwin B.; Riley, John T.; Green, Thomas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1209.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Microscale Lab
An Inexpensive Detector for Gas Chromatography  Allan L. Smith, Edward J. Thorne, and Wolfgang Nadler
We have developed a low-cost (parts cost approximately $70) detector that can be used in a freshman level class to demonstrate the fundamental principles of gas chromatography (GC). The detector box can be used in a modification of experiments available in the literature which do not enable a quantitative method of analysis. We have used it with success in a freshman class of approximately 450 students in an experiment to separate chlorinated hydrocarbons via GC.
Smith, Allan L.; Thorne, Edward J.; Nadler, Wolfgang. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1129.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Capillary Electrophoresis in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams
Availability of capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrumentation allows students to have hands-on experience with this modern separation tool. They gain more than operational knowledge, however. Inherent in the instructional process is an emphasis on the relation of the chemistry of the sample to the fundamental mechanism of electrophoresis and the demonstration of how CE complements other methods for similar measurements.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1079.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Basic Laboratory Chemistry  reviewed by Deborah McCool
Basic Laboratory Chemistry is a series of sixteen programs presenting demonstrations of many processes and experimental techniques used in the chemistry laboratory in both macroscale and microscale. Topics included in the programs are assembling macroscale and microscale apparatus, spectroscopy, chromatography, and procedures such as filtration, extraction, distillation, and titration.
McCool, Deborah. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 830.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  Greg P. Smestad and Michael Gratzel
A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer.
Smestad, Greg P.; Grtzel, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 752.
Photochemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Nanotechnology |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Kinetic Demonstration of Intermolecular General Acid (GA) Catalysis in Thiolysis of 9-Anilinoacridine   Mohammad Niyaz Khan
After nearly five decades of active research and numerous publications on GA-GB catalysis, introduction of an experiment on GA for students majoring in enzymology/physical organic chemistry at advanced undergraduate/postgraduate level is appropriate. A kinetic experiment involving the reaction of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) with 9-anilinoacridine (9-ANA) is designed to demonstrate intermolecular GA catalysis.
Khan, Mohammad Niyaz. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 632.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Determination of the Equilibrium Constants of a Weak Acid: An Experiment for Analytical or Physical Chemistry   Russell A. Bonham
Allows students to explore the concepts of chemical equilibria, nonideal behavior of aqueous solutions, least squares with adjustment of nonlinear model parameters, and errors. The relationship between the pH of a solution of known initial concentration and volume of a weak acid as it is titrated by known volumes of a monohydroxy strong base is developed rigorously assuming ideal behavior.
Bonham, Russell A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 631.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Letters to the Editor  
The author points out that in a previous article, "Why Is Bismuth Subchloride Soluble in Acid," a key reaction which aids in the dissolving of bismuth subchloride is omitted.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 523.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Mechanism Templates: Lecture Aids for Effective Presentation of Mechanism in Introductory Organic Chemistry  Brian J. McNelis
To promote active student learning of mechanism in introductory organic chemistry, hand-outs have been developed with incomplete structures for reaction processes depicted, which are called mechanism templates. The key to these lecture aids is to provide only enough detail in the diagram to facilitate notetaking, ensuring that these templates are dynamic learning tools that must be utilized by an engaged and alert student.
Brian J. McNelis. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 479.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Quantitative HPLC Analysis of an Analgesic/Caffeine Formulation: Determination of Caffeine  Glenda K. Ferguson
The experiment detailed herein involves the determination of caffeine in Goody's Extra Strength Headache Powders, a commercially available medication which contains acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine as active ingredients.
Glenda K. Ferguson. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 467.
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Separation Science
A Modified Microburet for Microscale Titration  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and Ronald M. Pike
A modified microburet can be constructed inexpensively from readily available laboratory materials. These materials include a 2 mL graduated pipet, a 5 or 10 mL plastic syringe body, a small piece of latex tubing, and a small size automatic delivery pipet tip. The modified microburet is easy to use, and gives accurate results.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 371.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Organic Chemistry (by Maitland Jones, Jr. )  Michael S. Holden
The general framework that Jones uses is that of Lewis acids reacting with Lewis bases, with an emphasis on the interaction of filled and empty orbitals. Again and again, as you work your way through the text, there are examples of reactions being explained by the overlap of orbitals.
Holden, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 291.
Lewis Acids / Bases
An Integrated Extraction/Crystallization/Distillation Experiment  Claude Amsterdamsky
An organic chemistry experiment that involves the extraction, crystallization, and distillation of a 3-component mixture over two 4-hour laboratory periods.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 219.
Separation Science
Buffer Solutions: The Basics (by R. J. Beynon and J. S. Easterby)  Wheeler Conover
The concept of buffers, pH measurements, pH electrodes, and preparation of buffers are explained primarily for biologists and biochemists.
Conover, Wheeler. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 153.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Controlled Enolates: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course  Augustine Silveira Jr., Michael A. Knopp, and Jhong Kim
A microscale preparation of thermodynamic and kinetic enolates is given as an undergraduate research laboratory. This experiment provides student involvement and discussion.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Knopp, Michael A.; Kim, Jhong. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 78.
Equilibrium |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Acid-Base Chemistry of the Aluminum Ion in Aqueous Solution  Edward Koubek
A demonstration of the amphoteric behavior of aluminum is given based on an older report that was given many years ago.
Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 60.
Coordination Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Microscale Laboratory Heating System  Dwight Kinzer
A multifunctional heating system and a disposable still for use in the microscale laboratory are described. Time required for laboratory procedures is minimized. A novel microscale boiling point determination procedure is included.
Kinzer, Dwight. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Potentiometric Acid-Base Titrations with Activated Graphite Electrodes  P. Riyazuddin and D. Devika
Dry cell graphite (DCG) electrodes activated with potassium permanganate are employed as potentiometric indicator electrodes for acid-base titrations. Special attention is given to an indicator probe comprising activated DCG-non-activiated DCG electrode couple.
Riyazuddin, P.; Devika, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1198.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The reply: Ionization Constants  S. Roo, L. Vermeire, and C. Gorller-Walrand
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Roo, S.; Vermeire, L.; Gorller-Walrand, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Ionization Constants  Morris Bader
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A Study of the pH of Sweat for Horses: A Student-Devised Study by Science and Health Science Majors  John Tierney, Lori Peacock, Erica Sorkin, and Susan Ware
This article describes the results obtained when the pH for horse sweat was measured. Comparisons with the studies on humans are also noted. The pH of perspiration produced by mares and gelding was measured under controlled conditions and found to be between 6.7 to 10.
Tierney, John; Peacock, Lori; Sorkin, Erica; Ware, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1135.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Undergraduate Research
Quantitative Determination of Caffeine in Beverages Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  Janusz Pawliszyn, Min J. Yang, and Maureen L. Orton
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been applied to the analysis of various caffeinated beverages. Unlike the current methods, this technique is solvent free and requires no pH adjustments. The simplicity of the SPME-GC/MS method lends itself to a good undergraduate laboratory practice.
Pawliszyn, Janusz; Yang, Min J.; Orton, Maureen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1130.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Separation of Enantiomeric Barbiturates by Capillary Electrophoresis Using a Cyclodextrin Containing Run Buffer  S. Contradi, Carla Vogt, and E. Rohde
This article is intended to demonstrate the potential of CE for the determination of enantiomers. The separation is based on the addition of a suitable chiral selector to the buffer. Cyclodextrins perform as excellent selectors forming diastereomeric complexes of different stability with the enantiomeric forms of the analyte.
Contradi, S.; Vogt, Carla; Rohde E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1122.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Medicinal Chemistry
Simultaneous Determination of Aspirin, Salicylamide, and Caffeine in Pain Relievers by Target Factor Analysis  Huggins Z. Msimanga, Melissa J. Charles, and Nea W. Martin
A factor analysis-based experiment for the undergraduate instrumental analysis labs is reported. Target factor analysis (TFA) is investigated as an option to the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the analysis of a pain reliever sample containing aspirin, caffeine, and salicylamide.
Msimanga, Huggins Z.; Charles, Melissa J.; Martin, Nea W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1114.
Separation Science |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry
Determination of Crude Fat in Food Products by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Gravimetric Analysis  Nicholas H. Snow, Maureen Dunn, and Sohita Patel
The use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), a recently developed analytical extraction method, in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is demonstrated.
Snow, Nicholas H.; Dunn, Maureen; Patel, Sohita. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1108.
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Gravimetric Analysis
Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils  Judith F. Rubinson and Jennifer Neyer-Hilvert

Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1106.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke  Jon W. Wong, Kenley K. Ngim, Jason P. Eiserich, Helen C. H. Yeo, Takayuki Shibamoto, and Scott A. Mabury
This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode).
Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1100.
Learning Theories |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry
Buffer Index and Buffer Capacity for a Simple Buffer Solution  Veronica Chiriac, Gabriel Balea
Many papers that present the buffering effect of the simple buffer solution consider the notion of buffer index and buffer capacity as being equivalent. Moreover, IUPAC defies them as the same thing. According to the definition of the authors who have introduced these two units, the paper shows that there is a large difference between them.
Chiriac, Veronica ; Balea, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 937.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Dissociation Constant for a Monoprotic Acid (response re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 74, 792)
The authors reply:
  R. Garcia-Domenech, J. V. de Julian-Ortiz, G. M. Anton-Fos, Jorge Galvez-Alvarez
Answers questions raised by related letter.
Garcia-Domenech, R.; Julian-Ortiz, J. V. de; Anton-Fos, G. M.; Galvez-Alvarez, Jorge . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 899.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Dissociation Constant for a Monoprotic Acid (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 74, 792)  Richard W. Ramette
Questions for classroom consideration raised by the original article.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 880.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Potentiometric Measurement of Transition Ranges and Titration Errors for Acid/Base Indicators  Paul A. Flowers
The pH and visually-assessed color of a millimolar strong acid/base system are monitored as a function of added titrant volume, and the resultant data plotted to permit determination of the indicator's transition range and associated titration error.
Flowers, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 846.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Potentiometry |
Chemometrics
Free Radical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Examples from Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater from the Chemistry in Airborne Water Droplets  N. Colin Baird
A common free radical reaction in aqueous solution is electron transfer, especially to the hydroxyl radical and to ozone. Hydrogen peroxide and free radicals related to it act as weak acids, so both their neutral and deprotonated forms must be considered in reactions. Free radical reactions also play an important role in the chemistry of water droplets suspended in air in clouds and fogs.
Baird, N. Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 817.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactive Intermediates |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Synthesis, Characterization, and Lewis Acidity of SnI2 and SnI4  Richard W. Schaeffer, Benny Chan, Michael Molinaro, Susan Morissey, Claude H. Yoder, Carolyn S. Yoder, and Stephanie Shenk
In this project the student has the opportunity to learn about: a) the direct synthesis of compounds from the elements, b) stoichiometry and limiting reagent, c) isolation by recrystallization, d) use of inert atmosphere, e) identification by melting point, gravimetric analysis, powder x-ray diffraction, and NMR spectroscopy, and f) at least one method for determination of relative Lewis acidity.
Schaeffer, Richard W. ; Chan, Benny ; Molinaro, Michael; Morissey, Susan ; Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.; Shenk, Stephanie. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 575.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Stoichiometry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy
Sheldon Shore, Small Boranes, and Ammonia  Robert W. Parry
The paper discusses the early studies on "the diammoniate of diborane" and emphasizes how continuing work done by Sheldon Shore at Ohio State University extended the work on the boranes and answered here-to-fore vexing structural problems on intermediates in the borane and borane-ammonia system.
Parry, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 512.
Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Synthesis
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation: Part 4. Alkaline Paper  Henry A. Carter
The use of alkaline paper can minimize the problem of acidity for new papers. This study focuses on the chemistry involved in the sizing of both acid and alkaline papers and the types of fillers used. The advantages and potential problems in alkaline paper making are also discussed.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 508.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Why is Bismuth Subchloride Soluble in Acid?  Damon Diemente
It is shown that the solubility of BiOCl can be explained as a consequence of the shifting of hydrolysis equilibriums upon the addition of acid. Two demonstrations suitable for classroom use are presented, with detailed discussion of each.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 398.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Extraction, Isolation, and Characterization of Fullerene C60: A Safe and Reliable Separation Experiment  Jamey L. Anderson, Michele A. West, Christopher S. Foote
Appropriate for an advanced high school or introductory college chemistry laboratory, the experiment described here allows students to safely perform organic chemistry techniques in the absence of a fume hood.
Anderson, Jamey L.; West, Michele A.; Foote, Christopher S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 311.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Virtual Titrator: A Student-Oriented Instrument  David Ritter and Michael Johnson
A virtual autotitrator based on an Orion pH meter, a 386 CPU computer, and a homemade stepper-motor driven syringe, and a stopped-flow spectrometer interfaced to a 386 CPU computer which uses a virtual oscilloscope program written in Visual Basic to collect and display the data.
Ritter, David; Johnson, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 120.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
HPLC for Undergraduate Introductory Laboratories  Scott A. Van Arman and Marcus W. Thomsen
A set of simple HPLC separations as part of an introductory set of projects that serve as an introduction to chromatography early in the organic course; quantitative analysis has been introduced to the common separation of analgesics so that students may identify the composition of an unknown commercial tablet.
Van Arman, Scott A. and Thomsen, Marcus W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 49.
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC |
Separation Science
HPLC: EARLY AND RECENT PERSPECTIVES  Barry L. Karger
Personal reflections on the early days of HPLC and recent developments. HPLC has emerged from a technique that could only be imagined in the early 1960's to sales over $1.4 billion in 1994. Key to the advances has been the translation of theory to practice, in the ability to pack small particle diameter matrices of 5 mm to yield high efficiency columns.
Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 45.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Modern Practice of Liquid Chromatography: Before and after 1971  Lloyd R. Snyder
A selective history (1941 through 1990) is reported of the development of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from the perspective of the author. Emphasis is given to how a practical understanding of the technique emerged.
Snyder, Lloyd, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 37.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Micropath Distillation Apparatus  N. K. Hazra and D. Mal
A shortpath distillation apparatus in its inverted position can be used for microscale distillation of a liquid sample. This article describes the process.
Hazra, N. K.; Mal, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A103.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Synthesis and Use of Reverse-Phase Silica Gel for HPLC in Undergraduate Chemistry  Fernando Ortega, Ernesto Velez, and Ratnasamy Somanathan
Commercially available silica gel was derivatized with n-octadecyldimethylchlorosilane to produce inexpensive HPLC reverse-phase stationary support, which was used in separation experiments.
Ortega, Fernando; Velez, Ernesto; Somanathan, Ratnassamy. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A26.
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Air Stream-Assisted Sublimation on a Microscale: A Rapid Procedure Suitable for Sophomore Laboratory  Prem D. Sattsangi
Using familiar apparatus, such as a 3-mL reaction vial, an air condenser, a stream of clean air/nitrogen/argon, an aluminum heating block and a hot plate, several compounds in the microscale amounts (50 mg), with its melting points ranging from 50-240 C, have been successfully sublimed in 40 minutes.
Sattsangi, Prem D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A3.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Chromatographic Separation of Phosphoric Acid from Cola Beverages  Diego Lozano-Calero, Pilar Martìn-Palomeque, Silvia Madueño-Lorguillo
The color of cola beverages interferes in the colorimetric determination of phosphoric acid. This interference is not significant if the sample is diluted sufficiently. However, a previous step where phosphoric acid is separated from the rest of the sample would be desirable. Therefore, we carried out the chromatographic separation of phosphoric acid by using an anionic exchange resin.
Lozano-Calero, Diego; Martìn-Palomeque, Pilar; Madueño-Lorguillo, Silvia. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1172.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants  D. J. Adam, J. Mainwaring, Michael N. Quigley
A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity.
Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1171.
Separation Science |
Physical Properties
Optical Basicity: A Practical Acid-Base Theory for Oxides and Oxyanions  J. A. Duffy
The optical basicity concept relies on the Lewis approach to acids and bases and was developed for dealing with chemical problems in non-aqueous, non-protonic media such as silicates, phosphates and borates which are important in glass making and (as slags) for refining steel.
Duffy, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1138.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases
Oxygenates in Gasoline: A Versatile Experiment Using Gas Chromatography  Linda C. Brazdil
An experiment for introductory chemistry in which oxygenates are extracted from gasoline and analyzed by gas chromatography is described. The extraction of oxygenates from gasoline with water prior to analysis by gas chromatography allows for their easy identification and quantification since only the oxygenates dissolve in water. Both qualitative and quantitative versions of the experiment are described.
Brazdil, Linda C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1056.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Containment of Spray Reagents in TLC Spot Detection  Josef G. Krause
If spraying a reagent with a power pac type device is preferred for this or some other reason, we suggest spraying the reagent inside of a twist tie-sealed, clear-plastic kitchen garbage bag.
Krause, Josef G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 979.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiments That Illustrate General Problems in Chromatography  M. Lederer, E. Leipzig-Pagani
A number of chromatography experiments using cellulose thin layers and aqueous eluents are proposed to illustrate how chromatography can be used for "pattern recognition" of the inks of felt-tip pens, the principle of displacement chromatography of the constituents of the antiseptic Mercurochrome, salting-out chromatography for the separation of halides, and the impossibility to use chromatography alone as a method of identification.
Lederer, M.; Leipzig-Pagani, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 974.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Determination of the Dissociation Constant for Monoprotic Acid by Simple pH Measurements  R. García-Doménech, J. V. de Julián-Ortiz, G. M. Antón-Fos, and J. Galvez Alvarez
The dissociation constant for a weak monoprotic acid may be calculated in aqueous alkaline solution by straightforward pH measurements, before and after the addition of the acid, and with the advantage of not having to standardize the solutions.
García-Doménech, R.; de Julián-Ortiz, J. V.; Antón-Fos, G. M.; Alvarez, J. Galvez. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 792.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hard and Soft Acid-Base Behavior in Aqueous Solution: Steric Effects Make Some Metal Ions Hard: A Quantitative Scale of Hardness-Softness for Acids and Bases  Robert D. Hancock and Arthur E. Martell
The idea of hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB), developed by R. G. Pearson some 30 years ago, has been used as a unifying principle in several texts. In this article, the behaviour of HSAB in aqueous solution is addressed. A quantitative scale of hardness-softness for acids and bases is presented also.
Robert D. Hancock and Arthur E. Martell. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 654.
Quantitative Analysis |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds
Visible ion exchange demonstration for large or small lecture halls  Driscoll, Jerry A.
This demonstration is a colorful illustration of how an ion exchange column works.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 640.
Equilibrium |
Conductivity |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
A Simpler Approach to "Apparent" pKa's  Kildahl, Nicholas
Addition to a recent article on pH, indicating an approach which emphasizes the chemistry behind the titration of a weak acid.
Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 598.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in Nonscience Major Course Laboratory Experiments  Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos
Our efforts have centered on introducing prospective science communicators (film, video, radio, television, and journalism majors) to science relative to their majors and personal interests. Quality lecture-discussion topics, "mystery"-based laboratory activities have assisted in introducing and/or explaining specific areas of chemistry that attempt to reduce fear of subject matter.
Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 565.
Nonmajor Courses |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Forensic Chemistry |
Separation Science
Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in River and Bay Sediments: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Environmental Chemistry Using Capillary Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection  Susan E. Kegley, Kristen J. Hansen, and Kevin L. Cunningham
This paper briefly discusses the history of PCB use and provides guidelines for finding and evaluating PCB-contaminated sites as a way to interest students by showing them an application of chemistry to the "real world."
Kegley, Susan E.; Hansen, Kristen J.; Cunningham, Kevin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 558.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Separatory Flask and Beaker  Albert W. M. Lee
Separatory funnels are commonly used in the organic laboratory for separating organic and aqueous layers after extraction. We designed an alternative by adding a pouring sidearm to an Erlenmeyer flask or beaker that is described in this article.
Lee, Albert W. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 557.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Separation Science
Epoxidation of Alpha-Methylstyrene and its Lewis Acid Rearrangement to 2-Phenylpropanal  David L. Garin, Melissa Gamber, and Bradley J. Rowe
This undergraduate organic lab experiment includes procedures for the peracid epoxidation of an olefin and the Lewis acid rearrangement of an epoxide to a carbonyl compound.
Garin, David L.; Gamber, Melissa; Rowe, Bradley J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 555.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones
All Positive Ions Give Acid Solutions in Water  Stephen J. Hawkes
The acidity of aqueous solutions of positive ions is never zero although many texts say incorrectly that most metals of Groups I and II and some others are not acidic.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH
Bench Top Vortexing Countercurrent Extractor for Controlled pH Extraction of a Mixture  Yock Chai Toong
A new liquid-liquid countercurrent process based on vortexing of liquid is described and an application of the process in separation of a mixture of acidic, basic, and neutral compounds by controlled pH extraction is given.
Toong, Yock Chai. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 476.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Experiment Demonstrating the Temperature Effect in Supramolecular Chemistry  Pawel K. Zarzycki and Henryk Lamparczyk
The aim of the experiment described in this article is to demonstrate the temperature influence on creation of an inclusion complex in which beta-cyclodextrin is the host molecule and phenolophtalein is the guest.
Zarzycki, Pawel K.; Lamparczyk, Henryk. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 459.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science
The Teaching of Precipitation Equilibrium: A New Approach  Ana M. V. S. V. Cavaleiro
In this paper we present a simplified integrated approach to the calculation of the solubility in water of a salt, and the pH of the saturated solution, taking into account the acid-base reactions of the anion.
Cavaleiro, Ana M. V. S. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 423.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
A Compact Steam Distillation Apparatus  Imran Ali
A very compact steam distillation apparatus is designed and reported in this paper.
Ali, Imran. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 285.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Procedure Modification for the Use of Corn Starch Packing Puffs for Titration Endpoints  Judith M. Bonicamp
This short article describes the use of Eco-Foam cornstarch packing puffs to make starch indicator solution.
Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 258.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates
An Improved Method for the Separation of Lead-210 from Ra-DEF for Radioactive Equilibrium Experiments: Microscale Liquid-Liquid Extraction Using a Polymer-Supported Crown Ether  Mark L. Dietz and E. Philip Horwitz
A novel extraction chromatographic material, comprised of a solution of a lead-selective macrocyclic polyether (di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6) in isodecanol sorbed on an inert polymeric support, is shown to provide a rapid and simple means for the separation of lead-210 from its daughter products for subsequent radiochemical experimentation.
Dietz, Mark L.; Horwitz, E. Philip. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 182.
Separation Science |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
From the Lecture Hall to the Laboratory: The Pinacol Rearrangement: Fostering Problem Solving Abilities and Critical Thinking Skills of the Organic Chemistry Student  Brenda J. Wojciechowski and Todd S. Deal
This article describes an interesting experiment for elementary organic laboratories. While the reaction (the Pinacol Rearrangement) described is an old one, its application as a puzzle is a new one.
Wojciechowsi, Brenda J.; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 85.
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Organic Qualitative Analysis at the Microscale Level  Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K.
Project requiring students to identify pure unknowns and the components of mixtures using a variety of chromatography and spectrometry techniques.
Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A102.
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience  Linda C. Hodges
Using chromatography to isolate and analyze phosphatidylcholine from chickens raised on different diets.
Hodges, Linda C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1140.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Lipids
An Undergraduate Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiment: Olfactory Delights  Mary Anne Lynch, Wendy Gloffke, and Richard A. Rauner
Procedure for separating flavors and fragrances using thin-layer chromatography.
Lynch, Mary Anne; Gloffke, Wendy; Rauner, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1137.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
From Christmas Ornament to Glass Electrode  Rogério T. da Rocha, Ivano G. R. Gutz, and Claudimir L. do Lago
Instructions and use of a homemade glass electrode for pH measurements/titrations.
Da Rocha, Rogerio T.; Gutz, Ivano G. R.; do Lago, Claudimir L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1135.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
pH
Environmental Laboratory Exercise: Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide by Fluorescence Spectroscopy  Judith Weinstein--Lloyd and Jai H. Lee
Procedure in which students analyze precipitation samples for trace concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (a deleterious air pollutant) using fluorescence spectroscopy.
Weinstein-Lloyd, Judith; Lee, Jai H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1053.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Thin-Layer Chromatography of Analgesics--An Update  John W. Elder
Procedure for identifying ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, acetominaphen, aspirin, and caffeine on commercial chromatography sheets containing a fluorescent indicator.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1049.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds
Crystallization of Supersaturated Sodium Acetate and the Temperature Dependence of the Autoionization Constant of Water  Joseph A. Pergler, Ronald O. Ragsdale, and Thomas G. Richmond
A procedure to qualitatively demonstrate the variation of the autoionization constant of water with temperature.
Pergler, Joseph A.; Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1027.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Dating Analogy for Acid-Base Titration Problems  Ronald DeLorenzo
Analogy to help students understand the consequences of concentrating or diluting unknowns before titrating them.
DeLorenzo, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1011.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography to Determine the C60:C70 Ratio in Fullerene Soot: An Undergraduate Chemistry Lab  Michael C. Zumwalt and M. Bonner Denton
Apparatus for producing fullerene soot and procedure for determining its C60-C70 ratio.
Zumwalt, Michael C.; Denton, M. Bonner. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 939.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Main-Group Elements |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Alkenes |
HPLC |
Quantitative Analysis
Environmentally Acceptable Determination of Iron  Bader, Morris.
Elaboration upon original procedure.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 860.
Separation Science
GC/MS Analysis of the Aromatic Composition of Gasoline  Keith S. Kostecka, Ashraf Rabah, and Charles F. Palmer, Jr.
Procedure for examining 11 aromatics species in three unleaded regular-grade commercial fuels using GC/MS analysis; includes sample data.
Kostecka, Keith S.; Rabah, Ashraf; Palmer, Charles F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 853.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
The Extraction of Caffeine from Tea: An Old Undergraduate Experiment Revisited  Scott D. Murray and Peter J. Hansen
Procedure eliminating chloroform and dichloromethane from the extraction of caffeine from tea.
Murray, Scott D.; Hansen, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 851.
Separation Science
Ion-Pair Complexation in Moderately Strong Aqueous Acids  Lowell M. Schwartz
Discussion/analysis of ion association in aqueous solution, particularly ion pairing involving the hydronium ion.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 823.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
From Titration Data to Buffer Capacities: A Computer Experiment for the Chemistry Lab or Lecture  Roy W. Clark, Gary D. White, Judith M. Bonicamp, and Exum D. Watts
Provides titration curve data that students can plot and analyze using spreadsheets to develop student understanding of pH, derivatives, buffer capacity, and the behavior of dilute buffers; includes sample graphs and analysis.
Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D.; Bonicamp, Judith M.; Watts, Exum D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 746.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Using GC-MS to Determine Relative Reactivity Ratios   R. Daniel Bishop, Jr.
Experiment that demonstrates the use of GC-mass spectrometry in the separation and analysis of mixtures; also uses the GC-mass spectrometer to find the relative reactivity of primary, secondary, and tertiary hydrogens.
Bishop, R. Daniel, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 743.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry for Large Undergraduate Laboratory Sections  A. Illies, P. B. Shevlin, G. Childers, M. Peschke and J. Tsai
A gas chromatography - mass spectrometry experiment that allows each student in a large laboratory class to analyze the products of a simple organic synthesis.
Illies, A.; Shevlin, P. B.; Childers, G.; Peschke, M.; Tsai, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 717.
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
A Dibasic Acid Titration for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  G. D. Brabson, J. T. Clay, and E. A. Walters
Experiment in which the pKa values of a weak dibasic acid, with closely spaced values for pK1 and pK2 are determined in an acid-base titration; analysis is done using a computer connected to a pH meter; sample data and analysis included.
Brabson, G. D.; Clay, J. T.; Walters, E. A. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 665.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Two Paired "Le Chatelier" Reactions  John J. Cawley
Procedure involving acid-catalyzed esterfication and base-catalyzed hydrolysis to illustrate the ideas of equilibrium, percent yield, and Le Chtelier's principle; both reactions result in percentage yields greater than the equilibrium constant would suggest.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 657.
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
Turmeric as an Acid-Base Indicator  Breedlove, C. H.
Example of turmeric as a natural acid-base indicator.
Breedlove, C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 540.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
Bromination of Disubstituted Arenes: Kinetics and Mechanism: GC/MS Experiments for the Instrumental Analysis and Organic Chemistry Labs  Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.
Experimental procedure using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to trace the progression of a reaction over time and determine the several possible steps of its mechanism; sample data and analysis included.
Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 460.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds
Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography  Bertotti, Mauro; Vaz, Jorge Moreira; Telles, Rogerio
Procedure for determining the concentration of ascorbic acid in orange juice using electroanalytical techniques (coulometry and polarography).
Bertotti, Mauro; Vaz, Jorge Moreira; Telles, Rogerio J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 445.
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A Simple Demonstration of the Ion-Pairing Effect on the Solubility of Charged Molecules  Hervas, Manuel A.; Fabara, Carlos E.
Demonstration to illustrate the effect of ion-pair formation on the solubility of charged molecules.
Hervas, Manuel A.; Fabara, Carlos E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 437.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents
Flash Chromatographic Separation and Electronic Absorption Spectra of Carotenoids: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Evans, Jeffrey M.
Procedure for separating beta-carotene and lycopene from carrots and tomatoes to illustrate the operation and versatility of flash chromatography.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Evans, Jeffrey M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 374.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography  Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott
Experimental procedure for measuring carbon monoxide in auto exhaust by gas chromatography; includes sample data and analysis.
Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 364.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Separation Science |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Visual demonstration of buffer action  Chang, James C.
A fast and easy demonstration of buffer action without the elaborate preparation of solutions.
Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 345.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
"Crack" - A High-Interest Compound Illustrating Important Concepts in General Chemistry  Hoyt, William
Using crack and cocaine as examples of amine acid-base chemistry.
Hoyt, William J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 322.
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters
Liquid-Liquid Extraction: Are n Extractions with V/n mL of Solvent Really More Effective Than One Extraction with V mL?  Palleros, Daniel R.
Demonstration that if the partition coefficient between two solvents is very large or very small, dividing up the total amount of solvent into small portions and carrying out several small extractions does not improve the efficiency over a single extraction.
Palleros, Daniel R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 319.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents
Liquid Chromatographic Determination of UV Absorbers in Sunscreens  Davis, Mary R.; Quigley, Michael N.
Using liquid chromatography with UV absorbence to determine the concentration of compounds that block UV radiation in commercial sunscreens; includes sample data.
Davis, Mary R.; Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 279.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
The Identification of Aspirin-Free Bayer Products: An Alternative to the Classical TLC of Analgesics (1)  Cawley, John J.
Procedure for identifying several non-aspirin analgesics using using thin layer chromatography and an ultraviolet lamp.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 272.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) in Sediment: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment  Brouwer, Henry
Experimental procedure for measuring acid volatile sulfides in environmental samples.
Brouwer, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 182.
Acids / Bases
The Determination of "Apparent" pKa's: Part II. An Experiment Using Very Weak Acids (pKa's > 11.4)  Cawley, John J.
Experimental procedure for illustrating when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation fails for very weak acids; data and analysis included.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 88.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Enantiomeric Separation of Beta-Blockers by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: An Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Experiment  Tran, Chieu D.; Dotlich, Michael
Experimental procedure to familiarize students with the principle and application of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate isomers of a common pharmaceutical; includes data and analysis.
Tran, Chieu D.; Dotlich, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 71.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Separation Science |
HPLC
Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations by Iteration: Recycle Your Approximations  Weltin, E.
Using graphing calculators, spreadsheets, and iteration analysis to approximate equilibrium concentrations and judge their accuracy; includes data and analysis.
Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
An Inexpensive Suction Microfilter  McDevitt, Eugene J.
Two disposable polyethylene transfer pipets can be used to form a single-use filtering funnel for several grams of solid yield.
McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A147.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A Better Way to Cut Filter Paper for Microscale Lab Use  Huisman, Richard D.
Using a power paper punch to cut microscale filter paper.
Huisman, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A147.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
A Microscale Isolation of Limonene from Orange Peels  Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad
A rapid and reliable extractive microscale isolation of limonene.
Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A146.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Natural Products |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
The Distribution of Cyclohexanone between Cyclohexane and Water  Worley, John D.
A microscale experiment that may be used to demonstrate extraction, spectrophotometric analysis, and the determination of a distribution constant.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A145.
Microscale Lab |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
A Microscale Purification and Qualitative Spectroscopic Examination of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene): An Experiment Suitable for Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Courses  Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D.
A simple and inexpensive purification procedure for isolating C60.
Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A141.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
The Modern Student Laboratory: Determination of the Thermodynamic Dissociation Constant of a Weak Acid by Potentiometric Acid-Base Titration: A Three-Hour Laboratory Experiment  Partanen, Jaako I.; Karki, Merja H.
Improvements upon an earlier potentiometric titration.
Partanen, Jaako I.; Karki, Merja H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A120.
Acids / Bases |
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Microscale Column Chromatographic Isolation of a Red Pigment from Paprika  West, Kevin J.; Rauch, Paul
Modification of a macroscopic procedure to a microscale experiment.
West, Kevin J.; Rauch, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A59.
Microscale Lab |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Small Scale Determination of the pKa Values for Organic Acids  Flash, Patrick
Determination and interpretation of the pKa values for a series of organic acids as a concrete example of the effect of structure on acid strength.
Flash, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A6.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carboxylic Acids
Direct Collection of Distillation Fractions into Vials: A Method for the Micro/Semi-Micro Scale Laboratory  Jordan, David
An inexpensive and simple system for collection of distillation fractions directly into their storage containers.
Jordan, David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A5.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The ABC's of Chromatography: A Colorful Demonstration.  Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N.
This demonstration involves the separation of combinations of seven highly colored dyes by thin layer chromatography to help explain separation science while capturing the attention of the audience by spelling words with these dyes.
Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1075.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Not So Late Night Chemistry with USD  Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R.
Through the program, college students enhance their knowledge and expertise on a chemical topic and gain experience in scientific presentations. They also serve as role models to the high school students who can relate to college students more easily than the chemistry faculty members and their high school students.
Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 929.
Forensic Chemistry |
Polymerization |
Electrochemistry |
Isotopes |
Acids / Bases
A Simple Alternative to Separatory Funnels for Chemical Extractions  Bye, Ragnar
A novel magnetic bar-stirred extraction method using conventional Erlenmeyer flasks.
Bye, Ragnar J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 806.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Teaching the Truth about pH  Hawkes, Stephen J.
-log[H+] is only an approximation to pH; how to teach pH to avoid misleading students.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 747.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Fruit Anthocyanins: Colorful Sensors of Molecular Milieu  Curtright, Robert D.; Rynearson, James A .; Markwell, John
Provides background and references as a starting point for the further exploration of anthocyanins.
Curtright, Robert D.; Rynearson, James A .; Markwell, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 682.
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Using Computers To Replace Some HPLC Laboratory Work  Bowater, Ian C.; McWilliam, Ian G.
164. Three exercises where students learn about HPLC through computer simulations.
Bowater, Ian C.; McWilliam, Ian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 674.
HPLC |
Separation Science
Acid-Base Titration Curves in Disproportionating Redox Systems  Michalowski, Tadeusz; Lesiak, Andrzej
Titrations for disproportioning systems with two bromine compounds (Br2 and HBrO) and iodine (I2) as examples.
Michalowski, Tadeusz; Lesiak, Andrzej J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 632.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Recovering from Air Bubble Occlusion in Student-Made Chromatography Columns  Engelken, Dustin; Kovacs-Boerger, A. E.
Rejuvenating a chromatography column constructed from a disposable pipet that is blocked by bubbles.
Engelken, Dustin; Kovacs-Boerger, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 598.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Extraction of Organic Compounds from Aqueous Solutions  Love, Brian
Demonstration to separate an orange solution into its yellow and red components.
Love, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 517.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chromatographic Separation of Plant Pigments Using Sand as the Adsorbant: An Inexpensive Chromatographic Technique  Lalitha, Nagubandi
Separating grass pigments using sand as the adsorbant.
Lalitha, Nagubandi J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 432.
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Determination of a Partitioning Coefficient: A Laboratory Practical Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Smedberg, Ronald T.
Lab practical to determine the partitioning coefficient for mandelic acid.
Smedberg, Ronald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 269.
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
TITRATE: A Learning Tool for Acid-Base Titrations  Ramette, Richard W.
Software that calculates and simulates the plot of a titration curve for any base or acid (up to hexaprotic) or any mixture (up to five substances).
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 238.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A microscale suction filtration apparatus   Winkel, Cleve R.
This apparatus helps avoid some of the troublesome aspects of filtration that occur during the transfer stage.
Winkel, Cleve R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A161.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
A Microseparatory Funnel   Hulce, Martin
An apparatus for separations of liquids between 2-6mL total volume.
Hulce, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A39.
Separation Science
Microscale Multiple Extraction--An Experiment for the Microscale Organic Laboratory   Anderson, Steven W.; Johns, Philip T.; Boyd, Craig D.
Description of a microscale experiment in which a distribution constant is determined and the efficiencies of single and multiple extractions are compared.
Anderson, Steven W.; Johns, Philip T.; Boyd, Craig D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A33.
Separation Science
Determining Hammett sigma and rho values: Improvements on a published student experiment  Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn
Modifications and improvements to laboratory experiments written for an organic chemistry lab text.
Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 953.
Esters |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
A recipe for the preparation of a pH 7.00 calibration buffer  Jackman, Donald C.
Simple recipe for preparation of a pH 7.00 calibration buffer based on the NIST standard.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 853.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
pH
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel   Kelly, T. Ross
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel.
Kelly, T. Ross J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 848.
Separation Science |
Acids / Bases
Theoretical analysis of one-one complexometric titration curves  Tianlin, Wang; Fengling, Liu; Liming, Feng
Using one-one complexometric titration curves to help students locate maximum breakpoint relative to the equivalence point.
Tianlin, Wang; Fengling, Liu; Liming, Feng J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 796.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Isolation of piperine from black pepper  Epstein, William W.; Netz, David F.; Seidel, Jimmy L.
A new and interesting natural product for isolation in the organic chemistry lab. This procedure also introduces students to many important instruments and procedures in organic chemistry.
Epstein, William W.; Netz, David F.; Seidel, Jimmy L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 598.
Natural Products |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 2: Potentiometry and conductimetry  Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T.
Further applications of the multimeter in chemistry laboratories are discussed in this paper: potentiometry, reduction potentials and cell EMF, the Nerst equations, pH measurements, titration, conductimetry, and conduction of solutions.
Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 580.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Potentiometry
Liquid chromatographic determination of malic and lactic acids in wine following malolactic fermentation  Brogley, John; Mullick, Joydip; Quigley, Michael N.
This lab takes advantage of wine's unique position in society to invite students to participate in an engaging actvity.
Brogley, John; Mullick, Joydip; Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 507.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Acids / Bases |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry
Maximum efficiency multiple extraction or 2.71828... revisited  Lykos, Peter
An examination of extraction data that may prove counter intuitive to some students.
Lykos, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 448.
Chemometrics |
Separation Science
Potentiometric measurements in a freshwater aquarium  Harris, Thomas M.
The author describes a laboratory activity for an instrumental methods course that is both interesting and instructive to the students while providing a lesson in environmental chemistry and tropical fish care.
Harris, Thomas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 340.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
The Erosion of Carbonate Stone by Acid Rain: Laboratory and Field Investigations  Baedecker, Philip A.; Reddy, Michael M.
Describes a laboratory experiment on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone erosion. The purpose is to answer questions concerning the effects of hydrogen ion deposition on stone erosion processes that are difficult to resolve in field experiments alone.
Baedecker, Philip A.; Reddy, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 104.
Acids / Bases |
Green Chemistry
Studying Acid-Base Equilibria in Two-Phase Solvent Media: Analyzing Results Using Aqueous Surfactant Solutions with Organic Solvents in the Titration of Analytes with Low Solubilities and Low Dissociation Constants  Tucker, Sheryl A.; Amszi, Vicki L.; Acree, William E., Jr.
Authors offer suggestions for the types of problems encountered in an analytical laboratory activity involving the quantitative analysis of weak acids and weak bases.
Tucker, Sheryl A.; Amszi, Vicki L.; Acree, William E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 80.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Microscale filtration  Duarte, Frederick F.; McCoy, Layton L.; Popp, Frank D.
Alternative to Craig tubes or filtered Pasteur pipets.
Duarte, Frederick F.; McCoy, Layton L.; Popp, Frank D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A314.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Microscale distillation-Calculations and comparisons   Schwartz, Marietta H.
In this distillation experiment students perform both a simple and a fractional distillation using the microscale version of traditional glassware.
Schwartz, Marietta H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A127.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
The acid-base package  Ramette, Richard W.; Holmes, Jon L.
Software that will calculate theoretical titration curve data and the pH for any mixture of acids and/or bases.
Ramette, Richard W.; Holmes, Jon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1010.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Size-exclusion chromatography: Separating large molecules from small  McLoughlin, Daniel J.
Description, theory, demonstration, and experimental procedure regarding size-exclusion chromatography.
McLoughlin, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 993.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Cautionary note regarding the phenol color test by ferric chloride in acidic solution  Hasegawa, Tadashi; Usui, Toyokazu
Effect of acids on the phenol color test by ferric chloride.
Hasegawa, Tadashi; Usui, Toyokazu J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 840.
Phenols |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
The Willsttter "nail" and the Schwinger microfilter  Stock, John T.
Description of the Willsttter "nail" device and the Schwinger microfilter
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 822.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Filtration of very fine particles from an air-sensitive reaction mixture.  Tessier, Claire A.
A filtration device to separate fine particles from air-sensitive mixtures.
Tessier, Claire A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 684.
Separation Science |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Separation of aspirin from acetaminophen and caffeine in an over-the-counter analgesic tablet.  Williams, John P.; West, Kevin J.; Erickson, Karen L.
An procedure that uses smaller volumes of "safer" solvents in performing the extraction and allows the use of simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis in the determination.
Williams, John P.; West, Kevin J.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 669.
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Constructing a complete temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture: A new experiment that uses quantitative gas chromatography.  Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang.
Experiment to help students appreciate fractional distillation and a fundamental application of gas chromatography.
Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 581.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
A low-cost pH meter for the classroom.  Harris, David L.; Harris, Daniel C.
Design of an inexpensive yet precise pH meter for classroom use.
Harris, David L.; Harris, Daniel C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 563.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Precipitation of a murder: A creative use of strychnine chemistry in Agatha Christie's The Mysterious Affair at Styles.  Southward, Robin E.; Hollis, W. Gary, Jr.; Thompson, David W.
Discussion of the chemistry involved in this mystery and its analysis by students.
Southward, Robin E.; Hollis, W. Gary, Jr.; Thompson, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 536.
Applications of Chemistry |
Toxicology |
Acids / Bases
The extent of acid-base reactions (the author replies).  Thompson, Ralph J.
A poor example for calculating the extent of reaction between hydronium ion and aniline was chosen.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions.  Tapparo, Andrea.
Several misleading statements can be found in the original article.
Tapparo, Andrea. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 515.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The acid equilibrium constant is unity! (the author replies)  Thompson, Ralph J.
The interpretation of thermodynamic equilibrium constants by Baldwin and Burchill is quite proper and technically correct.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 515.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The acid equilibrium constant is unity!  Baldwin, W. G.; Burchill, C. E.
The attempt to assign a non-unity value to this equilibrium constant is a consequence of misunderstanding the way in which the (nearly) constant concentration or activity of the solvent in a dilute solution (or of a pure solid or liquid in a heterogeneous system) is treated when formulating the conventional equilibrium constant expression.
Baldwin, W. G.; Burchill, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 514.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Using spin-spin decoupling NMR for structure elucidation in the extraction of cinnamaldehyde.  Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J.
Interesting extraction in which students learn to interpret spectra and see the power of second-order spectral analysis in NMR work.
Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 511.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The chemical logic of life and the earth's biosphere: A simple, one-diagram outline  Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro
This diagram is intended to give a compact overall picture of the chemical logic of life and of the earth's biosphere.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 356.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Solving equilibrium problems   Ruekberg, Ben
An equation with more than three terms is not cause for despair.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 344.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Graphical presentation of acid-base reactions: Using a computer-interfaced autotitrator  Lake, Michele E.; Grunow, David A.; Su, Meng-Chih
136. The goal of this project is to help students see what occurs in the solution at every single step during the course of a titration.
Lake, Michele E.; Grunow, David A.; Su, Meng-Chih J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 299.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Acidities of oxoacids: Correlation with charge distribution  Meek, Terry L.
In an attempt to ascertain whether acidity can be correlated with some molecular parameter, the charge distribution within 24 oxoacid molecules and their conjugate base anions were examined by calculating the partial positive or negative charge on each atom.
Meek, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 270.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Standard states for water equilibrium (author response).  Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A.
For the purposes of comparison only the unconventionally derived Ka values should be used to compare equilibrium constants for other acids to determine relative acid strengths.
Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 256.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Standard states for water equilibrium.  Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene.
The authors consider that Ka and Kb values for Bronsted acids and bases in aqueous solution represent one data set describing the properties of solutes in dilute aqueous solution.
Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 255.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Cyclic indicator color change by titrant electrogeneration.  Stock, John T.
A simple but striking demonstration of coulometric titration.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 253.
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Estimation of pKa in the first excited singlet state: A physical chemistry experiment that explores acid-base properties in the excited state.  Marciniak, B.; Kozubek, H.; Paszyc, S.
The acid-base reactions in excited states are some of the most elementary processes both in photochemistry and biochemistry and are, therefore, well-suited to form the basis for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment.
Marciniak, B.; Kozubek, H.; Paszyc, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 247.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Photochemistry
Principle of extraction of solute by solvent  Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna
Among the applications of Nernst's distribution law, the most important and interesting one is the extraction of a substance dissolved in one solvent by another solvent, the two solvents being partially miscible or immiscible.
Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 73.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Beta-keto esters from tin(II) chloride catalyzed reactions of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate: An undergraduate laboratory experiment drawn from the current literature  Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R.
This is an experimental procedure for producing longer-chain keto esters from unconjugated aldehydes on reaction with ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by Lewis acids for use in an undergraduate laboratory.
Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 68.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters
Spreadsheet titration of diprotic acids and bases  Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J.
