TIGER

Journal Articles: 1,000 results
Designing and Conducting a Purification Scheme as an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Practical  Kate J. Graham, Brian J. Johnson, T. Nicholas Jones, Edward J. McIntee, and Chris P. Schaller
Describes an open-ended laboratory practical that challenges students to evaluate when different purification techniques are appropriate.
Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Schaller, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1644.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
Study of Molecular-Shape Selectivity of Zeolites by Gas Chromatography  Pei-Yu Chao, Yao-Yuan Chuang, Grace Hsiuying Ho, Shiow-Huey Chuang, Tseng-Chang Tsai, Chi-Young Lee, Shang-Tien Tsai, and Jun-Fu Huang
This analytical or physical chemistry sorption experiment uses hexane isomers as probe molecules to demonstrate the "molecular-shape selectivity" behavior of zeolites. Students can also modify the sorption protocol to build their own experiments.
Chao, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Yao-Yuan; Ho, Grace Hsiuying; Chuang, Shiow-Huey; Tsai, Tseng-Chang; Lee, Chi-Young; Tsai, Shang-Tien; Huang, Jun-Fu. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1558.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Recognition
Use of Wikis in Chemistry Instruction for Problem-Based Learning Assignments: An Example in Instrumental Analysis  Robert Clougherty and Mona Wells
Wikis -- interactive Web sites where visitors can both read and write to pages -- have tremendous potential as an instructional technology. In this case, a wiki used initially to provide students with a shared work-space for the development of projects in an instrumental analysis lab became an effective vehicle for peer interaction and review.
Clougherty, Robert; Wells, Mona. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1446.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Student-Centered Learning
Quantitative Analysis of Nail Polish Remover Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Revisited  Markus M. Hoffmann, Joshua T. Caccamis, Mark P. Heitz, and Kenneth D. Schlecht
Substantial modifications intended for a second- or third-year laboratory course in analytical chemistry are presented for a previously described procedure using NMR spectroscopy to quantitatively determine analytes in commercial nail polish remover. The revised experiment introduces student collaboration to critically interpret a relatively large set of data.
Hoffmann, Markus M.; Caccamis, Joshua T.; Heitz, Mark P.; Schlecht, Kenneth D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1421.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
The Iodochlorination of Styrene: An Experiment That Makes a Difference  R. Gary Amiet and Sylvia Urban
This purpose of this laboratory exercise is to determine the various substitution and elimination products generated in the iodochlorination of styrene and their relative proportions through the application of mechanistic principles and a basic knowledge of GCMS and NMR.
Amiet, R. Gary; Urban, Sylvia. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 962.
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Student-Centered Learning
HPLC Analysis of α- and β-Acids in Hops  Travis M. Danenhower, Leyna A. Force, Kenneth J. Petersen, Thomas A. Betts, and Gary A. Baker
Describes a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantitation of the predominant a-acids (humulone, cohumulone, and adhumulone) and -acids (lupulone, colupulone, and adlupulone) present in hops.
Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna A.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 954.
Chromatography |
Food Science |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Plant Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography  James V. McCullagh and Nicholas Ramos
In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto seeds using column chromatography and then analyzed by UVvis and IR spectroscopy. The procedure has several advantages over previous pigment separation experiments.
McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 948.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Resolution of Ibuprofen, 2-(4′-Isobutylphenyl)propionic Acid  James V. McCullagh
In this experiment the over-the-counter pain reliever ibuprofen is resolved using (S)-(-)-a-phenethylamine as the resolving agent. This procedure has several key advantages over previous resolution experiments.
McCullagh, James V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 941.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enantiomers |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Streaming Waters: Challenges in Monitoring the Chemistry of Dynamic Environments  Joseph H. Aldstadt, III and Melissa A. Singer Pressman
Students can learn to build simple monitors that illustrate the challenges (and frustrations) and benefits (and drawbacks) of remote environmental monitoring.
Aldstadt, Joseph H., III; Singer Pressman, Melissa A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 181.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Variable Temperature Equipment for a Commercial Magnetic Susceptibility Balance  Albert Lötz
Variable temperature equipment for the magnetic susceptibility balance MSB-MK1 of Sherwood Scientific, Ltd., is described. Whereas the balance as sold commercially can be used only for room temperature measurements, the setup presented here extends the temperature range from 20C to 80C without a loss in performance.
Lötz, Albert. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 107.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Magnetic Properties
Integrated Laboratories: Crossing Traditional Boundaries  Debra K. Dillner, Robert F. Ferrante, Jeffrey P. Fitzgerald, William B. Heuer, and Maria J. Schroeder
Describes a new, integrated laboratory curriculum recently developed at the U.S. Naval Academy in response to the 1999 ACS Committee on Professional Training guidelines that required inclusion of biochemistry and a stronger emphasis on student research.
Dillner, Debra K.; Ferrante, Robert F.; Fitzgerald, Jeffrey P.; Heuer, William B.; Schroeder, Maria J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1706.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
E = mc2: An Intuitive Derivation  James J. Leary and William H. Ingham
Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 is derived using a thought experiment that can easily be understood by any serious student of chemistry.
Leary, James J.; Ingham, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1651.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Teaching Science in Art  Erich S. Uffelman
Describes two linked, interdisciplinary courses examining conservation science and the history of 17th-century Dutch painting. Strengths and limitations of the approaches taken are discussed and key resources cited.
Uffelman, Erich S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1617.
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy
Coupling Molecular Modeling to the Traditional "IR-ID" Exercise in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Heather Stokes-Huby and Dale E. Vitale
In this exercise students are required to identify unknowns from their IR spectra, but must also match some of the absorptions with frequencies generate by computer molecular models. Animations of the corresponding bonds in the model are then used to obtain descriptions of the observed vibrations.
Stokes-Huby, Heather; Vitale, Dale E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1486.
Computational Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Liquids
Detection of Catechol by Potentiometric-Flow Injection Analysis in the Presence of Interferents  Suzanne K. Lunsford, Justyna Widera, and Hong Zhang
This article describes an undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment that incorporates potentiometric-flow injection analysis on a dibenzo-18-crown-6 dual platinum electrode to detect catechol in the presence of common interferents.
Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Widera, Justyna; Zhang, Hong. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1471.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products
A One-Hour Practical Lab Exam for Organic Chemistry  Edward G. Neeland
Presents a lab practical for second-year organic chemistry that tests lab skills and theory acquired from laboratory experiences and may serve as an effective end-of-term exam.
Neeland, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1453.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Introducing Students to the Scientific Literature  Lee Roecker
Describes an exercise in a quantitative analysis course that uses the primary literature to provide students with practice in the interpretation of statistical data, the use of spreadsheets, critical evaluation of scientific evidence, and insight into the work of analytical chemists.
Roecker, Lee. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1380.
Instrumental Methods |
Student / Career Counseling
Quantitative Imaging in the Laboratory: Fast Kinetics and Fluorescence Quenching  Tanya Cumberbatch and Quentin S. Hanley
This article describes an experiment based on quantitative imaging in which students use the quenching of fluorescein dianion to measure rate constants.
Cumberbatch, Tanya; Hanley, Quentin S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1319.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Quantitative Measurement of Trans-Fats by Infrared Spectroscopy  Edward B. Walker, Don R. Davies, and Mike Campbell
FTIR-ATR spectroscopy provides an efficient analytical tool to measure the percentage of trans-fat in several commercially available lipids and the degree of alkene isomerization induced by brominationdebromination chemical reactions.
Walker, Edward B.; Davies, Don R.; Campbell, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1162.
Alkenes |
Calibration |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lipids |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Isolation of Three Components from Spearmint Oil: An Exercise in Column and Thin-Layer Chromatography  Don R. Davies and Todd M. Johnson
In this exercise, the three major components of spearmint oil, (+)-limonene, L-(-)-carvone, and (1R,2R,4R)-dihydrocarveol, are separated by silica gel column chromatography. The separation is monitored by thin-layer chromatography, and IR analysis is employed to verify the identity of the separated components.
Davies, Don R.; Johnson, Todd M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 318.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A Pollutant Transformation Laboratory Exercise for Environmental Chemistry: The Reduction of Nitrobenzenes by Anaerobic Solutions of Humic Acid  Frank M. Dunnivant and Mark-Cody Reynolds
Presents a laboratory for advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level environmental chemistry in which students study the reduction of substituted nitrobenzenes by natural organic matter under anaerobic conditions. The exercise involves solution preparation, pH and EH buffers, organic reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetics, and instrumental analysis.
Dunnivant, Frank M.; Reynolds, Mark-Cody. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 315.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Mercury-Free Analysis of Lead in Drinking Water by Anodic Stripping Square Wave Voltammetry  Jeremy P. Wilburn, Kyle L. Brown, and David E. Cliffel
The analysis of drinking water for lead, which has well-known adverse health effects, provides an instructive example of the use of analytical chemistry to monitor a common hazard of everyday life. This article offers a mercury-free analytical method for the analysis of lead in drinking water using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry.
Wilburn, Jeremy P.; Brown, Kyle L.; Cliffel, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 312.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Chemical Speciation Analysis of Sports Drinks by Acid–Base Titrimetry and Ion Chromatography: A Challenging Beverage Formulation Project  Howard Drossman
Describes a three-part laboratory project that integrates a full chemical speciation analysis of Gatorade and Powerade, including base standardization, potentiometric or colorimetric titration, and ion chromatography.
Drossman, Howard. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 124.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chromatography
An Inexpensive Device for Capillary Electrophoresis with Fluorescence Detection  Greg Anderson, Jonathan E. Thompson, and Khriesto Shurrush
Describes an inexpensive device for performing capillary electrophoresis separations with fluorescence detection. As a demonstration of utility, the device is used to determine the mass of riboflavin in a commercially available dietary supplement.
Anderson, Greg; Thompson, Jonathan E.; Shurrush, Khriesto. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1677.
Electrophoresis |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Using a Simulated Industrial Setting for the Development of an Improved Solvent System for the Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid: A Student-Centered Project  Timothy R. Hightower and Jay D. Heeren
Presents a peer-led, problem-solving organic laboratory exercise that provide students with an opportunity to produce a more efficient recrystallization solvent in an industrial environment.
Hightower, Timothy R.; Heeren, Jay D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1663.
Carboxylic Acids |
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Infrared Examination of the Transformation of Barium Sulfate into Barium Carbonate. An Inorganic Infrared Qualitative and Quantitative Experiment  Gene E. Kalbus, Van T. Lieu, and Lee H. Kalbus
This experiment provides an interesting pedagogical exercise that not only demonstrates the value of infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of inorganic systems, but also visually illustrates a procedure used in classical wet chemical qualitative analysis for sample preparation.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 910.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids
Analysis of the Thickening Agents in Automotive Greases by GC–MS  David Mayotte, Craig J. Donahue, and Cheryl A. Snyder
Describes a laboratory procedure for the identification of the thickening agents in lubricating greases by GCMS.
Mayotte, David; Donahue, Craig J.; Snyder, Cheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 902.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Fatty Acids
Classroom Demonstrations of Concepts in Molecular Fluorescence  Jonathan P. Blitz, Daniel J. Sheeran, and Thomas L. Becker
A multichannel CCD-array spectrophotometer and handheld UV lamp are utilized to acquire and project in real-time the fluorescence emission spectra of quinine, fluorescein, eosin yellow, and rhodamine B.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 758.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
An Introduction to Polymer Processing, Morphology, and Property Relationships through Thermal Analysis of Plastic PET Bottles. Exercises Designed to Introduce Students to Polymer Physical Properties  H. Darrell Iler, Eric Rutt, and Seth Althoff
Through thermal analyses of poly(ethylene terephthlate) (PET) bottles, students are introduced to the relationships between processing, morphology, and physical properties of polymer materials.
Iler, H. Darrell; Rutt, Eric; Althoff, Seth. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 439.
Applications of Chemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Instrumental Methods |
Materials Science |
Thermal Analysis
Axisymmetric Liquid Hanging Drops  Erich C. Meister and Tatiana Yu. Latychevskaia
Examinmes the buildup of axially symmetric hanging drops, starting from the YoungLaplace equation and the governing differential equation. The growing of drops is discussed in terms of changing geometrical quantities such as drop volume, height, surface area, and contact angle to the capillary.
Meister, Erich C.; Latychevskaia, Tatiana Yu. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 117.
Computational Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Liquids |
Materials Science |
Surface Science
Simple and Inexpensive Computer Interface to a Durrum Stopped-Flow Apparatus Tested Using the Iron(III)–Thiocyanate Reaction  Craig M. Hoag
Describes a computer interface between a Durrum model 110 stopped-flow apparatus and a LabPro voltage probe using LoggerPro software from Vernier. This probe and software can be used to measure and record data from most instruments normally connected to an oscilloscope or chart recorder.
Hoag, Craig M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1823.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC–MS  A. E. Witter
An undergraduate experiment for the quantitative determination of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in chewing gum is described. A simple extraction procedure was used that did not require sample derivatization for analysis.
Witter, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1538.
Food Science |
Free Radicals |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Analysis of Phosphoric Acid Content in Popular Carbonated Drinks  Jessie Rodgers and Marina Koether
By studying a number of soft drinks with color but with or without phosphoric acid, the authors have determined that the required 20-fold dilution required in the Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks is not to dilute the color but merely to place the sample within the calibration range of the analysis.
Rodgers, Jessie; Koether, Marina. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1471.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Gas Permeability of Polymers  Bruno Lunelli
By studying a number of soft drinks with color but with or without phosphoric acid, the authors have determined that the required 20-fold dilution required in the Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks is not to dilute the color but merely to place the sample within the calibration range of the analysis.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1471.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Transport Properties
A Simple Low-Cost Lock-In Amplifier for the Laboratory  Sandip K. Sengupta, Jessica M. Farnham, and James E. Whitten
The construction of a simple, low-cost, stand-alone lock-in amplifier suitable for physical and analytical chemistry instructional laboratories is described. The instrument is useful for detecting and amplifying signals that are in-phase with a reference signal and is particularly important for optical experiments that employ a pulsed light source.
Sengupta, Sandip K.; Farnham, Jessica M.; Whitten, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1399.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Measurement of the Isotopic Ratio of 10B/11B in NaBH4 by 1H NMR  Murray Zanger and Guillermo Moyna
A simple and remarkably accurate method for estimating the isotopic ratio between 10B and 11B through the use of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented. The experiment relies on the splitting caused by 10B (I = 3) and 11B (I = 3/2) on the 1H signal of a proton directly bound to boron, a phenomenon readily observed on an aqueous sample of NaBH4. In combination with a brief lecture or prelaboratory presentation, this laboratory can serve to introduce students to magnetic properties as well as theoretical and experimental aspects of NMR spectroscopy as early as the freshman-level chemistry.
Zanger, Murray; Moyna, Guillermo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1390.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
NMR Analysis of Unknowns: An Introduction to 2D NMR Spectroscopy  David E. Alonso and Steven E. Warren
Second-year organic chemistry students analyze and compare the spectral data of three unknown ketones (2-heptanone, 3-heptanone, and 4-heptanone). Students acquire one-dimensional proton and carbon NMR data for each unknown and make signal assignments based on chemical shifts, integration values, and splitting patterns of signals. Difficulties are encountered during interpretation of NMR data for 2- and 3-heptanone. Acquiring and analyzing the two-dimensional NMR spectra of the heptanones resolve these problems.
Alonso, David E.; Warren, Steven E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1385.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance  Neil M. Glagovich and Timothy D. Shine
An undergraduate organic laboratory designed to teach the use of IR and NMR spectra interpretation in the identification of an unknown substance has been developed. This laboratory requires the student to obtain the IR spectrum of an unknown substance and, from the interpretation of that spectrum, determine which of several possible functional groups is present in the molecule. Using this information and either the melting point or boiling point of the unknown, the student is able to determine a list of likely candidates (usually between eight and twelve suspects collated from a supplied table of possible compounds). The student will then draw the structures for all candidate compounds and, from those structures, predict the 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra for each.
Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1382.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solids |
Liquids
A Networked NMR Spectrometer: Configuring a Shared Instrument  David Alonso, G. William Mutch, Peter Wong, Steven Warren, Bal Barot, Jan Kosinski, and Mark Sinton
Andrews University, Lake Michigan College, and Southwestern Michigan College established an educational consortium in southwest lower Michigan. An FT-NMR spectrometer was installed at AU and networked with the community colleges. Students and faculty from LMC and SMC visit Andrews on a regular basis to receive training and operate the NMR. The instrument is accessible via the Internet for data acquisition, processing, and transfer. The spectrometer has helped the consortium schools improve the quality of chemistry education, exposed students in chemistry courses to the concepts and techniques of modern NMR spectroscopy, and strengthened the collaboration between the chemistry faculty of the three schools. This article describes the NMR network configuration and the methodology for NMR data acquisition and distribution.
Alonso, David; Mutch, G. William; Wong, Peter; Warren, Steven; Barot, Bal; Kosinski, Jan; Sinton, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1342.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy
Ewing's Analytical Instrumentation Handbook, 3rd Edition (Jack Cazes)  Jack K. Steehler
This resource is a figurative and literal heavyweight. Its 31 chapters and more than 1000 large-size pages (filled with small text) provide an enormous amount of information. About a third of the book discusses spectroscopic techniques (11 chapters, all the standard types of spectroscopy); the second third covers various separation methods (10 chapters); and the remaining third hits a cross section of other topics, including four chapters on electrochemistry and three chapters on automation. The core of spectroscopy and separation science is appropriate and well chosen, covering the expected topics. There is even a chapter on Validation of Chromatographic Methods, an important topic for any lab working in a regulated environment. Additional, more unusual chapters include a chapter on Chiroptical Spectroscopy and a long chapter (100 pages) on Microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip methods, both of current research interest.
Steehler, Jack K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1315.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Substituted Benzoic Acids. An Experiment for the Organic Synthesis Laboratory  Nancy S. Mills, John D. Spence, and Michelle M. Bushey
We have introduced an experiment into the organic chemistry sequence, in the synthesis laboratory, that utilizes capillary electrophoresis to evaluate the pKa shift on a series of student-prepared substituted benzoic acids. The pKa shift is examined in reference to the electrophoretic-migration behavior of benzoic acid and is a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the substituent. This strategy allows us to increase the exposure of students to modern methods of separation. We are using repeated exposure to increase students' knowledge of separation strategies and techniques.
Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1226.
Synthesis |
Electrophoresis |
Grignard Reagents |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Simplex Optimization of Headspace-Enrichment Conditions of Residual Petroleum Distillates Used by Arsonists  Molly M. Warnke, Angela E. Erickson, and Eugene T. Smith
A forensic project is described that is suitable for an undergraduate instrumental methods lab. Accelerants commonly used by arsonists are analyzed by static headspace enrichment followed by gas chromatography. The conditions used for headspace enrichment (e.g., time and temperature) are known to influence the distribution of hydrocarbons extracted from an arson sample. To minimize artifacts associated with headspace enrichment, simplex optimization was used to determine the optimal time and temperature for the various classes of common hydrocarbon accelerants.
Warnke, Molly M.; Erickson, Angela E.; Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1082.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Forensic Chemistry
Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess–Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Nicole A. Reed, Robert D. Rapp, Christian S. Hamann, and Pamela G. Artz
Using circular dichroism, organic laboratory students investigated the change in absolute stereochemistry upon oxidation of menthol to menthone. In the first laboratory period, the oxidation was performed with DessMartin periodinane, which is a facile and less toxic oxidizing agent. Half the laboratory group performed the oxidation with ()-menthol and the other half used (+)-menthol to produce ()-menthone and (+)-menthone, respectively. The products were analyzed in the second laboratory period using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine the fraction of starting alcohol converted to ketone. Comparison was made between CD spectra both for the menthol reactant and menthone product and for the (+)- and ()-menthone enantiomers.
Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1053.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Enantiomers
Enantiomeric Resolution of (±)-Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(–)-Ephedrine. An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  Marsha R. Baar and Andrea L. Cerrone-Szakal
There has been an increasing need, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, to prepare chiral substances in single-isomer form. A chiral technique that makes an excellent introductory organic chemistry experiment is enantiomeric resolution. The classical resolution of ()-mandelic acid using the chiral amine, (1R,2S)-()-ephedrine, was adapted for use in introductory organic chemistry lab curricula.
Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1040.
Acids / Bases |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
A Convenient Method for Dispensing Organometallic Reagents  Thomas A. Newton
The construction of a simple apparatus for dispensing air-sensitive organometallic reagents is described.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 936.
Organometallics |
Instrumental Methods |
Synthesis
Realizing Workplace Skills in Instrumental Analysis  John H. Kalivas
Undergraduates entering the workforce often lack key technical skills. This paper describes an approach to teaching an instrumental analysis laboratory that assists students in attaining expertise needed for the work place. The course provides experiences with life-long benefits by developing good laboratory practices in concert with protocols common to commercial and research laboratories.
Kalivas, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 895.
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Nanotribology: Rubbing on a Small Scale  J. Thomas Dickinson
With the development of the atomic force microscope, the study of friction, wear, and lubrication (i.e., tribology) between a single asperity of nanometer dimensions and a solid surface has led to a wealth of knowledge. We present a review of tribological concepts and examine the consequences of reducing the size scale of surfaces in sliding contact. A few examples of nanotribology studies including fundamental investigations of friction and tribochemistry are presented.
Dickinson, J. Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 734.
Instrumental Methods |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science
Understanding Mass Spectra, A Basic Approach, Second Edition (R. Martin Smith)  Bill Boggess
The interpretation of mass spectra represents arguably the most significant challenge to both newcomers and practitioners in the field of mass spectrometry (MS). For those of us who have ever struggled to use a mass spectrum to solve the structure of an organic compound, R. Martin Smith offers the second edition of Understanding Mass Spectra, A Basic Approach. Fortunately, the author manages to go well beyond the obvious and expected explanations of the common modes of fragmentation for ions generated during electron ionization (EI) by offering a rational approach to mass spectral problem solving. This ten-step approach, which represents the most important contribution of this text, appears in chapter 5 and is condensed into table 5.1.
Boggess, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 687.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
The Determination of Vanillin in a Vanilla Extract: An Analytical Undergraduate Experiment  Jozef L. Beckers
Vanillin is an interesting compound, often used in educational chemistry. It can be synthesized from the plant extract eugenol and can be used for the preparation of diverse products. Less attention is paid, however, to the determination of vanillin, although it can be analyzed in a rather simple way. In this article, vanillin is determined in a commercially-available vanilla extract using RP-HPLC equipment and CE apparatus, without any pretreatment. Some student results are presented, giving an indication of the accuracy and precision of the separation techniques RP-HPLC and CE.
Beckers, Jozef L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 604.
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Quantitation of Phenol Levels in Oil of Wintergreen Using Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring. A Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Experiment  Robert M. Sobel, David S. Ballantine, and Victor Ryzhov
A quantitative analysis or instrumental analysis laboratory experiment was created to perform a gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis of phenol level found in natural products. The analysis utilizes selected ion monitoring for the determination of phenol concentration in natural oil of wintergreen. The experimental design addresses the industrys need for increasing awareness of gas chromatographymass spectrometry techniques with shortened analysis time.
Sobel, Robert M.; Ballantine, David S.; Ryzhov, Victor. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 601.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  David P. Elder
The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed.
Elder, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 575.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Ion Exchange |
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Automatic Low-Cost Data Acquisition from Old Polarimetric Instruments  Giuseppe Alibrandi, Santi D'Aliberti, Salvatore Coppolino, Antonino Villari, and Norberto Micali
This article describes the design of an apparatus that allows the digital acquisition of polarimetric data from a Lippich polarimeter. This apparatus consists of a low-cost telecamera applied to the ocular of a double-field polarimeter and connected to a PC. The camera is able to reveal with high sensibility the difference in brightness in the two fields allowing more accurate analytical data to be obtained, without need for the analyser to be rotated. This apparatus allows the execution of either single observations or kinetics, because it is able to save previously obtained analytical data.
Alibrandi, Giuseppe; D'Aliberti, Santi; Coppolino, Salvatore; Villari, Antonino; Micali, Norberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 442.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Separation and Determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with Cation-Exchange Chromatography and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. An Experiment for Quantitative Methods of Analysis  Ali Bazzi, Bette Kreuz, James Wuokila, and Ahmed Maqboul
This article reports on the separation and determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with cation-exchange chromatography and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. A sample containing the two ions is added to a column containing a cation-exchange resin; the Cr(VI) ions are not retained by the resin and are collected in the effluent. The Cr(III) ions are retained by the resin and eluted with an HCl solution. The separated ions are aspirated into an air/acetylene flame and the absorbance measurements are made at 357.9 nm and 0.2-nm slit width. The experiment has been implemented in a quantitative methods of analysis course.
Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Wuokila, James; Maqboul, Ahmed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 435.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A Chemometrics Module for an Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Chemistry Course  Huggins Z. Msimanga, Phet Elkins, Segmia K. Tata, and Dustin Ryan Smith
A chemometrics module for the undergraduate instrumental analysis chemistry course was developed and implemented. The objective of this module is to provide the skills needed by students to design experiments, to learn calibration techniques for analyzing multicomponent systems, to extract chemical information from large data sets provided by modern instruments, and, overall, to provide a broader spectrum of analytical techniques especially for those students who aspire going to graduate schools or working in chemical industries.
Msimanga, Huggins Z.; Elkins, Phet; Tata, Segmia K.; Smith, Dustin Ryan. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 415.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry (Frank M. Dunnivant)  Marco A. De Jesús
Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry is a good reference for educators involved in the design of an introductory environmental or instrumental chemistry laboratory. The manual contains 28 laboratory exercises grouped in seven core areas encompassing fundamental laboratory techniques, analysis of air contaminants, aquatic chemistry, hazardous waste analysis, soil chemistry, natural waters analysis, and fate and transport modeling of environmental pollutants. The text comes with a CD-ROM that contains additional problems for the students and an electronic version of the supportive material. The CD also includes a series of interactive Shockwave simulations that models distribution coefficient of different acidbase systems and the fate and transport of a contaminant in a variety of environmental matrices.
De Jesús, Marco A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 382.
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere  John V. Seeley, Arthur W. Bull, Richard J. Fehir, Jr., Susan Cornwall, Gabriel A. Knudsen, and Stacy K. Seeley
This laboratory experiment applies several different fundamental concepts including oxidationreduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis. In addition, students are provided with unique experiences in constructing simple instrumentation and collecting environmental samples.
Seeley, John V.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.; Seeley, Stacy K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 282.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gases
M&M Orange  Kurt R. Birdwhistell and Thomas G. Spence
We cannot confirm or dispute Elders assignment of the identity of the dye. Without doing a few experiments we cannot comment further.
Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Spence, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 209.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
M&M Orange  John W. Elder
The article A New Glow on the Chromatography of M&M Candies was of interest to us as we had run a similar experiment using Kool-Aid dyes for some time. Last year we included this experiment in our organic labs on chromatography with considerable success. But I was intrigued by the identity of the unidentified orange listed in the supplementary material as being found in orange and brown M&Ms.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 209.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Writing-Intensive Multimedia Projects in the Instrumental Methods Course  Hal Van Ryswyk
A writing-intensive, team-based multimedia project has been incorporated into the instrumental methods course. The project serves two student populations: students in the course gain an enhanced understanding of an instrumental technique through extensive, focused writing, while first-time instrument users outside of the course gain useful documentation and high-quality point-of-use training.
Van Ryswyk, Hal. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 70.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Checkerboard Chromatography  Charles A. Smith
This hands-on activity allows students to simulate chromatographic simulations using a grid, colored pieces of paper, and a six-sided die. Students observe the separation as it is occurring and perform experiments on flow rate, column length, and mobile phase composition.
Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 384A.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Remote Instrumentation for the Teaching Laboratory  Jit Baran, Ron Currie, and Dietmar Kennepohl
Chemistry has traditionally been one of the more difficult subjects to teach at a distance owing mostly to challenges in delivering the laboratory component. It is now possible to control analytical instruments in real time and carry out computer-interfaced instrumental chemistry experiments remotely via an Internet connection.
Baran, Jit; Currie, Ron; Kennepohl, Dietmar. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1814.
Instrumental Methods
Initial Design and Development of an Integrated Laboratory Network: A New Approach for the Use of Instrumentation in the Undergraduate Curriculum  Devon A. Cancilla
This paper describes both the conceptual framework and initial development of Western Washington University's Integrated Laboratory Network (ILN). The ILN brings together scientific instrumentation, Internet-based classroom management systems (CMS), and other online resources to provide a new working model for the use and introduction of instrumentation within the undergraduate curriculum. Full implementation of the ILN will allow greater access to instruments and instrumental data and will provide a wide variety of novel teaching and learning opportunities.
Cancilla, Devon A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1809.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Students' Attitudes toward and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Instrumentation  Larry S. Miller, Mary B. Nakhleh, John J. Nash, and Jeanne A. Meyer
Data collected from field notes, surveys, and interviews are used to evaluate (i) the attitudes students have toward using instrumentation, (ii) how students relate the underlying chemical concepts to the instrumentation, and (iii) how working in a group impacts students' attitudes toward, and their conceptual understanding of, chemical instrumentation.
Miller, Larry S.; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Nash, John J.; Meyer, Jeanne A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1801.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples. An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory  Christopher J. Pursell, Bert Chandler, and Michelle M. Bushey
This experiment can be done in a lab, as a "dry-lab", or as an in-class exercise. Students explore a number of basic separation topics and work with figures of merit for real and meaningful samples. We have adopted a strategy where students encounter various instruments and methods of analyses multiple times throughout the curriculum. The level of sophistication in the exposures increases with the experience level of the students. Through this repeated exposure students will gain a better and fuller understanding of these methods than they would with a single exposure to the technique in the analytical or instrumental laboratory.
Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1783.
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chemometrics |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Unifying Description of Modern Analytical Instrumentation within a Course on Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Gary D. Rayson
A unifying approach to the description and teaching of modern analytical instrumentation typically discussed in undergraduate courses in Instrumental Methods of Analysis has been developed and is described. The approach involves the description of all analytical instruments as comprising of five basic modules.
Rayson, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1767.
Instrumental Methods |
Learning Theories
Studying Current–Potential Curves Using Bipotentiometric Iodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  Roxana A. Verdini and Claudia M. Lagier
A method for the determination of the ascorbic acid content in fruits and vegetables was used to introduce the principles of voltammetry. The procedure combines an iodometric back-titration with voltammetric (bipotentiometric) end point detection, which minimizes the risk of ascorbic acid oxidation, allowing for a rapid and efficient quantification of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. A better understanding of the titration curve is achieved by analyzing the schematic currentpotential curves of the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions during the titration.
Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1482.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Vitamins |
Consumer Chemistry
Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples  Rebecca J. Whelan, Theresa E. Hannon, David J. Rakestraw, and Richard N. Zare
An experiment using ion chromatography in an undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory is described. The students, working in small groups, are responsible for identifying a real-world system of interest and for developing a strategy to investigate that system. The students gain specific skills and knowledge about chromatography as well as more general analytical skills including sample preparation, system calibration, determination of detection limits, and data analysis. Two specific examples of experiments done by students in the class are presented: the determination of lead in hair dye and the determination of anions in orange juice.
Whelan, Rebecca J.; Hannon, Theresa E.; Rakestraw, David J.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1299.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography  Paul R. Haddad, Matthew J. Shaw, John E. Madden, and Greg W. Dicinoski
An ion chromatography exercise is described that uses a free Internet-based software package, Virtual Column 2, to simulate retention behavior and to optimize separation conditions. Virtual Column 2 permits the detailed study of retention behavior of inorganic anions on a Dionex AS11 column using isocratic hydroxide eluents and also on a Dionex AS4ASC column using carbonate-bicarbonate eluents. Collection of retention data from Virtual Column 2 allows students to investigate the effects of variation in eluent composition on retention, to examine separation selectivity in ion chromatography, and to evaluate the performance of simple retention models.
Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1293.
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
The History of Ion Chromatography: The Engineering Perspective  Barton Evans
This article traces the history of the engineering development related to the several generations of ion chromatography instruments, columns, suppressers, and software. In so doing, several representative engineering challenges and their outcomes are discussed including: early directions (traveling without a road map, or "going where the applications are"), dealing with an extremely corrosive mobile phase (aka: the "eluent"), resolving the inherent incompatibilities of nonmetallic flow paths with the benefits of high-pressure, elevated temperature operation, managing the ever-evolving nature of the suppressor, coping with requirements for ultra high-end online systems, and providing extremely simple-to-use dedicated analyzer systems.
Evans, Barton. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1285.
Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Ion Chromatography: An Account of Its Conception and Early Development  Hamish Small
In the late 1950s, a small group of chemists at the Dow Chemical Company envisioned replacing these classical methods of inorganic analysis with but a single, universal chromatographic technique. They called their project "Inorganic Chromatography". This article describes how they developed this concept into a new technique, ready for commercial development into what we know today as "Ion Chromatography". In particular, the account will describe: how the Dow scientists adapted electrical conductance monitoring to chromatography, the introduction of the suppressor to chromatography, the invention of special stationary phases, and the evolution of strategies and principles that would shape and guide the practice of ion chromatography for many years to come.
Small, Hamish. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1277.
Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
The 12th Annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon: Ion Chromatography  Adrian C. Michael
The objectives of the annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon are to explore the origins, development, and commercialization of scientific instrumentation of established and major significance. The topic of the twelfth Waters Symposium was ion chromatography; three of those papers are featured in this issue of the Journal.
Michael, Adrian C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1277.
Chromatography |
Conferences |
Instrumental Methods
Pressure-Assisted Chelating Extraction as a Teaching Tool in Instrumental Analysis  Omowunmi A. Sadik, Adam K. Wanekaya, and Gelfand Yevgeny
This article describes a laboratory procedure designed for a junior-level instrumental analysis course using a pressure-assisted chelating extraction (PACE) technique to digest heavy metals from solid matrices. PACE can achieve the digestion of metals through direct contact between solids and chelates under controlled temperature and pressure. The combination of PACE with FAAS enabled the students to develop a greater appreciation and understanding of the highly automated, modern instrumental techniques, including sample preparation. [last author's name was mis-written in the hard copy. It is first name Yevgeny, last name Gelfand - TB]
Sadik, Omowunmi A.; Wanekaya, Adam K.; Yevgeny, Gelfand. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1177.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
A Simplified Calculation of the Real Confidence Interval in Analytical Methods  Javier Galbán
This paper describes a detailed study of the imprecision of an analytical method resulting from the quantification step. This model allows students to calculate imprecision more easily so that they will be able to apply this mathematical model both in their studies and their future professional activities.
Galbán, Javier. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1053.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Removal of Zinc from Carbonic Anhydrase. A Kinetics Experiment for Upper-Level Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams and Bhavin Adhyaru
The Zn(II) ion in the active site of carbonic anhydrase can be removed by complexation with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate (dipicolinate).
Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1045.
Kinetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Enzymes |
Instrumental Methods
Superoxygenated Water as an Experimental Sample for NMR Relaxometry  Nikolaus Nestle, Marwan Dakkouri, and Hubert Rauscher