133. Bits and pieces, 47. A spreadsheet and chart, set up using Excel, for showing titration curves of any diprotic acid or base is described.
Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 46.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The use and utility of phase science  Laughlin, Robert G.
Phase diagrams describe the phase behavior, for a particular system of mixtures spanning a particular range of system variables. One must know how to read and interpret phase diagrams in order to extract and use the information they contain.
Laughlin, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 26.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
The suitability of mineral oil as a halogen extraction solvent  Scott, Thomas M.
A procedure for halogen extraction using mineral (paraffin) oil.
Scott, Thomas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 950.
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple method for producing efficient concentric tube distillation columns  Smith, Sherrel
The typically used columns packed with glass beads have several disadvantages. This paper offers a solution that proves to be a better teaching aid.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 616.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Multifunctional base unknowns in the introductory analytical chemistry lab  Werner, Jonathan A.; Werner, T. C.
The authors look at mathematical descriptions of acid-base equilibria and emphasize the nature of the assumptions that are being made to simplify the mathematics.
Werner, Jonathan A.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 600.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Recovering solvent from iodine solutions  Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Casares, Juan A.
Other articles may give the impression that iodine extraction is difficult, but that is not the case.
Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Casares, Juan A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 516.
Separation Science
An alternative to halogenated solvents for halogen/halide extractions   Petrovic, Steven C.; Bodner, George M.
Authors recommend using p-xylene instead of a halogenated solvent.
Petrovic, Steven C.; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 509.
Separation Science
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid  Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J.
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid.
Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 436.
Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Diastereomers
Monoterpenes: An easily accessible but neglected class of natural products  Glidewell, Christopher
The class of products is structurally and spectroscopically straightforward and many in this group are key components of familiar flavors and odors. I.e., extraction of orange peel.
Glidewell, Christopher J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 267.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
A problem for buffer buffs  Leis, J. Ramon; Pena, M. Elena; Herrero-Latorre, C.
An exam problem particularly for undergraduates studying chemistry as part of some other discipline such as biochemistry, biology, or medicine.
Leis, J. Ramon; Pena, M. Elena; Herrero-Latorre, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 141.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Column chromatography: Isolation of caffeine  Taber, Douglass F.; Hoerrner, R. Scott
An undergraduate laboratory procedure for isolating caffeine via column chromatography.
Taber, Douglass F.; Hoerrner, R. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 73.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Natural Products |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Food Science
Design of corrosion inhibitors: Use of the hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) theory  Walters, Frederick H.
Using hard and soft acid-base theory to understand corrosion.
Walters, Frederick H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A One-Step Synthesis of Cinnamic Acids Using Malonic Acid: The Verley-Doebner Modification of the Knoevenagel Condensation  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F.
With this procedure malonic acid itself, rather than its diester, can be effectively condensed with benzaldehyde to produce trans-cinnamic acid.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A304.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carboxylic Acids
A comparison of three software programs to solve acid/base problems  Nagel, Edgar H.
Compares the use of a spreadsheet (Quattro), Eureka, and MathCad to calculate the pH of monosodium salt solutions of diprotic acids.
Nagel, Edgar H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A302.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
pH
Modified Gran plots of very weak acids on a spreadsheet   Chau, F. T.; Tse, H. K.; Cheng, F. L.
The Gran plot methodology has been utilized very often for analysis of acid-base titration curves.
Chau, F. T.; Tse, H. K.; Cheng, F. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A8.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Numerical solutions for diprotic acid equilibria using spreadsheet iterations  Parker, O. Jerry; Breneman, Gary L.
This software affords the opportunities of solving the problem in an open format that displays any desired intermediate steps as well as final results.
Parker, O. Jerry; Breneman, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A5.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate (the author replies)   Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate  Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A convenient and improved technique to reduce substantially the problem of bumping while using a rotary evaporator  Buchkremer, Rudiger; Brinker, Udo H.
A very simple type of laboratory equipment that does not trap the compounds but that performs better than commercially available rotary evaporator traps by keeping as much of the reaction mixture as possible from escaping the flask.
Buchkremer, Rudiger; Brinker, Udo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1071.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The determination of vanillin in vanilla extract: An analytical chemistry experiment  Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.
Determination of the concentration of vanillin in vanilla extract using ultraviolet spectroscopy.
Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1070.
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
A short program for the automatic calculation of pH in solutions having many acids or bases  Campanario, Juan Miguel; Ballesteros, Reyes
121. Bits and pieces, 45. A computer program for calculating the pH of mixtures having many acids or bases.
Campanario, Juan Miguel; Ballesteros, Reyes J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1036.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Endocharm and its production in organic chemistry by mastery learning  Afzal, Dawood; Delaware, Dana L.; Fountain, Kenneth R.
Using concept maps in organic chemistry and the difference between rote and meaningful learning.
Afzal, Dawood; Delaware, Dana L.; Fountain, Kenneth R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1011.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases
Amino acid chromatography: The "best" technique for student labs  Helser, Terry L.
Comparisons of linear, conical, and circular chromatograms, as well as media and elutants.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 964.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Bromothymol surprise  Maier, Linda L.
Dropping a tablet of Alka Seltzer into a bromothymol blue solution.
Maier, Linda L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 963.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Calculation of solubilities of carbonates and phosphates in water as influenced by competitive acid-base reactions  Lagier, Claudia; Olivieri, Alejandro
Examples of the calculation of the solubilities of carbonates and phosphates in water as influenced by competitive acid-base reactions and their practical applications.
Lagier, Claudia; Olivieri, Alejandro J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 934.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
A general approach for calculating polyprotic acid speciation and buffer capacity  King, D. Whitney; Kester, Dana R.
A set of general equations for calculating the speciation of polyprotic acids.
King, D. Whitney; Kester, Dana R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 932.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
A convenient method for comparison of efficiency of fractionating columns  Higgins, Robert H.
Demonstrating the ability of various fractionating columns (both packed and unpacked) to resolve a mixture into individual components and to correlate the resolving powers of column packings to their "hold-up" volumes.
Higgins, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 810.
Separation Science
An olfactory indicator for acid-base titrations: A laboratory technique for the visually impaired  Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.
Analysis of eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol as aromatic indicators for acid-base titrations.
Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 795.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Minorities in Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
A safety device for unattended distillation  Chan, Kwan-dick; Ng, Wing-yan; Yeung, Chi-hung
A safety device to monitor the flow rate of cooling water for a distillation using a liquid flow sensor.
Chan, Kwan-dick; Ng, Wing-yan; Yeung, Chi-hung J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 718.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Economical electrophoresis with a controlled-current power supply  Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H.
Electrophoresis power supply that features a controllable current (0-90 mA, dc), the use of a common 120 V, ac power supply, and a materials cost of approximately $50.
Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 703.
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A modified graphical method for acid-base equilibria  Nakagawa, Kuniaki
A method based on logarithmic diagrams for finding the pH values for various systems in acid-base equilibria.
Nakagawa, Kuniaki J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 673.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Avoid misleading the students  Rich, Ronald L.
Chemists have a long-standing habit, misleading at least to students, of saying that strong bases produce acids in various reactions.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 629.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
Isopycnic ultracentrifugation: A simple and inexpensive demonstration of its princples  Berlot, Pedro E.; Locasscio, Guillermo A.
This demonstration allows one to visualize density gradient separations and to understand the differences between the principles of equilibrium and sedimentation velocity techniques.
Berlot, Pedro E.; Locasscio, Guillermo A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 627.
Separation Science |
Equilibrium |
Ion Exchange
State-of-the-art pH electrode quality control for measurements of acidic, low ionic strength waters  Stapanian, Martin A.; Metcalf, Richard C.
The relationship between the pH measurement error and the resulting percentage error in [H+] determination is derived, including the use of variable activity coefficients.
Stapanian, Martin A.; Metcalf, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 623.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Organic laboratory experiments: A simplified method for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs  Smith, Sherrel
How short pieces of Teflon tubing may be used for gas chromatograph collection tubes.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 615.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A convenient method to recover the solvent from halogen-CCl4 mixtures  Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W.
An alternative to disposal and distillation which is easy to perform, allowing the solvent to be recovered and stored within one hour after the completion of the experiment is presented here.
Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 532.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
A step-by-step dilution-extraction method for laboratory experiments  Jover, Aida; Meijide, Francisco; Mosquera, Victor; Tato, Jose Vazquez
The authors describe a sequential procedure for dilution and present its application to three typical educational experiments in physical chemistry.
Jover, Aida; Meijide, Francisco; Mosquera, Victor; Tato, Jose Vazquez J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 530.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
The pH of any mixture of monoprotic acids and bases  Herman, D. P.; Booth, K. K.; Parker, O. J.; Breneman, G. L.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. The pH of any mixture of monoprotic weak and strong acids and bases can be calculated. A curve can also be plotted for the titration of the mixture by any monoportic weak or strong acid or base.
Herman, D. P.; Booth, K. K.; Parker, O. J.; Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 501.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
The Ka values of water and the hydronium ion for comparison with other acids  Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A.
A primary interest in establishing the correct Ka values for water and the hydronium ion is to be able to compare the strengths of these species acting as acids with the strengths of other compounds acting as acids.
Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
pH
A useful method for obtaining crystals from viscous oils  Qian, Chengyi
The method of slowly evaporating solvents was tried in the present study with oily reaction residues, which did not crystallize on standing for some time.
Qian, Chengyi J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 355.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A simple model for visualizing an organic extraction  Hill, John W.; McGurran, Joseph P.
The authors have developed a model that provides a concrete and effective way to demonstrate the tendency of molecules of like polarity to associate with each other during extraction.
Hill, John W.; McGurran, Joseph P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 303.
Separation Science
Isolation of trimyristin and cholesterol: Two microscale extractions for one laboratory period  Vestling, Martha M.
The major expenses and major safety problems associated with these classic organic experiments are due to the quantities of organic solvents used per student. When these two experiments are converted to microscale, less than 10 mL of organic solvent per student is required for both experiments.
Vestling, Martha M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 274.
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Solution of acid-base equilibria by successive approximations  Olivieri, Alejandro C.
The use of the method of successive approximations for solving acid-base equilibria, in conjunction with an intuitive, chemically based analysis is presented.
Olivieri, Alejandro C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 229.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
An efficient method for the treatment of weak acid/base equilibria  Burness, James H.
The use of the ionization ratio concept enables students to perform many of the calculations for aqueous acid/base equilibria more quickly and efficiently.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 224.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
The hydrolysis of salts derived from a weak monoprotic acid and a weak monoprotic base  Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo
The limitations as well as the conditions under which this simplified approach to the hydrolysis of salts from a weak acid and a weak base can yield almost exact results are discussed.
Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 221.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions  Thompson, Ralph J.
How to calculate the equilibrium constant of an acid-base reaction.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
A modular apparatus for demonstrating gas chromatography using serial coupling of a thermal conductivity and flame ionizaton detector  Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea
The authors constructed a simple gas chromatograph for demonstrating the separation of gas mixtures at room temperature; therefore, heating or thermostating of the column is unnecessary.
Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 181.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple apparatus to demonstrate differing gas diffusion rates (Graham's law)  Keller, Philip C.
The apparatus described in this note dramatically demonstrates relative diffusion rate effects for common gases like methane and carbon dioxide.
Keller, Philip C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 160.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
BUFCALC: A program for the calculation of buffers of specified pH, ionic strength, and buffer capacity  Lambert, William J.
111. A Turbo Pascal program named BUFCALC has been written for the IBM PC for the calculation of buffer "recipes" given the appropriate thermodynamic dissociation constant(s).
Lambert, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 150.
Acids / Bases |
pH
In praise of thiosulfate  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of thiosulfate make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory experiments.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Measurement of diffusivity of organic liquids through polymer membranes: A simple and inexpensive laboratory experiment  Aithal, U. Shanthamurthy; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M.
Characterization of liquid interaction with polymer membranes by using simple laboratory tests and a small sample of polymer membrane is of great value in understanding the actual behavior of a large industrial rubber sample.
Aithal, U. Shanthamurthy; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 82.
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science
Acid content of beverages: A general chemistry experiment involving the resolution of apparent anomalies  Fuchsman, William H.; Garg, Sandhya
The authors connect the chemistry of strong and weak acids not only to the world outside the laboratory but also to the kinds of problem solving that engages real scientists.
Fuchsman, William H.; Garg, Sandhya J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 67.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
pH
An automatic water trap for steam distillation  Ruekberg, Ben
The unpleasant aspects of the water trap can be avoided with a simple, inexpensive device that renders the water trap automatically selfdraining.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 66.
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Drying ethanol by azeotropic distillation  Mattson, Guy; Hertel, George R.
The commercial process for producing absolute ethanol can be used as a basis for an unusual homework or take-home exam problem.
Mattson, Guy; Hertel, George R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 46.
Separation Science |
Alcohols
The most useful actinide isotope: Americium-241  Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T.
This paper briefly reviews Americium's discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and its uses with an emphasis on its production and separations chemistry.
Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 15.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Modelling and analyzing chemical equilibria on a spreadsheet: Acid-base systems  Leharne, Stephen
Using a spreadsheet to compute how the concentration of an aqeous species varies with some master variables (such as pH or ligand concentrations) and show this variation graphically.
Leharne, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A239.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An introduction to supercritical fluid chromatography: Part 2. Applications and future trends   Palmieri, Margo D.
Part I of this article dealt with the basic theory and instrumentation of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). In part 2 selected applications and future trends in SFC will be discussed.
Palmieri, Margo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A141.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Illustrating the inductive effect on acid strength of carboxylic acids  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris
The effect of various substituents on acid strength can be easily demonstrated using aqueous solutions of various carboxylic acids containing a suitable indicator.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1034.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids
Sherlock Holmes and the yellow prisms  Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 981.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Toxicology |
Acids / Bases
Efficient microscale filtration  Belletire, John L.; Mahmoodi, Nosrat O.
A simple technique for the rapid filtration of small liquid samples.
Belletire, John L.; Mahmoodi, Nosrat O. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 964.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Separation of a five-component mixture in the microscale laboratory  O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U.
The separation and purification of a five-component mixture consisting of a strong organic acid (bezoic acid), a weak organic acid (2-naphthol), an organic base (pyridine), and two neutral compounds (1-chlorobutane and toluene).
O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 961.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases
Construction of a photoelectric colorimeter and application to students' experiments (Part 2)  Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako
Applications include the quantitative analysis of copper in brass, the analysis of iron in spinach and tea leaves, and the determination of the acid dissociation constant of bromothymol blue.
Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
The acid-base package: A collection of useful programs for proton-transfer systems  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Four programs that deal with the types of acid-base calculations normally encountered in introductory and analytical chemistry courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Kinetics of the fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution  Nicholson, Lois
The fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution can serve as the basis for an experiment illustrating first-order kinetics.
Nicholson, Lois J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 725.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Enhancement of visual titration endpoints  Williams, Howard P.; Howell, J. Emory; Russell, Joseph L.
Using white styrofoam cups as a titration vessel.
Williams, Howard P.; Howell, J. Emory; Russell, Joseph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 680.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Modification of an ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of the active ingredients in APC tablets  Yarnelle, Michael K.; West, Kevin J.
Ultraviolet spectrophotometric procedure used to determine the aspirin, phenacetin, and caffeine in an APC tablet.
Yarnelle, Michael K.; West, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 601.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Laboratory simulations - Gel filtration  Griffith, Thomas W.
102. Bits and pieces, 40. This report describes the successful use of an IBM PC program that simulates the separation and analysis of unknowns by gel filtration.
Griffith, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 407.
Separation Science
An alternative procedure for titration curves of a mixture of acids of different strengths  Castillo S., Carlos A.; Jaramillo A., Alonso
An alternative procedure is presented that allows us to get the same kind of information using a single equation plus a graph, that would normally be determined by two plots.
Castillo S., Carlos A.; Jaramillo A., Alonso J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 341.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Potentiometry
Chemical generation and visualization of hydrodynamic instability: An extremely simple demonstration of self-organization  Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J.
The chemical convection system described here is the pattern formation seen when an acidic vapor comes into contact with the surface of an aqueous solution containing indicator.
Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 210.
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A pressure regulator for vacuum distillation  Sommer, Toby J.
The authors have modified the basic Newman manostat.
Sommer, Toby J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 181.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The separation of cobalt from nickel by anion exchange chromatography   Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L.
The authors have modified other experiments, using "macro" amounts of ions, and have determined the optimum conditions to produce a visually observable demonstration that illustrates several fundamental principles of the general chemistry course.
Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 166.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Visible spectrophotometric determination of the partition coefficient of methyl violet: A microscale extraction experiment  Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L.
This experiment is designed to demonstrate the principles of separation by solvent extraction, partition coefficient, and the construction and use of a Beer-Lambert standard curve.
Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 91.
Separation Science |
Chemometrics
A simple method for purifying silica gel for column chromatography  Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F.
A quick and efficient way to get maximum use out of silica gel.
Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 891.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The perils of carbonic acid and equilibrium constants  Jencks, William P.; Altura, Rachel A.
It is important to remember that the small amounts of carbon dioxide that are usually present in water can have large effects on acid-base equilibria of dilute solutions and that dilute solutions of most weak acids and bases undergo significant protonation or hydrolysis when they are dissolved in water.
Jencks, William P.; Altura, Rachel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 770.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Identification of courmarin in vanilla extracts by TLC and HPLC  McKone, Harold T.; Chambers, Timothy E.
A brief description for a lab identifying courmarin in vanilla extracts by TLC and HPLC.
McKone, Harold T.; Chambers, Timothy E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 628.
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Teaching relative acidity in the undergraduate organic chemistry course  Traynham, James G.
The concept of acidity become difficult for students to understand when an instructor goes beyond a few familiar compounds.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 348.
Acids / Bases
Incorporation of consumer products in the teaching of analytical chemistry   Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E.
A development and selection of a number of experiments involving the use of common consumer products for incorporation into quantitative and instrumental analysis laboratories.
Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 207.
Applications of Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Identification of weak acids and bases by titration with primary standards: A modern version of an old analytical chemistry experiment  Thompson, Robert Q.
A four hour experiment is described in this article in which students are given a weak acid or base and asked to determine its identity by titration.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 179.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
cis and trans-Stilbenes: Chromatographic separation and photochemical isomerization  Levine, Samuel G.; Barhoriak, Kathleen Doubek; Cho, Ho S.
An organic chemistry laboratory that has historic significance.
Levine, Samuel G.; Barhoriak, Kathleen Doubek; Cho, Ho S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 79.
Separation Science |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Chromatography
Organic lecture demonstrations  Silversmith, Ernest F.
Organic chemistry may not be known for its spectacular, attention getting chemical reactions. Nevertheless, this author describes a few organic chemistry reactions that put points across and generate interest. This article provides a convenient sources of demonstrations and urges others to add to the collection. Demonstrations concerning: carbohydrates, spectroscopy, proteins, amines, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and much more.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 70.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Correct equilibrium constants for water (the authors reply)  Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark
Water and hydronium ion Ka values are special cases.
Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1068.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics
Correct equilibrium constants for water  Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene
Disagreement with the numerical values assigned to equilibrium constants.
Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1067.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R.
Separating and identifying the amino acids found in aspartame.
Conklin, Alfred R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1065.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A continuous ether/water extractor  Choney, J. H.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Design for a continuous ether/water extractor.
Choney, J. H.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 970.
Ethers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A general approach for teaching hydrolysis of salts  Aquirre-Ode, Fernando
Proposes a general, rigorous, and relatively simple approach for the hydrolysis of 1-1 electrolytes.
Aquirre-Ode, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 957.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Advances in acid-base Gran plot methodology  Schwartz, Lowell M.
By suitable modifications in the data analysis, Gran plot methodology can be extended to acidic or basic analyte solutions that would be difficult to treat by the conventional equations.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 947.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Buffer capacity: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.
A quantitative experiment that can demonstrate buffer action and the measurement of buffer capacity, for a given buffer system, over a range of pH.
Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 817.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Quantitative application of thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of organic compounds: Determining the molecular weights of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones and dicarboxylic acids  Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul
This simple, easy, and inexpensive method provides a good illustration of the importance of polarity on solubility and a unique demonstration of the effectiveness of TLC as a quantitative tool.
Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 625.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Recent advances in the concept of hard and soft acids and bases  Pearson, Ralph G.
The hard / soft acids / bases principle has been justifiably criticized because of the lack of a precise definition of hardness and the inability to quantify this property; recent developments have overcome these objections, however.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 561.
Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
An acidity scale for binary oxides  Smith, Derek W.
A numerical scale of acidity / basicity for oxoacid salts.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 480.
Acids / Bases
How soft is mercury?  Rustad, Douglas S.
The conclusion that the softness of the Hg(II) ion varies going from the gas phase to different solvents is incorrect.
Rustad, Douglas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 470.
Acids / Bases
Passivation of copper in acid medium  Alonso, C.; Ocon, P.
Determining and explaining the polarization curve of copper in a 70% solution of phosphoric acid.
Alonso, C.; Ocon, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 459.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
A convenient, low-cost method for determining sulfate in acid rain  Johns, Nicholas; Longstaff, Stephen J.
Adapting the thoron colorimetric method for determining low sulfate concentrations quickly, simply, and accurately.
Johns, Nicholas; Longstaff, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 449.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
On a common graphical flaw in the carboxylic acid/alcohol relative acidity argument  McClard, Ronald W.
Why are carboxylic acids so much more acidic than aliphatic alcohols?
McClard, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 416.
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases
Laboratory steam distillation using electrically generated superheated steam  Lane, R. K.; Provence, P. D.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Design and use of a superheated steam generator.
Lane, R. K.; Provence, P. D.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Hands-on versus computer simulation methods in chemistry  Bourque, Donald R.; Carlson, Gaylen R.
Procedure, results, conclusions, and implications of a study that compares the effectiveness of a hands-on approach versus computer simulations in the same chemistry topics.
Bourque, Donald R.; Carlson, Gaylen R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 232.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Analysis of vitamin C by high-pressure liquid chromatography  Goodney, David E.
Using HPLC to determine the concentration of vitamin C in a variety of juices.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 187.
Vitamins |
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and identification of cinnamic acids by TLC  Bobbio, Florinda O.; Bobbio, Paulo A.; Souza, Sandra C. de
Chromatographic characteristics of cinnamic acid and its derivatives.
Bobbio, Florinda O.; Bobbio, Paulo A.; Souza, Sandra C. de J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 182.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Kinetics of oxidation of bromcresol green  Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David
Study of the bleaching of bromcresol green by hypochlorite.
Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 81.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Ion-selective electrode in organic analysis: A salicylate electrode  Chan, W. H.; Wong, M. S.; Yip, C. W.
The project presented in this paper demonstrates to students the principles and techniques of using the ion-selective electrode in organic analysis.
Chan, W. H.; Wong, M. S.; Yip, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 915.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Hydrogen bonding and retention on silica: A concept illustrated by TLC chromatography of nitrophenols  Feigenbaum, A.
The TLC experiments presented in this paper illustrate several important features regarding retention, elution, and selectivity on silica through the study of the chromatographic behavior of nitrophenols.
Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 815.
Heterocycles |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Hydrogen Bonding
A Wittig reaction that gives only one stereoisomer  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This popular experiment can be extended to illustrate the use of spectroscopy to elucidate stereochemistry.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 645.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Separation Science
Construction of a temperature-composition diagram of a binary mixture: An organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Thorstenson, Patricia C.
The procedure described in this article offers a simple means of generating the liquid curve of a temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture of volatile liquids.
Thorstenson, Patricia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 170.
Separation Science |
Liquids
Reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline solution: a beginning organic chemistry experiment  Hudak, Norman J.; Sholes, Anne H.
A beginning organic chemistry experiment that involves the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline solution.
Hudak, Norman J.; Sholes, Anne H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 161.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Normal-phase open column versus reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography: Separation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from their diastereomers  Schaber, Peter M.
Separation and isolation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from spinach leaves.
Schaber, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1110.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry
Countercurrent extraction of ink: A demonstration of the chromatographic mechanism  Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T.
A simple system that can demonstrate the significance of discontinuous countercurrent extraction.
Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1109.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Zinc enzymes  Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R.
The role played by catalytic and noncatalytic zinc in biochemical systems. From the "State of the Art Symposium: Bioinorganic Chemistry", held at the ACS meeting, Miami, 1985.
Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 924.
Enzymes |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Proteins / Peptides
An inexpensive developing chamber for radial chromatography  Gadwood, Robert C.
Design and advantages of a radial chromatography chamber.
Gadwood, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 820.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An undergraduate organic experiment using thin-layer chromatography  Jones, Taylor B.; Jones, Tappey H.
Separation of derivatives of aliphatic compounds, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.
Jones, Taylor B.; Jones, Tappey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 813.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
The titrimetric determination of acetylsalicylic acid in analgesic tablets  Braun, Robert D.
Example of a titrimetric method in a nonaqueous amphiprotic solvent (methanol).
Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 811.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Acids / Bases
Separation of lithium from magnesium sodium, and potassium  Werner, Wolfgang
Method for separating and detecting lithium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium
Werner, Wolfgang J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 808.
Separation Science |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Microscale group test for carbonyl compounds  Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X.
Rf values for separating various carbonyl compounds using thin layer chromatography.
Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 806.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Reverse-phase separation of FD & C dyes using a solvent gradient  Ondrus, Martin G.
An impressive separation of FD&C dyes in aqueous solution can be demonstrated with a C18 Sep Pak and a 10-mL disposable syringe.
Ondrus, Martin G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 798.
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science |
Chromatography
mer- and fac-[Co(NH3)3(NO2)3] Do they exist? A laboratory project with poster session  Laing, Michael
Students attempt the preparation of [Co(NH3)3(NO2)3] by three published methods, two for the mer and one for the fac isomers and find that none of the published recipes gives either pure compounds or reproducible results.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 707.
Coordination Compounds |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Determination of aspartame, caffeine, saccharin, and benzoic acid in beverages by high performance liquid chromatography: An undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment  Delaney, Michael F.; Pasko, Kathleen M.; Mauro, David M.; Gsell, Diane S.; Korologos, Philip C.; Morawski, John; Krolikowski, Linda J.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.
Separations can be applied to the analysis of soft drinks, artificial sweeteners, fruit juices, and coffee.
Delaney, Michael F.; Pasko, Kathleen M.; Mauro, David M.; Gsell, Diane S.; Korologos, Philip C.; Morawski, John; Krolikowski, Linda J.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 618.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science
Buffer demonstration  Ophardt, Charles E.
Emphasizes the difference in properties between strong and weak acids and that only a weak acid or base and its salt are a buffer.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 608.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments
Improvements in the separation of beta-carotene and lycopene by column chromtography  Ronman, Peter
Modification of an existing laboratory procedure involving the separation of beta-carotene and lycopene by column chromtography.
Ronman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 540.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Low-pressure extraction  Flamini, Alberto; Poli, Nicola
Modifications to a Soxhlet extractor that works at low pressure.
Flamini, Alberto; Poli, Nicola J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 533.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract  Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael
Constructing a simple column chromatograph from a disposable pipet.
Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 530.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Metal complexes as color indicators for solvent parameters  Soukup, Rudolf W.; Schmid, Roland
Review of the use of metal ions as color indicators for both the sigma-donor and sigma-acceptor abilities of solvents; briefly describes several experiments involving such metal complexes.
Soukup, Rudolf W.; Schmid, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 459.
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Lewis Acids / Bases
A different view of using titrimetric data  Castillo S., Carlos
Using titration data to obtain the dissociation constant of the acid under consideration.
Castillo S., Carlos J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 443.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Visualization of buffer action and the acidifying effect of CO2  Schonbeck, Niels D.
Includes a discussion of the physiological buffering of CO2 in the human body.
Schonbeck, Niels D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 436.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A simple demonstration of buffer action  Duerst, Marilyn D.
A simple yet impressive visual demonstration of buffer action.
Duerst, Marilyn D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 435.
Acids / Bases |
pH
An efficient and inexpensive temperature-controlled chromatography column  Henderson, Bambi L.; McLoughlin, Daniel J.
Inexpensive temperature-controlled chromatography columns can be constructed from old distillation columns.
Henderson, Bambi L.; McLoughlin, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 430.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Hydrogen bonded ionic species of salts of easily accessible acids and bases: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Chawla, B.; Chaudhry, Sarita
A physical-organic chemistry experiment on conductance behavior of H-bonded species of six salts of easily accessible, nitrogen-containing bases and halogenoacetic acids.
Chawla, B.; Chaudhry, Sarita J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 347.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Acids / Bases
Buffer capacity of various acetic acid-sodium acetate systems: A lecture experiment  Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.
Uses indicators to illustrate the response of two buffers with the same initial pH value but differing buffer capacities.
Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 337.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Consumer applications of chemical principles: Drugs  Hill, John W.; Jones, Susan M.
Acid-base chemistry of drugs (nicotine, cocaine, and aspirin), general anesthesia (nitrous oxide, enflurane, isoflurane, halothane), local anesthetics (procaine, lidocaine, cocaine), and intravenous anesthetics (thiopental, ketamine hydrochloride, phencyclidine).
Hill, John W.; Jones, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 328.
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
The determination of lead in gasoline by atomic absorption spectrometry  Coleman, M. F. M.
Involves the extraction of lead into an aqueous rather than a more hazardous organic solvent.
Coleman, M. F. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 261.
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Acid rain analysis by standard addition titration  Ophardt, Charles E.
A simple standard addition titration method for determining the acidity of a rain or snow sample.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 257.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Ion exchange chromatography and spectrophotometry: An introductory undergraduate laboratory experiment  Foster, N.; Pestel, B.; Mease, B.
Experiment designed for an introductory course in chemical equilibria in aqueous media in which students have already experienced the quantitative use of spectrophotometry in calculating equilibrium constants for the formation of colored complexes in solution.
Foster, N.; Pestel, B.; Mease, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 170.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Separation and identification of commonly used drugs: A thin-layer chromatography experiment for freshman chemistry  Bonicamp, Judith M.
Using a simplified and accelerated TLC kit for drug detection.
Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 160.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Why isn't my rain as acidic as yours?  Zajicek, O. T.
Calculating of pH values of acid rain and comparisons to uncontaminated samples.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 158.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
An improved method for visualizing TLC plates using iodine  Roberbon, John
Mixing iodine with silica gel and pouring it onto a thin layer chromatography plate for faster visualization.
Roberbon, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 156.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
Periodicity in the acid-base behavior of oxides and hydroxides  Rich, Ronald L.
The aqueous solubilities of many important hydrous oxides and hydroxides are displayed, for various elements, as functions of pH.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 44.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An inexpensive syringe for gas chromatography  Avila, Walter B.; Hamilton, Mark A.; Holwitt, Eric A.
Replacing expensive GC syringes with disposable, plastic insulin syringes.
Avila, Walter B.; Hamilton, Mark A.; Holwitt, Eric A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1109.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
A new meaning of the terms acid and base hydrolysis  Milic, Nikola B.
Suggestions for distinguishing between solvation, hydration, and solvolysis, and hydrolysis reactions that produce hydroxo and protonated complexes.
Milic, Nikola B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1066.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Gel filtration chromatography: A laboratory experiment  Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D.
A rapid, visual demonstration of protein separation by gel filtration chromatography.
Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1021.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides
An undergraduate column chromatography experiment  Danot, M.; Nahmias, S.; Zoller, U.
Introduces undergraduates to the theoretical and technical aspects of column chromatography.
Danot, M.; Nahmias, S.; Zoller, U. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1019.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
High performance thin layer chromatography  Costanzo, Samuel J.
Considers the various ways in which high performance has been achieved in thin layer chromatography, including the new TLC plates, sample application, plate development, and instrumental techniques.
Costanzo, Samuel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1015.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Chromatography: Use of a microcomputer to introduce laboratory techniques  Holdsworth, David K.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. Program to introduce paper, thin-layer, column, and gas-liquid chromatography.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 790.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Why teach solution equilibrium?  Butler, James N.
What are the most important aspects of solution equilibrium to teach at the elementary level?
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
pH
A practical experiment for determining a pervasive, persistent pollutant  Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A.
Spectral identification by means of infrareds spectroscopy of the PCBs recovered from a TLC plate is enhanced due to the concentrating effect of a commercial sample-recovery system.
Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 738.
IR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
An inexpensive experiment for the introduction of high performance liquid chromatography  Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.
Separates the food dyes found in grape-flavored Kool-Aid using isocratic and gradient solution methods. [Debut]
Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 716.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
To space or not to space- that is the question  Hurd, Charles D.
The use of spaces in the words "chloro acids" and "keto esters".
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 667.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
The extraction of gold and its simulation with copper  Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M.
The simulation of the extraction of gold by the use of its analog, copper, makes it possible to capitalize on the glamor of gold without sacrificing any chemical principles.
Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 634.
Separation Science |
Metallurgy |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
A simple and inexpensive preparative TLC applicator  Monti, Diego
Using normograph pens for ink applications.
Monti, Diego J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 514.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Quick modification of a TLC plate by use of a disposable dipping chamber  Marmer, William N.
Using a disposable polyethylene bag.
Marmer, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 512.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Use of pseudophase TLC in teaching laboratories  Armstrong, Daniel W.; Bui, Khanh H.; Barry, Regina M.
Thin-layer chromatography using micellar and alpha-cyclodextrin mobile phases.
Armstrong, Daniel W.; Bui, Khanh H.; Barry, Regina M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 457.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Micelles
Investigating a mixture of polar and nonpolar compounds using the same thin-layer chromatography plate  Somanathan, Ratnasamy
Avoids needing several thin layer plates.
Somanathan, Ratnasamy J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 456.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Chlorophyll separation and spectral identification  Diehl-Jones, Susan M.
Extracting chlorophyl a and b from spinach and separating them using thin-layer and column chromatography.
Diehl-Jones, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 454.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
A simple apparatus for filtering air-sensitive solids  Cossy, J.; Feigenbaum, A.
Makes use of a double-tipped needle.
Cossy, J.; Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 453.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Cooking with chemistry  Grosser, Arthur E.
Two demonstrations involving cooking eggs and suggestions for many more examples of cooking that illustrate important principles of chemistry. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 362.
Food Science |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
HPLC analysis of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and beta-carotene in collard greens  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Koehler, Jerry A.; Beadel, Edward F., Jr.; Monroe, Pearle A.
Expands the traditional experiment using column or thin layer chromatography to demonstrate the versatility of HPLC as an analytical technique.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Koehler, Jerry A.; Beadel, Edward F., Jr.; Monroe, Pearle A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 264.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
The effect of neutral ions on acid-base balance  Poplin, Loyd E.
Illustrates errors regarding and clarifies the role of neutral ions in acid-base balance.
Poplin, Loyd E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 117.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Qualitative analysis by gas chromatography: GC versus the nose in formulating artificial fruit flavors  Rasmussen, P. W.
Using GC retention indexes for the identification of the volatile compounds responsible for the odor of the banana.