Measuring the oxygen content in superoxygenated table waters, and following the oxygen loss upon storage of such waters in open containers, is presented as an experiment for NMR relaxometry in the student lab.
Nestle, Nikolaus; Dakkouri, Marwan; Rauscher, Hubert. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1040.
Water / Water Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nutrition |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods
Benzoin Condensation: Monitoring a Chemical Reaction by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography  Apurba Bhattacharya, Vikram C. Purohit, and Nicholas R. Beller
High-pressure liquid chromatography was successfully introduced in the undergraduate advanced organic chemistry laboratory to reinvestigate the cyanide-catalyzed condensation of benzaldehyde to benzoin.
Bhattacharya, Apurba; Purohit, Vikram C.; Beller, Nicholas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1020.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Instrumental Methods
The Multi-Initiative Dissemination Project Workshops: Who Attends Them and How Effective Are They?  K. A. Burke, Thomas J. Greenbowe, and John I. Gelder
Multi-Initiative Dissemination Project (MID) workshops funded by NSF are designed to expose college instructors from two- and four-year institutions to classroom active-learning techniques from the perspective of four of the NSF-funded chemistry reform projects.
Burke, K. A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Gelder, John I. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 897.
Professional Development |
Learning Theories |
Instrumental Methods
The Dog Ate My Homework: A Cooperative Learning Project for Instrumental Analysis  Leanna C. Giancarlo and Kelli M. Slunt
This paper describes a project-based laboratory experiment in which students determine the composition of an unknown metal knob that was ingested and recovered from a large puppy.
Giancarlo, Leanna C.; Slunt, Kelli M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 868.
Instrumental Methods |
Metals
Chem 111: A General Education Course in Organic Structure Determination  Stuart C. Clough, René P. F. Kanters, and Emma W. Goldman
A course in organic structure determination has proven to be effective in addressing the general education science requirement for liberal arts and business majors who have only a basic high school chemistry background.
Clough, Stuart C.; Kanters, René P. F.; Goldman, Emma W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 834.
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods
Investigating Intermolecular Interactions via Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  David Pullman and Karen I. Peterson
In the first part of the project, the students produce and analyze images of graphite and use these images to calibrate the scan size of the instrument. In the second part, the students produce images of a decanol monolayer on the graphite surface.
Pullman, David; Peterson, Karen I. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 549.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Surface Science |
Instrumental Methods
How Students Use Scientific Instruments To Create Understanding: CCD Spectrophotometers. We Must Afford Affordances  Eric Malina and Mary B. Nakhleh
We understand it may be difficult to initially understand the theory of affordances; however, we also believe that affordances can give us new insight into student learning, especially student learning in the laboratory.
Malina, Eric; Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 486.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Learning Theories |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Constructivism
How Students Use Scientific Instruments To Create Understanding: CCD Spectrophotometers. Can We Afford Affordances?  Roy W. Clark
"Affordances" must be an educationese term that is delightfully meaningful to the authors, and it is my hope that in future papers these authors might define their terms when writing for mere chemists.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 486.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Learning Theories |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Constructivism
LC–MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2. Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI–MS and UV–Vis  Helen Cleary Stynes, Araceli Layo, and Richard W. Smith
This article describes an experiment employing LCMS where metmyoglobin is denatured to apomyoglobin and heme in a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile H2O with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The apomyoglobin is separated from the heme group by reversed-phase chromatography.
Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 266.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Determination of Pb in Biological Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. An Exercise in Common Interferences and Fundamental Practices in Trace Element Determination  Thomas M. Spudich, Jennifer K. Herrmann, Ronald Fietkau, Grant A. Edwards, and David L. McCurdy
This laboratory experiment demonstrates the use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) for the determination of trace levels of Pb in bovine muscle or liver samples. The major emphasis of the experiment is to explore common interferences, first by investigating the impact of molecular spectral absorption interferences on a real-world sample, then demonstrating the susceptibility of GFAAS to chemicalphysical matrix interferences.
Spudich, Thomas M.; Herrmann, Jennifer K.; Fietkau, Ronald; Edwards, Grant A.; McCurdy, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 262.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Patty L. Feist
Students are given a mixture of a solid ketone and a solid alcohol and asked to separate and identify the two components. First the students use TLC to determine the optimum solvent system to separate the two compounds, then they separate the unknowns on a microscale flash chromatography column. The students acquire the melting point, and if possible, the IR and 1H NMR spectra for each separated compound and identify them by matching the observed data with that of known compounds.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 109.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Separation and Identification of a Mixture of Group 6 Transition-Metal Carbonyl Compounds Using GC–MS in the General Chemistry Curriculum  Lawrence K. Fong
From the mass spectral data, our students are able to determine the atomic mass of the transition metal. In addition, utilizing Mo(CO)6 as an internal standard, our students are able to quantify the quantity of Cr(CO)6 and W(CO)6 in an unknown mixture.
Fong, Lawrence K. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 103.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Transition Elements |
Gas Chromatography
The Determination of Caffeine in Coffee: Sense or Nonsense?  Jozef L. Beckers
Determination of caffeine in coffee applying a UV spectrophotometer, HPLC equipment, and CE apparatus. Some representative results are given showing the accuracy of the methods and showing the differences between the separation methods HPLC and CE versus UV spectrophotometry.
Beckers, Jozef L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 90.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
HPLC
Investigation of Imposter Perfumes Using GC–MS  Kelley A. Mowery, Daniel E. Blanchard, Stephanie Smith, and Thomas A. Betts
The minimal sample preparation required for this experiment enables students to spend significantly more time becoming familiar with GCMS hardware and software. After performing the experiment students should be familiar with the operation of a modern GCMS, headspace sampling, data analysis using GCMS software tools, and mass spectral library searching.
Mowery, Kelley A.; Blanchard, Daniel E.; Smith, Stephanie; Betts, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 87.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Including Non-Traditional Instrumentation in Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Courses  J. David Jenkins, Jessica N. Orvis, C. Jimmy Smith, Citabria Manley, and Jeanette K. Rice
In this work, we report on the successful incorporation of a direct mercury analyzer into the environmental science laboratory for both non-majors and majors.
Jenkins, J. David; Orvis, Jessica N.; Smith, C. Jimmy; Manley, Citabria; Rice, Jeanette K. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 22.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods
Emission Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Scott R. Goode and Lori A. Metz
Simple lab experiments using an inexpensive, solid-state computerized spectrometer can help to introduce students to analytical emission spectroscopy. A series of experiments that employ an Ocean Optics spectrometer, a Windows PC, and a fiber optic pickup are described.
Goode, Scott R.; Metz, Lori A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1455.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Measuring Breath Alcohol Concentrations with an FTIR Spectrometer  Adam Kneisel and Michael K. Bellamy
Students use aqueous ethanol solutions to make a calibration curve that relates absorbance signals of breath samples with blood alcohol concentrations. Students use their calibration curve to determine the time needed for their calculated blood alcohol levels to drop below the legal limit following use of a commercial mouthwash.
Kneisel, Adam; Bellamy, Michael K. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1448.
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Alcohols
The Study of Elimination Reactions Using Gas Chromatography: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Devin Latimer
This article describes an investigation of elimination reactions of alkyl halides. 1-Bromopentane or 2-bromopentane are reacted with either sodium ethoxide or potassium tert-butoxide. Gas chromatography is used to monitor the relative amounts of 1-pentene, (E)-2-pentene, and (Z)-2-pentene produced.
Latimer, Devin. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1183.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Synthesis |
Gas Chromatography |
Elimination Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry
Manual Microscale Column Chromatography Pressurization Apparatus  Bruce W. Baldwin
Pressurization of a Pasteur pipet for microscale chromatography is simplified by connecting a 20- or 30-mL syringe to the pipet using a length of Tygon tubing. This simple system allows the student to easily dry-pack a column using common chromatography packing materials.
Baldwin, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1182.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Determination of Minerals in Apples by ICP–AES  Mark Duxbury
A laboratory experiment is described that involves the elemental analysis of apples by inductively coupled plasmaatomic emission spectroscopy (IICPAES). The results of the experiment allow students to predict the cold-storage stability of apples.
Duxbury, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1180.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Nutrition |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Using Periodate with Nitrite Solutions for Capillary Electrophoresis (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1588-1590)   David S. Hage
No evidence to suggest that the lack of nitrites is due to their oxidation.
Hage, David S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Using Periodate with Nitrite Solutions for Capillary Electrophoresis (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1588-1590)   Gregorio Cruz
Lack of nitrites could be due to their oxidation to nitrates.
Cruz, Gregorio. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
Using Periodate with Nitrite Solutions for Capillary Electrophoresis (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1588-1590)   Gregorio Cruz
Lack of nitrites could be due to their oxidation to nitrates.
Cruz, Gregorio. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
A Discovery Approach to Three Organic Laboratory Techniques: Extraction, Recrystallization, and Distillation  Gail Horowitz
In each experiment, one or more parameters, such as solvent volume, time, or boiling point difference, is varied. Students compare the results of all variations and draw conclusions as to the underlying principles. The article concludes with an assessment of the effectiveness of these experiments.
Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1039.
Separation Science
Simulating Chromatographic Separations in the Classroom  Charles A. Smith and F. Warren Villaescusa
Using this classroom simulation, students develop a set of rules used to investigate the effect of flow rate, column dimension, particle size, and mobile/stationary phase affinity on chromatographic separations. While performing the simulation, the concepts of longitudinal and eddy diffusion are dramatically illustrated.
Smith, Charles A.; Villaescusa, F. Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1023.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Chemical Applications of a Programmable Image Acquisition System  Paul J. Ogren, Ian Henry, Steven E. S. Fletcher, and Ian Kelly
A programmable imaging system for thin-layer and kinetics measurements; examples of applications include well plate analysis, TLC quantitative analysis of acetaminophen and aspirin, analysis of electrophoresis bands, and kinetics of toluidine blue reduction by sulfite.
Ogren, Paul J.; Henry, Ian; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Kelly, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 699.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
How Students Use Scientific Instruments To Create Understanding: CCD Spectrophotometers  Eric G. Malina and Mary B. Nakhleh
Investigation of how upper-division college students interact with laboratory instruments to identify the characteristics that influence students' construction of scientific understanding.
Malina, Eric G.; Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 691.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories
Low-Cost Temperature Control from 160 K to Ambient Temperature Using Liquid Nitrogen Evaporation  Gustavo S. Faraudo and Daniel E. Weibel
Apparatus to control temperature between 110 and 283 K without the need to precool the evaporated gas from a liquid reservoir.
Faraudo, Gustavo S.; Weibel, Daniel E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 676.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Measurement of Organics Using Three FTIR Techniques: Absorption, Attenuated Total Reflectance, and Diffuse Reflectance  M. E. Gebel, M. A. Kaleuati, and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts
Determination of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ethanol in vodka using attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and total hydrocarbons in soil samples using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).
Gebel, M. E.; Kaleuati, M. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 672.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Incorporating Scanning Probe Microscopy into the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum  David W. Lehmpuhl
Project at Colorado State University - Pueblo, to incorporate scanning probe microscopy into the undergraduate curriculum through demonstrations, a hands-on instrumental analysis experiment, and undergraduate research projects.
Lehmpuhl, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 478.
Instrumental Methods |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Undergraduate Research
Rules of Thumb for Assessing Equilibrium Partitioning of Organic Compounds: Successes and Pitfalls  Kai-Uwe Goss and René P. Schwarzenbach
Factors to consider when predicting equilibrium partitioning of organic compounds between two phases, including volatility, polarity, and hydrophobicity; and a simple model for the evaluation of bulk phase partitioning.
Goss, Kai-Uwe; Schwarzenbach, René P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 450.
Equilibrium |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Separation Science |
Thermodynamics
Like Dissolves Like: A Guided Inquiry Experiment for Organic Chemistry  Ingrid Montes, Chunqiu Lai, and David Sanabria
A guided-inquiry experience designed to illustrate factors that influence the solubility of organic compounds.
Montes, Ingrid; Lai, Chunqiu; Sanabria, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 447.
Learning Theories |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Identification of Forensic Samples via Mitochondrial DNA in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory  Julie T. Millard and André M. Pilon
Identification of forensic samples via mitochondrial DNA in a hypothetical kidnapping case.
Millard, Julie T.; Pilon, André M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 444.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Biotechnology |
Forensic Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Was the Suspect in Contact with the Victim? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Analysis of Single Fibers Using FT-IR Microscopy  Sharin Bender and Sheri J. Lillard
Forensic analysis of fiber samples using FT-IR microscopy to sustain interest and motivation in an upper-level analytical laboratory.
Bender, Sharin; Lillard, Sheri J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 437.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry
Techniques in Organic Chemistry: Miniscale, Standard Taper Microscale, and Williamson Microscale (Jerry R. Mohrig, Christina Noring Hammond, Paul F. Schatz, and Terence C. Morrill)  Richard M. Pagni
Supplementary text organized like most organic chemistry lab manuals, but without the experiments.
Pagni, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 388.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Instrumental Methods |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Environmental Analysis in the Instrumental Lab: More Than One Way...  M. Sittidech and S. Street
Laboratory practical in which students are asked to complete a problem of quantitative analysis drawn from environmental hazards (acrolein and acrylonitrile) using available instrumentation (spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrochemical, and mass spectrometric techniques).
Sittidech, M.; Street, S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 376.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Applications of Chemistry
Detection of Method Effects on Quality of Analytical Data. A Statistical Exercise  S. E. Quintar, J. P. Santagata, O. I. Villegas, and V. A. Cortinez
Procedure that applies the statistical analysis of data to information collected from atomic absorption spectrometry.
Quintar, S. E.; Santagata, J. P.; Villegas, O. I.; Cortinez, V. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 326.
Instrumental Methods |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Visualizing Atoms, Molecules, and Surfaces by Scanning Probe Microscopy  Kimberly Aumann, Karen J. C. Muyskens, and Kumar Sinniah
Examples of applications of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in an undergraduate curriculum; includes investigating DNA, analysis of microchip memory arrays and circuitry, and visualizing filamentous actin.
Aumann, Kimberly; Muyskens, Karen J. C.; Sinniah, Kumar. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Identifying a Protein by MALDI–TOF Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory  Anne E. Counterman, Matthew S. Thompson, and David E. Clemmer
Experiment that requires students to use mass spectral data (MALDI-TOF) to find the identity of an unknown protein sample by performing a database search on the Internet.
Counterman, Anne E.; Thompson, Matthew S.; Clemmer, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 177.
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds  Megumi Fujita, Helen M. Mah, Paulo W. M. Sgarbi, Manjinder S. Lall, Tai Wei Ly, and Lois M. Browne
Software to help students understand the theoretical basis and actual procedures for separating organic compounds from a mixture using liquid-liquid extraction; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 107.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
Inductively Coupled Plasma–Atomic Emission Spectroscopy: Two Laboratory Activities for the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Course  Ara S. Kooser, Judith L. Jenkins, and Lawrence E. Welch
Procedures involving an examination and comparison of spectral transitions originating from atomic versus ionic species through atomic emission spectroscopy, and a determination of the temperature produced buy the inductively coupled plasma (ICP).
Kooser, Ara S.; Jenkins, Judith L.; Welch, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 86.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Measurement of Trace Metals in Tobacco and Cigarette Ash by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy  W. Wang and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts
An experiment in which inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) is used to quantify zinc, iron, and chromium present in cigarette tobacco, the cigarette filter, and the ash from a burning cigarette.
Wang, W; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 83.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Micelle-Mediated Extraction of Heavy Metals from Environmental Samples: An Environmental Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Dimosthenis L. Giokas, Evangelos K. Paleologos, and Miltiades I. Karayannis
A laboratory focussing on the determination of metallic elements in drinking water through cloud-point extraction.
Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Karayannis, Miltiades I. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 61.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Water Project: A Multi-Week Laboratory Project for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry  Randy J. Arnold
A project-based laboratory that challenges students to develop their analytical reasoning skills and instrumental techniques by investigating the composition of drinking water; includes results of student surveys.
Arnold, Randy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 58.
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
The Analysis of Seawater: A Laboratory-Centered Learning Project in General Chemistry  Jodye I. Selco, Julian L. Roberts, Jr., and Daniel B. Wacks
Experiment designed to introduce students to qualitative and quantitative analysis methods (gravimetric analysis, potentiometric titration, ion-selective electrodes, and atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy) in the context of an overall analysis of an environmental sample.
Selco, Jodye I.; Roberts, Julian L., Jr.; Wacks, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 54.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Potentiometry
An Environmental Focus Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography  Arthur Salido, Cynthia Atterholt, J. Roger Bacon, and David J. Butcher
Efforts by the chemistry department at Western Carolina University to incorporate an environmental focus in its curriculum and research programs; NSF project to integrate inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and ion chromatography instruments into the curriculum.
Salido, Arthur; Atterholt, Cynthia; Bacon, J. Roger; Butcher, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 22.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Undergraduate Research
Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Signal Processing, and Spectral Information in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory  Jonathan P. Blitz and Douglas G. Klarup
Laboratory for an instrumental analysis course that shows how signal-to-noise ration can be increased for FTIR spectrometers by choice of conditions and data manipulation.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Klarup, Douglas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1358.
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy
Collaboration between Chemistry and Biology to Introduce Spectroscopy, Electrophoresis, and Molecular Biology as Tools for Biochemistry  Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua, Jennifer L. Powers, Connie Tran, Swapan S. Jain, Reem Chabayta, Dale L. Vogelien, Ralph J. Rascati, Michelle Hall, and Kathleen Diehl
Program that integrates a variety of instrumental techniques across the biological and chemistry curricula, including biochemistry, plant physiology, genetics, and forensics.
Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H.; Powers, Jennifer L.; Vogelien, Dale L.; Rascati, Ralph J.; Hall, Michelle; Diehl, Kathleen; Tran, Connie; Jain, Swapan S.; Chabayta, Reem . J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1311.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Forensic Chemistry |
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Plant Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Quantitative Determination of Nicotine and Cotinine in Urine and Sputum Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  A. E. Witter, D. M. Klinger, X. Fan, M. Lam, D. T. Mathers, and S. A. Mabury
Quantifying a naturally formed metabolite that is a biochemical indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke.
Witter, A. E.; Klinger, D. M.; Fan, X.; Lam, M.; Mathers, D. T.; Mabury, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1257.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching Experimental Design Using a GC–MS Analysis of Cocaine on Money: A Cross-Disciplinary Laboratory  Christopher A. Heimbuck and Nathan W. Bower
An opportunity for students to develop and use experimental designs to refine and optimize an extraction technique from the literature.
Heimbuck, Christopher A.; Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1254.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research
Elemental Analysis of Wisdom Teeth by Atomic Spectroscopy Using Standard Additions. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Exercise  Venda J. Porter, Patricia M. Sanft, Jennifer C. Dempich, Dana D. Dettmer, Angela E. Erickson, Nicole A. Dubauskie, Susan T. Myster, Emory H. Matts, and Eugene T. Smith
Procedure to familiarize students with inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and other atomic absorption techniques and to develop an understanding of the advantages and limitations of these methods.
Porter, Venda J.; Sanft, Patricia M.; Dempich, Jennifer C.; Dettmer, Dana D.; Erickson, Angela E.; Dubauskie, Nicole A.; Myster, Susan T.; Matts, Emory H.; Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1114.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Application of Datalogger in Biosensing: A Glucose Biosensor  Martin M. F. Choi and Pui Shan Wong
Using an eggshell as a platform for the immobilization of glucose oxidase while determining glucose concentration through the depletion of oxygen as measured by an oxygen sensor and datalogger.
Choi, Martin M. F.; Wong, Pui Shan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 982.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Education: Environmental Studies  Marina C. Koether, Donald McGarey, Mark Patterson, and Daniel J. Williams
Project to develop an environmental chemistry laboratory course and an environmental science capstone course; includes summary of equipment and activities involved in the lab course.
Koether, Marina C.; McGarey, Donald; Patterson, Mark; Williams, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 934.
Instrumental Methods
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet  Edward B. Flint, Carrie L. Kortz, and Max A. Taylor
A technique for microscale pH titrations using 1-5 mL of analyte and titrant.
Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 705.
Acids / Bases |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Exploring the Diffraction Grating Using a He-Ne Laser and a CD-ROM  Joel Tellinghuisen
Demonstrating the grating equation using a compact disc.
Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 703.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Microscale Determination of Vitamin C by Weight Titrimetry  Gaston A. East and Erica C. Nascimento
Electroanalytical method for the microscale determination of vitamin C using a nontraditional oxidimetric titrant.
East, Gaston A.; Nascimento, Erica C. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 100.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Isolation of Rubber from Milkweed Leaves. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab  Lisa Volaric and John P. Hagen
Experiment that teaches many basic laboratory techniques (refluxing, vacuum filtering, extracting, centrifuging, and IR fingerprinting) while introducing students to polymers and natural-product isolations.
Volaric, Lisa; Hagen, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 91.
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
Raman Spectroscopy with a Fiber-Optic Probe and Multichannel Detection  Thomas J. Vickers, Jeanne Pecha, and Charles K. Mann
Exercise emphasizing instrumental methods of chemical analysis of solids and liquids relying on Raman spectroscopy.
Vickers, Thomas J.; Pecha, Jeanne; Mann, Charles K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1674.
Instrumental Methods |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Determination of Free Lime in Clinker and Cement by Iodometry. An Undergraduate Experiment in Redox Titrimetry  Oi-Wah Lau, Shiu-Fai Luk, Nina L. N. Cheng, and Hoi-Yin Woo
Experiment to determine the free lime in cement and clinker through iodometry.
Lau, Oi-Wah; Luk, Shiu-Fai; Cheng, Nina L. N.; Woo, Hoi-Yin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
Recovery and Reutilization of Waste Matter from Coffee Preparation. An Experiment for Environmental Science Courses  Santino Orecchio
Separation of fat from used coffee grounds, analysis of its characteristics and that of the remaining degreased residue, and transformation of the extracted fat into soap.
Orecchio, Santino. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1669.
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Fatty Acids
The Lead Project. An Environmental Instrumental Analysis Case Study  Vincent T. Breslin and Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy
An environmental instrumental analysis course that examines lead contamination in paint, soil, and drinking water of suburban residential houses.
Breslin, Vincent T.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1647.
Instrumental Methods |
Metals |
Toxicology |
Quantitative Analysis
Using Capillary Electrophoresis to Determine the Purity of Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Frank Welder and Christa L. Colyer
Determination of the concentration of synthesized acetylsalicylic acid and unreacted salicylic acid using capillary electrophoresis.
Welder, Frank; Colyer, Christa L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1525.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Applied Electronics: Construction of a Simple Spectrophotometer  Melissa A. Thal and Michael J. Samide
A simple spectrophotometer intended for use as a capstone circuit for an electronics laboratory exercise.
Thal, Melissa A.; Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1510.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Combined Effects of pH and Percent Methanol on the HPLC Separation of Benzoic Acid and Phenol  Seema M. Joseph and John A. Palasota
Investigating the combined effects of pH and percent methanol on the HPLC separation of benzoic acid and phenol.
Joseph, Seema M.; Palasota, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1381.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols
Beer's Law Measurements Using Non-monochromatic Light Sources--A Computer Simulation  George C.-Y. Chan and WingTat Chan
Using a spreadsheet program to simulate the spectral profile of the transmitted radiation and the apparent absorbance for different combinations of bandwidth and peak profiles.
Chan, George C.-Y.; Chan, WingTat. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1285.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Investigation of Secondary Metabolites in Plants. A General Protocol for Undergraduate Research in Natural Products  Jonathan Cannon, Du Li, Steven G. Wood, Noel L. Owen, Alexandra Gromova, and Vladislav Lutsky
Typical experimental procedures to extract and isolate individual chemical constituents from a plant, suggestions for some simple procedures to test for selected bioactivity, and explain how the molecular structures of natural products may be determined using spectroscopic techniques.
Cannon, Jonathan; Li, Du; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.; Gromova, Alexandra; Lutsky, Vladislav. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1234.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Separation Science
Was the Driver Drunk? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Determination of Blood Alcohol Content  Jennifer L. Zabzdyr and Sheri J. Lillard
Forensic-based experiment to motivate correct analytical procedures and careful interpretation of data by using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.
Zabzdyr, Jennifer L.; Lillard, Sheri J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1225.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography
Determination of Ethanol in Alcohol Samples Using a Modular Raman Spectrometer  Caryn L. Sanford, Brent A. Mantooth, and Bradley T. Jones
An inexpensive modular Raman spectrometer that overcomes the cost and complexity of traditional equipment; application to measuring ethanol content of a variety of aqueous solutions.
Sanford, Caryn L.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1221.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Raman Spectroscopy
Correction to Computational Investigations for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: Modeling a TLC Exercise to Investigate Molecular Structure and Intermolecular Forces (J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 203-205)  Rita K. Hessley
Corrections to original article.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1183.
Chromatography |
Computational Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Separation Science
Correction to Computational Investigations for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: Modeling a TLC Exercise to Investigate Molecular Structure and Intermolecular Forces (J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 203-205)  Rita K. Hessley
Missing reference and incorrect citation in original article.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1183.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Learning Theories |
Chromatography |
Computational Chemistry |
Separation Science
News from Online: Teaching with Chemical Instrumentation on the Web  Thomas G. Chasteen
Variety of web-based animations on analytical instrumentation; WWW addresses for software, plug-ins, sites for images and animations, references for designing sites, and sites regarding specific analytical techniques.
Chasteen, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1144.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Distinguishing Calcium Carbonate from Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate by Instrumental Methods. A Set of Laboratory Experiments for Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  Eugenio Garribba, Giovanni Micera, Liliana Strinna-Erre, and Giovanna Stara
Distinguishing calcium carbonate from calcium sulfate dihydrate through chemical analysis, thermal analysis and decomposition, IR spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy, and EDXRF spectroscopy.
Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Strinna-Erre, Liliana; Stara, Giovanna. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1090.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thermal Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Instruments and Experimentation in the History of Chemistry
edited by Frederic L. Holmes and Trevor H. Levere
  Jeffrey Kovac
Collection of 14 essays on the history of experimentation and its accompanying instrumentation in chemistry.
Kovac, Jeffrey. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1027.
Instrumental Methods
The Use of Disposable IR Cards for Quantitative Analysis Using an Internal Standard  Ramee Indralingam and Angelito I. Nepomuceno
Lab that is useful as a teaching tool to illustrate the use of internal standards and calibration curves and the principle of Beer's law.
Indralingam, Ramee; Nepomuceno, Angelito I. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 958.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy
Reduction of Calcium Concentrations by the Brita® Water Filtration System: A Practical Experiment in Titrimetry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy  Kimberly G. Olsen and Lisa J. Ulicny
Classic EDTA titration experiment that focusses the function of common a household item.
Olsen, Kimberly G.; Ulicny, Lisa J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 941.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide  Sze-Shun Wong, Natasha D. Popovich, and Shelley J. Coldiron
Design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter.
Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 798.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modular Spectrometers in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Paul Bernazzani and Francine Paquin
Effect of integrating two Ocean Optics S2000 series spectroscopic instruments, based on a 2048-element linear CCD-array, into an undergraduate laboratory.
Bernazzani, Paul; Paquin, Francine. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 796.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Useful System for Microscale and Semi-microscale Fractional Distillation of Air-Sensitive Substances with High Boiling Points  J. Alfredo Gutiérrez
A procedure to purify air-sensitive liquids with high boiling points using a horizontal distilling apparatus that avoids extreme refluxing and can efficiently separate the fractions of a mixture.
Gutiérrez, J. Alfredo. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 653.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Build a Simple Polarimeter  Frank E. Stary and Norman Woldow
Details of the construction of a durable, inexpensive portable polarimeter with a self-contained 585-nm light source are given, combining the best features of several polarimeters; may easily be scaled up in size for increased sensitivity.
Stary, Frank E.; Woldow, Norman. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 644.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stereochemistry
Simulating How a Virus Spreads through a Population: An Introduction to Acid-Base Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Ronald M. Jarret
The traditional lab exercise that achieves separation of a mixture of 4-aminoacetophenone and benzoic acid by chemically active extraction has been expanded to include an exercise that uses materials from the extraction experiment to simulate how a virus spreads through a population.
Jarret, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 525.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Determining the Percent Water in Organic Solvents Using the Zwitterionic Dimroth-Reichardt Betaine ET-30 Dye. An Industrially Relevant Application of a Previously Published Laboratory Experiment  Mark F. Vitha
ET-30 is used to determine the percent water in an organic solvent. This experiment, combined with a case study from Procter & Gamble's workshop "Professional Analytical Chemists in Industry", teaches students about the importance of dry organic solvents, the differences in diode array and scanning UV-vis spectrophotometers, the use of a wide variety of instrumental and wet-chemical analyses in answering analytical questions, and the application of the scientific approach to the solution of industrial chemical problems.
Vitha, Mark F. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 370.
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry
Safe and Efficient Flash Chromatography Equipment for the Research/Teaching Lab  Fritiof Pontén and Ulf Ellervik
A new method for performing flash chromatography is presented in which the solvent reservoir is at the side of the column, in a separate bottle, connected with a Teflon tube to an adapter for standard flash chromatography columns.
Pontén, Fritiof; Ellervik, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 363.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Ion Chromatography: Analysis of Ions in Pond Waters  Kumar Sinniah and Kenneth Piers
Using an ion chromatography instrument to investigate water quality and analyze fluoride, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate ions in pond ecosystems; results are compared with classical wet chemical methods.
Sinniah, Kumar; Piers, Kenneth. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 358.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Using a Diode Laser Pointer to Count Drops and Automate Titration Systems  Paul Ogren, Steve Nelson, and Ian Henry
A diode laser pointer is used to construct a simple system for recording drops falling from a buret. The drop signal is recorded together with one or more measurement signals by a LabVIEW-based programmable interfacing system. A standard buret is converted to a Mariotte buret to provide a constant drop-addition rate.
Ogren, Paul; Nelson, Steve; Henry, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 353.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Sampling Technique for Organic Solids in IR Spectroscopy: Thin Solid Films as the Method of Choice in Teaching Laboratories  Patty L. Feist
Techniques for sampling solid organic compounds for FTIR spectroscopy are briefly compared and contrasted. One method, called thin solid films, stands out as the method of choice in undergraduate laboratories because they are easy and inexpensive to prepare; the spectra obtained are of good to excellent quality.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 351.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Qualitative Analysis
A Computer-Controlled Bipolar Pulse Conductivity Apparatus  N. Papadopoulos and M. Limniou
A laboratory apparatus for ion conductivity measurements is described. This apparatus is controlled by a personal computer.
Papadopoulos, Nikos; Limniou, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 245.
Conductivity |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Determination of Flavonoids in Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  Celeste da Queija, M. A. Queirós, and Ligia M. Rodrigues
An application of HPLC to the analysis of flavonoids in wines, designed for students of instrumental methods. This laboratory work is very attractive to students because they deal with a common daily product whose components are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects.
da Queija, Celeste; Queirós, M. A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 236.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC
Drug Distribution: A Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiment in Coupled Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Equilibria  John Hein and Michael Jeannot
This experiment gives students an opportunity to study the distribution of a drug (a common antihistamine drug, diphenhydramine) in a two-phase system by measuring the concentrations of two chemical species and predicting the others by considering charge balance, mass balance, and equilibrium constant expressions.
Hein, John; Jeannot, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 224.
Acids / Bases |
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  Doble Mukesh
Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs.
Mukesh, Doble. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 211.
Separation Science |
Learning Theories
The Escalator--An Analogy for Explaining Electroosmotic Flow  Andrew J. Vetter and Garrett J. McGowan
An analogy of people on an escalator for teaching the concept of electroosmotic flow. The moving escalator is analogous to the overall bulk flow of solution through the capillary (electroosmotic flow) and partly responsible for the separation of species using capillary electrophoresis (CE).
Vetter, Andrew J.; McGowan, Garrett J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 209.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Transport Properties |
Electrochemistry
Fast Ionic Migration of Copper Chromate  Adolf Cortel
Among the many demonstrations of ionic migration in an electric field, the ones showing the migration of colored Cu+2 and CrO4-2 ions are popular. The demonstration described here introduces some modifications to allow a fast displacement of these ions.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 207.
Covalent Bonding |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
A Short History of the Chemical Shift  Samuel G. Levine
The term chemical shift is shown to have originated in the mistaken assumption that nuclei of a given element will all undergo resonance at the same frequency regardless of their environment.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 133.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
Practical Capillary Electrophoresis, 2nd Edition by Robert Weinberger  Luanne Tilstra
Overview of how capillary electrophoresis (CE) is unique, a history of technique development, a list of commercially available instruments, the basic concepts that one must understand to design and understand a CE experiment, and other reference information of significance to CE.
Tilstra, Luanne. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 35.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Analytical Instrumentation--Performance Characteristics and Quality by Graham Currell  Jack K. Steehler
This book provides guidance to analytical practitioners regarding the use of instrument performance criteria when making purchase decisions and when pursuing solutions to real-life instrumentation problems.
Steehler, Jack K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 34.
Instrumental Methods
Hybridization and Structural Properties
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 888-890)  Victor M. S. Gil
Clarifying cause-effect relationships between orbital hybridization and structural properties.
Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 31.
MO Theory |
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Hybridization and Structural Properties
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 888-890)  Victor M. S. Gil
Clarifying cause-effect relationships between orbital hybridization and structural properties.
Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 31.
MO Theory |
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Infrared Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Lab  Margaret A. Hill
Three laboratory exercises in which students learn to interpret infrared spectra for simple structural identification. A polymer identification lab uses familiar household polymer samples and teaches students how to use infrared spectral data to determine what bond types are present in the polymers. In a second lab, students learn to prepare potassium bromide pellets of fluorene derivatives and identify them by their functional group differences. The final exercise combines IR with several other lab techniques to identify an organic acid from a field of fourteen possibilities.
Hill, Margaret A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 26.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Analysis of Common Household Cleaner-Disinfectants by Capillary Electrophoresis  William P. Gardner and James E. Girard
Capillary electrophoresis analysis for benzalkonium compounds in common household cleaners and disinfectants.
Gardner, William P.; Girard, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1335.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds |
Consumer Chemistry
Candies to Dye for: Cooperative, Open-Ended Student Activities to Promote Understanding of Electrophoretic Fractionation  Randall Emry, Robert D. Curtright, Jonathan Wright, and John Markwell
A three-part series of laboratory activities is presented that allows students to learn why electrophoretic separations work and to manipulate the factors that influence the separation process.
Emry, Randall; Curtright, Robert D.; Wright, Jonathan; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1323.
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy of Calcium in Foodstuffs in Non-Science-Major Courses  Keith S. Kostecka
Non-science-major students are introduced to the concept of ppm, prepare AAS standard solutions, digest foodstuffs in nitric acid, conduct AAS analysis for Ca, determine mass percentage of calcium in the sample, and check calcium levels in various food items on the Internet with a critical eye.
Kostecka, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1321.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Nonmajor Courses |
Quantitative Analysis |
Food Science
Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging  Joel A. Olson, Karen J. Nordell, Marla A. Chesnik, Clark R. Landis, and Arthur B. Ellis, M. S. Rzchowski, S. Michael Condren, and George C. Lisensky
Several demonstrations of resonance phenomena associated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are described. Complete instructions for the construction of the demonstrations, which can be used on an overhead projector, are included.
Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Landis, Clark R.; Lisensky, George C.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 882.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy
Enantiomeric and Diastereoisomeric Relationships: A Practical Approach  V. Durieu, G. Martiat, M. Ch. Vandergeten, F. Pirsoul, F. Toubeau, and Agnès Van Camp
An experiment in organic chemistry in which the students prepare, purify, and characterize optical isomers. The three optical isomers of the bisoxalamides obtained by the reaction of racemic 1-phenylethylamine with diethyloxalate are separable by flash chromatography into the racemic mixture of (R,R) + (S,S) oxalamides and the (R,S) meso compound.
Durieu, V.; Martiat, G.; Vandergeten, M. Ch.; Pirsoul, F.; Toubeau, F.; Van Camp, Agnès. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 752.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Synthesis
Analysis of Diet Tonic Water Using Capillary Electrophoresis. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Experiment  Harvey B. Herman, John R. Jezorek, and Zhe Tang
An experiment for instrumental analysis is described in which components of diet tonic water are determined using capillary electrophoresis. Separation of quinine, saccharin, and benzoate in pH 7 phosphate buffer, with phenol as internal standard, is accomplished in about 12 minutes.
Herman, Harvey B.; Jezorek, John R.; Tang, Zhe. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 743.
Instrumental Methods |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and Quantification of Preservatives Using Ion Pair HPLC and CZE: An Extended Investigation of Separation Mechanisms  Mary Boyce and Evadne Spickett
This paper describes the separation of preservatives in food and cosmetic creams by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion pair HPLC, and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The experiments described here are designed to promote understanding of the separation mechanisms involved and give students an opportunity to compare and evaluate the different techniques.
Boyce, Mary; Spickett, Evadne. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 740.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
HPLC |
Electrophoresis
Instrumental Analysis Lecture and Laboratory: A Survey  James E. Girard and Constance T. Diamant
Which topics should be covered in instrumental analysis lecture and which instrumental techniques should be used in the instrumental laboratory? We surveyed a randomly chosen group of analytical chemistry faculty. It appears that there is a consensus about which experimental techniques the instrumental course should offer to undergraduates.
Girard, James E.; Diamant, Constance T. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 646.
Instrumental Methods
Rapid, Simple Quantitation in Thin-Layer Chromatography Using a Flatbed Scanner  Mitchell E. Johnson
Simply scanning a visibly stained TLC plate into a computer substitutes for much more expensive plate readers. With common image analysis software, "elution" profiles can be obtained. The resulting "chromatograms" can be analyzed in the same manner as other chromatograms.
Johnson, Mitchell E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 368.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Isolating trans-Anethole from Anise Seeds and Elucidating Its Structure: A Project Utilizing One- and Two-Dimensional NMR Spectrometry  Joseph W. LeFevre
This three-week project involves isolating and purifying a natural product and determining its structure. trans-Anethole is isolated from anise seeds by steam distillation and liquid-liquid extraction. The crude product is analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and purified by flash chromatography.
LeFevre, Joseph W. . J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 361.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Isolation of Curcumin from Turmeric  Andrew M. Anderson, Matthew S. Mitchell, and Ram S. Mohan
The active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin, which is approximately 2% by weight of the root of turmeric. We have developed two simple procedures for isolation of curcumin from turmeric, making this a new and interesting natural product isolation experiment.
Anderson, Andrew M.; Mitchell, Matthew S.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 359.
Chromatography |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds
Introducing Chiroscience into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum  Kenny B. Lipkowitz, Tim Naylor, and Keith S. Anliker
"Chiroscience" is a young but robust industry linking science and technology with chemistry and biology; includes description of an asymmetric reduction of a ketone followed by an assessment of the enantiomeric excess by GC using a chiral stationary phase.
Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Naylor, Tim; Anliker, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 305.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Determination of the Scoville Heat Value for Hot Sauces and Chilies: An HPLC Experiment  James D. Batchelor and Bradley T. Jones
The student will isolate the capsainoids from commercial food products (chilies and sauces) using a simple extraction technique. The identity and concentration of the capsainoids are determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentrations are then used to determine the pungency (Scoville heat value) of the foods.
Batchelor, James D.; Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 266.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Undergraduate Separations Utilizing Flash Chromatography  Gail Horowitz
This article describes the procedures used to carry out four flash chromatography experiments: the isolation of the carotenes, chlorophylls and xanthophylls from a spinach extract; the separation of -carotene from tetraphenyl cyclopentadienone; the isolation of (+) and (-) carvone from caraway and spearmint oil; and the purification of benzil from benzoin.
Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 263.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An Inexpensive Commercially Available Analog-to-Digital Converter  Gary W. Breton
The use of an inexpensive analog-to-digital converter for interfacing gas chromatographs to computers in a teaching laboratory environment is described. Raw data may be read, processed, and printed from software supplied with the converter to afford chromatograms of acceptable quality.
Breton, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 262.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography
A Low-Cost Device for Automatic Photometric Titrations  Fábio R. P. Rocha and Boaventura F. Reis
Construction of a simple, low-cost (about $150 U.S.) automatic photometric titrator employing a light-emitting diode (LED) and a phototransistor. The electronic circuit can be assembled by the students themselves. The device was employed to implement a common procedure in chemical labs, making feasible the introduction of concepts related to electronics in undergraduate chemistry courses.
Rocha, Fbio R. P.; Reis, Boaventura F. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 258.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Development of Innovative Laboratory Experiments with UV-Visible Spectrophotometer   Peter Abeta Iyere
A brief description of the instrument acquired with National Science Foundation funds (Cary 300 BIO UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, model EL98013047 equipped with diffuse reflectance and temperature control accessories) precedes highlights of some of the experiments being developed at Tennessee State University.
Iyere, Peter Abeta. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 153.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Understanding NMR Multiplet Structure with WinDNMR  N. Bampos and A. Vidal-Ferran
Employing interactive, user-friendly software packages (such as WinDNMR) on a conventional personal computer to investigate the effect of changing the constituent coupling constants on the appearance of a multiplet. As an example, a multiplet representing a proton coupled to three neighboring environments (four-spin system) is treated in detail.
Bampos, N.; Vidal-Ferran, A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 130.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode  Florinel Gabriel Banica
A device producing reproducible hanging mercury drops at the end of a glass capillary is described. Mercury flow through the capillary is controlled by means of a closing needle actuated by an electromagnetic relay. The timing circuit is very simple and consists only of resistors and capacitors.
Banica, Florinel Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 98.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chromatographic Separations Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges: Separation of Wine Phenolics  Charles A. Brenneman and Susan E. Ebeler
We describe a simple laboratory experiment that demonstrates the principles of chromatographic separation using solid-phase extraction columns and red wine. By adjusting pH and mobile phase composition, the wine is separated into three fractions of differing polarity. The content of each fraction can be monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy.
Brenneman, Charles A.; Ebeler, Susan E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1710.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry
Identifying Softwoods and Hardwoods by Infrared Spectroscopy  Brady Barker and Noel L. Owen
Infrared spectra of 45 softwoods and hardwoods have been recorded. The wavenumber values of the carbonyl stretching vibration and one of the ring-breathing modes of lignin are used to distinguish softwoods from hardwoods. The differences between the absorption bands for the softwoods and hardwoods in each instance are shown to be statistically significant.
Barker, Brady; Owen, Noel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1706.
Carbohydrates |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Analysis of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Fuels Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  Tal M. Nahir
The analysis of diesel fuel using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is described. The experiment is especially appropriate for courses in instrumental analysis and environmental chemistry. Results from the injections of small amounts of liquid samples include total-ion- and single-ion-mode chromatograms as well as mass spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives.
Nahir, Tal M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1695.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Separation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons Using 2-Dimensional Thin-Layer Chromatography. An Environmental Chemistry Experiment  Geoffrey T. Crisp and Natalie M. Williamson
Students are given a soil sample from which they extract two (previously added) polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a Soxhlet apparatus. They determine the identity of the unknown PAHs by comparing the 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatograms of the soil sample extract and a standard solution, both of which they must run themselves.
Crisp, Geoffrey T.; Williamson, Natalie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1691.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Removal of Heavy Metals from Water: An Environmentally Significant Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Experiment  Brian P. Buffin
In the first portion of the laboratory project, students perform treatment studies on simulated wastewater samples that contain heavy metal contaminants common to the effluent of the metal finishing industry. In the second portion of the experiment, AAS is used to determine metal concentrations in treated and untreated water samples, thus enabling the students to determine the effectiveness of the treatment process.
Buffin, Brian P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1678.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Toxicology
Constructing Environmental Impact Statements. An Organizational Focus for Teaching Analytical Environmental Chemistry  Susan M. Libes
Preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is the organizational focus for an undergraduate lab course in environmental chemistry. Students work collaboratively through the semester to prepare an EIS following National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) guidelines. This involves several stages of activity including a scoping process, field sampling, and laboratory analyses, modeling of the results to predict impacts, and report writing.
Libes, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1649.
Instrumental Methods |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Learning Quality Assurance/Quality Control Using U.S. EPA Techniques. An Undergraduate Course for Environmental Chemistry Majors  Susan M. Libes
In the environmental realm, quality control (QC) includes activities associated with sampling, sample preservation and storage, method validation, and analysis involving solids, liquids, and gases. Students should be led to discover the need for QC by first performing analyses with little guidance. This is followed by a class discussion in which they critique their data.
Libes, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1642.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Antacids Revisited with Modern Chemical Instruments: GCMS, AAS, and CCT  Stanley L. Burden and Christopher J. Petzold
This paper describes a novel experiment that requires students to obtain and interpret data from several analytical techniques to identify the brand name of a commercial antacid. They are required to design a set of experiments utilizing computer controlled titrations (CCT), atomic absorption (AA), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS), and careful quantitative manual titrations using a visual indicator of their choice to determine the brand name of their sample from a list of six to eight choices.
Burden, Stanley L.; Petzold, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1544.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Demonstrating Chemical and Analytical Concepts in the Undergraduate Laboratory Using Capillary Electrophoresis and Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography  Christopher P. Palmer
Alkyl parabens (4-hydroxy alkyl benzoates), which are common ingredients in cosmetic formulations, are separated by capillary electrophoresis. The electrophoretic mobilities of the parabens can be explained on the basis of their relative size. 3-Hydroxy ethylbenzoate is also separated to demonstrate the effect of substituent position on the acid dissociation constant and the effect this has on electrophoretic mobility.
Palmer, Christopher P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1542.
Colloids |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Environmental Chemical Analysis (by B. B. Kebbekus and S. Mitra)  reviewed by Nathan W. Bower
This text helps to fill a void in the market, as there are relatively few undergraduate instrumental analysis texts designed specifically for the expanding population of environmental science students.
Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1489.
Instrumental Methods
trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-diamine  Treptow, Richard S.
First successful resolution of the diamine.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1484.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry
A Simple Supplementary Offset Device for Data Acquisition Systems  Thomas Kappes and Peter C. Hauser
The device described in this article offers in a simple way the possibility of extending the offset range and can be combined with any data acquisition system. The signal offset is obtained by adding a manually adjustable voltage to the raw signal.
Kappes, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1429.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
Determination of Anionic Surfactants Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry  Richard John and Daniel Lord
An experiment has been developed that demonstrates the indirect analysis of anionic surfactants by techniques normally associated with metal ion determination; that is, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV).
John, Richard; Lord, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1256.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Surface Science
CO2 - Potentiometric Determination and Electrode Construction, a Hands-on Approach  Santiago Kocmur, Eduardo Cortón, Liliana Haim, Guillermo Locascio, and Lydia Galagosky
Hands-on activity in which the principles of gaseous equilibria and electrochemical potentials are applied to the construction of a carbon dioxide detector. The device is constructed using a combination pH electrode and a minimal amount of inexpensive, normally available laboratory materials.
Kocmur, Santiago; Cortn, Eduardo; Haim, Liliana; Locascio, Guillermo; Galagosky, Lydia. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1253.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis
Demonstration of Optical Rotatory Dispersion of Sucrose  S. M. Mahurin, R. N. Compton, and Richard N. Zare
A method for demonstrating and measuring the optical activity of chiral molecules in solution is described in which the rotation of linearly polarized light is directly observed at right angles to the propagation of light in the liquid.
Mahurin, S. M.; Compton, Robert N.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1234.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates
The Development of a Microscale Continuous Hot Solvent Extractor  Steve S. Wesolowski, Thomas Mulcahy, Christina M. Zafoni, and Wayne E. Wesolowski
To minimize the waste solvent produced, we have developed a microscale continuous hot solvent extractor that effectively extracts 100-500-mg samples using about 4 mL of solvent.
Wesolowski, Steve S.; Mulcahy, Thomas; Zafoni, Christina M.; Wesolowski, Wayne E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1116.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A New Concept for pH-Potential Calculations  K. L. Cheng
This paper discusses the concept of pH-potential calculations and indicates that the pH electrode is a capacitor, not a half-cell as currently believed.
Cheng, K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1029.
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
pH
A Microscale Vacuum Distillation Apparatus for Simple Separations  Ulf Ellervik and Hans Grundberg
To improve microscale distillation in a basic organic chemistry course, a simple and highly efficient vacuum distillation apparatus was designed.
Ellervik, Ulf; Grundberg, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 986.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An Integrated Molecular Modeling and Melting Point Experiment for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Thomas Poon, Sheri A. Bodolosky, and Cynthia M. Norris
An introductory organic chemistry laboratory experiment that introduces students to the utility and caveats of computational chemistry is described. Molecular modeling software is used to determine the net dipoles and surface areas of six unknown solids. These and other noncomputational results are then correlated with data from melting point determinations of the unknowns.
Poon, Thomas; Bodolosky, Sheri A.; Norris, Cynthia M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 983.
Computational Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Optimizing Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Sequential Simplex Optimization  Richard J. Stolzberg
Students adjust the level of four variables to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in the flame atomic absorption determination of calcium. They observe that three of the four variables, flame observation height, burner horizontal position, and fuel-to-air ratio, affect S/N. The fourth variable, volume of water in a graduated cylinder, has no effect on S/N.
Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 834.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Separation and Quantification of Simple Ions by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Mary Boyce
A wide range of samples can be rapidly separated and quantified by CE, requiring only small amounts of sample and solvent. The experiments described here give a suitable introduction to capillary electrophoresis and effectively illustrate the mechanism of separation.
Boyce, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 815.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Estimates of Precision in a Standard Additions Analysis  Graham R. Bruce and Paramjit S. Gill
It is shown, numerically and algebraically, that a method using the law of propagation of errors invariably gives lower values for the standard deviation than a second technique, which uses extrapolation.
Bruce, Graham R.; Gill, Paramjit S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 805.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
Immunoassay, DNA Analysis, and Other Ligand Binding Assay Techniques: From Electropherograms to Multiplexed, Ultrasensitive Microarrays on a Chip  Roger P. Ekins
"Ligand" or "binding" assays have made a major impact on biomedical research and clinical diagnosis since their development in the late 1950s. Immunoassay techniques (relying on specific antibodies to bind the target analyte) represent the best-known example, but analogous DNA and RNA analysis methods (using oligonucleotides to recognize defined polynucleotide sequences) are rapidly gaining in importance and are likely to exert profound effects on human society.
Ekins, Roger P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 769.
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Recognition |
Nanotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Biotechnology
New Quant: A Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Curriculum Using an Analyzed Complex Matrix  R. Cameron Dorey, Jeffrey A. Draves, and Conrad L. Stanitski
New Quant is a project to introduce students to issues faced in contemporary analytical chemistry in the laboratory portion of the quantitative analysis ("Quant") course by utilizing an analyzed complex matrix (ACM).
Dorey, R. Cameron; Draves, Jeffrey A.; Stanitski, Conrad L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 752.
Quantitative Analysis |
Learning Theories |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Introducing a Practice-Oriented Approach in the Physical Chemistry Instructional Laboratory  David E. Budil, Lutfur R. Khundkar, Ihsan A. Shehadi, and Mary Jo Ondrechen
There remains a tendency to follow the traditional philosophy that physical principles are to be illustrated experimentally rather than applied in problem solving, often with complex apparatus that distracts students from the point of the experiment.
Budil, David E.; Khundkar, Lutfur R.; Shehadi, Ihsan A.; Ondrechen, Mary Jo. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 601.
Instrumental Methods
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements (the author replies)  Treptow, Richard S.
Relation between instrument resolution and skill.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements  Thomsen, Volker
The difference between instrument resolution and precision.
Thomsen, Volker J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Variable Path-Length Cells for Discovery-Based Investigation of the Beer-Lambert Law  Sarah A. Stewart and André J. Sommer*
An economical approach to the variation of path length for visible absorption measurements is demonstrated. The method is particularly useful for discovery-based learning of the Beer-Lambert law.
Stewart, Sarah A.; Sommer, André J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 399.
Instrumental Methods |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A GC Instrument Simulator  D. Bruce Armitage
This simulator was developed to help students beginning the study of gas chromatographic instruments to understand their operation. It is not meant to teach chromatographic theory.
Armitage, D. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 287.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Pungency Quantitation of Hot Pepper Sauces Using HPLC  Thomas A. Betts
The format of the laboratory described here allows students to collectively develop an HPLC method for the quantitation of the two predominant capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in hot-pepper products. Each small group of students investigated one of the following aspects of the method: detector wavelength, mobile-phase composition, extraction of capsaicinoids, calibration, and quantitation. The format of the lab forced students to communicate and cooperate to develop this method.
Betts, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 240.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Food Science |
HPLC
Microscale Synthesis and 1H NMR Analysis of Tetraphenylporphyrins  RaeAnne E. Falvo, Larry M. Mink, and Diane F. Marsh
The synthesis of tetraphenylporphyrin, H2[TPP], and para-substituted tetraphenylporphyrins, H2[(p-X)4TPP], where X = CN, CH3, and OCH3, is easily accomplished using microscale glassware. The compounds are synthesized from inexpensive starting reagents.
Falvo, RaeAnne E.; Mink, Larry M.; Marsh, Diane F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 237.
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Applications of Atomic Spectrometry to Regulatory Compliance Monitoring, 2nd Edition (by Stephen W. Jenniss, Sidney A. Katz, and Richard W. Lynch)  Doreen Mehs
Describes analytical atomic spectrometry methods including the theory behind the method, the design of the instruments used, calibration methods, sample collection and preservation, sample preparation, quality control and assurance, and an extensive collection of official methods drawn from several regulatory agencies.
Mehs, Doreen. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 170.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Calibration
Effect of Sample Size on Sampling Error: An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  Joseph E. Vitt and Royce C. Engstrom
Students acquire samples of various size from a binary population, calculate the relative standard deviations for each sample size, and compare these results with those predicted by the binomial distribution. This experiment gives excellent agreement for the pooled student data, and the results show the expected decrease in sampling error as the sample size increases.
Vitt, Joseph E.; Engstrom, Royce C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 99.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Spectroscopy of Simple Molecules  C. Baer and K. Cornely
A spectroscopy experiment in which students utilize IR and NMR spectroscopy to identify the structures of three unknowns from a list of 15 carefully chosen simple organic molecules. In taking IR and NMR spectra, students learn to use state-of-the-art instrumentation that is used by practicing chemists.
Baer, Carl; Cornely, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 89.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Incorporation of GC-MS into an Environmental Science Curriculum  Audrey E. McGowin and George G. Hess
Incorporating modern analytical instrumentation such as GC-MS into an interdisciplinary environmental science program presents many challenges. The most daunting challenge is the variety of disciplines from which students come and their limited understanding of chemistry and chemical analysis.
McGowin, Audrey E.; Hess, George G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 23.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Chromatography, Absorption, and Fluorescence: A New Instrumental Analysis Experiment on the Measurement of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cigarette Smoke  Lisa M. Wingen, Jason C. Low, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
An experiment suitable for an undergraduate junior/senior-level instrumental analysis laboratory which illustrates the principles of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its application to the identification and measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tobacco smoke.
Wingen, Lisa M.; Low, Jason C.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1599.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
A New GC-MS Experiment for the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory in Environmental Chemistry: Methyl-t-butyl Ether and Benzene in Gasoline  Dinh T. Quach, Nancy A. Ciszkowski, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
In addition to illustrating the fundamentals of GC and MS, this experiment demonstrates (i) the use of internal standards to improve precision; (ii) the application of the method of standard additions; and (iii) the importance of techniques such as selected ion extraction/monitoring in the identification and measurement of specific highly volatile organic compounds in complex environmental mixtures.
Quach, Dinh T.; Ciszkowski, Nancy A.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1595.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers
Synthesis and Separation of a Diastereomeric Sulfonium Ion by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Francisco A. Valenzuela, Thomas K. Green, and Darwin B. Dahl
An undergraduate laboratory exercise utilizing capillary zone electrophoresis in the analysis of the student-synthesized sulfonium ion sec-butylmethyl-p-tolylsulfonium tetrafluoroborate is presented. The sulfonium ion contains two stereogenic centers and thereby yields four optical isomers.
Valenzuela, Francisco A.; Green, Thomas K.; Dahl, Darwin B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1590.
Electrophoresis |
Stereochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Separation Science |
Synthesis
Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Water by Capillary Electrophoresis: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  David S. Hage, Anuja Chattopadhyay, Carrie A. C. Wolfe, Julie Grundman, and Paul Kelter
In this report we describe an undergraduate laboratory experiment based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the simultaneous analysis of nitrate and nitrite in water samples. This method may be used for analyzing a wide variety of water samples and can serve as a laboratory component in either environmental chemistry or instrumental analysis.
Hage, David S.; Chattopadhyay, Anuja; Wolfe, Carrie A. C.; Grundman, Julie; Kelter, Paul B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1588.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Beer's Law: The Real Hazards (the author replies)  Muyskens, Mark
In considering deviations from Beer's Law, one should consider both stray light effects and chemical effects.
Muyskens, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1514.
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Beer's Law: The Real Hazards  Logan, S.R.
In considering deviations from Beer's Law, stray light effects should not be ignored.
Logan, S.R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1514.
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Letters  
In considering deviations from Beer's Law, stray light effects should not be ignored.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1514.
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
A 19F NMR Study of Enzyme Activity  Keith E. Peterman, Kevin Lentz, and Jeffery Duncan
This basic enzyme activity laboratory experiment demonstrates how 19F NMR can be used in biochemical studies and presents the advantages of 19F NMR over 1H NMR for studies of this nature. This is a viable laboratory experiment for junior/senior-level courses in instrumental analytical chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, or spectroscopy.
Peterman, Keith E.; Lentz, Kevin; Duncan, Jeffery. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1283.
Instrumental Methods |
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
A Simplified Method for the Microscale Extraction of Pigments from Spinach  Kimberley R. Cousins and Kathleen M. Pierson
A method is presented for microscale sample preparation for the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the pigments in spinach. A commercial vegetable juicer is used for the initial extraction from spinach. This is followed by filtration, liquid/liquid extraction, centrifugation, and evaporation.
Cousins, Kimberley R.; Pierson, Kathleen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1268.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A Simple Electrochemical Approach to Heterogeneous Reaction Kinetics  K. J. Drok, I. M. Ritchie, and G. P. Power
The system studied is the dissolution of a known amount of copper in a solution of iron(III). The reaction time is determined by measuring the potential of the copper, which has been electrodeposited on an inert electrode, as a function of time
Drok, K. J.; Ritchie, Ian M.; Power, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1145.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
An Inexpensive Detector for Gas Chromatography  Allan L. Smith, Edward J. Thorne, and Wolfgang Nadler
We have developed a low-cost (parts cost approximately $70) detector that can be used in a freshman level class to demonstrate the fundamental principles of gas chromatography (GC). The detector box can be used in a modification of experiments available in the literature which do not enable a quantitative method of analysis. We have used it with success in a freshman class of approximately 450 students in an experiment to separate chlorinated hydrocarbons via GC.
Smith, Allan L.; Thorne, Edward J.; Nadler, Wolfgang. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1129.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Capillary Electrophoresis in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams
Availability of capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrumentation allows students to have hands-on experience with this modern separation tool. They gain more than operational knowledge, however. Inherent in the instructional process is an emphasis on the relation of the chemistry of the sample to the fundamental mechanism of electrophoresis and the demonstration of how CE complements other methods for similar measurements.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1079.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Design and Operation of a Portable Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer for the Undergraduate Curriculum  Michael Henchman and Colin Steel
We describe the design and construction of a teaching mass spectrometer from components that are available commercially. The instrument is transportable, robust, and inexpensive. It yields a mass spectrum 3 minutes after being switched on and is designed to be used by undergraduates and maintained by faculty without special instrumental skills.
Henchman, Michael; Steel, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1042.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Mass Spectrometry |
Computational Chemistry
A Strategy for Incorporating 13C NMR into the Organic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Courses  Perry C. Reeves and Chris P. Chaney
The use of spectroscopy in establishing the structures of molecules is an important component of the first course in Organic Chemistry. However, the point in the course at which these techniques are best introduced remains uncertain. We suggest that carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy should be introduced at an early stage of the lecture course, specifically while studying the alkanes, and used extensively for structure determination throughout the course.
Reeves, Perry C.; Chaney, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1006.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Thermometer as a Simple Instrument  George F. Atkinson
The liquid-in-glass thermometer is used as a simple example of designing a measurement instrument which requires no previous knowledge of topics like electricity or optics.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 849.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A Decade of Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement  John W. Moore
The National Science Foundation's Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI) program is a little over ten years old, and its first ten years (1985-1994) have been thoroughly evaluated by an independent research and consulting firm, Westat, Inc. According to their report, "the program's first decade of activity has been rich and fertile", and "the seed money provided by NSF has yielded value well beyond its initial investments."
Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 799.
Administrative Issues |
Instrumental Methods
A Standardized Approach to Collecting and Calculating Noise Amplitude Spectra  Norman N. Sesi, Mathew W. Borer, Timothy K. Starn, and Gary M. Hieftje
A standardized approach to acquire, calculate, and display noise spectra is proposed. The method is based on normalizing the noise amplitude spectrum to the average dc level of the input signal. This normalization procedure should allow noise spectra, obtained in different laboratories or from different sources, to be compared both quantitatively and qualitatively.
Sesi, Norman N.; Borer, Mathew W.; Starn, Timothy K.; Hieftje, Gary M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 788.
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  Greg P. Smestad and Michael Gratzel
A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer.
Smestad, Greg P.; Grtzel, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 752.
Photochemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Nanotechnology |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Analysis of Soft Drinks: UV Spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography, and Capillary Electrophoresis  Valerie L. McDevitt, Alejandra Rodriguez, and Kathryn R. Williams
Instrumental analysis students analyze commercial soft drinks in three successive laboratory experiments. UV multicomponent analysis is used to determine caffeine and benzoic acid in Mello Yellow; caffeine, benzoic acid and aspartame are determined in a variety of soft drinks by reversed-phase liquid chromatography; and the same samples are analyzed by capillary electrophoresis.
McDevitt, Valerie L.; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 625.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Nonlinear Optical Instrumentation  N. Bloembergen
Picosecond and femtosecond laser-pulse generators are rapidly becoming standard instruments in physical, chemical, biological, and medical laboratories. They have led to the new analytical field of femtochemistry. They have promoted the growth of nonlinear spectroscopy, because high peak powers are available at small total energy. New devices in electro-optic communications may be based on polymeric and semiconductor nanostructures. Basic concepts of nonlinear optical response are penetrating further into many branches of chemistry, as evidenced by specific examples in surface and polymer chemistry.
Bloembergen, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 555.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Surface Science |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Nanotechnology
Quantitative HPLC Analysis of an Analgesic/Caffeine Formulation: Determination of Caffeine  Glenda K. Ferguson
The experiment detailed herein involves the determination of caffeine in Goody's Extra Strength Headache Powders, a commercially available medication which contains acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine as active ingredients.
Glenda K. Ferguson. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 467.
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Separation Science
Determining the Authenticity of Gemstones Using Raman Spectroscopy  Aaron Aponick, Emedio Marchozzi, Cynthia R. Johnston, and Carl T. Wigal
This paper reports the development of an experiment using Raman spectroscopy which determines the authenticity of both diamonds and pearls. The resulting spectra provide an introduction to vibrational spectroscopy and can be used in a variety of laboratory courses ranging from introductory chemistry to instrumental analysis.
Aaron Aponick, Emedio Marchozzi, Cynthia R. Johnston, and Carl T. Wigal. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 465.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
Kinetics-Based Indirect Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Determination of MnO4- and Cr2O72-: A Modern Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment  Siddharth Pandey, Mary E. R. McHale, Ann-Sofi M. Horton, Sandra A. Padilla, Ashantè L. Trufant, Noé U. De La Sancha, Ernesto Vela, and William E. Acree, Jr.
An indirect kinetics-based spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of permanganate and dichromate ion concentrations in an unknown. The method is based upon differences in reaction times between pyrogallol red and the two analytes.
Siddharth Pandey, Mary E. R. McHale, Ann-Sofi M. Horton, Sandra A. Padilla, Ashantè L. Trufant, Noé U. De La Sancha, Ernesto Vela, and William E. Acree, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 450.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
An Integrated Extraction/Crystallization/Distillation Experiment  Claude Amsterdamsky
An organic chemistry experiment that involves the extraction, crystallization, and distillation of a 3-component mixture over two 4-hour laboratory periods.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 219.
Separation Science
Educational NMR Software  Peter Lundberg
A description of a compilation of computer programs (EduNMRSoft) suitable for teaching NMR at an introductory to advanced level is presented. Each program is categorized and described by function, hardware requirements, availability, author, and references in the list.
Lundberg, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1489.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Investigation of Atropisomerism in ortho-Substituted Tetraphenylporphyrins: An Experimental Module Involving Synthesis, Chromatography, and NMR Spectroscopy  Ruth Freitag Beeston, Shannon E. Stitzel , and Mitchell A. Rhea
It is shown that as the number of cofacial methyl neighbors for a particular methyl group decreases, the chemical shift of the methyl protons increases. This experiment leads to a greater understanding of chromatography and NMR spectroscopy in addition to introducing students to porphyrin synthesis and the concepts of atropisomerism and statistical distributions.
Beeston, Ruth Freitag; Stitzel, Shannon E.; Rhea, Mitchell A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1468.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry
Measurement of Evaporation Rates of Organic Liquids by Optical Interference  Scott A. Riley, Nathan R. Franklin, Bobbie Oudinarath, Sally Wong, David Congalton, and A. M. Nishimura*
Laser light reflects and refracts at the air-surface interface; the latter beam then reflects at the lower liquid glass interface. These two beams are focused onto a photodiode. The optical interference occurs as a result of the different distances traveled by the two beams and the intensity at the detector oscillates as the liquid evaporates. The frequency of oscillation is used to determine the rate of evaporation.
Riley, Scott A.; Franklin, Nathan R.; Oudinarath, Bobbie; Wong, Sally; Congalton, David; Nishimura, A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1320.
Instrumental Methods |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Lasers
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Instrumentation and Applications  David C. Muddiman, Ray Bakhtiar, Steven A. Hofstadler, and Richard D. Smith
This article introduces educators and researchers to the theory, principles, instrumentation, and some applications of MALDI-MS. Reflectron time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers are described in detail, since TOF is the most common mass analyzer for ions produced by MALDI.
Muddiman, David C.; Bakhtiar, Ray; Hofstadler, Steven A.; Smith, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1288.
Mass Spectrometry |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Potentiometric Acid-Base Titrations with Activated Graphite Electrodes  P. Riyazuddin and D. Devika
Dry cell graphite (DCG) electrodes activated with potassium permanganate are employed as potentiometric indicator electrodes for acid-base titrations. Special attention is given to an indicator probe comprising activated DCG-non-activiated DCG electrode couple.
Riyazuddin, P.; Devika, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1198.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Remarkable Resilience of Beer's Law  Mark A. Muyskens and Eric T. Sevy
Described is a case where Beer's law holds to a remarkable degree. Linear absorbance over three orders of magnitude is shown for both pyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine absorption of 266-nm laser light in a 3-m gas cell. This case provides a counter-example for a discussion of deviations from Beer's law.
Muyskens, Mark A.; Sevy, Eric T. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1138.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Quantitative Determination of Caffeine in Beverages Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  Janusz Pawliszyn, Min J. Yang, and Maureen L. Orton
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been applied to the analysis of various caffeinated beverages. Unlike the current methods, this technique is solvent free and requires no pH adjustments. The simplicity of the SPME-GC/MS method lends itself to a good undergraduate laboratory practice.
Pawliszyn, Janusz; Yang, Min J.; Orton, Maureen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1130.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Separation of Enantiomeric Barbiturates by Capillary Electrophoresis Using a Cyclodextrin Containing Run Buffer  S. Contradi, Carla Vogt, and E. Rohde
This article is intended to demonstrate the potential of CE for the determination of enantiomers. The separation is based on the addition of a suitable chiral selector to the buffer. Cyclodextrins perform as excellent selectors forming diastereomeric complexes of different stability with the enantiomeric forms of the analyte.
Contradi, S.; Vogt, Carla; Rohde E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1122.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Medicinal Chemistry
Capillary Electrophoresis in the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory: Determination of Common Analgesic Formulations  Lynn Thompson, Hans Veening, and Timothy G. Strein
Efforts to introduce students to capillary zone electrophoresis, the simplest mode of CE, to students in a instrumental analysis course. The two period laboratory experiment described includes both the use of both HPLC and CZE to determine the formulation of common over the counter analgesic formulations.
Thompson, Lynn; Veening, Hans; Strein, Timothy G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1117.
Learning Theories |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Medicinal Chemistry
Simultaneous Determination of Aspirin, Salicylamide, and Caffeine in Pain Relievers by Target Factor Analysis  Huggins Z. Msimanga, Melissa J. Charles, and Nea W. Martin
A factor analysis-based experiment for the undergraduate instrumental analysis labs is reported. Target factor analysis (TFA) is investigated as an option to the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the analysis of a pain reliever sample containing aspirin, caffeine, and salicylamide.
Msimanga, Huggins Z.; Charles, Melissa J.; Martin, Nea W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1114.
Separation Science |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry
Determination of Crude Fat in Food Products by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Gravimetric Analysis  Nicholas H. Snow, Maureen Dunn, and Sohita Patel
The use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), a recently developed analytical extraction method, in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is demonstrated.
Snow, Nicholas H.; Dunn, Maureen; Patel, Sohita. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1108.
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Gravimetric Analysis
Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils  Judith F. Rubinson and Jennifer Neyer-Hilvert

Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1106.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Identification of Volatile Flavor Components by Headspace Analysis: A Quick and Easy Experiment for Introducing GC/MS  Richard Kjonaas, Jean L. Soller, and Leslee A. McCoy
By placing a piece of chewing gum (Wrigley's) or a crushed piece of hard candy (LifeSavers or Runts) into a vial, followed by GC/MS analysis of a five microliter sample of the headspace, students are able to identify several of the volatile flavoring components which are present.
Kjonaas, Richard; Soller, Jean L.; McCoy, Leslee A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1104.
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke  Jon W. Wong, Kenley K. Ngim, Jason P. Eiserich, Helen C. H. Yeo, Takayuki Shibamoto, and Scott A. Mabury
This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode).
Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1100.
Learning Theories |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry
An Inexpensive Demountalbe IR Cell Fitted with Glass Windows  Keiichi Ohno, Hiroatsu Matsuura, Haruhiko Tanaka
An inexpensive demountable IR cell fitted with glass windows is proposed for studying hydrogen bonding in solutions.
Ohno, Keiichi; Matsuura, Hiroatsu; Tanaka, Haruhiko. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 961.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Hydrogen Bonding
Low-Cost Constant Temperature Heating Block  Charles G. Shevlin, Ward Coppersmith, Christopher Fish, Stanley Vlock, William Vellema
A simple constant temperature heat block was constructed from readily available materials. The configuration of the heating block can be constructed to meet the needs of any laboratory.
Shevlin, Charles G.; Coppersmith, Ward; Fish, Christopher; Vlock, Stanley; Vellema, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 958.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modern Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment: Quantitative Determination of Cr (III) and Co (II) Using a Spectroscopic H-Point Standard Addition Method  Siddarth Pandey, Joyce R. Powell, Mary E. R. McHale, William E. Acree, Jr.
Advantages associated with the HPSAM include elimination of sample matrix effects, reduction of both constant and systematic errors, and a decrease in the number of absorbance measurements that must be made. The method is applicable to determine an analyte concentration in the presence of an interfering impurity. if the identity of the impurity is known, its concentration can also be determined.
Pandey, Siddarth ; Powell, Joyce R. ; McHale, Mary E. R. ; Acree, Jr., William E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 848.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Demonstration of Characteristics of Basic Components of a Spectrophotometer  Juwadee Shiowatana
Introductory experiments were designed to demonstrate the characteristics of basic components of a spectrophotometer using an IL AA/AE spectrophotometer. Emissive properties of various types of radiation source; resolving power of wavelength selectors and response of photodetectors were investigated through simple experiments.
Shiowatana, Juwadee. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 730.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Easily Built Low-Cost Apparatus To Measure Polymer Conductivity  Jonas Gruber, Henrique de Santana, Isaac Gruber, Wilson Gazotti, Jr.
A low-cost two-point probe apparatus to measure polymer conductivity intended for teaching purposes is described. Full mechanical details of the probe, as well as electronic schematic diagrams are given.
Gruber, Jonas; de Santana, Henrique; Gruber, Isaac; Gazotti, Wilson Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 418.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Materials Science
Extraction, Isolation, and Characterization of Fullerene C60: A Safe and Reliable Separation Experiment  Jamey L. Anderson, Michele A. West, Christopher S. Foote
Appropriate for an advanced high school or introductory college chemistry laboratory, the experiment described here allows students to safely perform organic chemistry techniques in the absence of a fume hood.
Anderson, Jamey L.; West, Michele A.; Foote, Christopher S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 311.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Screening and Sequential Experimentation: Simulations and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Experiments  Richard J. Stolzberg
Students are introduced to screening and sequential experimentation using simulations and experimentation. The work begins with spreadsheet simulations and practice with the experimental design software. Students learn how to use the graphical output, normal quantile plots, to recognize the specific factors that affect the result of an experiment. In the laboratory, students make a preliminary investigation of the effect of six variables (flame observation height, flame stoichiometry, acetic acid, lamp current, wavelength, and slit width) on the atomic absorption signal for silver.
Stolzberg, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 216.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Electrochemical Measurements in the Undergraduate Curriculum  John F. Wheeler, Sandra K. Wheeler, and Laura L. Wright
Application of two voltammetric workstations, a low-current amplifier for microelectrode use, and two amperometric detectors in an undergraduate curriculum and research programs.
Wheeler, John F.; Wheeler, Sandra K.; Wright, Laura L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 72.
Electrochemistry |
Undergraduate Research |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
HPLC for Undergraduate Introductory Laboratories  Scott A. Van Arman and Marcus W. Thomsen
A set of simple HPLC separations as part of an introductory set of projects that serve as an introduction to chromatography early in the organic course; quantitative analysis has been introduced to the common separation of analgesics so that students may identify the composition of an unknown commercial tablet.
Van Arman, Scott A. and Thomsen, Marcus W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 49.
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC |
Separation Science
HPLC: EARLY AND RECENT PERSPECTIVES  Barry L. Karger
Personal reflections on the early days of HPLC and recent developments. HPLC has emerged from a technique that could only be imagined in the early 1960's to sales over $1.4 billion in 1994. Key to the advances has been the translation of theory to practice, in the ability to pack small particle diameter matrices of 5 mm to yield high efficiency columns.
Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 45.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Modern Practice of Liquid Chromatography: Before and after 1971  Lloyd R. Snyder
A selective history (1941 through 1990) is reported of the development of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from the perspective of the author. Emphasis is given to how a practical understanding of the technique emerged.
Snyder, Lloyd, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 37.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Micropath Distillation Apparatus  N. K. Hazra and D. Mal
A shortpath distillation apparatus in its inverted position can be used for microscale distillation of a liquid sample. This article describes the process.
Hazra, N. K.; Mal, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A103.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Over 100 Years of Research on Cyclopentadienylironcarbonyl Chemistry: Microscale-Integrated Organometallic Experiments  E. Mocellin, M. Ravera, R. A. Russell, and T. Hynson
This unified microscale laboratory program is intended to build independence, confidence and even adventurousness both in synthesis and instrumental analysis, and to apply these results in a meaningful situation by demanding of the students: interpretation of results, evaluation of data and conclusion reached, reference to the original literature, and suggestion of further experimentation.
Mocellin, E.; Ravera, M.; Russell, R. A.; Hynson, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A99.
Organometallics |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
An LC/Particle Beam/MS Experiment for Undergraduates  Norman Sproch, Kelly J. Begin, and Robert J. Morris