Rasmussen, P. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 62.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Ethanol from corn: one route to gasohol  Maslowsky, Edward, Jr.
The experiment in this article illustrates the preparation of ethanol through the action of enzymes and yeast in whole kernel corn. The purpose is to illustrate as closely as practical the method used either industrially or on the farm to convert corn into ethanol, while a second is to illustrate distillation.
Maslowsky, Edward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 752.
Applications of Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Separation Science
The photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid: an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P.
An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment in the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid.
Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 521.
Acids / Bases |
Photochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers
Separation and analysis of citral isomers: an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A.
In this laboratory, the authors have introduced students to HPLC, mass spectrometric analysis, and the separation of thermally sensitive materials by vacuum distillation.
Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 434.
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC |
Separation Science
The synthesis of 4,4'-di-tertbutyl biphenyl: a sophomore organic chemistry experiment  Horne, Deane A.
A brief note providing a sequence of experiments for an introductory organic course that is inexpensive and does not pose a health hazard.
Horne, Deane A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 246.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Catalysis |
Alkylation |
Solutions / Solvents
Titration calculations- a problem-solving approach  Waddling, Robin E. L.
This author shares a strategy for helping students who might be struggling with understanding how to calculate and understand titration data.
Waddling, Robin E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 230.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Production of aromatic hydrocarbons according to extractive distillation process  Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J.
A theme that deals with the study of the recovery of benzene from petroleum hydrocarbon mixture by means of an extractive distillation processes emerges from a pilot project that has been proposed to the graduating students.
Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 148.
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds
Structure elucidation of a natural product  Letcher, Roy M.
This experiment is an attempt to simulate a real-life structure elucidation problem through the isolation, characterization, and chemical transformation of an unknown naturally occurring monoterpene, with extensive use being made of spectroscopy and aided by biogenetic considerations.
Letcher, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 79.
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Reactions
Activity coefficients of acetone-chloroform solutions: an undergraduate experiment  Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A.
The simple experiment described in this article gives unsurprisingly good results for the acetone-chloroform system.
Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 72.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
The design of an inexpensive, reliable, and rapid-acting fraction collector  Bell, Duncan H.
Features a spring-driven collector head with a clock-style escapement mechanism for the precise and rapid advancement of the collection tubes.
Bell, Duncan H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1082.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
Lecture experiment in gas-liquid chromatography with a simple gas chromatograph at room temperature  Wollrah, Adalbert
Apparatus and method for separating mixtures of pentane / hexane and methyl chloride / carbon tetrachloride.
Wollrah, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1042.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Partition coefficients - A lecture demonstration  Newton, Thomas A.
The extraction of aqueous solutions of indophenol and its sodium salt with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Classroom chromatography  Bauer, Christopher F.
A classroom demonstration in which students are used to illustrate the operation of a chromatographic column.
Bauer, Christopher F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 846.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation and determination of hydroxyacetophenones: An experiment in preparative TLC and UV spectroscopy  Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J.
A mixture of o-, m-, and p-hydroxyacetophenones is separated through thin-layer chromatography, and the constituents are identified by UV spectroscopy.
Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 618.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and IR analysis of a mixture of organic compounds  Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John
Introduces students to fractional distillation and analysis of each fraction by gas-liquid chromatography.
Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 617.
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids
Manifold for gas chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R., Jr.
A manifold that allows one to operate four gas chromatographs on three tanks: one of hydrogen, one of compressed air, and one tank of carrier gas.
Conklin, Alfred R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 616.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Gases
The construction of a simple pyrolysis gas chromatograph  Hedrick, Jack L.
Constructing and using a simple PGC system made from outmoded gas chromatographs.
Hedrick, Jack L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 612.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A colorful extraction experiment  Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D.
Separating differently colored organic compounds (azobenzene, benzoic acid, and m-nitroaniline).
Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
The negatively-charged nitrogen in ammonium ion and derived concepts of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics  Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F.
The concept of atomic charges is intimately related to those of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics; among the plethora of numbers derived by calculation and experiment lie simple and useful rules for the understanding and prediction of chemical behavior.
Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 367.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Hydrogen bonding and proton transfer  Joesten, Melvin D.
A review of the types of hydrogen bonds and discussion of the application of spectroscopic and diffraction methods to studies of moderate and strong hydrogen bonds.
Joesten, Melvin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 362.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
The separation and identification of straight chain hydrocarbons: An experiment using gas-liquid chromatography  Benson, G. A.
Gas liquid chromatography used to separate and identify a mixture of C5 to C10 straight chain hydrocarbons.
Benson, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 344.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Chromatography
The evaluation of the parameters in the van Deemter equation  Moody, Harvey W.
This experiment considers the efficiency of chromatographic columns and allows one to calculate the parameters in the van Deemter equation.
Moody, Harvey W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 290.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple and inexpensive preparative TLC applicator  Lavallee, P.; Muzart, J.
A simple thin layer chromstography applicator that allows for the application of narrow streaks without holes or grooves, even when homemade plates are used.
Lavallee, P.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 250.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive liquid chromatography apparatus for undergraduate teaching  McCamish, Malcolm; Cannell, G. R.; Bretherton, L.
Description of a low-pressure liquid chromatography pump, slurry filler, stainless steel columns, and injector system suited to an undergraduate laboratory or routine analysis.
McCamish, Malcolm; Cannell, G. R.; Bretherton, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 249.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Rotary evaporator repair  Rothchild, Robert
Two methods for removing a defective seal on a rotary evaporator.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 241.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
A simple semimicro distillation apparatus  Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J.
A small distillation unit for fractional distillation of small amounts of material under vacuum.
Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 164.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Buffers  Gold, Marvin
A demonstration based on buffer calculations.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Evaporation of chromatography fractions simplified  Vogel, George
Using an ordinary Erlenmeyer flask and a polyethylene stopper.
Vogel, George J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 69.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Isolation, separation and identification of synthetic food colors  Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G.
A simple, inexpensive experiment for the extraction of synthetic dyes permitted in foodstuffs, and their separation and identification using thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.
Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 67.
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A simple method for sample application in chromatography  Lo, J. M.
A simple applicator made of a rubber bulb and glass capillary tube.
Lo, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 66.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The construction of inexpensive digital pH meters  Warner, Brian D.; Boehme, Gerhard; Pool, Karl L.
Parts list and circuit diagram for a low-cost pH meter.
Warner, Brian D.; Boehme, Gerhard; Pool, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 65.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Separating copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis  Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L.
A different method for the separation of copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis based on the reductive potential precipitation of copper(II) as copper(I) thiocyanate.
Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 59.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A practical introduction to separation and purification techniques for the beginning organic chemistry laboratory  Leonard, Jack E.
Separation techniques have always been important for a successful chemical career. This author addresses some important considerations for training students.
Leonard, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1022.
Separation Science
Amperometric determination of phenol bromination kinetics  Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O.
A laboratory that allows students to explore bromination substitution reactions as examples of important non-aqueous solution kinetics including the role of a catalyst, the relationship between rate laws and mechanisms, and acid-base properties.
Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 823.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions
Determination of the extraction constant for zinc pyrrolidinecarbodithioate: An atomic absorption experiment for instrumental analysis  Hoskins, Claron L.; Reichardt, Paul B.; Stolzberg, Richard J.
This lab allows students to explore the theory that the degree of extraction depends on pH and the concentration of ligands.
Hoskins, Claron L.; Reichardt, Paul B.; Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 580.
Coordination Compounds |
pH |
Separation Science
A laboratory introduction to quantitative column chromatography  Johnson, Judith Faye; Rubinson, Kenneth A.
Involves a Beer's Law plot calibration, a elutropic series, and microvolumetric techniques.
Johnson, Judith Faye; Rubinson, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 909.
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
An inorganic laboratory experiment involving photochemistry, liquid chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy  Post, Elroy W.
An experiment involving photochemical ligand displacement on a metal carbonyl, separation of the product by mixture by chromatography, and identification of the components using IR spectroscopy and group theory.
Post, Elroy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 819.
Photochemistry |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Separation Science
Conversion of (+)-Limonene to (-)-Carvone: An organic laboratory sequence of local interest  Rothenberger, Otis S.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rollins, Ronald B.
Orange oil is converted to one of the components of spearmint oil; the detectable odor difference is due to stereochemical factors.
Rothenberger, Otis S.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rollins, Ronald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 741.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Enantiomers
Dissociation of a weak acid  Ladd, M. F. C.
An earlier treatment of the equilibrium of a weak acid in water gives, for certain ranges of concentration, significantly incorrect results.
Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Apple dunking  O'Connor, Rod
Question regarding the ratio between ions of p-nitrophenylhydrazone in reducing the pH of basic effluent.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 598.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH |
Industrial Chemistry
An inexpensive Kugelrohr still  Guida, Wayne C.; Gawley, Robert E.
Plan for a simple unit that is superior to some commercial devices.
Guida, Wayne C.; Gawley, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 554.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An introduction to high performance liquid chromatography: Separation of some FD&C dyes  McKone, Harold T.; Ivie, Kert
Separation of five common FD&C dyes: Red 40, Yellow 5, Yellow 6, Blue 2, and Red 2, and some common "food" items in which they are found.
McKone, Harold T.; Ivie, Kert J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 321.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Ion exchange separation of the oxidation states of vanadium  Cornelius, Richard
An experiment designed to emphasize the discrete nature of the different oxidation states of vanadium by giving students an opportunity to separate the four species by ion exchange chromatography.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 316.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Illustrating chemical concepts through food systems: Introductory chemistry experiments  Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S.
Illustrating the vaporization of liquids, reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration using foods.
Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 312.
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Colloids |
Acids / Bases
An economical and efficient reflux/distillation apparatus  Marabella, Charles P.
A modified standard distillation head and vacuum takeoff adapter.
Marabella, Charles P. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 221.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
"To sink or swim"  O'Connor, Rod
A problem regarding the maximum water hardness that can be permitted in a swimming pool if it is desired to avoid calcite formation given the carbonate ion concentration. [Debut]
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 151.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Steam distillation of essential oils - Anethole from anise followed by permanganate oxidation to anisic acid  Garin, David L.
Provides the procedure for the oxidation step to this experiment.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 138.
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
An improved microbulb vacuum distillation apparatus  Saplay, Kishore M.
Improved version of an earlier modified Kugelrohr.
Saplay, Kishore M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 124.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Thin layer chromatographic separation of common analgesics-a comment  Roswell, D. F.; Zaczek, N. M.
The authors were unable to resolve phenacetin and salicylamide using a three component solvent system.
Roswell, D. F.; Zaczek, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 834.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Column chromatography aid  Wiedmann, Jerome L.
Using a polyethylene bottle as a solvent reservoir.
Wiedmann, Jerome L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 766.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
An organic chemistry experiment for forensic science majors  Rothchild, Robert
Qualitative analysis of over-the-counter analgesics using thin-layer chromatography.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 757.
Forensic Chemistry |
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
High performance liquid chromatography of essential oils  McKone, Harold T.
Separating essential oils from a variety of common spices using HPLC.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 698.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Two sample applicators for chromatography  Malik, N. S. A.; Berrie, A. M. M.
Designs for two thin layer chromatography applicators that can be made with a minimum of workshop facilities are described, one for small syringes and the other for larger syringes.
Malik, N. S. A.; Berrie, A. M. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 680.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
The rapid isolation of carotenoids from foods  McKone, Harold T.
Isolating carotene and lycopene from carrots and tomato paste without heating the organic solvents, and eliminating grinding with sand for the isolation of carotenoids from citrus fruit skins.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 676.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of caffeine in cola drinks: An organic analytical experiment  Van Atta, Robert E.
Procedure may also be applied to No-Doz tablets and tea.
Van Atta, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 666.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Fractionation of gels following electrophoresis  Racusen, David
A simple and inexpensive technique for slicing electrophoresis gels.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 628.
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Biotechnology
Mixed stationary liquid phases for gas-liquid chromatography  Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.
Using window diagrams to quantitate the selectivity of a column of liquid phase.
Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 623.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
The great fallacy of the H+ ion: And the true nature of H3O+  Giguere, Paul A.
The hydronium ion is as real as its counterpart, the hydroxide ion.
Giguere, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 571.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Purification of chloroform for NMR spectroscopy  Burfield, David R.
Chloroform can be readily purified by simply standing the solvent over activated molecular sieves.
Burfield, David R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 486.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
The barium hydroxide ammonium thiocyanate reaction: A titrimetric continuous variations experiment  Harris, Arlo D.
Experiment that uses acid-base titrimetry to study the stoichiometry of a novel solid state reaction.
Harris, Arlo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 477.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Solid State Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Isoenzymes  Daugherty, N. A.
The separation, identification, and measurement of isoenzymes is an appropriate topic for a special lecture in general chemistry.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 442.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The electrophoresis of indicators: An analogy to isoenzyme separation  Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K.
A lecture demonstration that illustrates the principles involved in the separation of isoenzymes but avoids the problems inherent in isoenzyme separations.
Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Enzymes |
Separation Science
The separation of chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen: An affinity chromatography experiment for biological chemistry students  Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney
An experiment that can be used as either a demonstration or a laboratory illustrating the principles of affinity chromatography to purify an enzyme.
Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 281.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Proteins / Peptides
Acne lotion - Great for pimples and making polymers!  May, Jeffrey
Benzoyl peroxide can easily be separated from acne lotion.
May, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Polymerization |
Consumer Chemistry |
Separation Science
Acid-base half-reactions - A useful formalism for review lessons  Atkinson, G. F.
An effective way to draw analogies between acid-base and redox effects while reviewing both.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Titration curve for a programmable pocket calculator  Williams, Howard P.
A titration curve program written for a TI-58 or TI-59 programmable pocket calculator.
Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 237.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A nonaqueous conductimetric titration for the analysis of alkaloids in cigarette tobacco  Brand, M. J.; Hiller, J. M.; Mohan, M. S.
A conductimetric titration in glacial acetic acid is used to determine total alkaloids in cigarette tobacco.
Brand, M. J.; Hiller, J. M.; Mohan, M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 207.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
The standardization of pH meters: A comparison of procedures for different types of instruments  Lund, Walter
Discusses the various approaches to the standardization of pH meters and the limitations of the various procedures.
Lund, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 129.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Calibration |
Acids / Bases
Buffer effect demonstration on the overhead projector  Hobe, Paul G., Jr.
Illustrates that one drop of dilute acid or base will change the pH of water by a large amount while larger amounts can be added to a buffer solution before any change is noted.
Hobe, Paul G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 47.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Double scales for equilibria  Chaston, S. H. H.
The acid / base, oxidant / reductant, and solid / solute scales described here can be used as visual representations of equilibria expressions.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 24.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
p-Carboxystyrene. A Wittig procedure in aqueous medium  Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc
In this paper, the authors present a student preparation of p-carboxyl group, as it makes the reaction product soluble in alkaline and insoluble in acid medium, provides for an easy way of separation.
Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Separation Science
Synthesis of chrysanthemic acid: A multistep organic synthesis for undergraduate students  Schatz, Paul F.
This laboratory is geared toward intermediate organic chemistry laboratory courses that will acquaint students, predominantly chemistry majors, with the strategies and techniques in carrying out a multistep synthesis.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 468.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
Phase transfer catalysis: An interim project  Reeves, W. Preston
The authors have found that experiments in phase transfer catalysis provide students with a very profitable interim project.
Reeves, W. Preston J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 433.
Catalysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Separation Science
Chemical predictions from pKa values  Hassanali, A.
The problem presented here develops student understanding of both pKa calculations and organic acids.
Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 378.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Synthetic lemon grass oil  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
Instructions for a synthetic lemon grass extraction.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 306.
Synthesis |
Separation Science
Unified calculation of titration curves  Stairs, Robert A.
A method of calculation is presented that the author hopes will supplement the traditional methods based on appropriate approximations.
Stairs, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 99.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Derivatives of oxo acids III. Functional derivatives  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
The authors consider some general aspects of nomenclature for the so-called functional derivatives of the inorganic oxo acids.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 30.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
High performance liquid chromatography of urinary compounds. An undergraduate experiment  Bastian, Douglas W.; Miller, Rochelle L.; Halline, Allan G.; Senftleber, Fred C.; Veening, Hans
An instrumental analysis experiment in which a mixture of five clinically important urinary compounds can be separated and determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.
Bastian, Douglas W.; Miller, Rochelle L.; Halline, Allan G.; Senftleber, Fred C.; Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 766.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
HPLC
Dye unknowns for use in column chromatography  Freese, J. M.; Oleson, B.; Pinnick, H. R., Jr.; Uneted, J. T.
A list of dyes whose mixtures are readily separated on adsorption alumina.
Freese, J. M.; Oleson, B.; Pinnick, H. R., Jr.; Uneted, J. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 684.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Procedures to expedite column chromatographic separations  Dorko, Ernest A.; Baker, William W.
Adding a small amount of the column packing material to the mixture to be separated before evaporating its solvent and using an inflated inner tube to pressurize the column is found to expedite column chromatographic separations.
Dorko, Ernest A.; Baker, William W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 564.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Molecular weight determination of weak acids  Wilson, Stephen A.; Weber, James H.
The use of virial equations for the calculation of molecular weights of weak acids from colligative property experiments.
Wilson, Stephen A.; Weber, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 513.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Isolation of dyes for analysis  Levinson, Alfred S.
The use of ion exchange resin for the isolation of dyes from beverages, gelatin desserts, and other foods.
Levinson, Alfred S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 460.
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Alkylation of methyl acetoacetate and gas chromatographic analysis of products. An organic laboratory experiment  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
Substituting commercially available sodium methoxide, absolute methanol, and methyl acetoacetate for sodium, ethanol, and acetoacetic ester in the acetoacetic ester synthesis of ketones and acids and the malonic ester synthesis of acids.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 446.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Laboratory Management
Pre-filter for removing suspended solids from HPLC samples  Bailey, Leonard C.
A pre-filter attached to the inlet of an HPLC injector.
Bailey, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 428.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
HPLC |
Chromatography
Belousov's oscillating reaction in acid medium other than sulfuric acid  Mishra, H. C.; Singh, C. M.
Reports of the existence of oscillatory phenomenon in the Mn+2 catalyzed reaction between citric acid and potassium bromate in phosphoric and nitric acids.
Mishra, H. C.; Singh, C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 377.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Adapting a pH meter for lecture demonstrations: Construction of an auxiliary scale for overhead projectors  Stanko, Joseph A.; Haas, Charles G.; Lotz, John R.
A pH meter adopted for display on an overhead.
Stanko, Joseph A.; Haas, Charles G.; Lotz, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 365.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Gas chromatographic simulation program  Yuan, Mark
A Fortran simulation of gas chromatography.
Yuan, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 364.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Exact equation for calculating titration curves for dibasic salts  Knudson, George E.; Nimrod, Dale
A computer program that calculates titration curves for dibasic salts.
Knudson, George E.; Nimrod, Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 351.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Calculation of potentiometric titration curves. The master variable concept  Still, Ebbe; Sara, Rolf
Provides compact algorithms for the calculation of some potentiometric titration curves.
Still, Ebbe; Sara, Rolf J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 348.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Organic derivatives of oxo acids. Part I. Acids, salts, and esters of group VIA elements / Knowledge is ready cash  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Nomenclature of organic derivatives of oxo acids and their salts and esters that are derived from the polybasic acids of the nonmetallic elements of Group IIIA through Group VIA.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 299.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
Simple, inexpensive and reliable do-it-yourself chromatography columns  Lehky, Pavel
Reliable chromatography columns of sizes ranging from 3 to 30 mm ID can be assembled within a few minutes using current laboratory material.
Lehky, Pavel J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 227.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Visual aid for acid-base concepts  Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A.
Three plots that the authors have found particularly useful in concisely illustrating a number of acid-base concepts relating to buffer capacity and acid-base titrations.
Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Versatile, automatic chromatographic column packing device  Barry, Eugene F.; Goulet, Susan; Blood, William N.
Design for a versatile, automatic chromatographic column packing device.
Barry, Eugene F.; Goulet, Susan; Blood, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 194.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Simulated research experience for chemists and non-chemists  Thorne, James M.; Matheson, Kenneth Lee
Students extract a toxin (sodium oxalate) from the weed Halogeton, determine its chemical formula, and suggest possible antidotes.
Thorne, James M.; Matheson, Kenneth Lee J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 165.
Undergraduate Research |
Applications of Chemistry |
Toxicology |
Separation Science
Paper chromatography of carbohydrates  Croft, L. R.; Haghighi, S.
A simple detection reagent for carbohydrates.
Croft, L. R.; Haghighi, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 112.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Carbohydrates
Computer simulation of acid-base behavior  Hefter, Jesse; Zuehlke, Richard W.
Simulates the spectrophotometric determination of the pK of an acid-base indicator.
Hefter, Jesse; Zuehlke, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 63.
Acids / Bases
Separation of waste plastics. An experiment in solvent fractionation  Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan
The authors share their design for a scheme for separation of specific plastics from a mixture. This activity engages students and relates to recycling.
Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 653.
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
A simple and inexpensive steam generator for essential oils extraction  Craveiro, Afranio A.; Matos, F. J. A.; de Alencar, J. W.
This apparatus aids in essential oil extraction.
Craveiro, Afranio A.; Matos, F. J. A.; de Alencar, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 652.
Natural Products |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Imidazole - Versatile today, prominent tomorrow  Matuszak, C. A.; Matuszak, A. J.
Imidazole chemistry has pedagogical utility for all the organic chemistry students pursing careers in the life sciences.
Matuszak, C. A.; Matuszak, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 280.
Grignard Reagents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Phenols |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Hydrogen Bonding
Isolation of oil of clove and separation of eugenol and acetyl eugenol. An instructive experiment for beginning chemistry undergraduates  Ntamila, M. S.; Hassanali, A.
The study in this article is simple to perform, requires small quantities of readily available material and may be completed within a normal laboratory period.
Ntamila, M. S.; Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 263.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Steam distillation of essential oils - Carvone from caraway  Garin, David L.
An economical way to perform popular essential oil extraction experiments.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 105.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Gas chromatographic analysis of gasoline. A laboratory experiment  Cassidy, Robert F., Jr.; Schuerch, Conrad
In this experiment the authors take advantage of the high resolving power and rapidity of gas chromatography to separate some commercial gasolines into individual compounds and simple mixtures of compounds of similar volatility.
Cassidy, Robert F., Jr.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 51.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Compact compacts  Evilia, R. F.
The referenced method requires unrealistically accurate pH measurements to yield acceptable results.
Evilia, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 806.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
A laboratory exercise for organic chemistry  Sands, Richard D.
Students analyze a mixture of two unknown liquids, which as the semester progresses they are to separate, analyze, and identify.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 732.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy
An industrial steam distillation: Separation of rosin and turpentine from pine gum  Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad
Procedure for converting a tacky intractable mass - pine gum - into two recognizable and useful materials - a fragrant water-white liquid (turpentine) and a hard amber-colored resin (rosin).
Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 672.
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Small scale organic techniques: Filtration and crystallization  Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.
Steps in the filter stick method for hot filtration and crystallization.
Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 664.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management |
Crystals / Crystallography
Oil formation. An "unexpected" difficulty in an elementary organic laboratory experiment  Lewis, Dennis A.
A chemical extraction experiment that involves the separation of an unknown solid organic acid (a substituted benzoic acid) and an unknown solid organic base requires students to adjust to an "unexpected" situation.
Lewis, Dennis A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 601.
Acids / Bases
Collision and transition state theory approaches to acid-base catalysis  Dunford, H. B.
Shows that the description of acid-catalyzed chemical reactions in terms of transition state acid dissociation constants is formally equivalent to the collision theory approach, in which dissociation constants of acid groups on initial reactants are utilized.
Dunford, H. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 578.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Ion-exchange resins - A simple apparatus  Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo
A modified procedure and apparatus for speeding up the use of ion-exchange resins.
Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Protective cover for glass electrodes  DeWitt, H. D.
Slipping a piece of perforated vinyl tubing over the end of a glass electrode.
DeWitt, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 498.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Helpful TLC techniques  Martin, Ned H.
Procedure for obtaining a uniformly thick adsorbent layer on chromatography plates and locating zones on thin layer chromatography plates.
Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 467.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Fractionating column heater for student use  Mowery, Dwight F., Jr.
Using the standard condenser found in all ground-joint organic laboratory kits to heat a fractionating column.
Mowery, Dwight F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 436.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Modification of a constant flow buret  Sturtevant, Floyd; Hartman, Kenneth
Modification and testing of an earlier presented design for of a constant flow buret.
Sturtevant, Floyd; Hartman, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 393.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Computer simulated titration curves  Wilson, C. E.
Three computer programs for generating theoretical titration curves.
Wilson, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 344.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
An experiment illustrating countercurrent chromatography with simple apparatus  Godinho, Oswaldo E. S.; Braga, Gilberto L.
Illustrates countercurrent chromatography with a simple apparatus and an experiment involving the separation of the indicators Phenol Red and Bromcresol Purple.
Godinho, Oswaldo E. S.; Braga, Gilberto L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 258.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
180-183. Four biochemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 241.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Photochemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
A new chemistry program for nursing and allied health students  Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr.
Outlines and discusses the topics considered in a chemistry program for nursing and allied health students.
Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 226.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Metabolism |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
A comparison of base strengths using visual and EMF observations  Campbell, J. A.
A series of sequentially added dilute aqueous solutions whose changes provide evidence for different degrees of dissociation of a series and complexes.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 185.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
Thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes. Separation by paper electrophoresis and estimate of stability constants  Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J.
Differently charged species of thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes are separated by paper electrophoresis.
Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 122.
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrophoresis
An easily fabricated pH cell  Hendrixson, R. R.
A pH cell for use in titration experiments where the solution should be protected from the air.
Hendrixson, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 109.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A computer program for the analysis of titration data  Scholler, D. M.; Lyndrup, M. L.
A computer program to analyze titration data for monoprotic and diprotic acids.
Scholler, D. M.; Lyndrup, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 106.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Isolation of benzoic and boric acids from Listerine. An introductory organic chemistry experiment  Weichman, Roger L.
The experiment described here is a separation scheme which introduces the student to fractional distillation, extraction, decolorization with activated carbon, hot gravity filtration, vacuum, filtration, crystallization, recrystallization, melting point, mixed melting point, refractive index, gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy.
Weichman, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 589.
Separation Science
Radiochemical investigation of some sample destruction procedures  Servant, D. M.
A simple undergraduate experiment is described here for assessing a number of methods for the recovery of silver from organic matrices.
Servant, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 550.
Separation Science
The recovery and identification of flammable liquids in suspected arsons. An undergraduate organic experiment  Blackledge, Robert D.
The described experiment here takes the place of two experiments commonly used in the beginning organic laboratory course, namely the experiment on steam distillation and the experiment on gas liquid chromatography.
Blackledge, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 549.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Preparation of succinct acid from maleic anhydride: A simple organic laboratory reduction  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Pacey, Gilbert E.
In the experiment described in this paper reduction is accompanied in good yield using readily available chemicals and simple equipment in a short experiment.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Pacey, Gilbert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 345.
Acids / Bases
Preparative reduction of benzil: Use of a polarographic analyzer and simple current booster  Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J.
The authors report a simple laboratory experiment which demonstrates some of the preparative and mechanistic electrochemistry of ketones in acid solution. The also describe a simple and inexpensive apparatus for preparative scale electrochemistry.
Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 343.
Electrochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A crossed aldol condensation for the undergraduate laboratory  Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E.
This two-step experiment for undergraduate organic chemistry students illustrates three basic ideas: organic chemistry students illustrate three basic ideas (1) crossed aldol condensation; (2) the acidity of benzylic hydrogen in hydrocarbons; and (3) reduction of a double bond in hydride transfer.
Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 64.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Recent developments in instrumentation for liquid chromatography  Veening, Hans
Considers various accessories for gradient elution systems.
Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A429.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Simple and safe electrophoresis of low and high voltage gradients  Tibbs, Jack
Considers procedures and apparatus for cellulose acetate strip electrophoresis and silica gel thin layer electrophoresis.
Tibbs, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 862.
Electrophoresis |
Electrochemistry |
Separation Science
Thin-layer chromatogram visualization. A student experiment  Madsen, Brooks C.
This thin layer chromatography experiment separates mixtures of common over the counter analgesics and antipyretic preparations and related compounds, and has several advantages that many student oriented tlc experiments lack.
Madsen, Brooks C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 852.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Hydrolysis of a chromium(III) complex. Using atomic absorption and ion exchange  Davies, Michael B.; Lethbridge, J. W.
This experiment emphasizes three major advantages of atomic absorption spectroscopy and provides a valuable exercise in the use of ion exchange chromatography.
Davies, Michael B.; Lethbridge, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 793.
Ion Exchange |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Coffee, Tea, or Cocoa. A trio of experiments including the isolation of theobromine from cocoa  Pavia, Donald L.
Isolating caffeine from tea and coffee and theobromine from cocoa.
Pavia, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 791.
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry
Nitric acid in rain water  Gleason, Geoffrey I.
This trace analysis experiment is based on the conversion of nitrate to nitrite using a cadmium amalgam reductor column.
Gleason, Geoffrey I. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 718.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
A simple liquid-liquid continuous extractor  Holder, Richard W.
For extractions of a material from a more-dense to a less-dense solvent, the setup depicted is convenient and can be constructed entirely from readily available glassware.
Holder, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 639.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A nonaqueous gravimetric titration. Determination of 8-hydroxyquinoline with p-toluenesulfonic acid in acetonitrile  Kratochvil, B.; Findlay, E. J.; Harris, W. E.
This experiment demonstrates the techniques of gravimetric titrimetry and photometric end-point detection.
Kratochvil, B.; Findlay, E. J.; Harris, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 629.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Photochemistry
Separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group  Antikainen, P. J.
This procedure applies paper- and ion-exchange chromatography to the separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group.
Antikainen, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 595.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography
Lyophilization apparatus  Lunelli, Bruno
A method based on an easily constructed apparatus that allows laboratory-scale lyophilizations to be carried out.
Lunelli, Bruno J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 577.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Management
A graphical-analytical iterative procedure for equivalence point determinations  Sellers, Neal G.; Caruso, Joseph A.
An iterative approach has been developed that combines graphical measurements with analytical calculations to give an exact potentiometric endpoint irrespective of the stoichiometry of the reaction and magnitude of the associated equilibrium constants.
Sellers, Neal G.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 547.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The determination of pesticide residues. A laboratory experiment  Jarosch, Richard
The determination of pesticide residues using thin-layer and gas chromatography.
Jarosch, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 507.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Four questions requiring an application of chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 498.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Acids / Bases
A questionable method of distinguishing maleic and fumaric acids  Noldan, Lawrence R.; Pollard, Bruce
Fumaric acid causes no change in the blue color of ditto print, but maleic acid turns it a bright green.
Noldan, Lawrence R.; Pollard, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 457.
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Lewis acid-base equilibria. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Brice, L. K.
Describes an experiment involving the spectrophotometric determination of formation constants of Lewis adducts formed between metal halides and organic bases in diethyl ether as a solvent.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 430.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
A simple application device for paper chromatography and electrophoresis  Barbeau, Donald L.
The application holder presented eliminates the awkwardness of handling filter paper strips while applying either large quantities of unknown samples or smaller quantities of amino acid standards.
Barbeau, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 391.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
The separation of ferrocene, acetylferrocene, and diacetylferrocene. A dry-column chromatography experiment  Gilbert, J. C.; Monti, S. A.
Applies dry-column chromatography to the separation and purification of the reaction mixture obtained from the acylation of ferrocene.
Gilbert, J. C.; Monti, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 369.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
"Dry-column" chromatography. A new technique for the undergraduate laboratory  Bohen, J. M.; Joullie, M. M.; Kaplan, F. A.; Loev, B.
In this experiment, thin-layer chromatography is used to determine the number of compounds in a prepared dye mixture and "dry-column" chromatography is used to separate the mixture into its components.
Bohen, J. M.; Joullie, M. M.; Kaplan, F. A.; Loev, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 367.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments
Derivatives of oxo acids. IUPAC Publications on Nomenclature. Other International Reports. SI Units  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes the nomenclature of oxo acid derivatives.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 341.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
A simple, effective demonstration of titration curves and indicator selection  Nathan, Lawrence C.
The concepts of acid-base titration curves and selection of the appropriate indicator for an acid-base titration can be easily and effectively demonstrated by use of a potentiometric titration.
Nathan, Lawrence C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 262.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis
Stomach upset caused by aspirin  Hobey, William D.; Davenport, Horace W.
The chemistry behind the slight damage that aspirin causes to the lining of the stomach.
Hobey, William D.; Davenport, Horace W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 212.
Acids / Bases |
Solid State Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Lipids
An investigation of sebum and other facial lipids  Calsin, Dennis; Trinler, W. A.
An introductory thin layer chromatography experiment that illustrates the variety of surface facial lipids, produced chiefly by sebaceous glands.
Calsin, Dennis; Trinler, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 135.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Lipids |
Natural Products
TLC detection of caffeine in commercial products  Pavlik, James W.
An introductory experiment that involves the thin layer chromatography detection of caffeine in a variety of familiar pharmaceutical products.
Pavlik, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 134.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis
Geometry in chromatography  Campbell, Bruce Henry
This paper reports investigations into conical chromatography and the advantages and disadvantages of such a geometry.
Campbell, Bruce Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 133.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Oxoacids and their salts  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Reviews the conventions for naming oxoacids and their salts.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 123.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An inexpensive conductivity monitor for column operation  Ford, A.; Meloan, C. E.
Circuit diagrams for a column chromatography conductivity monitor.
Ford, A.; Meloan, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 85.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Filtration centrituge tube  Giese, Roger W.
The tube presented is assembled from common laboratory equipment and can be employed for small scale crystallizations and filtrations under ordinary as well as low-temperature/inert-gas conditions.
Giese, Roger W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 81.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography
The odor of optical isomers. An experiment in organic chemistry  Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles
The experiment described involves the separation and characterization of l-carvone from spearmint oil and d-carvone from caraway seed oil.
Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 74.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Extraction of acid with aqueous base  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This is a visual demonstration of the principle that acidic organic substances can be extracted from an organic solvent via conversion to a salt, and the latter extracted from the aqueous solution via reconversion to the acid form.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A694.
Acids / Bases
The difference in oxidizing strength of dilute and concentrated nitric acid  Glasoe, Paul K.
H2S gas is bubbled through dilute and concentrated HNO3.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A644.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Safe handling of the perchloric acid in the laboratory  Muse, Lowell A.
Following a perchloric acid explosion at the University of Georgia, a practical set of recommendations for the safe handling and storage of perchloric acid was developed.
Muse, Lowell A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A463.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Laboratory directions for analytical separations and determinations: A manual for quantitative analysis (Kenner, C. T.)  Krivis, Alan F.