Sproch, Norman; Begin, Kelly J.; Morris, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A33.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC
Synthesis and Use of Reverse-Phase Silica Gel for HPLC in Undergraduate Chemistry  Fernando Ortega, Ernesto Velez, and Ratnasamy Somanathan
Commercially available silica gel was derivatized with n-octadecyldimethylchlorosilane to produce inexpensive HPLC reverse-phase stationary support, which was used in separation experiments.
Ortega, Fernando; Velez, Ernesto; Somanathan, Ratnassamy. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A26.
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Air Stream-Assisted Sublimation on a Microscale: A Rapid Procedure Suitable for Sophomore Laboratory  Prem D. Sattsangi
Using familiar apparatus, such as a 3-mL reaction vial, an air condenser, a stream of clean air/nitrogen/argon, an aluminum heating block and a hot plate, several compounds in the microscale amounts (50 mg), with its melting points ranging from 50-240 C, have been successfully sublimed in 40 minutes.
Sattsangi, Prem D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A3.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Chromatographic Separation of Phosphoric Acid from Cola Beverages  Diego Lozano-Calero, Pilar Martìn-Palomeque, Silvia Madueño-Lorguillo
The color of cola beverages interferes in the colorimetric determination of phosphoric acid. This interference is not significant if the sample is diluted sufficiently. However, a previous step where phosphoric acid is separated from the rest of the sample would be desirable. Therefore, we carried out the chromatographic separation of phosphoric acid by using an anionic exchange resin.
Lozano-Calero, Diego; Martìn-Palomeque, Pilar; Madueño-Lorguillo, Silvia. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1172.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants  D. J. Adam, J. Mainwaring, Michael N. Quigley
A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity.
Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1171.
Separation Science |
Physical Properties
Laboratory Interfacing Using the LabVIEW Software Package  Paul J. Ogren and Thomas P. Jones
This paper describes a range of interfacing experiments designed for physical or analytical undergraduate laboratories. Students use the LabVIEW software package to control the acquisition of voltage information from experiments such as potentiometric titrations, and to control voltage output and input for experiments such as cyclic voltammetry or remote spectrophotometric sensing.
Ogren, Paul J.; Jones, Thomas P. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1115.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Data Acquisition in the Chemistry Laboratory Using LabVIEW Software  Mark A. Muyskens, Samuel V. Glass, Thomas W. Wietsma, Terry M. Gray
Our application of LabVIEW software for computer data-acquisition using several techniques used across our curriculum is described. The techniques are gas chromatography, calorimetry, titrations and other volume-dependent techniques, spectrometry for kinetics using a Spectronic 20(R), and emission spectroscopy.
Muyskens, Mark A.; Glass, Samuel V.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Gray, Terry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1112.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Gas Chromatography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics
Integration of National Instruments' LabVIEW Software into the Chemistry Curriculum  Steven M. Drew
The overall aim of this continuing project has been to provide students with user-friendly analytical tools that will improve their ability to quickly perform chemical analyses, in turn leaving more laboratory time for experimental design and open-ended investigation. We have found that LabVIEW can be used as a central laboratory software system that can be customized by the instructor to fit specific experimental needs and programmed by students with minimal training.
Drew, Steven M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1107.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Teaching Analytical Instrument Design with LabVIEW  Rudy Gostowski
This curriculum was devised to provide hands-on experience with the theory and design of modern instruments. A background in electronics is considered fundamental to this goal. This course extensively utilizes LabVIEW to economically provide basic electronic instrumentation and to serve in data acquisition and manipulation for a student design project.
Gostowski, Rudy. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1103.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Oxygenates in Gasoline: A Versatile Experiment Using Gas Chromatography  Linda C. Brazdil
An experiment for introductory chemistry in which oxygenates are extracted from gasoline and analyzed by gas chromatography is described. The extraction of oxygenates from gasoline with water prior to analysis by gas chromatography allows for their easy identification and quantification since only the oxygenates dissolve in water. Both qualitative and quantitative versions of the experiment are described.
Brazdil, Linda C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1056.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Development of a Low-Cost Four-Color LED Photometer  Jay R. Hamilton, Jeffrey S. White, Mary B. Nakhleh
This photometer resembles a Spectronic 20 in that it detects absorbance at selected wavelengths of visible light. However, the photometer retains the advantages of a dual-beam system. The cost is reduced by the elimination of all optical components, which are often the most expensive portion of spectrophotometers.
Hamilton, Jay R.; White, Jeffrey S.; Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1052.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
The Quantitative Analysis of an Analgesic Tablet: An NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Course   Thomas A. Schmedake, Lawrence E. Welch
Initial work utilizes a known compound (acenapthene) to assess the type of NMR experiment necessary to achieve a proportional response from all of the carbons in the compound. Once the experiments with the known compound have illuminated the merits of the differing strategies for obtaining a proportional carbon response, a quantitative assessment of an unknown analgesic tablet is undertaken. The amounts of the two major components of the tablet, acetaminophen and aspirin, are determined following addition of an internal standard to the mixture.
Schmedake, Thomas A.; Welch, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1045.
Quantitative Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
A New Photochemistry Experiment, A Simple 2+2 Photocycloaddition that Poses an Interesting NMR Problem   John T. Magner, Matthias Selke, Arlene A. Russell, Orville L. Chapman
The cycloaddition of -nitrostyrene to 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene provides an extremely clean example of 2 + 2 cycloaddition. This laboratory exercise combines theory, technique, spectroscopy, and data interpretation.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 854.
Photochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
NMR Shielding and the Periodic Table  I. P. Gerothanassis and C. G. Kalodimos
The object of this article is to find periodic, structurally significant observables that can be correlated to the nuclear shielding or alternatively to investigate whether chemical shift can be used to intensify the periodic disposition of valence electrons.
Gerothanassis, I. P.; Kalodimos, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 801.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Instrumental Methods
Labeling Histidines in Cytochrome c: An Integrated Laboratory Project  Amy M. Bonser and Owen A. Moe
This four-week laboratory project uses an inorganic protein labeling reagent, chloro(2,2':6,2''-terpyridine)-platinum(II)chloride dihydrate ([Pt(trpy)Cl]Cl(2H2O), to label histidine residues of the protein, cytochrome c. The goal of the experiment is to determine the stoichiometry of labeling.
Bonser, Amy M.; Moe, Owen A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 794.
Instrumental Methods |
Stoichiometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Simple NMR Imaging  Per-Ola Quist
Recently we modernized an NMR course for undergraduate chemists. The aim of the new course is to introduce them to the most common applications of NMR.
Quist, Per-Ola. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 751.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Visible ion exchange demonstration for large or small lecture halls  Driscoll, Jerry A.
This demonstration is a colorful illustration of how an ion exchange column works.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 640.
Equilibrium |
Conductivity |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
An Integrated Curriculum for First- and Second-Year Chemistry Courses  T. R. Rettich, David N. Bailey, Forrest J. Frank, and Jeffrey A. Frick
Key features of this innovation are the integration of organic and inorganic chemical concepts throughout the first two years of the curriculum, the incorporation of modern instrumentation into lecture and laboratory beginning the first semester, and the matching of topic development to student ability throughout the two-year sequence.
T. R. Rettich, David N. Bailey, Forrest J. Frank, and Jeffrey A. Frick. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 638.
Instrumental Methods
GC-MS and GC-FTIR Characterization of Products: From Classical Freshman and Sophomore Syntheses  D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo
The GC separation of ferrocene, acetylferrocene, and diacetylferrocene is accomplished in less than ten minutes. In addition to the operation of the instrument, the students are introduced to the interpretation of mass spectra and library aided spectral identification.
D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Examination of a Reaction Mechanism by Polarimetry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Michael D. Mosher, Chad O. Kelly, and Melvyn W. Mosher
The experiment has been shown to be successful with chiral mandelic acid and POCl3 and with chiral lactic acid and HBr. The substitution mechanisms of these reactions proceed with 1% and 38% SN2 character respectively.
Mosher, Michael D.; Kelly, Chad O.; Mosher, Melvyn W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 567.
Instrumental Methods |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Gas Chromatography
Bench Top Vortexing Countercurrent Extractor for Controlled pH Extraction of a Mixture  Yock Chai Toong
A new liquid-liquid countercurrent process based on vortexing of liquid is described and an application of the process in separation of a mixture of acidic, basic, and neutral compounds by controlled pH extraction is given.
Toong, Yock Chai. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 476.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
NMR Determination of Internal Rotation Rates and Rotational Energy Barriers: A Physical Chemistry Lab Project  Kevin F. Morris and Luther E. Erickson
This experiment will expose students to a variety of NMR techniques, such as saturation transfer, inversion-recovery, and line shape analysis. It will also demonstrate that NMR is an extremely useful tool to chemists, with very relevant applications in physical chemistry.
Morris, Kevin F.; Erickson, Luther E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 471.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Are They Really Sloppy?: A Comparative Analysis of Student Performance in the Laboratory  Katalin Kovács-Hadady and István Fábián
The performance of the students in the analytical laboratory was tested in a potentiometric determination of fluoride ion in anti-caries dental tablets. The analytical results determined by freshman students and experienced personnel were compared.
Kovács-Hadady, Katalin; Fábián, István. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 461.
Potentiometry |
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Experiment Demonstrating the Temperature Effect in Supramolecular Chemistry  Pawel K. Zarzycki and Henryk Lamparczyk
The aim of the experiment described in this article is to demonstrate the temperature influence on creation of an inclusion complex in which beta-cyclodextrin is the host molecule and phenolophtalein is the guest.
Zarzycki, Pawel K.; Lamparczyk, Henryk. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 459.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science
In This Issue  
The instruments that chemists use in their research have changed dramatically in the past decades. The explosion in new techniques and their instrumental counterparts has been made possible by two significant advances.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 288.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
A Compact Steam Distillation Apparatus  Imran Ali
A very compact steam distillation apparatus is designed and reported in this paper.
Ali, Imran. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 285.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Fluorometric Determination of Aluminum: A Quantitative Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory  Jim Peterson
There appear to be very few laboratory procedures published describing the quantitative determination of inorganic species by fluorometric methods that are suitable for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course. This article describes a quantitative experiment that employs fluorometry to determine aluminum.
Peterson, Jim. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 262.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
An Improved Method for the Separation of Lead-210 from Ra-DEF for Radioactive Equilibrium Experiments: Microscale Liquid-Liquid Extraction Using a Polymer-Supported Crown Ether  Mark L. Dietz and E. Philip Horwitz
A novel extraction chromatographic material, comprised of a solution of a lead-selective macrocyclic polyether (di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6) in isodecanol sorbed on an inert polymeric support, is shown to provide a rapid and simple means for the separation of lead-210 from its daughter products for subsequent radiochemical experimentation.
Dietz, Mark L.; Horwitz, E. Philip. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 182.
Separation Science |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Capillary Gas Chromatography Injection: An Exercise for Students of Instrumental Analysis  Philip J. Marriot and Peter D. Carpenter
A laboratory exercise is described which illustrates the operation of a split/splitless capillary gas chromatography injection system.
Marriott, Philip J.; Carpenter, Peter D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 96.
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
From the Lecture Hall to the Laboratory: The Pinacol Rearrangement: Fostering Problem Solving Abilities and Critical Thinking Skills of the Organic Chemistry Student  Brenda J. Wojciechowski and Todd S. Deal
This article describes an interesting experiment for elementary organic laboratories. While the reaction (the Pinacol Rearrangement) described is an old one, its application as a puzzle is a new one.
Wojciechowsi, Brenda J.; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 85.
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Grants in Chemistry  
Listing of the 1995 awards in chemistry under the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI) of the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE).
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A214.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Richard F. Smith and Gaetano M. Cristalli
A laboratory to introduce the concept and technique of mass spectroscopy to introductory organic students; sample data and analysis included.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A160.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Organic Qualitative Analysis at the Microscale Level  Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K.
Project requiring students to identify pure unknowns and the components of mixtures using a variety of chromatography and spectrometry techniques.
Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A102.
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience  Linda C. Hodges
Using chromatography to isolate and analyze phosphatidylcholine from chickens raised on different diets.
Hodges, Linda C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1140.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Lipids
An Undergraduate Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiment: Olfactory Delights  Mary Anne Lynch, Wendy Gloffke, and Richard A. Rauner
Procedure for separating flavors and fragrances using thin-layer chromatography.
Lynch, Mary Anne; Gloffke, Wendy; Rauner, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1137.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin-Layer Chromatography of Analgesics--An Update  John W. Elder
Procedure for identifying ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, acetominaphen, aspirin, and caffeine on commercial chromatography sheets containing a fluorescent indicator.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1049.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds
Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography to Determine the C60:C70 Ratio in Fullerene Soot: An Undergraduate Chemistry Lab  Michael C. Zumwalt and M. Bonner Denton
Apparatus for producing fullerene soot and procedure for determining its C60-C70 ratio.
Zumwalt, Michael C.; Denton, M. Bonner. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 939.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Main-Group Elements |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Alkenes |
HPLC |
Quantitative Analysis
Environmentally Acceptable Determination of Iron  Bader, Morris.
Elaboration upon original procedure.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 860.
Separation Science
GC/MS Analysis of the Aromatic Composition of Gasoline  Keith S. Kostecka, Ashraf Rabah, and Charles F. Palmer, Jr.
Procedure for examining 11 aromatics species in three unleaded regular-grade commercial fuels using GC/MS analysis; includes sample data.
Kostecka, Keith S.; Rabah, Ashraf; Palmer, Charles F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 853.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
The Extraction of Caffeine from Tea: An Old Undergraduate Experiment Revisited  Scott D. Murray and Peter J. Hansen
Procedure eliminating chloroform and dichloromethane from the extraction of caffeine from tea.
Murray, Scott D.; Hansen, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 851.
Separation Science
Using GC-MS to Determine Relative Reactivity Ratios   R. Daniel Bishop, Jr.
Experiment that demonstrates the use of GC-mass spectrometry in the separation and analysis of mixtures; also uses the GC-mass spectrometer to find the relative reactivity of primary, secondary, and tertiary hydrogens.
Bishop, R. Daniel, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 743.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry for Large Undergraduate Laboratory Sections  A. Illies, P. B. Shevlin, G. Childers, M. Peschke and J. Tsai
A gas chromatography - mass spectrometry experiment that allows each student in a large laboratory class to analyze the products of a simple organic synthesis.
Illies, A.; Shevlin, P. B.; Childers, G.; Peschke, M.; Tsai, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 717.
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Introduction of Modern Instrumentation in the First Two Years of Chemistry: The Iowa Chemistry Curriculum Network (IACCN)  Greenbowe, Thomas J.
Project to incorporate three modular instructional resources on modern instrumentation into the first two years of college chemistry.
Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 534.
Instrumental Methods
Bromination of Disubstituted Arenes: Kinetics and Mechanism: GC/MS Experiments for the Instrumental Analysis and Organic Chemistry Labs  Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.
Experimental procedure using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to trace the progression of a reaction over time and determine the several possible steps of its mechanism; sample data and analysis included.
Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 460.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds
Flash Chromatographic Separation and Electronic Absorption Spectra of Carotenoids: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Evans, Jeffrey M.
Procedure for separating beta-carotene and lycopene from carrots and tomatoes to illustrate the operation and versatility of flash chromatography.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Evans, Jeffrey M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 374.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography  Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott
Experimental procedure for measuring carbon monoxide in auto exhaust by gas chromatography; includes sample data and analysis.
Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 364.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Separation Science |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Liquid-Liquid Extraction: Are n Extractions with V/n mL of Solvent Really More Effective Than One Extraction with V mL?  Palleros, Daniel R.
Demonstration that if the partition coefficient between two solvents is very large or very small, dividing up the total amount of solvent into small portions and carrying out several small extractions does not improve the efficiency over a single extraction.
Palleros, Daniel R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 319.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents
Liquid Chromatographic Determination of UV Absorbers in Sunscreens  Davis, Mary R.; Quigley, Michael N.
Using liquid chromatography with UV absorbence to determine the concentration of compounds that block UV radiation in commercial sunscreens; includes sample data.
Davis, Mary R.; Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 279.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
The Identification of Aspirin-Free Bayer Products: An Alternative to the Classical TLC of Analgesics (1)  Cawley, John J.
Procedure for identifying several non-aspirin analgesics using using thin layer chromatography and an ultraviolet lamp.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 272.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Enantiomeric Separation of Beta-Blockers by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: An Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Experiment  Tran, Chieu D.; Dotlich, Michael
Experimental procedure to familiarize students with the principle and application of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate isomers of a common pharmaceutical; includes data and analysis.
Tran, Chieu D.; Dotlich, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 71.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Separation Science |
HPLC
Trihalomethanes Produced in Humic Acid Reactions: A GC-MS Experiment for Instrumental Analysis  Brush, Robert C.; Rice, Gary W.
This lab was developed for an instrumental analysis course to determine quantitatively trihalomethanes produced from the chlorination of humic acids in the presence of various levels of bromide.
Brush, Robert C.; Rice, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A293.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Qualitative and Instrumental Analysis of Environmentally Significant Elements (Chasteen, Thomas G.)  Bath, Donald
A supplementary lab text.
Bath, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A261.
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
A Microscale Isolation of Limonene from Orange Peels  Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad
A rapid and reliable extractive microscale isolation of limonene.
Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A146.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Natural Products |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
The Distribution of Cyclohexanone between Cyclohexane and Water  Worley, John D.
A microscale experiment that may be used to demonstrate extraction, spectrophotometric analysis, and the determination of a distribution constant.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A145.
Microscale Lab |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
A Microscale Purification and Qualitative Spectroscopic Examination of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene): An Experiment Suitable for Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Courses  Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D.
A simple and inexpensive purification procedure for isolating C60.
Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A141.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Microscale Column Chromatographic Isolation of a Red Pigment from Paprika  West, Kevin J.; Rauch, Paul
Modification of a macroscopic procedure to a microscale experiment.
West, Kevin J.; Rauch, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A59.
Microscale Lab |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Direct Collection of Distillation Fractions into Vials: A Method for the Micro/Semi-Micro Scale Laboratory  Jordan, David
An inexpensive and simple system for collection of distillation fractions directly into their storage containers.
Jordan, David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A5.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A Simple Alternative to Separatory Funnels for Chemical Extractions  Bye, Ragnar
A novel magnetic bar-stirred extraction method using conventional Erlenmeyer flasks.
Bye, Ragnar J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 806.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Using Computers To Replace Some HPLC Laboratory Work  Bowater, Ian C.; McWilliam, Ian G.
164. Three exercises where students learn about HPLC through computer simulations.
Bowater, Ian C.; McWilliam, Ian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 674.
HPLC |
Separation Science
Recovering from Air Bubble Occlusion in Student-Made Chromatography Columns  Engelken, Dustin; Kovacs-Boerger, A. E.
Rejuvenating a chromatography column constructed from a disposable pipet that is blocked by bubbles.
Engelken, Dustin; Kovacs-Boerger, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 598.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Extraction of Organic Compounds from Aqueous Solutions  Love, Brian
Demonstration to separate an orange solution into its yellow and red components.
Love, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 517.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chromatographic Separation of Plant Pigments Using Sand as the Adsorbant: An Inexpensive Chromatographic Technique  Lalitha, Nagubandi
Separating grass pigments using sand as the adsorbant.
Lalitha, Nagubandi J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 432.
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
LIMSport (V): pH Data Acquisition: An Inexpensive Probe and Calibration Software  Vitz, Ed; Betts, Thomas A.
161. Construction and use of a "software pH meter".
Vitz, Ed; Betts, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 412.
pH |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Inexpensive Instrumental Analysis: II: Introductory Spectroscopy  Ramaley, Louis; Young, Kathleen; Guy, Robert D.; Stephens, Roger
A simple atomic flame spectrometer and a solution spectrophotometer that are easily constructed yet provide accurate and reliable results.
Ramaley, Louis; Young, Kathleen; Guy, Robert D.; Stephens, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 353.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Determination of a Partitioning Coefficient: A Laboratory Practical Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Smedberg, Ronald T.
Lab practical to determine the partitioning coefficient for mandelic acid.
Smedberg, Ronald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 269.
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Low-Cost Reference Electrode for Potentiotitrimetry  Riyazuddin, P.
This Cu 2+ / Cu half-cell can serve as a simple, truly low-cost reference electrodes in all types of potentiometry.
Riyazuddin, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 167.
Potentiometry |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Inexpensive Instrumental Analysis: Part 1. Ion-Selective Electrodes  Ramaley, Louis; Wedge, Paula J.; Crain, Sheila M.
Constructing, applying, and analyzing the results of Na+ selective electrodes.
Ramaley, Louis; Wedge, Paula J.; Crain, Sheila M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 164.
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
pH
FT NMR in the Instrumental Analysis Course: A Curriculum and a Laboratory  Fuson, Michael M.
Discussion of NMR in the context of instrumental analysis should focus on the nature of the FT NMR experiment; a procedure to support this discussion is provided.
Fuson, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 126.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Applications of autosampling GC-MS in an introductory organic chemistry laboratory   Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J.
Incorporation of an automated GC-MS has allowed students to have access to state-of-the-art instrumentation in a cost-effective and pedagogically sound manner.
Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A290.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
An experiment using time-based detection in flow injection analysis   Carroll, Mary K.; Tyson, Julian F.
This experiment can be adopted to work with any number of reactions that result in a product that absorbs light of the LED wavelength significantly.
Carroll, Mary K.; Tyson, Julian F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A210.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
A microscale suction filtration apparatus   Winkel, Cleve R.
This apparatus helps avoid some of the troublesome aspects of filtration that occur during the transfer stage.
Winkel, Cleve R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A161.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
A Microseparatory Funnel   Hulce, Martin
An apparatus for separations of liquids between 2-6mL total volume.
Hulce, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A39.
Separation Science
Microscale Multiple Extraction--An Experiment for the Microscale Organic Laboratory   Anderson, Steven W.; Johns, Philip T.; Boyd, Craig D.
Description of a microscale experiment in which a distribution constant is determined and the efficiencies of single and multiple extractions are compared.
Anderson, Steven W.; Johns, Philip T.; Boyd, Craig D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A33.
Separation Science
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel   Kelly, T. Ross
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel.
Kelly, T. Ross J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 848.
Separation Science |
Acids / Bases
Determination of sugars in food products: Using HPLC and electrochemical detection at a Cu electrode  Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P.
This lab activity takes advantage of the fact that students' interest in a lab is increased when common life experiences are drawn upon.
Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 679.
Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Solutions / Solvents
Isolation of piperine from black pepper  Epstein, William W.; Netz, David F.; Seidel, Jimmy L.
A new and interesting natural product for isolation in the organic chemistry lab. This procedure also introduces students to many important instruments and procedures in organic chemistry.
Epstein, William W.; Netz, David F.; Seidel, Jimmy L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 598.
Natural Products |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Maximum efficiency multiple extraction or 2.71828... revisited  Lykos, Peter
An examination of extraction data that may prove counter intuitive to some students.
Lykos, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 448.
Chemometrics |
Separation Science
Potentiometric measurements in a freshwater aquarium  Harris, Thomas M.
The author describes a laboratory activity for an instrumental methods course that is both interesting and instructive to the students while providing a lesson in environmental chemistry and tropical fish care.
Harris, Thomas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 340.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
LIMSport (II): Use of the Interfaced Balance for Pressure Measurements, Streamlined Syntheses, and Titrations  Vitz, Ed
145. LIMSport facilitates direct acquisition of data from a variety of sensors into a spreadsheet.. This article explores the use of LIMSport in understanding gas laws.
Vitz, Ed J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 63.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods
Microscale filtration  Duarte, Frederick F.; McCoy, Layton L.; Popp, Frank D.
Alternative to Craig tubes or filtered Pasteur pipets.
Duarte, Frederick F.; McCoy, Layton L.; Popp, Frank D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A314.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumental analysis courses: Part II. The choice and use of instrumentation  Jones, Bradley T.
Survey of what spechtrochemical analysis techniques are used in 95 chemistry departments.
Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A268.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
Instrumental analysis courses: Part I. The current experimental practice  Harris, Harold H.; O'Brien, James J.
Survey of what instrumental techniques have been included in instrumental analysis courses from 32 chemistry departments.
Harris, Harold H.; O'Brien, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A266.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Principles of Instrumental Analysis, 4th Edition (Skoog, D. A.; Leary, J. J.).  Bower, Nathan W.
Presentation of instrumental methods for introductory students.
Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A224.
Instrumental Methods
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.  Lee, Moses.
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.
Lee, Moses. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A172.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Microscale distillation-Calculations and comparisons   Schwartz, Marietta H.
In this distillation experiment students perform both a simple and a fractional distillation using the microscale version of traditional glassware.
Schwartz, Marietta H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A127.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Size-exclusion chromatography: Separating large molecules from small  McLoughlin, Daniel J.
Description, theory, demonstration, and experimental procedure regarding size-exclusion chromatography.
McLoughlin, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 993.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
1H NMR analysis of mixtures using internal standards: A quantitative experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory  Peterson, Jim
Procedure to illustrate the general principles of quantitative NMR methodology.
Peterson, Jim J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 843.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
The Willsttter "nail" and the Schwinger microfilter  Stock, John T.
Description of the Willsttter "nail" device and the Schwinger microfilter
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 822.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Atomic emission spectrometry with helium plasmas: An emerging approach for nonmetal determinations  Wu, Mingin; Gehlhausen, Jay M.; Carnahan, Jon W.
Capabilities of helium microwave-induced plasmas for the determination of nonmetals.
Wu, Mingin; Gehlhausen, Jay M.; Carnahan, Jon W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 757.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Filtration of very fine particles from an air-sensitive reaction mixture.  Tessier, Claire A.
A filtration device to separate fine particles from air-sensitive mixtures.
Tessier, Claire A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 684.
Separation Science |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Illustration of the principles of fluorimetry: An apparatus and experiments specially designed for the teaching laboratory.  Bigger, Stephen W.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.; Mellak, Geoffrey A.; Verity, Bruce.
An apparatus designed to be constructed cheaply that allows students to become familiar with the components of a fluorimeter and its operation.
Bigger, Stephen W.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.; Mellak, Geoffrey A.; Verity, Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 675.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Electricity/electronic experiments for the chemistry laboratory.  Braun, Robert D.
Experiments that permit students to observe the behavior of simple electrical circuits, including a DC constant current source, voltage divider, diodes, logic gates, flip-flops, and the seven-segment display.
Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 671.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Separation of aspirin from acetaminophen and caffeine in an over-the-counter analgesic tablet.  Williams, John P.; West, Kevin J.; Erickson, Karen L.
An procedure that uses smaller volumes of "safer" solvents in performing the extraction and allows the use of simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis in the determination.
Williams, John P.; West, Kevin J.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 669.
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Constructing a complete temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture: A new experiment that uses quantitative gas chromatography.  Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang.
Experiment to help students appreciate fractional distillation and a fundamental application of gas chromatography.
Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 581.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Using spin-spin decoupling NMR for structure elucidation in the extraction of cinnamaldehyde.  Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J.
Interesting extraction in which students learn to interpret spectra and see the power of second-order spectral analysis in NMR work.
Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 511.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Voltammetric behavior of a ferrocene derivative: A comparison using surface-confined and diffusion-controlled species.  Gomez, Marielle E.; Kaifer, Angel E.
Description of cyclic voltammetry and an experiment that examines the voltammetric behavior of a ferrocene derivative in aqueous solution (diffusion-controlled) and inside an anionic polyelectrolyte film (diffusion-controlled).
Gomez, Marielle E.; Kaifer, Angel E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 502.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
Spreadsheet exercises for instrumental analysis  Prais, Michael G.
138. Five spreadsheet assignments used in a course on instrument analysis to familiarize students with personal computers and the numerical analysis of data.
Prais, Michael G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 488.
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Art, archaeology, and analytical chemistry: A synthesis of the liberal arts  Beilby, Alvin L.
Examples of applications of instrumental methods of analysis in art and archeology (with references).
Beilby, Alvin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 437.
Applications of Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
HPLC: A Practical Technique for Future Chemists  
HPLC has been particularly helpful in separating the large molecules dealt with in biochemistry, and, therefore, it is essential that future chemists know how to use this technique routinely.
J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 260.
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods
Experimental study of monochromators in UV-vis and IR spectrophotometers  Guion, Jose L.; Garcia-Anton, J.
This is a laboratory exercise where students strip down a UV-vis spectrophotometer and an IR spectrophotometer.
Guion, Jose L.; Garcia-Anton, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 77.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Principle of extraction of solute by solvent  Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna
Among the applications of Nernst's distribution law, the most important and interesting one is the extraction of a substance dissolved in one solvent by another solvent, the two solvents being partially miscible or immiscible.
Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 73.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
The use and utility of phase science  Laughlin, Robert G.
Phase diagrams describe the phase behavior, for a particular system of mixtures spanning a particular range of system variables. One must know how to read and interpret phase diagrams in order to extract and use the information they contain.
Laughlin, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 26.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
Inert atmosphere techniques for the microscale laboratory   Newton, Thomas A.
A system developed to introduce students to working under inert atmosphere.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A60.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab
The Pittsburgh conference on analytical chemistry and applied spectroscopy: An educational experience  Settle, Frank A., Jr.
During the conference, there are many opportunities for students and educators to increase their knowledge of all areas of analytical chemistry and to see how chemistry is applied in many areas of society.
Settle, Frank A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A37.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conferences |
Instrumental Methods |
Applications of Chemistry |
Professional Development
The suitability of mineral oil as a halogen extraction solvent  Scott, Thomas M.
A procedure for halogen extraction using mineral (paraffin) oil.
Scott, Thomas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 950.
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Undergraduate organic and polymer lab experiments that exemplify structure determination by NMR  Viswanathan, T.; Watson, F.; Yang, D. T. C.
Where in the curriculum is the best place to teach experimental NMR methods that are so essential to chemists and chemistry? These authors are of the opinion that NMR must be given more than a cursory introduction involving a single experiment, and present a series of experiments.
Viswanathan, T.; Watson, F.; Yang, D. T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 685.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy
A simple method for producing efficient concentric tube distillation columns  Smith, Sherrel
The typically used columns packed with glass beads have several disadvantages. This paper offers a solution that proves to be a better teaching aid.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 616.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Recovering solvent from iodine solutions  Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Casares, Juan A.
Other articles may give the impression that iodine extraction is difficult, but that is not the case.
Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Casares, Juan A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 516.
Separation Science
An alternative to halogenated solvents for halogen/halide extractions   Petrovic, Steven C.; Bodner, George M.
Authors recommend using p-xylene instead of a halogenated solvent.
Petrovic, Steven C.; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 509.
Separation Science
Experiments in synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the undergraduate instrumental chemistry course  Byron, Colleen M.; Werner, T. C.
These experiments can be used to compare the detection limits afforded by UV/visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy for a given analysis and to show that the latter method is capable of of greater selectivity.
Byron, Colleen M.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 433.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Proton-carbon chemical shift correlations  Macomber, Roger S.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlation between H-1 chemical shifts and C-13 chemical shifts in some detail.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 284.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Monoterpenes: An easily accessible but neglected class of natural products  Glidewell, Christopher
The class of products is structurally and spectroscopically straightforward and many in this group are key components of familiar flavors and odors. I.e., extraction of orange peel.
Glidewell, Christopher J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 267.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Column chromatography: Isolation of caffeine  Taber, Douglass F.; Hoerrner, R. Scott
An undergraduate laboratory procedure for isolating caffeine via column chromatography.
Taber, Douglass F.; Hoerrner, R. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 73.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Natural Products |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Food Science
Introduction to Spectroscopy, IR, NMR, & CMR (Clough, Fred W.)  Byrd, James E.
Set of programs designed to help students analyze and interpret infrared, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra.
Byrd, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A194.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A convenient and improved technique to reduce substantially the problem of bumping while using a rotary evaporator  Buchkremer, Rudiger; Brinker, Udo H.
A very simple type of laboratory equipment that does not trap the compounds but that performs better than commercially available rotary evaporator traps by keeping as much of the reaction mixture as possible from escaping the flask.
Buchkremer, Rudiger; Brinker, Udo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1071.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The determination of vanillin in vanilla extract: An analytical chemistry experiment  Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.
Determination of the concentration of vanillin in vanilla extract using ultraviolet spectroscopy.
Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1070.
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Amino acid chromatography: The "best" technique for student labs  Helser, Terry L.
Comparisons of linear, conical, and circular chromatograms, as well as media and elutants.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 964.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A convenient method for comparison of efficiency of fractionating columns  Higgins, Robert H.
Demonstrating the ability of various fractionating columns (both packed and unpacked) to resolve a mixture into individual components and to correlate the resolving powers of column packings to their "hold-up" volumes.
Higgins, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 810.
Separation Science
A home-built spectrofluorometer  Hadley, Fred J.; Mahloudji, Ali
Combining two Beckman DU spectrophotometers to produce a modest spectrofluorometer.
Hadley, Fred J.; Mahloudji, Ali J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 806.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Simultaneous determination of cobalt, copper, and nickel by multivariate linear regression  Dado, Greg; Rosenthal, Jeffrey
The use of multivariate linear regression in order to reduce the number of absorbance measurements and provide a means for evaluating the precision of the results of the simultaneous determination of cobalt, copper, and nickel in solution by UV-vis spectroscopy.
Dado, Greg; Rosenthal, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 797.
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A safety device for unattended distillation  Chan, Kwan-dick; Ng, Wing-yan; Yeung, Chi-hung
A safety device to monitor the flow rate of cooling water for a distillation using a liquid flow sensor.
Chan, Kwan-dick; Ng, Wing-yan; Yeung, Chi-hung J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 718.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Economical electrophoresis with a controlled-current power supply  Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H.
Electrophoresis power supply that features a controllable current (0-90 mA, dc), the use of a common 120 V, ac power supply, and a materials cost of approximately $50.
Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 703.
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Isopycnic ultracentrifugation: A simple and inexpensive demonstration of its princples  Berlot, Pedro E.; Locasscio, Guillermo A.
This demonstration allows one to visualize density gradient separations and to understand the differences between the principles of equilibrium and sedimentation velocity techniques.
Berlot, Pedro E.; Locasscio, Guillermo A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 627.
Separation Science |
Equilibrium |
Ion Exchange
Organic laboratory experiments: A simplified method for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs  Smith, Sherrel
How short pieces of Teflon tubing may be used for gas chromatograph collection tubes.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 615.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The use of Dristan Nasal Spray as the unknown for simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis of a mixture  Williams, Kathryn R.; Cole, Steven R.; Boyette, Stacey E; Schulman, Stephen G.
The simultaneous determination of a mixture of two chromophores is a popular experiment in the instrumental analysis laboratory.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Cole, Steven R.; Boyette, Stacey E; Schulman, Stephen G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 535.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
A convenient method to recover the solvent from halogen-CCl4 mixtures  Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W.
An alternative to disposal and distillation which is easy to perform, allowing the solvent to be recovered and stored within one hour after the completion of the experiment is presented here.
Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 532.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
A step-by-step dilution-extraction method for laboratory experiments  Jover, Aida; Meijide, Francisco; Mosquera, Victor; Tato, Jose Vazquez
The authors describe a sequential procedure for dilution and present its application to three typical educational experiments in physical chemistry.
Jover, Aida; Meijide, Francisco; Mosquera, Victor; Tato, Jose Vazquez J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 530.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Qualitative amino acid analysis of small peptides by GC/MS  Mabbott, Gary A.
Besides being appealing to students the exercise described here gives them experiences in derivation methods that are often necessary in order to make nonvolatile samples amenable to gas chromatography separation.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 441.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Potentiometric and photometric methods for determining the solubility of lead iodide  Rice, Gary W.
The use of potentiometric and photometric methods for determining the solubility of lead iodide have allowed students to observe first-hand that physical constants can be determined by very different analytical approaches and concepts.
Rice, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 430.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Potentiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A useful method for obtaining crystals from viscous oils  Qian, Chengyi
The method of slowly evaporating solvents was tried in the present study with oily reaction residues, which did not crystallize on standing for some time.
Qian, Chengyi J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 355.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A simple model for visualizing an organic extraction  Hill, John W.; McGurran, Joseph P.
The authors have developed a model that provides a concrete and effective way to demonstrate the tendency of molecules of like polarity to associate with each other during extraction.
Hill, John W.; McGurran, Joseph P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 303.
Separation Science
Isolation of trimyristin and cholesterol: Two microscale extractions for one laboratory period  Vestling, Martha M.
The major expenses and major safety problems associated with these classic organic experiments are due to the quantities of organic solvents used per student. When these two experiments are converted to microscale, less than 10 mL of organic solvent per student is required for both experiments.
Vestling, Martha M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 274.
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
Separation Science
A modular apparatus for demonstrating gas chromatography using serial coupling of a thermal conductivity and flame ionizaton detector  Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea
The authors constructed a simple gas chromatograph for demonstrating the separation of gas mixtures at room temperature; therefore, heating or thermostating of the column is unnecessary.
Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 181.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple apparatus to demonstrate differing gas diffusion rates (Graham's law)  Keller, Philip C.
The apparatus described in this note dramatically demonstrates relative diffusion rate effects for common gases like methane and carbon dioxide.
Keller, Philip C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 160.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Measurement of diffusivity of organic liquids through polymer membranes: A simple and inexpensive laboratory experiment  Aithal, U. Shanthamurthy; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M.
Characterization of liquid interaction with polymer membranes by using simple laboratory tests and a small sample of polymer membrane is of great value in understanding the actual behavior of a large industrial rubber sample.
Aithal, U. Shanthamurthy; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 82.
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science
Drying ethanol by azeotropic distillation  Mattson, Guy; Hertel, George R.
The commercial process for producing absolute ethanol can be used as a basis for an unusual homework or take-home exam problem.
Mattson, Guy; Hertel, George R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 46.
Separation Science |
Alcohols
The most useful actinide isotope: Americium-241  Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T.
This paper briefly reviews Americium's discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and its uses with an emphasis on its production and separations chemistry.
Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 15.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
On-the-job evaluation of education in analytical chemistry  Harwood, John J.
Results of a survey in which analytical laboratory supervisors were asked to list the three instrumental and three "wet" chemical or physical analyses most commonly performed in his or her laboratory.
Harwood, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A268.
Instrumental Methods
The Fourier transform in chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear magnetic resonance: Introduction  King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.
Provides a fundamental understanding and appreciation of FT-NMR.
King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A213.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Computer-interfaced digital counter-analogue data acquisition system and demonstration of signal-to-noise enhancement methods  Xu, Qing; Demas, J. N.; Grubb, Marvin
A PC interface for a digital freqeuncy-period-counter-ratio meter and an analogue interface based on a voltage-to-freqeuncy converter.
Xu, Qing; Demas, J. N.; Grubb, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A199.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
An introduction to supercritical fluid chromatography: Part 2. Applications and future trends   Palmieri, Margo D.
Part I of this article dealt with the basic theory and instrumentation of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). In part 2 selected applications and future trends in SFC will be discussed.
Palmieri, Margo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A141.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Instrumental Methods of Analysis, Seventh Edition (Dean, John A.; Merritt, Lynne L., Jr.; Settle, Frank A., Jr.; Willard, Hobart H.)  Young, Vaneica
Compared with the sixth edition, the seventh edition has five fewer chapters.
Young, Vaneica J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A46.
Instrumental Methods
Efficient microscale filtration  Belletire, John L.; Mahmoodi, Nosrat O.
A simple technique for the rapid filtration of small liquid samples.
Belletire, John L.; Mahmoodi, Nosrat O. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 964.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Separation of a five-component mixture in the microscale laboratory  O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U.
The separation and purification of a five-component mixture consisting of a strong organic acid (bezoic acid), a weak organic acid (2-naphthol), an organic base (pyridine), and two neutral compounds (1-chlorobutane and toluene).
O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 961.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases
A comparison of optical detectors for the visible and ultraviolet  Grossman, William E. L.
A comparison of the operating mechanisms and characteristics of photomultiplier tubes, silicon photodiode arrays, and charge transfer devices.
Grossman, William E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 697.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Semiconductors
Modification of an ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of the active ingredients in APC tablets  Yarnelle, Michael K.; West, Kevin J.
Ultraviolet spectrophotometric procedure used to determine the aspirin, phenacetin, and caffeine in an APC tablet.
Yarnelle, Michael K.; West, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 601.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Laboratory simulations - Gel filtration  Griffith, Thomas W.
102. Bits and pieces, 40. This report describes the successful use of an IBM PC program that simulates the separation and analysis of unknowns by gel filtration.
Griffith, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 407.
Separation Science
Determination of the pK of an indicator by thermal lens spectroscopy: A laser experiment for instrumental analysis laboratory  Erskine, Steven R.; Bobbitt, Donald R.
The exercises described in this article demonstrate how the enhanced limit of detection can be use to evaluate weakly absorbing solutions not readily accessible by conventional absorbance methods.
Erskine, Steven R.; Bobbitt, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 354.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers
Availability of video tape to clarify the method of standard abbreviations  Williams, Kathryn R.
The method of standard addition is recognized as an important calibration technique in instrumental analysis.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 247.
Calibration |
Addition Reactions |
Instrumental Methods
A pressure regulator for vacuum distillation  Sommer, Toby J.
The authors have modified the basic Newman manostat.
Sommer, Toby J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 181.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Antioxidants in plastic: An instrumental analysis project  Chan, Wing Hong; Lam, King Sum; Yu, Wai Keung
The authors have devised the following project in their instrumental analysis laboratory to investigate the antioxidant content in polypropylene products.
Chan, Wing Hong; Lam, King Sum; Yu, Wai Keung J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 172.
Phenols |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The separation of cobalt from nickel by anion exchange chromatography   Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L.
The authors have modified other experiments, using "macro" amounts of ions, and have determined the optimum conditions to produce a visually observable demonstration that illustrates several fundamental principles of the general chemistry course.
Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 166.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Visible spectrophotometric determination of the partition coefficient of methyl violet: A microscale extraction experiment  Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L.
This experiment is designed to demonstrate the principles of separation by solvent extraction, partition coefficient, and the construction and use of a Beer-Lambert standard curve.
Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 91.
Separation Science |
Chemometrics
A simple method for purifying silica gel for column chromatography  Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F.
A quick and efficient way to get maximum use out of silica gel.
Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 891.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A step-by-step picture of pulsed (time domain) NMR  Schwartz, Leslie J.
The goal of this paper is to describe a pulsed NMR experiment that is as simple and pictorial as possible, but that stops short of dangerous generalizations and oversimplifications that can lead to contradictions.
Schwartz, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 752.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Instrumental Methods
Identification of courmarin in vanilla extracts by TLC and HPLC  McKone, Harold T.; Chambers, Timothy E.
A brief description for a lab identifying courmarin in vanilla extracts by TLC and HPLC.
McKone, Harold T.; Chambers, Timothy E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 628.
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
cis and trans-Stilbenes: Chromatographic separation and photochemical isomerization  Levine, Samuel G.; Barhoriak, Kathleen Doubek; Cho, Ho S.
An organic chemistry laboratory that has historic significance.
Levine, Samuel G.; Barhoriak, Kathleen Doubek; Cho, Ho S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 79.
Separation Science |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Chromatography
Quantitative Chemical Analysis (Manahan, Stanley E.)  Guthrie, Frank A.
Quantitative analysis text.
Guthrie, Frank A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A328.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Fourier transforms for chemists. Part 3. Fourier transforms in data treatment  Glasser, L.
Mathematical properties and manipulations of Fourier transforms.
Glasser, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A306.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Part III. Applications  Perkins, W. D.
Applications of FT-IR spectroscopy to aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, photoacoustic spectroscopy, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope.
Perkins, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A296.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Part II. Advantages of FT-IR  Perkins, W. D.
Considers energy and other advantages of FT-IR.
Perkins, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A269.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Fourier transforms for chemists. Part 2. Fourier transforms in chemistry and spectroscopy  Glasser, L.
Considers the number of data channels in a spectrometer, the dispersive element as a delay device, the Fourier transform technique and its advantages, the fast Fourier transform technique and its advantages, and applications of these techniques to chemistry.
Glasser, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A260.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
X-ray fluorescence spectrometric analysis of geologic materials Part 2. Applications  Anzelmo, John A.; Lindsay, James R.
Interferences due to matrix effects; analysis of geologic materials; sample preparation; trace element analysis; and optimizing geologic sample analysis.
Anzelmo, John A.; Lindsay, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A200.
Spectroscopy |
Geochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Computer interfacing to laboratory instruments: How to minimize noise interferences  Karpinski, Mary
Suggestions for replacing mechanical, analog data recorders with computer-based data-acquisition systems, particularly in terms of minimizing noise.
Karpinski, Mary J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A100.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
The History and Preservation of Chemical Instrumentation (Stock, John T.; Orna, Mary Virginia)  Kauffman, George B.
18 papers presented on the title subject presented at the 190th meeting of the American Chemical Society in Chicago in September of 1985.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A27.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R.
Separating and identifying the amino acids found in aspartame.
Conklin, Alfred R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1065.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A colorimetric titration experiment with laser excitation and computer-interfaced endpoint detection  Mehta, Manish A.; Dallinger, Richard F.
88. Students experience the use and handling of laser beams, the construction of a simple and inexpensive photodetector, and the use of a commercially available computer interface system all within the framework of the familiar titration curve.
Mehta, Manish A.; Dallinger, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1019.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Inexpensive low-frequency IR windows using Tupperware seals and polyethylene coffee can lids  Dew, Vinita C.
Using disks cut from coffee can lids and Tupperware tumbler seals as low-frequency IR windows.
Dew, Vinita C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 975.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A continuous ether/water extractor  Choney, J. H.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Design for a continuous ether/water extractor.
Choney, J. H.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 970.
Ethers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A very brief, rapid, simple, and unified method for estimating carbon-13 NMR chemical shifts: The BS method  Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C.
The "BS" method is so brief and simple that students can memorize and use it to interpret 13C NMR spectra with ease.
Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 915.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Instrumental Methods
Introduction to the interpretation of electron spin resonance spectra of organic radicals  Bunce, Nigel J.
Principles and applications of electron spin resonance; this article is addressed directly to undergraduates rather than their instructors.
Bunce, Nigel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 907.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A new microcell technique for NMR analysis  Yu, Sophia J.
Eliminating expensive microcells and replacing them with disposable units.
Yu, Sophia J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 812.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Anodic polarography of cyanide in foodstuffs  Farrell, T. J.; Lauh, R. J.; Wadsworth, E. P., Jr.
Determining the amount of cyanide present in foodstuffs through anodic polarography.
Farrell, T. J.; Lauh, R. J.; Wadsworth, E. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 635.
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Quantitative application of thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of organic compounds: Determining the molecular weights of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones and dicarboxylic acids  Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul
This simple, easy, and inexpensive method provides a good illustration of the importance of polarity on solubility and a unique demonstration of the effectiveness of TLC as a quantitative tool.
Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 625.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
One simple solution to erratic instrument behavior  Huitink, Geraldine M.
Eliminating erratic needle movement on pH meters and Spec 20 spectrophotometers by eliminating rubber soled shoes and the static electricity they generate.
Huitink, Geraldine M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 530.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Laboratory steam distillation using electrically generated superheated steam  Lane, R. K.; Provence, P. D.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Design and use of a superheated steam generator.
Lane, R. K.; Provence, P. D.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Analysis of vitamin C by high-pressure liquid chromatography  Goodney, David E.
Using HPLC to determine the concentration of vitamin C in a variety of juices.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 187.
Vitamins |
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and identification of cinnamic acids by TLC  Bobbio, Florinda O.; Bobbio, Paulo A.; Souza, Sandra C. de
Chromatographic characteristics of cinnamic acid and its derivatives.
Bobbio, Florinda O.; Bobbio, Paulo A.; Souza, Sandra C. de J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 182.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Estimating the equilibrium voltage of an ion-selective electrode  Chang, On-Kok
A procedure for estimating the value of the equilibrium voltage based on just a few voltage readings obtained in the early stage of the measurement process.
Chang, On-Kok J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 91.
Equilibrium |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Instrumental Methods
A Wittig reaction that gives only one stereoisomer  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This popular experiment can be extended to illustrate the use of spectroscopy to elucidate stereochemistry.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 645.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Separation Science
Determination of reaction stoichiometries by flow injection analysis: A laboratory exercise  Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel
These authors took advantage of the features of Flow Injection Analysis and developed an easy and simple photometric method intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries.
Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 552.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods |
Photochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
An introductory quantitative GC experiment for the organic chemistry laboratory  Leber, Phyllis. A.
GC instrumentation is complicated enough that students need introductory exposure to the technique before embarking on its applications. The authors accomplish this by developing an introductory GC experiment that allows students to explore the scope and limits of the technique.
Leber, Phyllis. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 550.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Illustration of plane-polarized light  Elakovich, Stella D.
A simple illustration of the effect of polarizing lenses.
Elakovich, Stella D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 268.
Stereochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Construction of a temperature-composition diagram of a binary mixture: An organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Thorstenson, Patricia C.
The procedure described in this article offers a simple means of generating the liquid curve of a temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture of volatile liquids.
Thorstenson, Patricia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 170.
Separation Science |
Liquids
Information management systems in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory. Part II: Applications of LIMS  Merrer, Robert J.
A Laboratory Information Management System is applied to two instrumental analysis experiments .
Merrer, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A173.
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation and the total analytical process  Pleva, Michael A.; Settle, Frank A., Jr.
Emphasizing the total analytical process by considering the goal of the analysis, isolation of the system on which the analysis is to be performed, physical and chemical manipulations of the sample to produce the analyte, measurement of the analyte, and evaluation of the results, in addition to instrumental techniques.
Pleva, Michael A.; Settle, Frank A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A85.
Instrumental Methods
Normal-phase open column versus reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography: Separation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from their diastereomers  Schaber, Peter M.
Separation and isolation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from spinach leaves.
Schaber, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1110.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry
Countercurrent extraction of ink: A demonstration of the chromatographic mechanism  Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T.
A simple system that can demonstrate the significance of discontinuous countercurrent extraction.
Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1109.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Instrumentation and analytical methodology in forensic science  Gaensslen, R. E.; Kubic, Thomas A.; Desio, Peter J.; Lee, Henry C.
Types of evidence and analytical / instrumental methods involved in forensic science. From one of two symposia on forensic chemistry, one held at the ACS meeting in Seattle, 1983, and the second held at the 8th BCCE, Storrs CT, 1984.
Gaensslen, R. E.; Kubic, Thomas A.; Desio, Peter J.; Lee, Henry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1058.
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
The esterification of trifluoroacetic acid: An NMR kinetics experiment  Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C.
Procedure to determine pseudo-first-order rate constants for the esterification of trifluoroacetic acid.
Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 911.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Instrumental Methods
A problem in calibrating a spectrophotometer  Johnson, James G.
Standardization checks should be carried out under exactly the same conditions as used for daily work with the instrument.
Johnson, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 885.
Calibration |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experiments in software data handling  Thompson, Robert Q.
64. An instrumental analysis experiment that facilitates the study of data-handling software and its methods, including sampling, boxcar averaging, smoothing, ensemble averaging, and digital filtering.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 866.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy
An undergraduate organic experiment using thin-layer chromatography  Jones, Taylor B.; Jones, Tappey H.
Separation of derivatives of aliphatic compounds, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.
Jones, Taylor B.; Jones, Tappey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 813.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of lithium from magnesium sodium, and potassium  Werner, Wolfgang
Method for separating and detecting lithium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium
Werner, Wolfgang J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 808.
Separation Science |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Microscale group test for carbonyl compounds  Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X.
Rf values for separating various carbonyl compounds using thin layer chromatography.
Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 806.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Reverse-phase separation of FD & C dyes using a solvent gradient  Ondrus, Martin G.
An impressive separation of FD&C dyes in aqueous solution can be demonstrated with a C18 Sep Pak and a 10-mL disposable syringe.
Ondrus, Martin G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 798.
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science |
Chromatography
mer- and fac-[Co(NH3)3(NO2)3] Do they exist? A laboratory project with poster session  Laing, Michael
Students attempt the preparation of [Co(NH3)3(NO2)3] by three published methods, two for the mer and one for the fac isomers and find that none of the published recipes gives either pure compounds or reproducible results.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 707.
Coordination Compounds |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Inexpensive Apple II/photometer interfacing  Russo, Thomas
62. Bits and pieces, 25. A combined software / hardware package for the Apple II that will monitor light intensity versus real time.
Russo, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 692.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Photochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Demonstrations of signal-to-noise enhancement: Digital filtering  Glasser, L.
62. Bits and pieces, 25. Two demonstration programs for the Apple II involving signal-to-noise enhancement.
Glasser, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 691.
Instrumental Methods
Interfacing a scanning infrared spectrophotometer to a microcomputer  Mattson, B. M.; Shepherd, T. R.; Solsky, J. F.
62. Bits and pieces, 25. Upgrading an older spectrophotometer to interface with a computer.
Mattson, B. M.; Shepherd, T. R.; Solsky, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 690.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Coulometric titrations using computer-interfaced potentiometric endpoint detection  Greenspan, Paul D.; Burchfield, David E.; Veening, Hans
62. Bits and pieces, 25. A procedure for using a potentiometric endpoint detection system interfaced with a computer to facilitate endpoint detection.
Greenspan, Paul D.; Burchfield, David E.; Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 688.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
A FORTH-language, computer-controlled potentiometric titration  Verbeek, A. A.
62. Bits and pieces, 25. Program and apparatus to the stirrer, buret additions, data gathering, and endpoint determination for a potentiometric titration.
Verbeek, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 687.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Determination of aspartame, caffeine, saccharin, and benzoic acid in beverages by high performance liquid chromatography: An undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment  Delaney, Michael F.; Pasko, Kathleen M.; Mauro, David M.; Gsell, Diane S.; Korologos, Philip C.; Morawski, John; Krolikowski, Linda J.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.
Separations can be applied to the analysis of soft drinks, artificial sweeteners, fruit juices, and coffee.
Delaney, Michael F.; Pasko, Kathleen M.; Mauro, David M.; Gsell, Diane S.; Korologos, Philip C.; Morawski, John; Krolikowski, Linda J.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 618.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science
Voltammetry as a model for teaching chemical instrumentation  Gunasingham, H.; Ang, K. P.
The technique of voltammetry, evolution of instrumentation for voltammetry, and the use of computers in voltammetry.
Gunasingham, H.; Ang, K. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 610.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Signal-to-noise improvement: An instrumental analysis experiment  Vassos, B. H.; Lopez, E.
Circuit diagrams for a laboratory-made peak simulator, noise generator, and filtration device.
Vassos, B. H.; Lopez, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 542.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Improvements in the separation of beta-carotene and lycopene by column chromtography  Ronman, Peter
Modification of an existing laboratory procedure involving the separation of beta-carotene and lycopene by column chromtography.
Ronman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 540.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Low-pressure extraction  Flamini, Alberto; Poli, Nicola
Modifications to a Soxhlet extractor that works at low pressure.
Flamini, Alberto; Poli, Nicola J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 533.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract  Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael
Constructing a simple column chromatograph from a disposable pipet.
Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 530.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Gas chromatographic determination of fatty acid compositions  Heinzen, Horacio; Moyna, Patrick; Grompone, Antonia
An experiment that includes a derivatization step and uses readily available reagents.
Heinzen, Horacio; Moyna, Patrick; Grompone, Antonia J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 449.
Gas Chromatography |
Lipids |
Instrumental Methods |
Fatty Acids
An efficient and inexpensive temperature-controlled chromatography column  Henderson, Bambi L.; McLoughlin, Daniel J.
Inexpensive temperature-controlled chromatography columns can be constructed from old distillation columns.
Henderson, Bambi L.; McLoughlin, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 430.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The determination of lead in gasoline by atomic absorption spectrometry  Coleman, M. F. M.
Involves the extraction of lead into an aqueous rather than a more hazardous organic solvent.
Coleman, M. F. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 261.
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Wide selection of selective electrodes  Monroe, Dan
Description of some new types of ion and bioselective electrodes.
Monroe, Dan J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 178.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Instrumental Methods
Ion exchange chromatography and spectrophotometry: An introductory undergraduate laboratory experiment  Foster, N.; Pestel, B.; Mease, B.
Experiment designed for an introductory course in chemical equilibria in aqueous media in which students have already experienced the quantitative use of spectrophotometry in calculating equilibrium constants for the formation of colored complexes in solution.
Foster, N.; Pestel, B.; Mease, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 170.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
An experiment to examine the phosphate interference in the flame emission analysis of calcium  Jackman, Donald C.
A procedure that considers flame emission technique, calibration plots, interferences, indirect flame emission analysis, and techniques for removing interferences.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 161.
Instrumental Methods
Separation and identification of commonly used drugs: A thin-layer chromatography experiment for freshman chemistry  Bonicamp, Judith M.
Using a simplified and accelerated TLC kit for drug detection.
Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 160.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
An improved method for visualizing TLC plates using iodine  Roberbon, John
Mixing iodine with silica gel and pouring it onto a thin layer chromatography plate for faster visualization.
Roberbon, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 156.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
Electronic instrumentation at the liberal arts college  Keedy, Curtis R.; Abele, John C.
Outline of a two-term course combining the offerings in electronic instrumentation in the chemistry and physics departments.
Keedy, Curtis R.; Abele, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 144.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The design of a computer-controlled flow-injection analyzer: An undergraduate experiment  McClintock, Sam A.; Weber, James R.; Purdy, William C.
57. Bits and pieces, 22. Students construct a simple solid-state photometer and uses it as a detector in a flow-injection or continuous-flow analyzer.
McClintock, Sam A.; Weber, James R.; Purdy, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 65.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis: Third Edition, Revised and Expanded (Robinson, James W.)  Mark, Harry B., Jr.
Textbook for instrumental methods of analysis.
Mark, Harry B., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A141.
Instrumental Methods
Choosing the right instrument: The modular approach. Part II  Strobel, Howard A.
How well can instrument specification be related to the behavior of modules? How often is a specification fixed by a single module?
Strobel, Howard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A89.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Choosing the right instrument: The modular approach. Part I.  Strobel, Howard A.
Considering instruments as systems rather than individually.
Strobel, Howard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A53.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive syringe for gas chromatography  Avila, Walter B.; Hamilton, Mark A.; Holwitt, Eric A.
Replacing expensive GC syringes with disposable, plastic insulin syringes.
Avila, Walter B.; Hamilton, Mark A.; Holwitt, Eric A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1109.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Quantitative analysis of a mixture by NMR spectroscopy  Wallace, Tim
Adding a measured quantity of an inert, easily removed reference compound with a simple NMR signal that does not overlap with the mixture's signal can provide the basis for an instructive experiment.
Wallace, Tim J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1074.
Qualitative Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Gel filtration chromatography: A laboratory experiment  Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D.
A rapid, visual demonstration of protein separation by gel filtration chromatography.
Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1021.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides
An undergraduate column chromatography experiment  Danot, M.; Nahmias, S.; Zoller, U.
Introduces undergraduates to the theoretical and technical aspects of column chromatography.
Danot, M.; Nahmias, S.; Zoller, U. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1019.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
High performance thin layer chromatography  Costanzo, Samuel J.
Considers the various ways in which high performance has been achieved in thin layer chromatography, including the new TLC plates, sample application, plate development, and instrumental techniques.
Costanzo, Samuel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1015.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
An easy method for salvaging thermal conductivity detectors  Ronman, Peter; Sallastrom, Walter
Exchanging resistors in a gas chromatograph.
Ronman, Peter; Sallastrom, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 813.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Chromatography: Use of a microcomputer to introduce laboratory techniques  Holdsworth, David K.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. Program to introduce paper, thin-layer, column, and gas-liquid chromatography.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 790.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A practical experiment for determining a pervasive, persistent pollutant  Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A.
Spectral identification by means of infrareds spectroscopy of the PCBs recovered from a TLC plate is enhanced due to the concentrating effect of a commercial sample-recovery system.
Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 738.
IR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
An inexpensive experiment for the introduction of high performance liquid chromatography  Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.
Separates the food dyes found in grape-flavored Kool-Aid using isocratic and gradient solution methods. [Debut]
Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 716.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Use of pseudophase TLC in teaching laboratories  Armstrong, Daniel W.; Bui, Khanh H.; Barry, Regina M.
Thin-layer chromatography using micellar and alpha-cyclodextrin mobile phases.
Armstrong, Daniel W.; Bui, Khanh H.; Barry, Regina M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 457.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Micelles
Investigating a mixture of polar and nonpolar compounds using the same thin-layer chromatography plate  Somanathan, Ratnasamy
Avoids needing several thin layer plates.
Somanathan, Ratnasamy J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 456.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Chlorophyll separation and spectral identification  Diehl-Jones, Susan M.
Extracting chlorophyl a and b from spinach and separating them using thin-layer and column chromatography.
Diehl-Jones, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 454.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
A simple apparatus for filtering air-sensitive solids  Cossy, J.; Feigenbaum, A.
Makes use of a double-tipped needle.
Cossy, J.; Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 453.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
HPLC analysis of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and beta-carotene in collard greens  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Koehler, Jerry A.; Beadel, Edward F., Jr.; Monroe, Pearle A.
Expands the traditional experiment using column or thin layer chromatography to demonstrate the versatility of HPLC as an analytical technique.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Koehler, Jerry A.; Beadel, Edward F., Jr.; Monroe, Pearle A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 264.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Performance characterization of an instrument  Salin, Eric D.
Experiment that introduces students to detection limits, signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, and linear dynamic range using flame atomic emission.
Salin, Eric D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 70.
Instrumental Methods |
Calibration |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Qualitative analysis by gas chromatography: GC versus the nose in formulating artificial fruit flavors  Rasmussen, P. W.
Using GC retention indexes for the identification of the volatile compounds responsible for the odor of the banana.
Rasmussen, P. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 62.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Single-pan balances, buoyancy, and gravity or "a mass of confusion"  Battino, Rubin; Williamson, Arthur G.
Most manufacturers of balances either do not understand the idea of buoyancy corrections or believe them to be irrelevant.
Battino, Rubin; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 51.
Physical Properties |
Instrumental Methods
Ethanol from corn: one route to gasohol  Maslowsky, Edward, Jr.
The experiment in this article illustrates the preparation of ethanol through the action of enzymes and yeast in whole kernel corn. The purpose is to illustrate as closely as practical the method used either industrially or on the farm to convert corn into ethanol, while a second is to illustrate distillation.
Maslowsky, Edward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 752.
Applications of Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Separation Science
Separation and analysis of citral isomers: an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A.
In this laboratory, the authors have introduced students to HPLC, mass spectrometric analysis, and the separation of thermally sensitive materials by vacuum distillation.
Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 434.
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Production of aromatic hydrocarbons according to extractive distillation process  Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J.
A theme that deals with the study of the recovery of benzene from petroleum hydrocarbon mixture by means of an extractive distillation processes emerges from a pilot project that has been proposed to the graduating students.
Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 148.
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds
Structure elucidation of a natural product  Letcher, Roy M.
This experiment is an attempt to simulate a real-life structure elucidation problem through the isolation, characterization, and chemical transformation of an unknown naturally occurring monoterpene, with extensive use being made of spectroscopy and aided by biogenetic considerations.
Letcher, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 79.
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Reactions
Activity coefficients of acetone-chloroform solutions: an undergraduate experiment  Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A.
The simple experiment described in this article gives unsurprisingly good results for the acetone-chloroform system.
Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 72.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
The design of an inexpensive, reliable, and rapid-acting fraction collector  Bell, Duncan H.
Features a spring-driven collector head with a clock-style escapement mechanism for the precise and rapid advancement of the collection tubes.
Bell, Duncan H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1082.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
Lecture experiment in gas-liquid chromatography with a simple gas chromatograph at room temperature  Wollrah, Adalbert
Apparatus and method for separating mixtures of pentane / hexane and methyl chloride / carbon tetrachloride.
Wollrah, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1042.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Partition coefficients - A lecture demonstration  Newton, Thomas A.
The extraction of aqueous solutions of indophenol and its sodium salt with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical instrumentation for the visually handicapped  Anderson, James L.
An approach developed for introducing visually handicapped students to chemical instrumentation via experiments on operational amplifiers as examples of some of the electronic building blocks of chemical instrumentation.
Anderson, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 871.
Minorities in Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Classroom chromatography  Bauer, Christopher F.
A classroom demonstration in which students are used to illustrate the operation of a chromatographic column.
Bauer, Christopher F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 846.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Undergraduate infrared spectroscopy experiments  MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J.
A set of experiments that provide experience in deuteration and derivatization procedures as applied to infrared spectroscopy.
MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 799.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes
Sensitive electroanalysis using solid electrodes  Wang, Joseph
Hydrodynamic modulation voltammetry (HMV) is a very sensitive solid electrode technique that may be easily adapted and demonstrated in most instrumental analysis laboratories.
Wang, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 691.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
An analytical chemistry experiment in simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Fe(III) and Cu(II) with hexacyanoruthenate(II) reagent  Mehra, M. C.; Rioux, J.
This method is based on selective interaction of the complex formed between Fe(III) and Cu(II) and potassium hexacyanoruthenate(II) in acid solution; this technique can easily be extended toward the analysis of these species in environmental samples.
Mehra, M. C.; Rioux, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 688.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
Simulation of chemical instrumentation. I: Computer-graphics emulation of chemical instrumentation: Absorption spectrophotometers  Gilbert, D. D.; Mounts, T. T., II; Frost, A. A.
31.
Gilbert, D. D.; Mounts, T. T., II; Frost, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 661.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Separation and determination of hydroxyacetophenones: An experiment in preparative TLC and UV spectroscopy  Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J.
A mixture of o-, m-, and p-hydroxyacetophenones is separated through thin-layer chromatography, and the constituents are identified by UV spectroscopy.
Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 618.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and IR analysis of a mixture of organic compounds  Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John
Introduces students to fractional distillation and analysis of each fraction by gas-liquid chromatography.
Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 617.
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids
The construction of a simple pyrolysis gas chromatograph  Hedrick, Jack L.
Constructing and using a simple PGC system made from outmoded gas chromatographs.
Hedrick, Jack L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 612.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A colorful extraction experiment  Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D.
Separating differently colored organic compounds (azobenzene, benzoic acid, and m-nitroaniline).
Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
The separation and identification of straight chain hydrocarbons: An experiment using gas-liquid chromatography  Benson, G. A.
Gas liquid chromatography used to separate and identify a mixture of C5 to C10 straight chain hydrocarbons.
Benson, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 344.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Chromatography
The evaluation of the parameters in the van Deemter equation  Moody, Harvey W.
This experiment considers the efficiency of chromatographic columns and allows one to calculate the parameters in the van Deemter equation.
Moody, Harvey W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 290.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple and inexpensive preparative TLC applicator  Lavallee, P.; Muzart, J.
A simple thin layer chromstography applicator that allows for the application of narrow streaks without holes or grooves, even when homemade plates are used.
Lavallee, P.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 250.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive liquid chromatography apparatus for undergraduate teaching  McCamish, Malcolm; Cannell, G. R.; Bretherton, L.
Description of a low-pressure liquid chromatography pump, slurry filler, stainless steel columns, and injector system suited to an undergraduate laboratory or routine analysis.
McCamish, Malcolm; Cannell, G. R.; Bretherton, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 249.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Rotary evaporator repair  Rothchild, Robert
Two methods for removing a defective seal on a rotary evaporator.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 241.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
Modular approach to instrumental analysis  Deming, Richard L.; Van Willis, W.; Janota, Harvey F.
An instrumental analysis course is divided into six, 3.5-4 week modules.
Deming, Richard L.; Van Willis, W.; Janota, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 203.
Instrumental Methods
A simple semimicro distillation apparatus  Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J.
A small distillation unit for fractional distillation of small amounts of material under vacuum.
Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 164.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calculator program for analysis of a complex by Job's method  House, J. E., Jr.
25. Bits and pieces, 9. Program permits users to measure an appropriate property of a complex as a function of composition of the solutions and determine the composition of the complex according to Job's method.
House, J. E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 132.
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
Evaporation of chromatography fractions simplified  Vogel, George
Using an ordinary Erlenmeyer flask and a polyethylene stopper.
Vogel, George J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 69.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Isolation, separation and identification of synthetic food colors  Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G.
A simple, inexpensive experiment for the extraction of synthetic dyes permitted in foodstuffs, and their separation and identification using thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.
Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 67.
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A simple method for sample application in chromatography  Lo, J. M.
A simple applicator made of a rubber bulb and glass capillary tube.
Lo, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 66.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Separating copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis  Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L.
A different method for the separation of copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis based on the reductive potential precipitation of copper(II) as copper(I) thiocyanate.
Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 59.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Instrumental analysis laboratory experiments  Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.
Offer of an instrumental analysis laboratory manual to those interested.
Hurlbut, Jeffrey A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 59.
Instrumental Methods
A practical introduction to separation and purification techniques for the beginning organic chemistry laboratory  Leonard, Jack E.
Separation techniques have always been important for a successful chemical career. This author addresses some important considerations for training students.
Leonard, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1022.
Separation Science
Determination of the extraction constant for zinc pyrrolidinecarbodithioate: An atomic absorption experiment for instrumental analysis  Hoskins, Claron L.; Reichardt, Paul B.; Stolzberg, Richard J.
This lab allows students to explore the theory that the degree of extraction depends on pH and the concentration of ligands.
Hoskins, Claron L.; Reichardt, Paul B.; Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 580.
Coordination Compounds |
pH |
Separation Science
Project Select (the author replies)  Settle, Frank A., Jr.
Addresses concerns regarding bias toward comparison of instrument specifications.
Settle, Frank A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A171.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Project Select  Aquilina, Ellen P.; Malone, James P.
Concerns regarding bias toward comparison of instrument specifications.
Aquilina, Ellen P.; Malone, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A171.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
CII. Automated anodic stripping voltammetry  Stock, John T.
Circuitry and use of a computer-controlled, anodic stripping analyzer.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A125.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A laboratory introduction to quantitative column chromatography  Johnson, Judith Faye; Rubinson, Kenneth A.
Involves a Beer's Law plot calibration, a elutropic series, and microvolumetric techniques.
Johnson, Judith Faye; Rubinson, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 909.
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Construction and evaluation of a solid-state iodide selective electrode: A chemical instrumentation laboratory experiment  Papastathopoulos, D. S.; Karayannis, M. I.
The experiment is based on the construction of a crystalline homogeneous membrane electrode (solid-state type) employing an AgI/Ag2S coprecipitate pellet-sensing membrane.
Papastathopoulos, D. S.; Karayannis, M. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 904.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
An inorganic laboratory experiment involving photochemistry, liquid chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy  Post, Elroy W.
An experiment involving photochemical ligand displacement on a metal carbonyl, separation of the product by mixture by chromatography, and identification of the components using IR spectroscopy and group theory.
Post, Elroy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 819.
Photochemistry |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Separation Science
Conversion of (+)-Limonene to (-)-Carvone: An organic laboratory sequence of local interest  Rothenberger, Otis S.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rollins, Ronald B.
Orange oil is converted to one of the components of spearmint oil; the detectable odor difference is due to stereochemical factors.
Rothenberger, Otis S.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rollins, Ronald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 741.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Enantiomers
A systematic approach to standard addition methods in instrumental analysis  Bader, Morris
Nine cases of standard addition methods in instrumental analysis, including linear instruments, a non-linear response, the electrochemical Nernst equation, and radiochemical techniques.
Bader, Morris J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 703.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
An inexpensive Kugelrohr still  Guida, Wayne C.; Gawley, Robert E.
Plan for a simple unit that is superior to some commercial devices.
Guida, Wayne C.; Gawley, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 554.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An introduction to high performance liquid chromatography: Separation of some FD&C dyes  McKone, Harold T.; Ivie, Kert
Separation of five common FD&C dyes: Red 40, Yellow 5, Yellow 6, Blue 2, and Red 2, and some common "food" items in which they are found.
McKone, Harold T.; Ivie, Kert J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 321.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Ion exchange separation of the oxidation states of vanadium  Cornelius, Richard
An experiment designed to emphasize the discrete nature of the different oxidation states of vanadium by giving students an opportunity to separate the four species by ion exchange chromatography.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 316.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
A simple system to illustrate mass spectrometry principles  Finet, Daniel
A simple didactic system that enables one to simulate the different operations of a mass spectrometer and the necessary conditions for ionic refocusing.
Finet, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 232.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Gas chromatographic determination of methyl salicylate in rubbing alcohol: An experiment employing standard addition  Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis
Provides an exercise in standard addition as applied to the gas chromatographic analysis of the methyl salicylate in wintergreen rubbing alcohol.
Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 230.
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
An economical and efficient reflux/distillation apparatus  Marabella, Charles P.
A modified standard distillation head and vacuum takeoff adapter.
Marabella, Charles P. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 221.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Steam distillation of essential oils - Anethole from anise followed by permanganate oxidation to anisic acid  Garin, David L.
Provides the procedure for the oxidation step to this experiment.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 138.
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
An improved microbulb vacuum distillation apparatus  Saplay, Kishore M.
Improved version of an earlier modified Kugelrohr.
Saplay, Kishore M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 124.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
XCIX. A device for demonstrating microprocessor interfacing  Schilling, J. W.
In designing interfaces between a microprocessor or minicomputer and an external device, it is important to "breadboard" a prototype unit first.
Schilling, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, A104.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Thin layer chromatographic separation of common analgesics-a comment  Roswell, D. F.; Zaczek, N. M.
The authors were unable to resolve phenacetin and salicylamide using a three component solvent system.
Roswell, D. F.; Zaczek, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 834.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Two HPLC experiments for instrumental analysis laboratory  Byrd, James E.
The determination of aspirin, phenacetin, and caffeine in commercial APC tablets; and the determination of saccharin, sodium benzoate, and caffeine in diet cola drinks.
Byrd, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 809.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods
Column chromatography aid  Wiedmann, Jerome L.
Using a polyethylene bottle as a solvent reservoir.
Wiedmann, Jerome L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 766.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Potassium bromide disc infrared spectroscopy: A useful technique for liquid samples  Andersen, Jan R.
Use of the KBr-disc method need not be restricted to solids alone.
Andersen, Jan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 761.
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
An organic chemistry experiment for forensic science majors  Rothchild, Robert
Qualitative analysis of over-the-counter analgesics using thin-layer chromatography.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 757.
Forensic Chemistry |
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
High performance liquid chromatography of essential oils  McKone, Harold T.
Separating essential oils from a variety of common spices using HPLC.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 698.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The rapid isolation of carotenoids from foods  McKone, Harold T.
Isolating carotene and lycopene from carrots and tomato paste without heating the organic solvents, and eliminating grinding with sand for the isolation of carotenoids from citrus fruit skins.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 676.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of caffeine in cola drinks: An organic analytical experiment  Van Atta, Robert E.
Procedure may also be applied to No-Doz tablets and tea.
Van Atta, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 666.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Fractionation of gels following electrophoresis  Racusen, David
A simple and inexpensive technique for slicing electrophoresis gels.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 628.
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Biotechnology
Mixed stationary liquid phases for gas-liquid chromatography  Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.
Using window diagrams to quantitate the selectivity of a column of liquid phase.
Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 623.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Purification of chloroform for NMR spectroscopy  Burfield, David R.
Chloroform can be readily purified by simply standing the solvent over activated molecular sieves.
Burfield, David R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 486.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
The electrophoresis of indicators: An analogy to isoenzyme separation  Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K.
A lecture demonstration that illustrates the principles involved in the separation of isoenzymes but avoids the problems inherent in isoenzyme separations.
Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Enzymes |
Separation Science
The separation of chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen: An affinity chromatography experiment for biological chemistry students  Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney
An experiment that can be used as either a demonstration or a laboratory illustrating the principles of affinity chromatography to purify an enzyme.
Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 281.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Proteins / Peptides
Determination of iodide in milk with an ion selective electrode  O'Reilly, James E.
Uses the method of standard additions.
O'Reilly, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 279.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Instrumental Methods
Acne lotion - Great for pimples and making polymers!  May, Jeffrey
Benzoyl peroxide can easily be separated from acne lotion.
May, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Polymerization |
Consumer Chemistry |
Separation Science
Data manipulation and handling  Binkley, David; Dessy, Raymond
Examines the type of analog signals that are commonly sampled in the laboratory to better understand the importance of data sampling rate and the problems associated with noise.
Binkley, David; Dessy, Raymond J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 148.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Use of a copper(II) reagent impurity as a teaching aid for instrumental analysis  Herman, Richard G.
The characterization and identification of the impurity found in copper(II) nitrate trihydrate serves as an excellent teaching aid in emphasizing the need for good laboratory technique and in introducing certain instrumental methods.
Herman, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 126.
Instrumental Methods
The analytical textbook situation: Can a textbook present analytical chemistry as it really is?  Williams, T. R.; Bromund, R. H.
A new generation of introductory and instrumental methods classes should be written to reflect changes in the discipline. Symposium: Present status of the teaching of analytical chemistry.
Williams, T. R.; Bromund, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 98.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Instrumental Methods
Analytical chemistry at a community college: A balance of wet chemical methods and instrumental analysis  Hayes, Janan M.
Description of an analytical chemistry course at a community college (American River College). Symposium: Present status of the teaching of analytical chemistry.
Hayes, Janan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 96.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Instrumental Methods
Analytical chemistry in an integrated laboratory sequence  Dolbow, Kyle E.
Description of a totally integrated, four semester, analytical chemistry program at MIT. Symposium: Present status of the teaching of analytical chemistry.
Dolbow, Kyle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 96.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Instrumental Methods
A microcomputer-controlled transient recorder: A simple and instructive experiment in interfacing  Barrett, Tom; Lunney, David; Salt, Alger D.; Walter, Marc
An experiment to introduce computer interfacing into the laboratory.
Barrett, Tom; Lunney, David; Salt, Alger D.; Walter, Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 67.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
p-Carboxystyrene. A Wittig procedure in aqueous medium  Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc
In this paper, the authors present a student preparation of p-carboxyl group, as it makes the reaction product soluble in alkaline and insoluble in acid medium, provides for an easy way of separation.
Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Separation Science
Phase transfer catalysis: An interim project  Reeves, W. Preston
The authors have found that experiments in phase transfer catalysis provide students with a very profitable interim project.
Reeves, W. Preston J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 433.
Catalysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Separation Science
Synthetic lemon grass oil  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
Instructions for a synthetic lemon grass extraction.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 306.
Synthesis |
Separation Science
High performance liquid chromatography of urinary compounds. An undergraduate experiment  Bastian, Douglas W.; Miller, Rochelle L.; Halline, Allan G.; Senftleber, Fred C.; Veening, Hans
An instrumental analysis experiment in which a mixture of five clinically important urinary compounds can be separated and determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.
Bastian, Douglas W.; Miller, Rochelle L.; Halline, Allan G.; Senftleber, Fred C.; Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 766.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
HPLC
Organic laboratory  Lenox, Ronald S.
This question tests the student's ability to draw scientific conclusions from experimental observations and knowledge of ideal and non-ideal behavior of liquids.
Lenox, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 756.
Liquids
Dye unknowns for use in column chromatography  Freese, J. M.; Oleson, B.; Pinnick, H. R., Jr.; Uneted, J. T.
A list of dyes whose mixtures are readily separated on adsorption alumina.
Freese, J. M.; Oleson, B.; Pinnick, H. R., Jr.; Uneted, J. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 684.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Pure rotational Raman spectroscopy: A dry-lab experiment  Hoskins, L. Claron
Permits the student to analyze the pure rotational Raman spectra of hydrogen and carbon dioxide and determine the bond distances.
Hoskins, L. Claron J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 642.
Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Converting atomic spectral line widths from frequency to wavelength  Lovett, R. J.; Parsons, M. L.
A method that illustrates the conversion from frequency to wavelength in a readily understandable fashion requiring only the visualization of a spectral line shape and some algebra.
Lovett, R. J.; Parsons, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 615.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Automatic potentiometric titrations  Pinkham, Chester A.; Field, Brownlee
Use of a constant flow buret to perform automated potentiometric titrations.
Pinkham, Chester A.; Field, Brownlee J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 577.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Procedures to expedite column chromatographic separations  Dorko, Ernest A.; Baker, William W.
Adding a small amount of the column packing material to the mixture to be separated before evaporating its solvent and using an inflated inner tube to pressurize the column is found to expedite column chromatographic separations.
Dorko, Ernest A.; Baker, William W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 564.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Versatile pen-holder for chart recorders  Nieschlag, Henry J.
Using a small binder clip as a versatile pen-holder for chart recorders.
Nieschlag, Henry J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 542.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Isolation of dyes for analysis  Levinson, Alfred S.
The use of ion exchange resin for the isolation of dyes from beverages, gelatin desserts, and other foods.
Levinson, Alfred S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 460.
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Alkylation of methyl acetoacetate and gas chromatographic analysis of products. An organic laboratory experiment  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
Substituting commercially available sodium methoxide, absolute methanol, and methyl acetoacetate for sodium, ethanol, and acetoacetic ester in the acetoacetic ester synthesis of ketones and acids and the malonic ester synthesis of acids.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 446.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Laboratory Management
Pre-filter for removing suspended solids from HPLC samples  Bailey, Leonard C.
A pre-filter attached to the inlet of an HPLC injector.
Bailey, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 428.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
HPLC |
Chromatography
Gas chromatographic simulation program  Yuan, Mark
A Fortran simulation of gas chromatography.
Yuan, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 364.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Simple, inexpensive and reliable do-it-yourself chromatography columns  Lehky, Pavel
Reliable chromatography columns of sizes ranging from 3 to 30 mm ID can be assembled within a few minutes using current laboratory material.
Lehky, Pavel J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 227.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Versatile, automatic chromatographic column packing device  Barry, Eugene F.; Goulet, Susan; Blood, William N.
Design for a versatile, automatic chromatographic column packing device.
Barry, Eugene F.; Goulet, Susan; Blood, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 194.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Simulated research experience for chemists and non-chemists  Thorne, James M.; Matheson, Kenneth Lee
Students extract a toxin (sodium oxalate) from the weed Halogeton, determine its chemical formula, and suggest possible antidotes.
Thorne, James M.; Matheson, Kenneth Lee J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 165.
Undergraduate Research |
Applications of Chemistry |
Toxicology |
Separation Science
Paper chromatography of carbohydrates  Croft, L. R.; Haghighi, S.
A simple detection reagent for carbohydrates.
Croft, L. R.; Haghighi, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 112.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Carbohydrates
Separation of waste plastics. An experiment in solvent fractionation  Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan
The authors share their design for a scheme for separation of specific plastics from a mixture. This activity engages students and relates to recycling.
Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 653.
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
A simple and inexpensive steam generator for essential oils extraction  Craveiro, Afranio A.; Matos, F. J. A.; de Alencar, J. W.
This apparatus aids in essential oil extraction.
Craveiro, Afranio A.; Matos, F. J. A.; de Alencar, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 652.
Natural Products |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Isolation of oil of clove and separation of eugenol and acetyl eugenol. An instructive experiment for beginning chemistry undergraduates  Ntamila, M. S.; Hassanali, A.
The study in this article is simple to perform, requires small quantities of readily available material and may be completed within a normal laboratory period.
Ntamila, M. S.; Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 263.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
A student operated animated infrared spectroscopy teaching model  Hartman, Karel
To help students understand the background of infrared spectroscopy better, a teaching model of spectroscopy can be built.
Hartman, Karel J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 111.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Steam distillation of essential oils - Carvone from caraway  Garin, David L.
An economical way to perform popular essential oil extraction experiments.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 105.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Gas chromatographic analysis of gasoline. A laboratory experiment  Cassidy, Robert F., Jr.; Schuerch, Conrad
In this experiment the authors take advantage of the high resolving power and rapidity of gas chromatography to separate some commercial gasolines into individual compounds and simple mixtures of compounds of similar volatility.
Cassidy, Robert F., Jr.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 51.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
LXXXVI. Atomic spectroscopy atomization systems (Continued)  Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W.
Reviews recent advances in electrically heated non-flame atomizers.
Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, A451.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
LXXXVI. Atomic spectroscopy atomization systems [part one]  Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W.
Reviews recent advances in flame atomizers, including burners, nebulizers, and flames.
Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, A403.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
LXXXII. Home-built equipment in the teaching laboratory  Stock, John T.
Considers modular equipment for measuring electrolytic conductance and electronic coulometry.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, A165.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
A novel communications-skills-based approach to the instrumental laboratory  Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E.
Describes the approach used in a course designed to stress the importance of good writing style in laboratory reports.
Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 801.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
Chemical analysis of the environment: A course for non-chemistry majors  Stepenuck, Stephen J.
Describes an analytical course that includes the essentials of quantitative analysis and instrumental methods.
Stepenuck, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 795.
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
A laboratory exercise for organic chemistry  Sands, Richard D.
Students analyze a mixture of two unknown liquids, which as the semester progresses they are to separate, analyze, and identify.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 732.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy
An industrial steam distillation: Separation of rosin and turpentine from pine gum  Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad
Procedure for converting a tacky intractable mass - pine gum - into two recognizable and useful materials - a fragrant water-white liquid (turpentine) and a hard amber-colored resin (rosin).
Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 672.
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Small scale organic techniques: Filtration and crystallization  Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.
Steps in the filter stick method for hot filtration and crystallization.
Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 664.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management |
Crystals / Crystallography
A unique approach to teaching spectrophotometric procedures  Reeves, Roy R.; Hutson, Myron D.; Williams, Howard P.
Substituting commercial food dyes for metal complexes reduces preparation time, tedious record keeping, and allows for a greater variation of unknowns to be issued.
Reeves, Roy R.; Hutson, Myron D.; Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 659.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Dyes / Pigments
Instrumental analysis for medical technologists at small universities  Caruana, L. B.; Palma, R. J., Sr.
Modifications made to an analytical chemistry curriculum to suit the needs of medical technologists.
Caruana, L. B.; Palma, R. J., Sr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 586.
Instrumental Methods |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Ion-exchange resins - A simple apparatus  Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo
A modified procedure and apparatus for speeding up the use of ion-exchange resins.
Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Determination of the Nyquist frequency. A computer-interfacing experiment  Swanson, Ray; Thoennes, D. J.; Williams, Robert C.; Wilkins, Charles L.
A discussion of sampling theory, aliasing, and an experiment designed to establish the relationship between the analog-to-digital conversion rate and the frequency of a sine wave voltage input.
Swanson, Ray; Thoennes, D. J.; Williams, Robert C.; Wilkins, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 530.
Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Instrumental Methods
Helpful TLC techniques  Martin, Ned H.
Procedure for obtaining a uniformly thick adsorbent layer on chromatography plates and locating zones on thin layer chromatography plates.
Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 467.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
Fractionating column heater for student use  Mowery, Dwight F., Jr.
Using the standard condenser found in all ground-joint organic laboratory kits to heat a fractionating column.
Mowery, Dwight F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 436.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An experiment illustrating countercurrent chromatography with simple apparatus  Godinho, Oswaldo E. S.; Braga, Gilberto L.
Illustrates countercurrent chromatography with a simple apparatus and an experiment involving the separation of the indicators Phenol Red and Bromcresol Purple.
Godinho, Oswaldo E. S.; Braga, Gilberto L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 258.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes. Separation by paper electrophoresis and estimate of stability constants  Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J.
Differently charged species of thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes are separated by paper electrophoresis.
Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 122.
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrophoresis
Isolation of benzoic and boric acids from Listerine. An introductory organic chemistry experiment  Weichman, Roger L.
The experiment described here is a separation scheme which introduces the student to fractional distillation, extraction, decolorization with activated carbon, hot gravity filtration, vacuum, filtration, crystallization, recrystallization, melting point, mixed melting point, refractive index, gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy.
Weichman, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 589.
Separation Science
Radiochemical investigation of some sample destruction procedures  Servant, D. M.
A simple undergraduate experiment is described here for assessing a number of methods for the recovery of silver from organic matrices.
Servant, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 550.
Separation Science
The recovery and identification of flammable liquids in suspected arsons. An undergraduate organic experiment  Blackledge, Robert D.
The described experiment here takes the place of two experiments commonly used in the beginning organic laboratory course, namely the experiment on steam distillation and the experiment on gas liquid chromatography.
Blackledge, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 549.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Reference electrodes  Caton, Roy D., Jr.
Examines reference electrodes, including both aqueous and nonaqueous reference electrodes.
Caton, Roy D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A571.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Recent developments in instrumentation for liquid chromatography  Veening, Hans
Considers various accessories for gradient elution systems.
Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A429.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Anodic stripping voltammetry  Ellis, William D.
Considers the theory, techniques, applications, and instrumentation of anodic stripping voltammetry.
Ellis, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A131.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Simple and safe electrophoresis of low and high voltage gradients  Tibbs, Jack
Considers procedures and apparatus for cellulose acetate strip electrophoresis and silica gel thin layer electrophoresis.
Tibbs, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 862.
Electrophoresis |
Electrochemistry |
Separation Science
Thin-layer chromatogram visualization. A student experiment  Madsen, Brooks C.
This thin layer chromatography experiment separates mixtures of common over the counter analgesics and antipyretic preparations and related compounds, and has several advantages that many student oriented tlc experiments lack.
Madsen, Brooks C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 852.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Computer simulation of countercurrent distribution experiments  Coleman, George H.
A routine for simulating liquid-liquid countercurrent distribution data.
Coleman, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 825.
Liquids
Hydrolysis of a chromium(III) complex. Using atomic absorption and ion exchange  Davies, Michael B.; Lethbridge, J. W.
This experiment emphasizes three major advantages of atomic absorption spectroscopy and provides a valuable exercise in the use of ion exchange chromatography.
Davies, Michael B.; Lethbridge, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 793.
Ion Exchange |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Coffee, Tea, or Cocoa. A trio of experiments including the isolation of theobromine from cocoa  Pavia, Donald L.
Isolating caffeine from tea and coffee and theobromine from cocoa.
Pavia, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 791.
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry
Chemical instrumentation in the two-year community college  Trujillo, Anthony P.
Results of a questionnaire on the availability and use of a variety of instruments in two-year community colleges.
Trujillo, Anthony P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 784.
Instrumental Methods
Wavelength and spatial distribution of the light from a monochromator  Bruzzone, Liliana; Roselli, Martin E.
A simplified procedure of measurement and calculation for students without a solid background in optics.
Bruzzone, Liliana; Roselli, Martin E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 701.
Instrumental Methods
Precision spectrophotometry using modular instruments. A method for undergraduate courses  Piepmeier, Edward H.
This paper discusses the stable, single beam, visible spectrophotometers and the techniques that are used to obtain measurements with a relative concentration precision of <0.5%.
Piepmeier, Edward H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 640.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
A simple liquid-liquid continuous extractor  Holder, Richard W.
For extractions of a material from a more-dense to a less-dense solvent, the setup depicted is convenient and can be constructed entirely from readily available glassware.
Holder, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 639.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group  Antikainen, P. J.
This procedure applies paper- and ion-exchange chromatography to the separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group.
Antikainen, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 595.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography
A stabilized linear direct reading conductance apparatus. The solvolysis of t-butyl chloride  Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M.
A simple ac conductivity apparatus for experiments in chemical kinetics is described; the instrument is sufficiently reliable that it can be used by first year students and assembled in a few hours.
Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
The determination of pesticide residues. A laboratory experiment  Jarosch, Richard
The determination of pesticide residues using thin-layer and gas chromatography.
Jarosch, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 507.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Computer-controlled colorimetry  Pater, F. G.; Perone, S. P.
In order to illustrate more fully the capabilities of the computer for experimental control, a computer-controlled colorimeter has been conceived, where the computer can select the wavelength of light passing through the sample as well as execute data acquisition and data processing functions.
Pater, F. G.; Perone, S. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 428.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
The separation of ferrocene, acetylferrocene, and diacetylferrocene. A dry-column chromatography experiment  Gilbert, J. C.; Monti, S. A.
Applies dry-column chromatography to the separation and purification of the reaction mixture obtained from the acylation of ferrocene.
Gilbert, J. C.; Monti, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 369.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
"Dry-column" chromatography. A new technique for the undergraduate laboratory  Bohen, J. M.; Joullie, M. M.; Kaplan, F. A.; Loev, B.
In this experiment, thin-layer chromatography is used to determine the number of compounds in a prepared dye mixture and "dry-column" chromatography is used to separate the mixture into its components.
Bohen, J. M.; Joullie, M. M.; Kaplan, F. A.; Loev, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 367.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments
An investigation of sebum and other facial lipids  Calsin, Dennis; Trinler, W. A.
An introductory thin layer chromatography experiment that illustrates the variety of surface facial lipids, produced chiefly by sebaceous glands.
Calsin, Dennis; Trinler, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 135.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Lipids |
Natural Products
TLC detection of caffeine in commercial products  Pavlik, James W.
An introductory experiment that involves the thin layer chromatography detection of caffeine in a variety of familiar pharmaceutical products.
Pavlik, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 134.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis
Geometry in chromatography  Campbell, Bruce Henry
This paper reports investigations into conical chromatography and the advantages and disadvantages of such a geometry.
Campbell, Bruce Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 133.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An inexpensive conductivity monitor for column operation  Ford, A.; Meloan, C. E.
Circuit diagrams for a column chromatography conductivity monitor.
Ford, A.; Meloan, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 85.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The odor of optical isomers. An experiment in organic chemistry  Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles
The experiment described involves the separation and characterization of l-carvone from spearmint oil and d-carvone from caraway seed oil.
Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 74.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Thermal analysis techniques: Part II. Differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (continued)  Wendlandt, W. W.
Examines commercial differential thermal analysis instrumentation.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A671.
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermal analysis techniques: Part II. Differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry  Wendlandt, W. W.
Introduces differential thermal analysis and differential thermal analysis instrumentation.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A624.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermal analysis techniques: Part I. Thermobalances (continued)  Wendlandt, W. W.
Examines commercial thermobalances, including four types of simultaneous TG-DTA instruments.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A623.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gravimetric Analysis
Thermal analysis techniques - Part I. Thermobalances  Wendlandt, W. W.
Examines thermal analysis techniques, thermogravimetry, and a variety of commercial thermobalances.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A571.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gravimetric Analysis
Principles of instrumental analysis (Skoog, Douglas A.)  Beilby, Alvin L.