Krivis, Alan F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A38.
Separation Science
The thin-layer chromatography of drugs. A laboratory experiment  Neman, R. L.
Students are introduced to thin layer chromatography, are provided samples known to contain alkaloids and barbiturates, separate the mixtures using tlc, determine the components of their unknowns, and calculate Rf values for the components.
Neman, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 834.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
A simple alarm to aid in preparative glpc fraction collection  Lustig, Robert S.
A simple alarm that can be adjusted to "sound off" when the recorder pen of a preparative gas chromatograph reaches a preset height above the base line.
Lustig, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 760.
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Caffeine and benzoic acid in soft drinks  Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A.
Simple procedures for isolating caffeine and benzoic acid from commercial soft drinks.
Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 708.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Polybasic weak acids indistinguishable from monobasic ones by acid-base titrimetry  Meites, Louis
Presents a general equation describing the statistical ratio of the ith an (i + 1)th dissociation constants of a j-basic acid and shows that any such acid whose dissociation constants conform to those ratios will give a titration curve indistinguishable from that obtained for a monobasic acid at an appropriate concentration.
Meites, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 682.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Partial analysis of vinyl-asbestos floor tile. A tlc experiment for beginning organic chemistry  Foreman, William A.; Paulson, Donald R.
This laboratory introduces thin-layer chromatography while presenting the student with a typical industrial analysis problem.
Foreman, William A.; Paulson, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 572.
Industrial Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Quick paper chromatography of amino acids  Heimer, E. P.
Applies acetonitrile-buffer systems for the relatively rapid separation of amino acids.
Heimer, E. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 547.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Small-scale thin-layer chromatography. Experiments for teaching purposes  Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G.
Describes a number of rapid thin-layer chromatography separations that can be conveniently used to introduce chromatography in the teaching laboratory.
Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 545.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
An apparatus for determining the composition of solutions  Castell, Jerry; Amis, Edward S.
An evaporating apparatus constructed from a beaker and a glass fritted crucible.
Castell, Jerry; Amis, Edward S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 500.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
A unified apparatus for paper and gel electrophoresis  Racusen, David; White, Lee
Presents an apparatus that can be used for either paper and gel electrophoresis.
Racusen, David; White, Lee J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 439.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Prediction of periodic acid oxidation products  Blackman, David
Presents an even simpler approach than that offered in the cited article.
Blackman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 379.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation State
Acid and base catalyzed isomerization of 5-cholesten-3-one. An experiment in UV/kinetics  Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A.
This experiment is designed to introduce the student to the principles of ultraviolet spectroscopy and point out its application to following the rate of a chemical change; the experiment also clearly demonstrates that a conjugated system is thermodynamically more stable than a nonconjugated system.
Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 373.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Circular chromatography of inks  Wan, Alfred S. C.
Circular chromatography provides a very convenient and rapid method for demonstrating the principles of paper chromatography.
Wan, Alfred S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 335.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
A multi-purpose separatory funnel  Kim, Young S.; Zeitlin, Harry
Design of a multi-purpose separatory funnel equipped with a Teflon stopcock in which a number of operations can be carried out conveniently.
Kim, Young S.; Zeitlin, Harry J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 296.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Reclamation of gold  Shaw, C. Frank III; Tobias, R. Stuart
An improved procedure for the recovery of gold from laboratory reaction residues.
Shaw, C. Frank III; Tobias, R. Stuart J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 286.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Location of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations. A simulated laboratory exercise  Kozarek, W. J.; Fernando, Quintus
The simulated laboratory experiment described introduces the use of a small computer in the analytical chemistry laboratory and demonstrates the practical utility of Gran's method for the location of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations.
Kozarek, W. J.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 202.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Computer evaluation of titrations by Gran's method. An analytical chemistry experiment  MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A.
A computer program has been developed for the evaluation of potentiometric redox titration data by Gran's method.
MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Extraction of caffeine  Moye, Alfred L.
Much greater yields can be obtained by extracting caffeine from No-Doz tablets than coffee or tea.
Moye, Alfred L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 194.
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Pain: A chemical explanation  Plumb, Robert C.; Lindahl, Olov
In sensing pain the nervous system acts like a pH meter.
Plumb, Robert C.; Lindahl, Olov J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
Procedure for recovering elemental silver from silver residues  Steed, S. Paul; Hayes, Janan M.
A procedure for recovering silver from a mixture of silver salts.
Steed, S. Paul; Hayes, Janan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 156.
Metals |
Separation Science
Solvent extraction apparatus  Tobey, Stephen W.
Describes a solvent extraction head that provides an apparatus in which all regular laboratory continuous solvent extractions can be performed.
Tobey, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 141.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple apparatus for teaching the principles of chromatography  Kellomaki, Aarre
A device that follows the elution of electrolytes through liquid column chromatography by continuously measuring the conductivity of the effluent.
Kellomaki, Aarre J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 139.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The separation of a sodium-rubidium mixture on an ion-exchanger. A laboratory experiment  Coetzee, C. J.
This experiment demonstrates the separation of sodium and rubidium from each other on an AMP-asbestos ion exchange column.
Coetzee, C. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 33.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Instrumental techniques compared by analysis of a reaction mixture  Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O.
The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint the student with how a combination of instruments (glc, ir, and nmr) can be used to separate as well as to identify each compound in a reaction mixture.
Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 827.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
"Show 'N' tell". An organic chemical presentation for the layman  Harrison, Aline M.
The author presents a separation technique from organic chemistry.
Harrison, Aline M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 612.
Separation Science
Pigments from some marine specimens. The isolation and spectral characterization of spinochromes  Chang, C. W. J.; Moore, J. C.
This experiment allows students to examine some common pigments extracted from marine animals.
Chang, C. W. J.; Moore, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 408.
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Trimyristin from nutmeg  Frank, Forrest; Roberts, Theodore; Snell, Jane; Yates, Christy; Collins, Joseph
The author proposes the isolation and saponification of trimytistin from nutmeg as an excellent experiment to introduce general chemistry students to laboratory techniques or for use with the organic chemistry course in which case more techniques an be introduces.
Frank, Forrest; Roberts, Theodore; Snell, Jane; Yates, Christy; Collins, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 255.
Natural Products |
Food Science |
Separation Science
The structure and properties of choleic acids. A biologically oriented organic experiment  Jesaitis, R. G.; Krantz, A.
The experiment described here introduces students to techniques which are often not introduced in the context of a laboratory experiment.
Jesaitis, R. G.; Krantz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 137.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Stoichiometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The preparation and isomerization of allyl thiocyanate. An organic chemistry experiment  Emergon, David W.
The present experiment has been devised to focus attention on two displacement reactions, one at carbon and one at sulfur and the facile allylic rearrangement of allyl thiocyanate (III) to allyl isothiocyanate (IV) which occurs during the distillation. Equations are shown in the article.
Emergon, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 81.
Separation Science
Liquid chromatography detectors - Part one  Veening, Hans
Surveys photometric liquid chromatography detectors.
Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A549.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Current trends in gel permeation chromatography. Part two: Methodology  Cazes, Jack
Examines the subjects of calibration, estimation of molecular weight distribution, fractionation of low molecular weight substances, and recycling chromatography.
Cazes, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A505.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Calibration
Current trends in gel permeation chromatography. Part one: Theory and equipment  Cazes, Jack
This report is presented as a supplement to an earlier pair of papers on gel permeation chromatography and considers the mechanism of separation, resolution, equipment, and column substrates
Cazes, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A461.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chemical separation methods (Dean, John A.)  Culp, Robert A.