Beilby, Alvin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A362.
Instrumental Methods
Laboratory integrators  Ewing, Galen W.
Reviews nonelectrical, electrochemical, electrical analog, and digital methods of integration.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: A Volume of Reprints from the Journal of Chemical Education (Ewing, Galen W.)  Lucchesi, C. A.

Lucchesi, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A317.
Instrumental Methods
Laboratory directions for analytical separations and determinations: A manual for quantitative analysis (Kenner, C. T.)  Krivis, Alan F.

Krivis, Alan F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A38.
Separation Science
A simple electronic integrator with digital read-out  Lindstrom, M.; Sundholm, G.
Presents a circuit diagram for a coulometer / current integrator.
Lindstrom, M.; Sundholm, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 847.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
The thin-layer chromatography of drugs. A laboratory experiment  Neman, R. L.
Students are introduced to thin layer chromatography, are provided samples known to contain alkaloids and barbiturates, separate the mixtures using tlc, determine the components of their unknowns, and calculate Rf values for the components.
Neman, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 834.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
A simple alarm to aid in preparative glpc fraction collection  Lustig, Robert S.
A simple alarm that can be adjusted to "sound off" when the recorder pen of a preparative gas chromatograph reaches a preset height above the base line.
Lustig, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 760.
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
X-ray fluorescence determination of lead in gasoline  Bills, J. M.; Brier, K. S.; Danko, L. G.; Kristine, F. J.; Turco, S. J.; Zimmerman, K. S.; Divelbiss, P. M.; Tackett, S. L.
The X-ray fluorescence determination of lead in gasoline is simple, straightforward, and reliable, and the analysis is rapid, since no sample treatment is required.
Bills, J. M.; Brier, K. S.; Danko, L. G.; Kristine, F. J.; Turco, S. J.; Zimmerman, K. S.; Divelbiss, P. M.; Tackett, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 715.
Quantitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Caffeine and benzoic acid in soft drinks  Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A.
Simple procedures for isolating caffeine and benzoic acid from commercial soft drinks.
Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 708.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Comparison of analytical methods  Beilby, Alvin L.
One important aspect of the education in analytical chemistry of chemists and others using analytical methods should be the continued emphasis on the comparison of analytical methods so students can learn to chose intelligently the proper analytical methods for the solution of chemical problems.
Beilby, Alvin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 679.
Instrumental Methods
Paramagnetic moment measurements by nmr. A micro technique  Loliger, J.; Scheffold, R.
Design of a coaxial cell consisting of a simple melting point tube that is used to to determine the paramagnetic moment of a given substance.
Loliger, J.; Scheffold, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 646.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Magnetic Properties |
Instrumental Methods
Partial analysis of vinyl-asbestos floor tile. A tlc experiment for beginning organic chemistry  Foreman, William A.; Paulson, Donald R.
This laboratory introduces thin-layer chromatography while presenting the student with a typical industrial analysis problem.
Foreman, William A.; Paulson, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 572.
Industrial Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Variable scale for mass spectral relative ion abundance measurement  Katcher, M. L.
The use of a variable scale allows one to obtain the relative ion abundances directly from the mass spectrum without the necessity of using arithmetic manipulations and/or desk calculators.
Katcher, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 567.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Quick paper chromatography of amino acids  Heimer, E. P.
Applies acetonitrile-buffer systems for the relatively rapid separation of amino acids.
Heimer, E. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 547.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Small-scale thin-layer chromatography. Experiments for teaching purposes  Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G.
Describes a number of rapid thin-layer chromatography separations that can be conveniently used to introduce chromatography in the teaching laboratory.
Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 545.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
An apparatus for determining the composition of solutions  Castell, Jerry; Amis, Edward S.
An evaporating apparatus constructed from a beaker and a glass fritted crucible.
Castell, Jerry; Amis, Edward S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 500.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
A unified apparatus for paper and gel electrophoresis  Racusen, David; White, Lee
Presents an apparatus that can be used for either paper and gel electrophoresis.
Racusen, David; White, Lee J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 439.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Effects of stray light in spectroscopy  Cook, R. B.; Jankow, R.
Defines stray light and examines its effects on band shapes, accuracy, and Beer's law plots and their linearity.
Cook, R. B.; Jankow, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 405.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Circular chromatography of inks  Wan, Alfred S. C.
Circular chromatography provides a very convenient and rapid method for demonstrating the principles of paper chromatography.
Wan, Alfred S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 335.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
A multi-purpose separatory funnel  Kim, Young S.; Zeitlin, Harry
Design of a multi-purpose separatory funnel equipped with a Teflon stopcock in which a number of operations can be carried out conveniently.
Kim, Young S.; Zeitlin, Harry J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 296.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Reclamation of gold  Shaw, C. Frank III; Tobias, R. Stuart
An improved procedure for the recovery of gold from laboratory reaction residues.
Shaw, C. Frank III; Tobias, R. Stuart J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 286.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Measurement or interpretation?  Atkinson, George F.
Questions the trend of moving away from teaching students how to make valid experimental measurements.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 226.
Instrumental Methods
Extraction of caffeine  Moye, Alfred L.
Much greater yields can be obtained by extracting caffeine from No-Doz tablets than coffee or tea.
Moye, Alfred L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 194.
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Increased utilization of electronic apparatus  Twigg, Martyn V.
It is possible to utilize more fully an electronic instrument by connecting it to several probes via a simple switch unit.
Twigg, Martyn V. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 191.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Procedure for recovering elemental silver from silver residues  Steed, S. Paul; Hayes, Janan M.
A procedure for recovering silver from a mixture of silver salts.
Steed, S. Paul; Hayes, Janan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 156.
Metals |
Separation Science
Solvent extraction apparatus  Tobey, Stephen W.
Describes a solvent extraction head that provides an apparatus in which all regular laboratory continuous solvent extractions can be performed.
Tobey, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 141.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple apparatus for teaching the principles of chromatography  Kellomaki, Aarre
A device that follows the elution of electrolytes through liquid column chromatography by continuously measuring the conductivity of the effluent.
Kellomaki, Aarre J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 139.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The separation of a sodium-rubidium mixture on an ion-exchanger. A laboratory experiment  Coetzee, C. J.
This experiment demonstrates the separation of sodium and rubidium from each other on an AMP-asbestos ion exchange column.
Coetzee, C. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 33.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Instrumental techniques compared by analysis of a reaction mixture  Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O.
The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint the student with how a combination of instruments (glc, ir, and nmr) can be used to separate as well as to identify each compound in a reaction mixture.
Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 827.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
"Show 'N' tell". An organic chemical presentation for the layman  Harrison, Aline M.
The author presents a separation technique from organic chemistry.
Harrison, Aline M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 612.
Separation Science
Pigments from some marine specimens. The isolation and spectral characterization of spinochromes  Chang, C. W. J.; Moore, J. C.
This experiment allows students to examine some common pigments extracted from marine animals.
Chang, C. W. J.; Moore, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 408.
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Trimyristin from nutmeg  Frank, Forrest; Roberts, Theodore; Snell, Jane; Yates, Christy; Collins, Joseph
The author proposes the isolation and saponification of trimytistin from nutmeg as an excellent experiment to introduce general chemistry students to laboratory techniques or for use with the organic chemistry course in which case more techniques an be introduces.
Frank, Forrest; Roberts, Theodore; Snell, Jane; Yates, Christy; Collins, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 255.
Natural Products |
Food Science |
Separation Science
The preparation and isomerization of allyl thiocyanate. An organic chemistry experiment  Emergon, David W.
The present experiment has been devised to focus attention on two displacement reactions, one at carbon and one at sulfur and the facile allylic rearrangement of allyl thiocyanate (III) to allyl isothiocyanate (IV) which occurs during the distillation. Equations are shown in the article.
Emergon, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 81.
Separation Science
Liquid chromatography detectors - Part one  Veening, Hans
Surveys photometric liquid chromatography detectors.
Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A549.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Current trends in gel permeation chromatography. Part two: Methodology  Cazes, Jack
Examines the subjects of calibration, estimation of molecular weight distribution, fractionation of low molecular weight substances, and recycling chromatography.
Cazes, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A505.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Calibration
Current trends in gel permeation chromatography. Part one: Theory and equipment  Cazes, Jack
This report is presented as a supplement to an earlier pair of papers on gel permeation chromatography and considers the mechanism of separation, resolution, equipment, and column substrates
Cazes, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A461.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Fourier Transform Spectrometers - Part Three (Continued)  Low, M. J. D.
Examines instruments produced by the Digilab, Inc.
Low, M. J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A415.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
Chemical separation methods (Dean, John A.)  Culp, Robert A.

Culp, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A396.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Chromatography (Browning, D. R.)  Karger, Barry L.

Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A306.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Instrumental methods of chemical analysis (Ewing, Galen)  Safford, H. W.