Culp, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A396.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Chromatography (Browning, D. R.)  Karger, Barry L.

Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A306.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of leucine and isoleucine by thin-layer chromatography  Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr.
This experiment involves the separation of leucine and isoleucine through continuous ascending thin layer chromatography.
Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 840.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
Acid-base reaction parameters  Freiser, Henry
The author demonstrates how the combined algebraic graphical approach can be extended to acid-base titration curve calculations as well as to buffer and sharpness index formulation.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 809.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Representation of titration errors in logarithmic diagrams  Inczedy, J.
This work attempts to give uniform treatment for the titration error in all kinds of titrations.
Inczedy, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 769.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Procedure for recovering silver nitrate from silver-silver oxide residues  Henderson, K. O.; Garin, David L.
Presents a procedure for recovering silver nitrate from silver-silver oxide residues.
Henderson, K. O.; Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 741.
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Experiments in paper chromatography  Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K.
Briefly summarizes a series of paper chromatography experiments that demonstrate basic physical and inorganic principles, as well as providing an introduction to a useful separation technique.
Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 688.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The effect of pH on the extraction of copper oxinate into chloroform  Dilts, Robert V.
To illustrate the theoretical aspects of metal chelate extractions, an experiment to determine the percent extraction-pH curve for copper 8-hydroxyquinolate is presented.
Dilts, Robert V. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 661.
pH |
Separation Science |
Metals
Titration behavior of monoprotic and diprotic acids  Hamann, S. D.
Defines the conditions of concentration and pK for which an earlier published distinction between weak diprotic and monoprotic acids is valid.
Hamann, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 658.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Vacuum distillation experiment  Schoffstall, Allen M.; Specht, James D.
The primary purpose of this experiment is to provide the student with a feeling similar to that of a researcher who is attempting to separate by distillation a mixture containing a product of unknown structure for identification.
Schoffstall, Allen M.; Specht, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 539.
Separation Science
A simple streaker for preparative layer chromatography  Altman, L. J.; Trudell, James R.
Presents a simple streaker for preparative layer chromatography and explains its use.
Altman, L. J.; Trudell, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 404.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An automatic titrator for demonstrating indicator color change  Stock, John T.
two high-sensitivity relays and a latching relay are used in a device for demonstrating the behavior of an acid-base indicator upon alternate addition of acid and alkali.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 311.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Bibliography of experimental gas chromatography  Miller, James M.
Summarizes publications of homemade gas chromatography instruments and educational experiments involving their use.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 306.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Equivalence point potential in redox titrations  Heyn, Arno H. A.
Many analytical chemistry textbooks ignore or mistake the effect of [H+] on the equivalence point potential.
Heyn, Arno H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents
Adsorbent extractor for preparative thin-layer chromatography  Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, Donald G.
Device to remove sample containing regions from cellulose thin-layer chromatograms and extract the samples that eliminates many of the problems associated with other methods.
Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 229.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Ratio diagrams: A simple graphical representation of complicated equilibria  de Levie, R.
Introduces and demonstrates the usefulness and general applicability of ratio diagrams as the simplest graphical representation of equilibria involving mononuclear species.
de Levie, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 187.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Computer programs for calculating equivalent conductivity and dissociation constants  Zimmerman, A. A.
Lists several computer programs available for calculating equivalent conductivity and dissociation constants.
Zimmerman, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A short, intensive experiment in paper chromatography  McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre
A paper chromatographic system capable of separating a challenging mixture of components (amino acids) in less than three hours.
McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 141.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
A convenient method to obtain preparative samples by glc  Costanzo, Samuel J.
A simple device to collect samples directly from a gas chromatograph relies on a disposable pipet.
Costanzo, Samuel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 45.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple laboratory experiment on PVP column chromatography  Lerner, Joseph
This experiment deals with the separation of three colored biochemicals, two of which are vitamins, the other a protein.
Lerner, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 32.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Vitamins
Hydrofluoric acid burn treatment  Reinhardt, C. F.; Hume, W. G.; Linch, A. K.; Wetherhold, J. M.
Discusses the treatment of chemical burns due to hydrofluoric acid and the effectiveness of this new method.
Reinhardt, C. F.; Hume, W. G.; Linch, A. K.; Wetherhold, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A171.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Analog computer simulation of log(K)-pH profiles  Lordi, Nicholas G.
This report describes the computer simulation of log (K)-pH profiles used to characterize aqueous phase stabilities of drugs, particularly hydrolytic degradations.
Lordi, Nicholas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 861.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A versatile and compact chromatographic chamber  Lehrfeld, J.
This simple and inexpensive glass chamber facilitates thin-layer chromatography separations of a large number of samples within 5 minutes.
Lehrfeld, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The essential oils: A series of laboratory experiments  Runquist, Olaf
Describes a variety of "research type" laboratory problems for the second term introductory organic chemistry course involving essential oils.
Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 846.
Lipids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A simple, inexpensive zone extractor for preparative thin-layer chromatography  Kan, G.; Snieckus, V.
This short note presents the design of a simple, inexpensive zone extractor for preparative thin-layer chromatography.
Kan, G.; Snieckus, V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 763.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An introduction to chromatography  Gaucher, G. M.
The object of this presentation is to serve as a preliminary practical introduction and guide to chromatography.
Gaucher, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 729.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Ion Exchange
Purification of low-melting compounds  Kaye, Irving Allan
Presents a procedure that addresses difficulties to purification by recrystallization caused by the tendency of some low-melting compounds to precipitate from solution as oils.
Kaye, Irving Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 696.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management |
Precipitation / Solubility
The pKa of a weak acid as a function of temperature and ionic strength: An experiment using a pH meter  Bada, Jeffrey L.
This report presents a procedure for using a pH meter to determine the pKa of a weak acid as a function of temperature and ionic strength.
Bada, Jeffrey L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 689.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Equilibrium
Correlation of composition of acid solutions with activity and acidity functions  O'Connor, Charmian J.
Presents correlation tables of percentage composition with molarity, molality, activity coefficient, water activity, and Hammett Acidity function for aqueous solutions of hydrochloric, perchloric, phosphoric, and sulfuric acids.
O'Connor, Charmian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 686.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Kinetics
Computer programs for calculating pH  Schlessinger, Gert G.
A brief note on the availability of a Fortran II program for calculating the pH of weak acids and bases and salts of these species in aqueous solution.
Schlessinger, Gert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 680.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A.
(1) When is the rule valid that the rate of reaction approximately doubles with a ten-degree temperature rise? - answer by House. (2) On the colors of transition metal complexes. (3) On an electrolysis experiment in which an acid solution is used to minimize the hydrolysis of Cu 2+. - answer by Campbell.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 674.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Transition Elements |
Coordination Compounds |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases
Graphical method for acidity constants  Heck, Ludwig
The author presents a graphical method for the determination of acidity constants of very weak acids.
Heck, Ludwig J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 535.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Counter-current distribution as a student laboratory experiment  Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran
This experiment demonstrates the principles of extraction and counter-current distribution as well as spectrophotometric analysis.
Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 525.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
A semi-micro filtration apparatus  Kocon, Richard W.
An inexpensive vacuum filtration apparatus that combines the features of small surface area in the filter, rapid passage of solution through the filter, and concentration of the filtrate in a relatively small area.
Kocon, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 516.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Simple developing chamber for thin layer chromatography  Aronson, John N.
This short note describes the design of a simple developing chamber for thin layer chromatography.
Aronson, John N. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 483.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Modifications of solution chromatography illustrated with chloroplast pigments  Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph
Using plant pigments to demonstrate various chromatographic techniques, including column adsorption, paper adsorption, paper partition, column partition, and thin layer chromatography.
Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 476.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Teflon enclosed steel spiral as column packing  Greenberg, Fred H.
Using steel wire enclosed in Teflon in place of a tantalum wire spiral as fractionating column packing.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 464.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A distribution experiment  Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John
An experiment to determine the distribution coefficient of an acid between an aqueous and nonaqueous phase.
Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 454.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Monoprotic or diprotic?  Goldman, James A.
The author demonstrates that the results of an earlier article are not altogether unexpected.
Goldman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 123.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Column chromatography spectrometry for separating two cobalt complexes: A laboratory experiment  Schmitt, Donald L.; Jonassen, Hans B.
This paper presents the details of the separation of [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 from [Co(NH3)5]Cl2 using molecular sieves.
Schmitt, Donald L.; Jonassen, Hans B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 47.
Chromatography |
Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds
Disc electrophoresis  Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B.
Describes the procedures involved in separating proteins or nucleic acids through disc electrophoresis.
Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 41.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Separation Science
Circular slide rule conversion of pH to [H+]  Grimm, Larry C.
This short note discusses the use of a circular slide rule to convert pH to [H+].
Grimm, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 22.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Introduction to Chromatography (Bobbitt, James M.; Schwarting, Arthur E.; Gritter, Roy J.)  Silberman, Robert

Silberman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A986.
Organometallics |
Separation Science
Effect of shock on CS2 vapor  Viswanathan, Arcot
An explosive shock separates CS2 into its constituent elements.
Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A901.
Gases |
Separation Science
The chemistry of the OH group (Clapp, Leallyn B.)  Massie, Samuel P.

Massie, Samuel P. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A700.
Acids / Bases
Preparation and standardization of constant boiling hydrochloric acid  McGuinness, E. T.; Clarke, K. S.
Presents a procedure for producing a calibration curve for the standardization of constant boiling hydrochloric acid.
McGuinness, E. T.; Clarke, K. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 740.
Acids / Bases |
Calibration |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Errors in calculating hydrogen ion concentration  House, J. E., Jr.; Reiter, R. C.
The possibility of avoiding the full quadratic calculation in determining hydrogen ion concentration depends on both the dissociation constant and the concentration of the acid or base.
House, J. E., Jr.; Reiter, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 679.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Corrections for simple equations for titration curves of monoprotic acids  Cortelyou, W. P.
Presents corrections for simple equations for titration curves of monoprotic acids and their derivations.
Cortelyou, W. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 677.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Acid-base indicators: An experiment in aqueous equilibria  Brown, William E.; Campbell, J. A.
Examines absorbtivity values for six acid-base indicators under various conditions.
Brown, William E.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 674.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments
A simple, foot-controlled air-jet dryer to assist in applying solutions to TLC plates  Wittick, J. J.
This short note describes a simple, foot-controlled air-jet dryer to assist in applying solutions to thin layer chromatography plates.
Wittick, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 660.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part II: Underlying theories  Pearson, Ralph G.
Explores possible explanations for and presents applications of the principles of hard and soft acids and bases.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 643.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
Equations for potentiometric titration (the author replies)  Sturrock, Peter E.
Response to the cited letter.
Sturrock, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 621.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Equations for potentiometric titration  Lomax, Ann; Bard, Allen J.
Examines some difficulties arising with assumptions made in a previously published experiment.
Lomax, Ann; Bard, Allen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 621.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part 1: Fundamental principles  Pearson, Ralph G.
Using the principles of hard and soft acids and bases to estimate the strength and softness of an acid or base.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 581.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds
Acids as derivatives of aldehydes prepared with silver oxides  Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G.
Examines the use of silver(i) and silver(II) oxide to convert aldehydes into acid derivatives.
Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Natural products isolation - orange oil: An undergraduate organic experiment  Greenberg, F. H.
This procedure involves the isolation of orange oil from orange peel an the identification of a major component - limonene.
Greenberg, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 537.
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Cylindrical thin-layer chromatography  Jordan, David
This short note describes the use and advantages of cylindrical thin-layer chromatography.
Jordan, David J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 510.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
The use of cellophane sheets for direct reading and recording of Rf values  Chortyk, O. T.; Kushnir, I.
Describes the use of cellophane sheets for direct reading and recording of Rf values.
Chortyk, O. T.; Kushnir, I. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 506.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Le Chtelier and ionic equilibria  Ringbom, Anders
When s solution contains several weak acids, the squares of the separately calculated hydrogen ion concentrations of all weak acids in the solution are additive.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 442.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple sprayer for quantitative thin-layer chromatography  Samuels, Stanley
A simple, inexpensive sprayer for chromatographic use that can be constructed by a student as a laboratory project.
Samuels, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 438.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simplified slotted lid for preparative thin-layer chromatography jars  Borka, Laszlo
Design for an all-glass lid for preparative thin-layer chromatography jars.
Borka, Laszlo J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 401.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
An inexpensive sprayer for chromatography  DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis
This short note presents a simple and inexpensive sprayer for paper and thin-layer chromatography.
DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 321.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An inexpensive device for evaluating solvents for paper and thin-layer chromatography  DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis
A short note describing a device for evaluating solvents used to develop paper and thin-layer chromatograms.
DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 303.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Chromic acid oxidation of alcohols: A simple experiment on reaction rates  Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G.
In this experiment, students determine the relative rates of oxidation by adding quantities of several different alcohols to a solution of chromium(VI) in dilute sulfuric acid and visually monitoring the course of the reaction.
Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 269.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
The chemistry of orthophosphoric acid and its sodium salts  Neidig, H. A.; Teates, T. G.; Yingling, R. T.
The purpose of this article is to suggest a number of possible laboratory investigations of the chemistry of phosphoric acid and its sodium salts involving potentiometric titration studies and thermochemical studies.
Neidig, H. A.; Teates, T. G.; Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 57.
Acids / Bases
Analytical chemistry  Rogers, L. B.
Many of the guiding principles for optimizing chromatographic separations are appropriate for inclusion in an undergraduate analytical course.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 7.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Thin-layer chromatography (Randerath, Kurt)  Malins, Donald C.

Malins, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A912.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Dissociation of weak acids and bases at infinite dilution  Stock, D. Irwin
It is all too easy to forget that in a solution of infinite dilution the solvent itself is ionized to an extent governed by its ionization constant, and that the concentration of its ions will appear in the expression for the dissociation constant of the solute.
Stock, D. Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 764.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Le Chtelier's principle and rigorous ionic equilibria equations  Goldman, James A.
Presents an approach, exemplified by acid-base and solubility equilibria, that relates the concept of Le Chtelier's principle to rigorous ionic equilibria equations.
Goldman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 658.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chromatographic methods (Stock, R.)  Sherma, Joseph

Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 624.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Evaluation of titration analyses with logarithmic concentration diagrams  Yingst, Austin
Examines the use of logarithmic concentration diagrams in the evaluation of strong and weak acid-base titrations.
Yingst, Austin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 601.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
A simple gas-liquid chromatography device  Silberman, Robert
Describes a simple device for demonstrating the principle of gas chromatography.
Silberman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 590.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Qualitative analysis with paper chromatography  Poonia, N. S.
A spot of an unknown mixture is subjected to radial development, and the circular chromatogram is divided into a number of segments used for the detection of different cations or groups of cations.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 477.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Techniques for internal distillation-condensation  Johnson, B. L.
Presents modifications and apparatus for the semi-micro collection of pure substances and macro extraction.
Johnson, B. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 465.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
A pH scaler  Alpern, D. K.
Describes a convenient pocket size scale made using log paper and a linear graph sheet.
Alpern, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 330.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Methods of separation: The sophomore analytical course  Dilts, Robert V.
Describes the development of a course in separation methods.
Dilts, Robert V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 313.
Separation Science
The intrinsic basicity of the hydroxide ion  Jolly, William L.
Examines the basicity of the hydroxide ion.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 304.
Acids / Bases
Test tube and glass rod tlc  Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer
Describes the use of test tubes and glass rods coated on their outer surfaces for thin layer chromatography.
Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 297.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The use of talc as a tlc adsorbent  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes the use of talc as a thin layer chromatography adsorbent, particularly with respect to the separation of flavonoids, sugars, and proteins.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 294.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Acid-base titration and distribution curves  Waser, Jurg
Presents an alternative method for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 274.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Liquid-liquid extraction  Joseph-Nathan, P.
Describes how liquid-liquid extraction can be done using commercially available substances and an apparatus of small dimensions that still allows an experiment to be followed visually.
Joseph-Nathan, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 176.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A practical method of removing oxygen from inert gases  Broadbent, A. D.
Describes the use of BTS-catalyst to remove oxygen from nitrogen and other inert gases.
Broadbent, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 145.
Gases |
Separation Science |
Catalysis
Zone extractor for thin-layer chromatography  Ruchelman, Maryon W.
This communication describes a simple technique for elution columns prepared from commercially available disposable capillary pipets.
Ruchelman, Maryon W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 110.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple apparatus for scoring tlc plates  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes a simple apparatus for scoring thin layer chromatography plates.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 24.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Unattended laboratory operations. Part 1. The safe operation of laboratory distillations over night  Conlon, D. R.
Examines issues related to the safe operation of laboratory distillations over night.
Conlon, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A589.
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Enamine reactions for the undergraduate organic laboratory: A student water separator  Darling, S. D.
This note describes the design and efficiency of a device that facilitates the removal of water in reactions such as enamine preparation or esterfications.
Darling, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 665.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Separation Science
Theoretical error in acid-base titrations  Butcher, John; Quintus, Fernanado
The purpose of this report is to describe simple derivations of equations for titration error calculations for a number of acid-base titrations, and to show error curves for some typical cases.
Butcher, John; Quintus, Fernanado J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 546.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis and ion migration  Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V.
Ferric hydroxide and arsenious sulfide are separated using a 9-volt battery.
Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 436.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Colloids
Paper chromatography and spot tests: A useful combination of techniques  Poonia, N. S.
Reports on the specificity of identification afforded by spot test reagents and provides Rf values for 36 inorganic ions.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 423.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Metals
The interaction of chromium(III) ion with hydroxide ion. An experiment for the undergraduate inorganic laboratory  Reinhardt, Richard A.
In the interactions with hydroxide ion, at least three different types of reactions may be considered: protolysis, the formation of a sparingly soluble hydroxide, and the formation of polymeric species.
Reinhardt, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 382.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Demonstration of chemical reaction via aerosol spray reagents  Stedman, Earl D.
Demonstrations of chemical reactions via aerosol spray reagents may include acid-base indicators and precipitation reactions.
Stedman, Earl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 377.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions
Lewis acid-base titration in fused salts  Schlegel, James M.
Dichromate ion, a Lewis acid, is titrated with carbonate ion, a Lewis base, in a fused KNO3-NaNO3 solvent.
Schlegel, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 362.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Letter to the editor  Onwood, D. P.
Discusses variations in the usage of the terms "acid" and "base," including Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis systems.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 335.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A versatile continuous percolator-extractor  Ciereszko, Leon S.
An apparatus that may be used either for the continuous percolation of solids or for the continuous extraction of liquids is presented.
Ciereszko, Leon S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 252.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Solids |
Liquids
Letter to the editor  Roberts, N. K.
Discusses the action of buffer solutions to resist changes in pH.
Roberts, N. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 108.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Acetylation of ferrocene: A chromatography experiment for elementary organic laboratory  Bozak, Richard E.
The acetylation of ferrocene with acetic anhydride and phosphoric acid produces a mixture of unchanged ferrocene and acetylferrocene that is readily separated in a regular chromatography column.
Bozak, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 73.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Resolution in linear elution chromatography  Karger, Barry L.
Examines fundamentals of resolution that are common to all chromatographic methods.
Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 47.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Homemade marker for chromatography plates  Miller, Frederick W.
Presents a marker for chromatography plates constructed from a pocket comb.
Miller, Frederick W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 29.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A spreader for TLC slides  Whistler, Roy L.; Lamchen, Max; Rowell, R. M.
Presents a spreader for thin layer chromatography slides made from Plexiglass sheets.
Whistler, Roy L.; Lamchen, Max; Rowell, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 28.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Thin-layer chromatography: A laboratory handbook (Stahl, Egon)  Malins, Donald C.

Malins, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 692.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A computer program for use in teaching chemical equilibrium  Zajicek, O. T.
Describes a computer program for use in teaching chemical equilibrium.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 622.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The ionization of polyhydric acids: Numerical results for phosphoric acid  Cooke, S. L., Jr.
Presents calculated ionization values for phosphoric acid across the normal aqueous pH range.
Cooke, S. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 620.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Use of the unopette in thin-layer chromatography  Clitheroe, H. J.; Gerarde, H. W.
Describes the use of the Unopette capillary in applying samples to chromatographic plates.
Clitheroe, H. J.; Gerarde, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 613.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive TLC tank  Andersen, Kenneth K.; May, George S.
Presents a sandwich-type thin layer chromatography tank.
Andersen, Kenneth K.; May, George S. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 596.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potentiometric titration of aspirin in ethanol  Shen, Samuel Y.; Gilman, Alfred J.
This experiment illustrates the potentiometric end point in nonaqueous acid-base titrations.
Shen, Samuel Y.; Gilman, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 540.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Natural product chemistry: Laboratory research approach for elementary organic courses  O'Connor, Rod
Describes a program designed to introduce macro, semi-micro, and micro techniques of organic chemistry of the types commonly employed in research in natural product chemistry or in biologically-related fields.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 492.
Natural Products |
Undergraduate Research |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Effect of amine structure on the relative acidity of conjugate acids  Griswold, Robert E.
the primary objectives of this experiment are to investigate the effect of structure of amines on the relative acidity of their conjugate acids and to study some of the factors affecting equilibrium constants.
Griswold, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 483.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Equilibrium |
pH
Experiments in inorganic paper chromatography  Walton, Harold F.
Experiments typical of those done in geochemical work involve the detection and estimation of uranium, copper, cobalt, and nickel.
Walton, Harold F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 477.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Geochemistry |
Metals
A simple high frequency transistor recorder for chromatography  Jackson, A.
Describes the design and operation of a simple high frequency transistor recorder for chromatography.
Jackson, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 447.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Automatic fraction collector for column chromatography  Herbener, R. E.
This article describes the construction of an automatically timed fraction collector for use with chromatographic columns.
Herbener, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 445.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Applications of sodium-lead alloy in qualitative inorganic analysis  Edge, Robert A.; Fowles, Gerald W. A.
This note describes how sodium-lead alloy may be used n qualitative inorganic analysis, both as a reductant in acid and alkaline media, and as a source of sodium hydroxide for hydroxide precipitations.
Edge, Robert A.; Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 436.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution  Krause, Richard E.
This short note describes a simple method for the preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution.
Krause, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 426.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
Potentiometric titrations using Gran plots: A textbook omission  Rossotti, F. J. C.; Rossotti, Hazel
Describes Gran's graphical method of end point determination for the precise analysis of acids and bases.
Rossotti, F. J. C.; Rossotti, Hazel J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 375.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) chloride  Guenther, William B.
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) from 8 M HCl solution is a simple method of separating iron from the other components of stainless steel alloys.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 277.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Iron(III) determination using liquid-liquid extraction and colorimetry  Holt, Robert L.; Easley, William K.
The determination of iron(III) employing 8-hydroxyquinoline combines liquid / liquid extraction with the use of a pH meter as well as introducing the student to the formation and properties of complexes.
Holt, Robert L.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 276.
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds
Lineweaver-Burk treatment of acid-base dissociation  Solomons, C. C.
The advantage of using the Lineweaver-Burk treatment of acid-base dissociation before introducing the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation lies in the fact that K (dissociation) is determined by a straight-line relationship which is nonlogarithmic.
Solomons, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves  Emery, Allan R.
Describes the development of a computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Emery, Allan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 131.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Apparatus for steam distillation  Mallory, Frank B.
This apparatus for steam distillation eliminates the time required to bore corks with a more traditional apparatus.
Mallory, Frank B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 108.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Teaching ionic equilibrium: Use of log chart transparencies  Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus
The use of graphical methods brings the problem of significance of various terms in complicated expressions into proper focus. Furthermore, a pictorial representation permits the student to see at a glance how the concentrations of various species in a system at equilibrium change with conditions.
Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 35.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Solubility and pH Calculations (Butler, James N.)  Ramette, R. W.

Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A970.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Thin layer chromatography (Bobbitt, James M.)  Wollish, E. G.

Wollish, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A396.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Experimental gas chromatography (Miller, James M.)  Sawyer, Donald T.

Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A214.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Crystalline molecular sieves  Breck, D. W.
This article introduces zeolites - crystalline aluminosilicates that function as molecular sieves.
Breck, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 678.
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Ion Exchange |
Catalysis
An inexpensive centrifuge for micro qualitative analysis  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Presents an inexpensive micro centrifuge.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Systematic names for the tartaric acids  Baxter, J. N.
Examines the use of the small capital letters D and L in naming tartaric acids.
Baxter, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 619.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
The hydration of carbon dioxide: A double clock experiment  Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L.
This extension of the "Soda Water Clock" experiment provides a quantitative kinetics investigation.
Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 610.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Electrophoresis using thin layer materials  Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Thin layer materials prepared for chromatography are used for electrophoresis.
Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Ion exchange by a natural clay mineral: A demonstration experiment  Mucci, Joseph F.; Hollister, Charlotte; Marshall, Louise R.
This demonstration experiment illustrates the exchange properties of the natural clay mineral montmorillonite as well as vividly displaying the relative ease of replacing cesium by cobalt and cobalt by cesiums using this exchanger.
Mucci, Joseph F.; Hollister, Charlotte; Marshall, Louise R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 602.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
A novel distillation flask  Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A.
Presents a design for a distillation flask that relies on boiling the liquid in an inverted conical flask heated by a Nichrome wire element.
Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The effect of mineral acid on methyl violet solutions  McKaig, Nelson, Jr.
Test results indicate that the four common strong mineral acids cause fading of methyl violet indicator.
McKaig, Nelson, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 441.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Separation and identification of copper and cadmium  Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L.
Describes three semimicro procedures for the separation and identification of copper and cadmium.
Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 439.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Column chromatographic analysis of the metal ions  Marie, Sister Eleanor, S. S. J.
Presents a column chromatographic analysis of the metal ions that is superior to conventional methods.
Marie, Sister Eleanor, S. S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 436.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Metals |
Separation Science
Fractionating column efficiency: Quantitative experiment in elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Ault, Addison
This experiment estimates the efficiency of a fractionating column by slowly distilling a three-to-one mixture of toluene and benzene.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 432.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Dual column gas chromatography: A teaching tool  Miller, James M.
Presents advantages to and several experiments involving dual column gas chromatography.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 413.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Travel of molecules and disturbances in chromatographic columns: A paradox and its resolution  Helfferich, F.
The purpose of the present communication is to contribute toward a better understanding of some fundamental, but not obvious, aspects of nonlinear chromatography by presenting and then resolving what appears to be, at first sight, a surprising paradox.
Helfferich, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 410.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
An anion exchange radiochemical experiment: Separation of manganese, zinc, and iron  Morie, Gerald P.; Sweet, Thomas R.; Pitstick, Gerald F.
The separation of manganese, zinc, and iron is based on distribution coefficients reported for tartrate complexes.
Morie, Gerald P.; Sweet, Thomas R.; Pitstick, Gerald F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 389.
Ion Exchange |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science
Letters  Byer, Albert J.
Suggestion for obtaining sharp endpoints in the titration of saponified acids.
Byer, Albert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 288.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A demonstration device for gas chromatography  Herbener, R. E.
This paper describes the construction and use of a simple gas chromatograph with removable covers for class demonstrations.
Herbener, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 162.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
A versatile and inexpensive pH recording electrometer  Malmstadt, H. V.
Presents the design and operation of a modular pH unit with automatic temperature compensation.
Malmstadt, H. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 148.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Development of the pH concept: A historical survey  Szabadvary, Ferenc; Oesper, Ralph E., trans.
Traces the historical development of the following: a recognition of the importance of hydrogen ion concentration; an understanding of buffer solutions; and the concept and measurement of pH.
Szabadvary, Ferenc; Oesper, Ralph E., trans. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 105.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Zone refining  Christian, John D.
Demonstrates the process of zone refining.
Christian, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A409.
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry
An easily prepared wide range buffer series  Carmody, W. R.
Provides suggestions for research to accompany earlier published articles.
Carmody, W. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A386.
Undergraduate Research |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The extraction of metals from ores  Keubel, A.
Provides suggestions for research based on earlier published articles.
Keubel, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A186.
Undergraduate Research |
Metals |
Separation Science
Zone refining  Christian, J. D.
Provides suggestions for research based on an earlier published article.
Christian, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A186.
Undergraduate Research |
Separation Science
Chromatographic glossary  Lewin, S. Z.
Presents thin layer and gas chromatography terms in English, German, French, and Spanish.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A167.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography
Demonstration of some properties of Prussian blue  Kohn, M.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Kohn, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A135.
Undergraduate Research |
Dyes / Pigments |
Coordination Compounds |
Acids / Bases
Chromatography (Heftmann, Erich, ed.)  Dehority, Burk A.

Dehority, Burk A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A63.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Clathrates: Compounds in cages  Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M.
Introduces clathrate compounds and examines some of their uses and applications.
Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 643.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
The hydrated hydronium ion  Clever, H. Lawrence
It is the purpose of this brief review to cite and discuss some of the evidence for the existence of the trihydrated hydronium ion.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 637.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
A gas chromatography demonstration apparatus  McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L.
Describes an apparatus for the separation of volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography using oxygen or air as the carrier gas.
McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 539.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis
Electrophoretic study of synthetic food dyes  Anwar, M. H.; Norman, S.; Anwar, B.; Laplaca, P.
Describes an experiment in which mixtures of synthetic food dyes are separated through electrophoresis.
Anwar, M. H.; Norman, S.; Anwar, B.; Laplaca, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 537.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
TLC separation of ink pigments  Druding, Leonard F.
The separation of inks into their component pigments was chosen for its simplicity in illustrating techniques and choice of solvent for thin layer chromatography; it also affords the student the opportunity to visually observe the course of the separation.
Druding, Leonard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 536.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
TLC on microscope slides: An organic chemistry experiment  Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S.
This experiment consists of three sections: separation of known and unknown dye mixtures; separation of known and unknown mixtures of phenols; separation of dyes and impurities.
Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 534.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Phenols
TLCVersatile tool  Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C.
Examines apparatus and techniques, lecture demonstrations, laboratory experiments and general applications associated with thin layer chromatography.
Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 531.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Physical and chemical methods of separation (Berg, Eugene W.)  Rogers, Lockhart B.

Rogers, Lockhart B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 501.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography
The lighter lanthanides: A laboratory experiment in rare earth chemistry  Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C.
Presents a laboratory experiment designed to illustrate the separation and properties of the rare earths.
Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 433.
Transition Elements |
Separation Science
Simple evaporator for heat sensitive compounds  Begeman, Charles R.
Presents a simple evaporator for heat sensitive compounds that is similar to common flask rotating devices.
Begeman, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 427.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Apparatus for molecular distillation and vacuum sublimation  Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F.
A simple, inexpensive yet highly effective apparatus for laboratory scale purifications by molecular distillation or vacuum sublimation has been designed.
Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Qualitative detection of Ba, Sr, and Ca ions  Pariza, Richard
This short note presents a procedure for the separation of Ba++, Ca++, and Sr++ in pairs or combination of the three.
Pariza, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 417.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A simple separation of the group II-A sulfides  O'Donnell, T. A.
Presents a group separation scheme for the separation of lead from bismuth and copper from cadmium.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 415.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Dissolving difficultly soluble salts with chelating ion exchange resins  Rich, Ronald
Chelating resins such as Dowex A-1 and Chelex 100 provide a new way of separating the ions of some difficultly soluble salts.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 414.
Ion Exchange |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Separation Science
Separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium  Abrao, Alcidio
Suggests techniques for the separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium without relying on HCN.
Abrao, Alcidio J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 413.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
A quantitative experiment with paper chromatography  Frierson, W. Joe; Marable, Nina; Bruce, Becky
A procedure developed for the separation and determination of cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc has been combined with more recent methods for the spectrophotometric determination of cobalt and nickel and adapted to student use.
Frierson, W. Joe; Marable, Nina; Bruce, Becky J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 408.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Metals |
Spectroscopy
The dissociation quotient of bromcresol green: A class study of ionic strength effects  Ramette, Richard
The purposes of this study include the use of spectrophotometry, a thorough application of various acid-base equilibrium principles, and a realistic look at the behavior of activity coefficients.
Ramette, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 252.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments
Demonstration of radioautography and paper chromatography using a Polaroid camera  Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M.
Presents a simple combined demonstration of paper chromatography and radioautography illustrating the separation of two C-14 labeled amino acids.
Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 243.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Letters to the editor (the author replies)  Racusen, David
Answers criticisms leveled at an earlier published paper.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Letters to the editor  Sherma, Joseph
Questions the conclusion regarding the utility of paper chromatography reached by an earlier published paper.
Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The decarboxylation of organic acid  March, Jerry
Simple aliphatic acids (except for acetic) do not give good yields of the corresponding alkanes through decarboxylation, although many organic chemistry textbooks cite this as a general method for the preparation of alkanes.
March, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 212.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids
Graphical treatment simplifies acid-base equilibria calculations  Thomas, E. B.
In dealing with equilibria involving polybasic acids, considerable simplification of the calculation of the relative distribution of the various species with changes in pH may be obtained by a graphical treatment of the ratios involved.
Thomas, E. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 70.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
pH
Separatory funnel for successive extraction of the heavier phase  Hanrahan, Robert J.
Presents a double separatory funnel for re-extraction of the heavier phase.
Hanrahan, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 69.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Calculating titration errors  Butler, James N.
This paper presents some explicit expressions for the titration error in acid-base and precipitation titrations, as well as a simple method for deciding qualitatively whether or not a given titration is feasible.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 66.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Separation of plant pigments by thin layer chromatography  Anwar, M. H.
Describes a lab activity to separate chloroplast pigments over a thin layer of silicic acid.
Anwar, M. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 29.
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
Ion-exchange papers  Sherma, Joseph A., Jr.
Demonstrates the separation of cobalt(II) and iron(III) using ion-exchange paper.
Sherma, Joseph A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Nitric acid: Manufacture and uses (Miles, Frank Douglas)  Sisler, Harry H.

Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A694.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry
Paper electrophoresis (Ribiero, L. P.; Mitidieri, E.; Affonso, O. R.)  Tarr, Donald A.

Tarr, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A228.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Gas Chromatographs (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the nature of the packing in a gas chromatograph and its effects on the performance of the instrument.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A5.
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Letters  Dence, Joseph B.
The author provides some suggestions regarding the distillation of benzyl alcohol following the Cannizzaro reaction.
Dence, Joseph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 320.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Simple method for determining number of theoretical plates  Williamson, A. G.
Describes a method for obtaining the number of theoretical plates in a distillation column from measurements of the equilibrium temperatures at the top and bottom of the column.
Williamson, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 579.
Separation Science
A large capacity laboratory extraction apparatus  Diaper, Dennis G. M.; Kuksis, Arnis
Presents a non-commercial design for a large capacity, Soxhlet extractor.
Diaper, Dennis G. M.; Kuksis, Arnis J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 532.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The investigation of unknowns by paper chromatography  Racusen, David
Presents a scheme for the systematic study of an unknown through paper chromatography.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 484.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A new technique for centrifugal chromatography  Christensen, G. M.; Swor, R.
Describes a method modifying a standard laboratory centrifuge to be used for centrifugal chromatography.
Christensen, G. M.; Swor, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 347.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Acids, Bases, and the Chemistry of the Covalent Bond (VanderWerf, Calvin A.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 273.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Countercurrent distribution: Apparatus for a simple experiment  Verzele, M.; Schamp, N.
Presents an apparatus and its application to perform a countercurrent distribution.
Verzele, M.; Schamp, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 97.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Liquids
Determining ionization constants from ion exchange equilibrium measurements  Bonner, O. D.; Jackson, R.; Rogers, O. C.
This discussion shows how measurements of ion exchange equilibria may be used as a rapid and convenient method for the estimation of the ionization constants.
Bonner, O. D.; Jackson, R.; Rogers, O. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 37.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ion Exchange |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
Chromatographic equipment (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines high voltage pherographs, column electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatographs, photometric effluent sensing systems, and refractometric effluent sensors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A789.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic equipment (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: design considerations for stabilized medium pherographs, specialized types of pherographs, continuous flow electrochromatographs, the continuous flow chromatograph, and fraction collectors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A713.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Qualitative Analysis and Analytical Chemical Separations (West, Philip W.; Vick, Maurice M.)  Frank, Richard E.

Frank, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A642.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Equipment (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines ascending, descending, and horizontal paper chromatographs; and centrifugally-, thermally-, and electrilytically-accelerated chromatographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A567.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Chomatographic Equipment  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: selectivity in the distribution of components between two phases, chromatographic development, types of chromatographic systems, the production of counter-current flow, the scale of chromatographic separations, the components of chromatographs, the two-phase system, and containers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A515.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A titration controller for demonstrating the behavior of acid-base indicators  Stock, John T.
Presents a circuit diagram for a device that permits the automatic back-and-forth titration with acid and alkali of a solution containing an appropriate indicator.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 633.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Easily prepared wide range buffer series  Carmody, Walter R.
A series of buffers with pH values ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 that requires the preparation of only two stock solutions and requires only three common chemicals.
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 559.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Management
An inexpensive versatile multi-column gas chromatograph for students  Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A.
Presents the design of a multi-column, gas chromatography unit constructed from common laboratory materials.
Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 506.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Contemporary analysis and the chemistry curriculum  Rogers, L. B.
Examines a variety of curricular issues regarding analytical chemistry.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 455.
Qualitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A simple test for nitric acid fumes  Chan, Alfred, Jr.
This simple test for nitric acid fumes relies on an ordinary kraft paper towel.
Chan, Alfred, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 412.
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Preparative separations replace typical qualitative analysis  Mahr, Carl
Discusses the use of preparative separations in qualitative analysis.
Mahr, Carl J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 407.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Ion exchange paper chromatography  Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P.
Describes an experiment/demonstration in ion exchange paper chromatography separating amino acids.
Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 406.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
An approach to complex equilibrium problems  Butler, James N.
Presents an approach to equilibrium problems that sets up enough equations relating the various concentrations present to define the system completely and then makes approximations that simplify the equations.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 141.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A convenient device for the evaporation of solvents  Sprinkzak, Yair
Presents the design of a device attached to a rotatory evaporator.
Sprinkzak, Yair J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 606.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Hydrocarbons in petroleum  Rossini, Frederick D.
Examines research and industrial processes involving the separation of petroleum into its constituent components.
Rossini, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 554.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Natural Products
A simple extraction experiment  Ellis, Lillian N.; Fox, Marjorie
In this experiment demonstrating the principles of extraction, the amount of solute remaining after single and multiple extractions is evaluated colorimetrically.
Ellis, Lillian N.; Fox, Marjorie J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 510.
Separation Science
Acid-base titrations with the tellurium electrode  Ricketts, John A.; Bowen, Ronald E.
Describes the use of the tellurium-tellurium oxide electrode for determining hydrogen ion activity.
Ricketts, John A.; Bowen, Ronald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 473.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes
A non-cyanide separation of copper from cadmium  Waggoner, William H.
A procedure has been developed for the separation of copper from cadmium that is based on the observation that thiocyanate ion will precipitate copper but not cadmium from an acidic solution.
Waggoner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 411.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A study of various methods for the analysis for Group III cations  Hahn, Richard B.; Sanders, Charlie H.
Results of a study comparing three methods for separating group III ions.
Hahn, Richard B.; Sanders, Charlie H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 408.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Separation Science
Letters  Hines, Wallis G.
Recommends a mixture of chromic and sulfuric acids as a superior general purpose glass cleaner.
Hines, Wallis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 315.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Letters  Franks, F.
Compares chromic and nitric acids for cleaning laboratory glassware.
Franks, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 315.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Letters  Broadbank, R. W. C.; Dhabanandana, S.
The authors present a method for extracting protactinium-234 from uranyl nitrate solution.
Broadbank, R. W. C.; Dhabanandana, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 161.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Separation Science
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
pH meters (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Considers the standardization, calibration, and testing of pH meters, as well as Beckman pH meters.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A595.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calibration
pH meters  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the operation and individual components of pH meters.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A477.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
The separation of arsenic in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
A separation of arsenic as As(III) has been developed based upon the observation that As(III) is extracted selectively from hydrochloric acid solution of the common cations encountered in the usual qualitative analysis scheme.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 384.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
The chemistry of silicic acid  Greenberg, S. A.
This article attempts to address the many incorrect concepts regarding silicic acid that still appear in textbooks and the literature.
Greenberg, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 218.
Acids / Bases
The dissociation constant of iodic acid: Experiments for the analytical laboratory  Ramette, Richard
This paper describes a replacement for an earlier equilibrium constant experiment.
Ramette, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 191.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
A simple rapid method for loading paper chromatograms  Chesbro, William
Presents a rapid method for applying small, uniform samples onto chromatography paper.
Chesbro, William J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 83.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Acidity measurements with indicators in glacial acetic acid  Kolling, Orland W.
In the measurement of acidity in glacial acetic acid solutions of acids as strong as perchloric, the color change of a basic indicator may be used.
Kolling, Orland W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 452.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases
Separation of copper(II) from cadmium (II) in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
This procedure is based on the observation that copper(II) ion is extracted selectively from solutions containing copper(II) and cadmium(II) by a solution of 8-hydroxyquinoline in chloroform.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 406.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A new short method of separating lead from bismuth, copper, and cadmium  Lehrman, Leo
The scheme presented here depends upon the separation of lead ion as a sulfate using ammonium sulfate, rather than sulfuric acid.
Lehrman, Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 406.
Separation Science |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters to the editor  Nightingale, E. R., Jr.
The symmetry of the Charlot equation belies the ease with which it may be solved.
Nightingale, E. R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 574.
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A chromatographic chamber for the student laboratory  Wiggans, Donald S.
The construction of an effective chromatographic tank can be accomplished by means of two beakers.
Wiggans, Donald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 536.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters to the editor  Hitchcock, David I.
The author clarifies mathematical expressions found in an earlier article.
Hitchcock, David I. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 520.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Qualitative analysis and analytical chemical separations without the use of sulfides  Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W.
The authors argue for the need of qualitative analysis, examine systems of qualitative analysis, and present a qualitative scheme that eliminates the need for sulfides.
Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 393.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Method for decolorizing chromatography solutions  Radell, Jack; Hunt, P. D.
The decolorizing of a solution of an organic compound prior to chromatography requires heating the prepared solution with carbon black or carbon black and filter aid.
Radell, Jack; Hunt, P. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 380.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Letters to the editor  Freedman, Jules
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Freedman, Jules J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters to the editor  Pickering, Roger A.
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Pickering, Roger A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Preparation of carbonate-free bases  Powell, Jack E.; Hiller, Maynard A.
Various methods for producing carbonate-free base to be used in titrations.
Powell, Jack E.; Hiller, Maynard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 330.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The use of exact expressions in calculating hydrogen ion concentrations  Nightingale, E. R., Jr.
If an exact expression for hydrogen ion concentration is to be obtained, approximations in the derivation cannot be permitted.
Nightingale, E. R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 277.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases
Safe mixing and storage of acid or alkali solutions  Nicholson, Douglas G.
Describes specialized containers for the safe mixing and storage of acid or alkali solutions.
Nicholson, Douglas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 254.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Use of ion exchange resins with nonaqueous and mixed solvents  Bonner, O. D.
This review examines some of the recent developments in the use of synthetic ion exchangers for three types of separations: the separation of ionic substances in nonaqueous or mixed solvents, the separation of nonionic substances in nonaqueous or mixed solutions, and the separation of ionic from nonionic materials in solution.
Bonner, O. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 174.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: The Wohl conventions  Abernethy, John Leo
Examines the Wohl system for designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Abernethy, John Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 150.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Acids / Bases
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: An unsettled stereochemical question  Nenitzescu, Costin D.
Examines the Wohl and Freudenberg systems of designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Nenitzescu, Costin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 147.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Apparatus for the triple distillation of mercury  Joncich, M. J.; Alley, C. A.; Kowaka, M.
The rising cost of mercury coupled with the extensive use of this element in a variety of laboratory applications emphasizes the need for an efficient apparatus for purification.
Joncich, M. J.; Alley, C. A.; Kowaka, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 607.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Gas-phase chromatography: A class experiment  Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles
Recommends an experimental procedure involving gas chromatography and presents the necessary apparatus.
Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 490.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Gas-phase chromatography  Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B.
Introduces gas chromatography and describes its associated apparatus and operation.
Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 485.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The nature of chromatography  Cassidy, Harold G.
Provides a definition of chromatography and a description of gas chromatography.
Cassidy, Harold G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 482.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Principles of the systematic separation of cations  Weisz, Herbert
Lays out approaches to be used in the systematic separation of cations.
Weisz, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 334.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Indicators and the basis for their use  Gorin, George
Describes the method for selecting appropriate indicators and the teaching of this subject.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 318.
Dyes / Pigments |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
pH
Partition chromatography: A demonstration  Tracy, Sister Mary Joanna; Sueltenfuss, Sister Elizabeth Anne
This paper describes a method for the preparation of a cellulose column to demonstrate the formation of zones from a cake-dye mixture by development with a butanol-acetic acid-distilled water mixture.
Tracy, Sister Mary Joanna; Sueltenfuss, Sister Elizabeth Anne J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 281.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Zone refining  Christian, John D.
A brief description of zone refining.
Christian, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 32.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The qualitative separation and detection of zinc  Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K.
This paper investigates stages in the inorganic scheme of analysis where the zinc ion could be adsorbed on or coprecipitated with precipitates of other ions.
Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 613.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Precipitation / Solubility
Amphoteric molecules, ions and salts  Davidson, David
It is the aim of this paper to call attention to the splendid opportunity amphoteric substances afford for the teaching of acid-base principles.
Davidson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 550.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Proportional divider for rapid determination of chromatographic Rf values  Houston, David F.
A simple device is described for the rapid determination of chromatography Rf values.
Houston, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 411.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation and detection of the aluminum ion in qualitative analysis  Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M.
Describes a study that seeks to eliminate the interference of iron and chromium in the detection of aluminum when using the "aluminon" test.
Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 380.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations  Hubbard, Edward M.
Describes an automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations that avoids a key difficulty in the earlier Nickels trap.
Hubbard, Edward M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 376.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A mnemonic for dicarboxylic acids  Cox, Gerald J.
This short note provides a mnemonic for the names of the dicarboxylic acids.
Cox, Gerald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 363.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
A setup for two-dimensional paper chromatography  Mathew, E. C.; Das, B. M.
A cylinder of filter paper is developed in an enclosure consisting of a desiccator bottom covered by a bell jar.
Mathew, E. C.; Das, B. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 352.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A chromatographic demonstration  Forss, David A.
Describes a chromatographic demonstration that does not really on flammable and odorous organic solvents.
Forss, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 306.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Circular-paper chromatography in qualitative analysis  Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J.
Describes procedures for and examples of circular-paper chromatography.
Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 95.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
A general equation for approximate hydronium ion calculations  Drenan, James W.
Presents a general equation for simplifying calculations of the hydronium ion.
Drenan, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Recent advances in petroleum refining  Shoemaker, B. H.; d'Ouville, E. L.; Marschner, Robert F.
Examines various means of separating, converting, and finishing the many compounds found in petroleum.
Shoemaker, B. H.; d'Ouville, E. L.; Marschner, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 30.
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science
A sublimation apparatus for rapid separations  Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III
Presents the design of a macrosublimation apparatus constructed to allow accurate temperature control and ease recovery of the residue.
Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry. III  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the practical applications of electronegativities and charge distribution.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Acids / Bases
Calculating the concentrations of the species present in complex buffers  King, Edward L.
Presents a relatively simple approach by which the composition of even the most complicated buffer solutions can be calculated.
King, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 183.
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Experiments in paper partition chromatography with tagged material  Lima, Fausto W.
Suggests several experiments in inorganic chromatography using radioactive isotopes that can be performed in any laboratory with ordinary counting equipment and X-ray film.
Lima, Fausto W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 153.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Two experiments in spectrophotometry  Phillips, John P.
Presents procedures for determining the ionization constants of weak acids and a complex formula by the method of continuous variations through spectrophotometry.
Phillips, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 81.
Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Paper chromatography for students  Blackwell, R. Quentin
Describes a simple method whereby various mixtures can be separated using paper chromatography under a variety of conditions.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 614.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The vitamin C content of wild rose hips  Markham, Sister Clare.; Markham, Sister M. Justin
Describes the extraction and determination of the vitamin C content of wild rose hips.
Markham, Sister Clare.; Markham, Sister M. Justin J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 580.
Vitamins |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Investigation of complex metal ions by the polarographic method  Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J.
The purpose of this paper is to present in a simplified and readily understandable manner the outline of one of the instrumental methods that, in recent years, has become an increasingly prominent tool in the investigation of complex metal ions.
Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 557.
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters  Davidson, David
Responds to comments made in a related letter.
Davidson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 534.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Ricci, John E.
Discusses the question of teaching students how to "solve" problems requiring more than one equilibrium constant.
Ricci, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 532.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Carbonate alkalinity indicators  Brooke, Maxey
Compares the properties of a variety of acid / base indicators.
Brooke, Maxey J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 419.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A visual demonstration of fractional distillation  Osburn, James O.
Describes the design of a glass bubble-cap column, a glass-packed column, and an equilibrium diagram for an engineering department open-house.
Osburn, James O. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 412.
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis  Hahn, Richard B.
Suggests a method for the separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis that relies on 72% rather than 100% nitric acid.
Hahn, Richard B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 349.
Metals |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The action of nitric acid on metals  Tillu, Mahadeo M.
A general equation for the action of nitric acid on metals has been computed.
Tillu, Mahadeo M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 290.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Reactions
The algebra of simultaneous equilibria  Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth
Presents a series of rules for dealing with simultaneous equilibria using simple algebra.
Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 238.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A convenient apparatus for the distillation of solids  Barkley, Lloyd B.; Sneed, James K.; McGrath, Thomas F.; Levine, Robert
This apparatus is designed to overcome common difficulties in the distillation of solids or mixtures of solids.
Barkley, Lloyd B.; Sneed, James K.; McGrath, Thomas F.; Levine, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 115.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Inorganic paper chromatography. II. Separation of groups III, IV, and V  Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert
This paper concerns itself with the separation and identification of the cations of Groups IIIa, IIIb, IV, and V.
Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 20.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
pH approximations  McBay, Arthur J.
Describes the use of data from tables to approximate pH values.
McBay, Arthur J. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 526.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A lecture demonstration of ion exchange  Smith, James Boyd
This paper presents specific procedures for three experiments that may be employed for lecture demonstrations of ion exchange.
Smith, James Boyd J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 292.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Letters  Miller, Julius Sumner
The author discusses the importance of mathematical competence in physical chemistry and physics.
Miller, Julius Sumner J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 262.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Acids / Bases
Acid-base titration curves: An experiment in acidimetry  Hendel, James M.
The purpose of this activity is to introduce a bit of research into the quantitative analysis course and to illustrate the value of titration curves in deciding what indicator should be used for a particular acid-base titration.
Hendel, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 148.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
A continuous ether-extraction apparatus  Holliman, F. G.
The apparatus presented has been constructed to provide both speed of assembly and versatility in respect of volume of solution being extracted.
Holliman, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 96.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ethers |
Separation Science
A common misunderstanding of Hess' law  Davis, Thomas. W.
The statement, sometimes attributed to Hess, that "In any series of chemical or physical changes the total heat effect is independent of the path by which the system goes from its initial to its final state" is incorrect.
Davis, Thomas. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 584.
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Teaching amino acid formulation  Patton, A. R.
Presents a device that aids in explaining the concept of dipolar ions necessary to an understanding of the behavior of amino acids and proteins.
Patton, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 471.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The separation of anions by paper partition chromatography  DeLoach, Will S.; Drinkard, Charles
Describes a procedure for the separation of phosphate, arsenate, sulfide, ferricyanide, ferrocyanide, and iodide ions by paper partition chromatography.
DeLoach, Will S.; Drinkard, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 461.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
The effect of nitrous acid on the oxidizing power of nitric acid  Brasted, Robert C.
this demonstration illustrates that the oxidizing action of nitric acid may be considerably enhanced by small quantities of nitrous acid which are usually present.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 442.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A simplified construction for vacuum distilling apparatus  Wendland, Ray
Describes a simplified construction for vacuum distilling apparatus and its use with a fractionating column.
Wendland, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 332.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An experiment for the pH meter  Pecsok, Robert L.
These procedures are designed for a Beckman Model H-2 line operated pH meter and include standardization, measurement of pH, titration curve of phosphoric acid, standardization of base, and analysis of mixed phosphate solutions.
Pecsok, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 252.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A chromatographic separation of some dyestuffs  Shott, John, III; Heine, Harold W.
Separations considered include water-soluble fluorescein and methylene blue, methyl orange and methylene blue, and methyl orange and Victoria Blue B.
Shott, John, III; Heine, Harold W. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 39.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science