Safford, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A128.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Separation of leucine and isoleucine by thin-layer chromatography  Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr.
This experiment involves the separation of leucine and isoleucine through continuous ascending thin layer chromatography.
Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 840.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
The isomerization of xylenes. An experiment for the organic or instrumental laboratory  Harbison, Kenneth G.
This experiment illustrates both qualitative and quantitative applications of infrared spectroscopy for the analysis of mixtures, as well as providing an interesting study of the mechanism of Friedel-Crafts reactions.
Harbison, Kenneth G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 837.
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Constitutional Isomers
Emission spectroscopy using a photoresistor as a light detector  McMeekin, Samuel G.; Toby, Frina S.; Toby, Sidney
Describes a simple, robust yet sensitive light detector system that relies on a cadmium sulfoselenide photoresistor.
McMeekin, Samuel G.; Toby, Frina S.; Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 832.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Use of felt-tipped pens with recorders  Ringen, John C.
Using a felt-tipped pen with recorders eliminates problems with pens that rely on ink reservoirs.
Ringen, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 716.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods
Simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis of a 3-component mixture: An experiment for instrumental analysis  Hargis, L. G.; Harker, G. G., III; Huntington, J. L., Jr.; Gruber, T. A.
The experiment described herein is fashioned from a published report describing an approach to the analysis of 3-component mixtures of the isomeric cresols.
Hargis, L. G.; Harker, G. G., III; Huntington, J. L., Jr.; Gruber, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 712.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Experiments in paper chromatography  Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K.
Briefly summarizes a series of paper chromatography experiments that demonstrate basic physical and inorganic principles, as well as providing an introduction to a useful separation technique.
Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 688.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The effect of pH on the extraction of copper oxinate into chloroform  Dilts, Robert V.
To illustrate the theoretical aspects of metal chelate extractions, an experiment to determine the percent extraction-pH curve for copper 8-hydroxyquinolate is presented.
Dilts, Robert V. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 661.
pH |
Separation Science |
Metals
A tunable amplifier for an audio-frequency Wheatstone Bridge  DeSieno, Robert P.; Du, John
Presents a circuit that provides an inexpensive high-gain amplifier that can be tuned sharply at several frequencies.
DeSieno, Robert P.; Du, John J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 635.
Instrumental Methods
Reference beam attenuator for ir spectrophotometer  Helsen, Jef
Design for a simple reference beam attenuator for an ir spectrophotometer.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 576.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Rapidly assembled, linear AC conductance or resistance recorder  Olsen, Eugene D.; Martin, Robert J.; Ahnell, Joseph E.
This paper describes an ac resistance or conductance breadboard-type instrument that can be built in less than an hour by a beginning electronics student.
Olsen, Eugene D.; Martin, Robert J.; Ahnell, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 542.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Vacuum distillation experiment  Schoffstall, Allen M.; Specht, James D.
The primary purpose of this experiment is to provide the student with a feeling similar to that of a researcher who is attempting to separate by distillation a mixture containing a product of unknown structure for identification.
Schoffstall, Allen M.; Specht, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 539.
Separation Science
A simple streaker for preparative layer chromatography  Altman, L. J.; Trudell, James R.
Presents a simple streaker for preparative layer chromatography and explains its use.
Altman, L. J.; Trudell, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 404.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation in organic chemistry  Vlassis, C. G.; Cupillari, Thomas G.
Describes an experience in which sophomore organic chemistry students learn largely independently to use instrumentation.
Vlassis, C. G.; Cupillari, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 400.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Bibliography of experimental gas chromatography  Miller, James M.
Summarizes publications of homemade gas chromatography instruments and educational experiments involving their use.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 306.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Adsorbent extractor for preparative thin-layer chromatography  Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, Donald G.
Device to remove sample containing regions from cellulose thin-layer chromatograms and extract the samples that eliminates many of the problems associated with other methods.
Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 229.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A short, intensive experiment in paper chromatography  McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre
A paper chromatographic system capable of separating a challenging mixture of components (amino acids) in less than three hours.
McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 141.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
A laboratory course on digital computers in chemical instrumentations  Perone, S. P.
Examines on-line computerized experimentation in the laboratory, and educational program in computerized instrumentation, and hardware for on-line experimentation and interface design.
Perone, S. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 105.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A simple laboratory experiment on PVP column chromatography  Lerner, Joseph
This experiment deals with the separation of three colored biochemicals, two of which are vitamins, the other a protein.
Lerner, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 32.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Vitamins
Raman spectroscopy - Part two  Bulkin, Bernard J.
Examines aspects of detection and amplification, sample illumination and handling, and future trends in Raman spectroscopy.
Bulkin, Bernard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A859.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Raman Spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy  Part One  Bulkin, Bernard
This article discusses the current status of Raman instrumentation from the viewpoint of componentslasers, monochromators, detectors, amplifying systems, and sample handling.
Bulkin, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A781.
Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Pressure transducers - Part two  Curran, David J.
Surveys commercial capacitive, inductive, and piezoelectric pressure transducers.
Curran, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A465.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Mass spectrometers - Part three - Commercial spectrometers  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines a variety of commercial mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A233.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mass spectrometers - Part two  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines mass-analyzer systems and detectors as well as the resolution and performance of mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A149.
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Transistorized power sources for constant current coulometric titration  Stock, John T.
This coulometric titrator uses a complementary pair of transistors to minimize heating affects and improve stability with respect to temperature; an example of experimental use for the apparatus is included.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 858.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Potentiometric determination of solubility product constants: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
This paper describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 857.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A versatile and compact chromatographic chamber  Lehrfeld, J.
This simple and inexpensive glass chamber facilitates thin-layer chromatography separations of a large number of samples within 5 minutes.
Lehrfeld, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The essential oils: A series of laboratory experiments  Runquist, Olaf
Describes a variety of "research type" laboratory problems for the second term introductory organic chemistry course involving essential oils.
Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 846.
Lipids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A simple, inexpensive zone extractor for preparative thin-layer chromatography  Kan, G.; Snieckus, V.
This short note presents the design of a simple, inexpensive zone extractor for preparative thin-layer chromatography.
Kan, G.; Snieckus, V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 763.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Nmr analysis of water-acetic acid solutions  Brabson, G. Dana
Presents an experiment intended to teach the operation of NMR instrumentation and the interpretation of the data it collects, as well as demonstrate a significant principle of chemistry.
Brabson, G. Dana J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 754.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
An introduction to chromatography  Gaucher, G. M.
The object of this presentation is to serve as a preliminary practical introduction and guide to chromatography.
Gaucher, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 729.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Ion Exchange
The pKa of a weak acid as a function of temperature and ionic strength: An experiment using a pH meter  Bada, Jeffrey L.
This report presents a procedure for using a pH meter to determine the pKa of a weak acid as a function of temperature and ionic strength.
Bada, Jeffrey L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 689.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Equilibrium
Counter-current distribution as a student laboratory experiment  Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran
This experiment demonstrates the principles of extraction and counter-current distribution as well as spectrophotometric analysis.
Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 525.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Analytical chemistry for honors applied chemistry students  Atkinson, G. F.
This paper outlines the analytical chemistry content of a new program being introduced at the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) and discusses some of the rationale underlying the development.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 519.
Instrumental Methods
A semi-micro filtration apparatus  Kocon, Richard W.
An inexpensive vacuum filtration apparatus that combines the features of small surface area in the filter, rapid passage of solution through the filter, and concentration of the filtrate in a relatively small area.
Kocon, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 516.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Modifications of solution chromatography illustrated with chloroplast pigments  Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph
Using plant pigments to demonstrate various chromatographic techniques, including column adsorption, paper adsorption, paper partition, column partition, and thin layer chromatography.
Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 476.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Teflon enclosed steel spiral as column packing  Greenberg, Fred H.
Using steel wire enclosed in Teflon in place of a tantalum wire spiral as fractionating column packing.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 464.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An instrument for source intensity compensation in atomic fluorescence  O'Haver, T. C.; Winefordner, J. D.
The purpose of this paper is to describe an instrumental system that compensates for variations in the source intensity, thus allowing the use of unstable electrodeless discharge lamps as sources of excitation in atomic flame spectrometry.
O'Haver, T. C.; Winefordner, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 435.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Integrated circuits in the instrumental laboratory  Scherer, George A.
A brief introduction to integrated circuits that exemplifies their use in instrumentation through the construction of a square wave generator, audio amplifier, decimal counting unit, and operational amplifier.
Scherer, George A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 399.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Semiconductors
Turbidimetric determination of chelated calcium at various pH levels: An analytical laboratory experiment  L'Annunziata, Michael F.; Fuller, Wallace
A turbidimetric method has been developed that allows the determination of chelated calcium in the presence of micromolar amounts of chelating agents at any level of the pH scale.
L'Annunziata, Michael F.; Fuller, Wallace J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 172.
pH |
Quantitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods
Column chromatography spectrometry for separating two cobalt complexes: A laboratory experiment  Schmitt, Donald L.; Jonassen, Hans B.
This paper presents the details of the separation of [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 from [Co(NH3)5]Cl2 using molecular sieves.
Schmitt, Donald L.; Jonassen, Hans B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 47.
Chromatography |
Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds
Disc electrophoresis  Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B.
Describes the procedures involved in separating proteins or nucleic acids through disc electrophoresis.
Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 41.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Separation Science
Introduction to Chromatography (Bobbitt, James M.; Schwarting, Arthur E.; Gritter, Roy J.)  Silberman, Robert

Silberman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A986.
Organometallics |
Separation Science
Reflectometers, Colorimeters, and Reflectance Attachments - Part Two  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines a variety of commercial reflectometers, colorimeters, and reflectance attachments.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A947.
Instrumental Methods
Effect of shock on CS2 vapor  Viswanathan, Arcot
An explosive shock separates CS2 into its constituent elements.
Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A901.
Gases |
Separation Science
Reflectometers, colorimeters, and reflectance attachments - Part one  Wendlandt, Wesley W.
Examines commercial reflectance attachments.
Wendlandt, Wesley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A861.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Oscilloscopes in chemistry - Part two  Nelson, Joseph E.
Examines the triggered oscilloscope, pug-in amplifiers, special oscilloscopes, and their applications.
Nelson, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A787.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Signal to noise optimization in chemistry - Part two: S/N considerations in designing a measuring system  Coor, Thomas
Considers system grounding, transducers, amplifiers, signal processing, and lock-in amplifiers.
Coor, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A583.
Instrumental Methods
Signal to noise optimization in chemistry - Part one  Coor, Thomas
Reviews the properties of the various sources of noise confronted by the chemist in making measurements and various ways to avoid unnecessary noise.
Coor, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A533.
Instrumental Methods
Moisture measurement  Ewing, Galen W.
Reviews a wide variety of analytical methods and commercial devices for measuring moisture content in gases, liquids, and solids.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A377.
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry
Recent Instrumentation for UV-Visible Spectrophotometry - Part 1 (continued): Dual-Beam Spectrophotometers  Lott, Peter F.
Examines a variety of commercial, dual-beam spectrophotometers.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A169.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modern laboratory balances (concluded). Part one - Lever-arm balances (cont'd). Part two - Strain balances. Part three - Recording and automatic balances  Hirsch, Roland F.
Examines a series of modern laboratory balances, including lever-arm, strain balances, recording, and automatic balances.
Hirsch, Roland F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A7.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple low-current potentiostat coulometric analysis  Stock, John T.
Presents a circuit diagram for a potentiostat and describes its use to conduct a coulometric analysis of 2,2-dinitropropane.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 736.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry
Natural products isolation - orange oil: An undergraduate organic experiment  Greenberg, F. H.
This procedure involves the isolation of orange oil from orange peel an the identification of a major component - limonene.
Greenberg, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 537.
Separation Science |
Natural Products
A versatile ionization detector system for gas chromatography  Nowak, A. V.; Malmstadt, H. V.
A versatile and inexpensive ionization detector is described that can increase the utility of any gas chromatograph to which it is attached.
Nowak, A. V.; Malmstadt, H. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 519.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Analytical chemistry  Rogers, L. B.
The purpose of this paper is to indicate that the academic analytical chemist should not only incorporate the ideas of computer control in his teaching but also should use computers to operate his research equipment.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 463.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A simple sprayer for quantitative thin-layer chromatography  Samuels, Stanley
A simple, inexpensive sprayer for chromatographic use that can be constructed by a student as a laboratory project.
Samuels, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 438.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An inexpensive sprayer for chromatography  DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis
This short note presents a simple and inexpensive sprayer for paper and thin-layer chromatography.
DeThomas, Anthony V.; Pascual, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 321.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The identification of vegetable oils: A gas chromatographic experiment  Cover, Richard E.
In this procedure the student is given a sample of oil which he saponifies and then esterfies to form the methyl esters of the fatty acids; the esters are then extracted, concentrated, and identified through gas chromatography.
Cover, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 120.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis
Analytical chemistry  Rogers, L. B.
Many of the guiding principles for optimizing chromatographic separations are appropriate for inclusion in an undergraduate analytical course.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 7.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Theory and applications of thermistors  Boucher, E. A.
Examines semiconductor theory and the manufacture, characteristics, and uses of thermistors.
Boucher, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A935.
Instrumental Methods |
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry
Thin-layer chromatography (Randerath, Kurt)  Malins, Donald C.

Malins, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A912.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Recent developments in calorimetry. Part 3. Some specific types of calorimeters (conclusion)  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Examines the topics of solution calorimetry, microcalorimetry, dynamic calorimetry, and the instrumentation used to conduct these analyses.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A853.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry: Part two. Some associated measurements (cont.)  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Examines the measurement of electricity, calorimetric standards, solution calorimetry, and specific types of calorimeters.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A685.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry. Part 1. Introductory survey of calorimetry  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Explores the scope and purpose of calorimetric investigation, types of calorimeters, areas of calorimetric investigation and the procedures and calculations involved.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A571.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modern laboratory balances  Hirsch, Roland F.
Examines the theory behind the operation of lever-arm balances and their methods of operation.
Hirsch, Roland F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1023.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
X-ray diffraction analysis Part 2. X-ray tubes and monochromatization  Rudman, Reuben
Examines X-ray diffraction tubes, beta-filters, pulse-height analysis, and crystal monochromators.
Rudman, Reuben J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A99.
X-ray Crystallography |
Instrumental Methods
Avoiding parallax error when reading a mercury manometer  Carroll, H. L.
This short note describes a simple method employing graph paper to avoid parallax error when reading a mercury manometer.
Carroll, H. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 763.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chromatographic methods (Stock, R.)  Sherma, Joseph

Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 624.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple gas-liquid chromatography device  Silberman, Robert
Describes a simple device for demonstrating the principle of gas chromatography.
Silberman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 590.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Qualitative analysis with paper chromatography  Poonia, N. S.
A spot of an unknown mixture is subjected to radial development, and the circular chromatogram is divided into a number of segments used for the detection of different cations or groups of cations.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 477.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A modular system for teaching instrumental chemical analysis  Morgenthaler, L. P.
Identifies eight experiments performed using modular equipment in an instrumental analysis course.
Morgenthaler, L. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 325.
Instrumental Methods
Methods of separation: The sophomore analytical course  Dilts, Robert V.
Describes the development of a course in separation methods.
Dilts, Robert V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 313.
Separation Science
Test tube and glass rod tlc  Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer
Describes the use of test tubes and glass rods coated on their outer surfaces for thin layer chromatography.
Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 297.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The use of talc as a tlc adsorbent  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes the use of talc as a thin layer chromatography adsorbent, particularly with respect to the separation of flavonoids, sugars, and proteins.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 294.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Condensed norms: ACS cooperative examinations  
Provides norms for the 1966 ACS high school, inorganic, instrumental analysis, and quantitative analysis chemistry tests.
J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 243.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Liquid-liquid extraction  Joseph-Nathan, P.
Describes how liquid-liquid extraction can be done using commercially available substances and an apparatus of small dimensions that still allows an experiment to be followed visually.
Joseph-Nathan, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 176.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A practical method of removing oxygen from inert gases  Broadbent, A. D.
Describes the use of BTS-catalyst to remove oxygen from nitrogen and other inert gases.
Broadbent, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 145.
Gases |
Separation Science |
Catalysis
Instrumentation for atomic absorptionPart two  Kahn, Herbert L.
Considers sources of atomic absorption, single-element hollow cathodes, manufacturers and lamp life, vapor discharge lamps, multi-element lamps, high brightness lamps, monochromators and detectors, and flame emission operation.
Kahn, Herbert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A103.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Instrumentation for atomic absorptionPart one  Kahn, Herbert L.
Examines the advantages, analytical possibilities, interferences, sensitivities, and instrumental systems of atomic absorption.
Kahn, Herbert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A7.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Enamine reactions for the undergraduate organic laboratory: A student water separator  Darling, S. D.
This note describes the design and efficiency of a device that facilitates the removal of water in reactions such as enamine preparation or esterfications.
Darling, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 665.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Separation Science
Multiple-scan infrared interference spectroscopy  Low, Manfred J. D.
Describes the design, operation, and application of a multiple-scan Michelson interference spectrometer.
Low, Manfred J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 637.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A simple variable speed wavelength drive  Harrison, W. W.; Norvelle, A. W., Jr.
Describes a simple variable speed wavelength drive designed for use with a Beckman DU.
Harrison, W. W.; Norvelle, A. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 598.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumental Methods of Analysis (Willard, Hobart H.; Merritt, Lynne L., Jr.; Dean, John A.)  Safford, H. W.

Safford, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 506.
Instrumental Methods
Microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis and ion migration  Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V.
Ferric hydroxide and arsenious sulfide are separated using a 9-volt battery.
Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 436.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Colloids
A simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis  Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A.
Present a circuit diagram and describes typical applications of a simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis.
Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 428.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods
Paper chromatography and spot tests: A useful combination of techniques  Poonia, N. S.
Reports on the specificity of identification afforded by spot test reagents and provides Rf values for 36 inorganic ions.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 423.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Metals
Letter to the editor (the author replies)  Hollahan, John R.
The technique in the cited article is not a new one.
Hollahan, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 392.
Instrumental Methods
Letter to the editor  Gleit, Chester F.
The technique in the cited article is not a new one.
Gleit, Chester F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 392.
Instrumental Methods
Systems for automatic direct readout of rate data  Malmstadt, H. V.; Crouch, S. R.
Presents three systems for rate measurements that are based on comparison measurement principles.
Malmstadt, H. V.; Crouch, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 340.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Rate Law
Xylene analysis: Integrated experiment in instrumental analysis  Hanrahan, E. S.
Xylene containing major amounts of ethylbenzene, toluene, and three xylene isomers, is analyzed using infrared and gas chromatographic analysis.
Hanrahan, E. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 321.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds
Dependence of the Beer-Lambert absorption law on monochromatic radiation: An experiment of spectrophotometry  Wentworth, Wayne E.
The purpose of this paper is to present an experiment that clearly emphasizes the necessity of using monochromatic radiation.
Wentworth, Wayne E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 262.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A versatile continuous percolator-extractor  Ciereszko, Leon S.
An apparatus that may be used either for the continuous percolation of solids or for the continuous extraction of liquids is presented.
Ciereszko, Leon S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 252.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Solids |
Liquids
Interferometric spectroscopy in the far infrared  Hurley, William J.
Examines interferometric spectroscopy instrumentation, interferograms, interferometry versus conventional spectroscopy, and some chemical applications of interferometric spectroscopy.
Hurley, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 236.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Instructional NMR instrument  Proffitt, Michael H.; Gardiner, W. C., Jr.
Presents circuit diagrams for the components of an instructional NMR instrument.
Proffitt, Michael H.; Gardiner, W. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 152.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Acetylation of ferrocene: A chromatography experiment for elementary organic laboratory  Bozak, Richard E.
The acetylation of ferrocene with acetic anhydride and phosphoric acid produces a mixture of unchanged ferrocene and acetylferrocene that is readily separated in a regular chromatography column.
Bozak, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 73.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Resolution in linear elution chromatography  Karger, Barry L.
Examines fundamentals of resolution that are common to all chromatographic methods.
Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 47.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopyPart Five  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines double-imaging, surface profile, and standards microscopes, as well as oculars, body tubes, objectives, and stages.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A945.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopyPart four  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines types of compound microscopes and micrometer-equiped microscopes.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A853.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopy. Part three  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines optical principles of the compound microscope, the role of the eye, the process of visual magnification, image quality, resolution versus magnification, and microscope objective and ocular lenses.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A775.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopyPart 2  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines dispersion, chromatic aberration and correction, highly corrected magnifiers, limitations of single lenses, and the compound microscope.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A619.
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopy  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines types of magnifiers, the biconvex lens and its applications, magnification, depth of focus, limitations of simple lenses, and spherical correction and aberration.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A565.
Instrumental Methods
Elementary infrared spectroscopy (Meloan, Clifton E.)  Cooke, W. D.

Cooke, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A492.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation for electrodeposition and coulometryPart two  Lott, Peter F.
Examines all-electronic potentiostats, constant current coulometry, galvanostats, and a microcoulometric titration system.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A361.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Instrumentation for electrodeposition and coulometryPart one  Lott, Peter F.
Examines electrodeposition, controlled potential analysis, potentiostats, and other electromechanical devices.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A261.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Luminous gas light sources  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines luminous gas behavior, glow discharge tubes, high intensity glow discharge lamps, electronic flask tubes, and arc discharge lamps.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A165.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Thin-layer chromatography: A laboratory handbook (Stahl, Egon)  Malins, Donald C.

Malins, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 692.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Natural product chemistry: Laboratory research approach for elementary organic courses  O'Connor, Rod
Describes a program designed to introduce macro, semi-micro, and micro techniques of organic chemistry of the types commonly employed in research in natural product chemistry or in biologically-related fields.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 492.
Natural Products |
Undergraduate Research |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Experiments in inorganic paper chromatography  Walton, Harold F.
Experiments typical of those done in geochemical work involve the detection and estimation of uranium, copper, cobalt, and nickel.
Walton, Harold F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 477.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Geochemistry |
Metals
A simple high frequency transistor recorder for chromatography  Jackson, A.
Describes the design and operation of a simple high frequency transistor recorder for chromatography.
Jackson, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 447.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Automatic fraction collector for column chromatography  Herbener, R. E.
This article describes the construction of an automatically timed fraction collector for use with chromatographic columns.
Herbener, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 445.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis  van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F.
Presents the design and an evaluation of performance for a simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis.
van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Use of polychromatic radiation in absorption photometry  Strong, Frederick C., III
Proportionality between concentration and absorbance (Beer's Law) requires approximately monochromatic radiation to the extent that the variation of absorptivities with wavelength results in less error than other instrumental and chemical errors.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 342.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) chloride  Guenther, William B.
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) from 8 M HCl solution is a simple method of separating iron from the other components of stainless steel alloys.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 277.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Iron(III) determination using liquid-liquid extraction and colorimetry  Holt, Robert L.; Easley, William K.
The determination of iron(III) employing 8-hydroxyquinoline combines liquid / liquid extraction with the use of a pH meter as well as introducing the student to the formation and properties of complexes.
Holt, Robert L.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 276.
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds
Several designs for constructing potentiometers  Battino, Rubin
This paper describes several designs for constructing inexpensive potentiometers that possess a practical degree of precision.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 211.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Apparatus for steam distillation  Mallory, Frank B.
This apparatus for steam distillation eliminates the time required to bore corks with a more traditional apparatus.
Mallory, Frank B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 108.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Modular instrumentation in analytical chemistry  Ewing, Galen W.
It is the purpose of this paper to describe an approach to modular instrumentation in analytical chemistry in which students complete the assembly of partially assembled instruments.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 32.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mechanical aids for the interpretation of infrared absorption spectral data  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines computer systems, search procedures, microfilm storage, and future developments.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A921.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Mechanical aids for the interpretation of infrared absorption spectral data  Slavin Donald G.
Examines the topics of spectral-structure correlation charts, book indices, the operation of "Spec-Finder," punched card identification systems, edge punched cards, and optical coincidence systems.
Slavin Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A827.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Apparatus for large scale gas chromatography  Bayer, Ernst
Examines the design and operation of large scale gas chromatography columns.
Bayer, Ernst J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A755.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part three: Miscellaneous  Eisner, Leonard
Considers magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, atomic beam spectroscopy, mass spectrometers, chromatography, electrochemistry, electron diffraction, field emission microscopes, glass blowing and vacuum systems, high and low temperatures, and ultrasonics.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A607.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Magnetic Properties |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part one: Optical devices (continued)  Eisner, Leonard
Examines lasers used as instrumental teaching equipment.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A551.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part one: Optical devices  Eisner, Leonard
Examines the attributes of teaching equipment, teaching fundamental principles, optics and spectroscopy, and spectroscopic equipment of modular design.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A491.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Instrumentation for fluorometry. Part two  Lott, Peter F.
Examines a variety of fluorometers, including filter fluorometers.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A421.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Thin layer chromatography (Bobbitt, James M.)  Wollish, E. G.

Wollish, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A396.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Experimental gas chromatography (Miller, James M.)  Sawyer, Donald T.

Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A214.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Mass spectrometry, part two  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A.
Considers the applications of mass spectrometry and various commercial mass spectrometers.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A153.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A.
Examines the theory of mass spectroscopy and factors that influence mass spectra.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A75.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Crystalline molecular sieves  Breck, D. W.
This article introduces zeolites - crystalline aluminosilicates that function as molecular sieves.
Breck, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 678.
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Ion Exchange |
Catalysis
Adaptation of a Sargent polarograph to a pen recording instrument  Haas, J. W., Jr.
This brief note describes the adaptation of a Sargent polarograph to a pen recording instrument.
Haas, J. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 632.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive centrifuge for micro qualitative analysis  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Presents an inexpensive micro centrifuge.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Demonstrating Job's method with colorimeter or spectrophotometer  Carmody, Walter R.
Presents a method for demonstrating Job's method of continuous variations with a colorimeter or spectrophotometer.
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 615.
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
Electrophoresis using thin layer materials  Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Thin layer materials prepared for chromatography are used for electrophoresis.
Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Ion exchange by a natural clay mineral: A demonstration experiment  Mucci, Joseph F.; Hollister, Charlotte; Marshall, Louise R.
This demonstration experiment illustrates the exchange properties of the natural clay mineral montmorillonite as well as vividly displaying the relative ease of replacing cesium by cobalt and cobalt by cesiums using this exchanger.
Mucci, Joseph F.; Hollister, Charlotte; Marshall, Louise R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 602.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
A novel distillation flask  Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A.
Presents a design for a distillation flask that relies on boiling the liquid in an inverted conical flask heated by a Nichrome wire element.
Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Interpretation of mass spectra of organic compounds (Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Djerassi, Carl; Williams, Dudley H.)  Silverstein, Robert M.

Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 464.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Modified single deflection weighing  Knudson, George E.
Describes a single deflection method of weighing using older, double pan balances.
Knudson, George E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 449.
Instrumental Methods
Separation and identification of copper and cadmium  Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L.
Describes three semimicro procedures for the separation and identification of copper and cadmium.
Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 439.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Column chromatographic analysis of the metal ions  Marie, Sister Eleanor, S. S. J.
Presents a column chromatographic analysis of the metal ions that is superior to conventional methods.
Marie, Sister Eleanor, S. S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 436.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Metals |
Separation Science
Fractionating column efficiency: Quantitative experiment in elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Ault, Addison
This experiment estimates the efficiency of a fractionating column by slowly distilling a three-to-one mixture of toluene and benzene.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 432.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Dual column gas chromatography: A teaching tool  Miller, James M.
Presents advantages to and several experiments involving dual column gas chromatography.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 413.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Travel of molecules and disturbances in chromatographic columns: A paradox and its resolution  Helfferich, F.
The purpose of the present communication is to contribute toward a better understanding of some fundamental, but not obvious, aspects of nonlinear chromatography by presenting and then resolving what appears to be, at first sight, a surprising paradox.
Helfferich, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 410.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
An anion exchange radiochemical experiment: Separation of manganese, zinc, and iron  Morie, Gerald P.; Sweet, Thomas R.; Pitstick, Gerald F.
The separation of manganese, zinc, and iron is based on distribution coefficients reported for tartrate complexes.
Morie, Gerald P.; Sweet, Thomas R.; Pitstick, Gerald F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 389.
Ion Exchange |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science
Construction of a simple refractometer: A chemical instrumentation experiment  Coe, Gordon R.; Conlon, Ralph D.; Dessy, Raymond E.
The construction of a simple refractometer can be used as an experiment to teach basic concepts of instrumentation.
Coe, Gordon R.; Conlon, Ralph D.; Dessy, Raymond E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 337.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A versatile and inexpensive controlled potential polarographic analyzer  Enke, C. G.; Baxter, R. A.
The instrument described in this article was built to be used for basic research in nonaqueous and ac polarography and for instruction in polarographic principles and techniques in introductory and advanced analytical chemistry laboratories.
Enke, C. G.; Baxter, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 202.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A demonstration device for gas chromatography  Herbener, R. E.
This paper describes the construction and use of a simple gas chromatograph with removable covers for class demonstrations.
Herbener, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 162.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Zone refining  Christian, John D.
Demonstrates the process of zone refining.
Christian, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A409.
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry
The extraction of metals from ores  Keubel, A.
Provides suggestions for research based on earlier published articles.
Keubel, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A186.
Undergraduate Research |
Metals |
Separation Science
Zone refining  Christian, J. D.
Provides suggestions for research based on an earlier published article.
Christian, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A186.
Undergraduate Research |
Separation Science
A text-book of quantitative inorganic analysis including elementary instrumental analysis (Vogel, Arthur I.)  Welcher, Frank J.

Welcher, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A68.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Chromatography (Heftmann, Erich, ed.)  Dehority, Burk A.

Dehority, Burk A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A63.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Clathrates: Compounds in cages  Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M.
Introduces clathrate compounds and examines some of their uses and applications.
Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 643.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
A gas chromatography demonstration apparatus  McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L.
Describes an apparatus for the separation of volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography using oxygen or air as the carrier gas.
McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 539.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis
Electrophoretic study of synthetic food dyes  Anwar, M. H.; Norman, S.; Anwar, B.; Laplaca, P.
Describes an experiment in which mixtures of synthetic food dyes are separated through electrophoresis.
Anwar, M. H.; Norman, S.; Anwar, B.; Laplaca, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 537.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
TLC separation of ink pigments  Druding, Leonard F.
The separation of inks into their component pigments was chosen for its simplicity in illustrating techniques and choice of solvent for thin layer chromatography; it also affords the student the opportunity to visually observe the course of the separation.
Druding, Leonard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 536.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
TLC on microscope slides: An organic chemistry experiment  Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S.
This experiment consists of three sections: separation of known and unknown dye mixtures; separation of known and unknown mixtures of phenols; separation of dyes and impurities.
Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 534.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Phenols
TLCVersatile tool  Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C.
Examines apparatus and techniques, lecture demonstrations, laboratory experiments and general applications associated with thin layer chromatography.
Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 531.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Physical and chemical methods of separation (Berg, Eugene W.)  Rogers, Lockhart B.

Rogers, Lockhart B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 501.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography
An inexpensive spectrograph of moderately high resolution  Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D.
This article describes a spectrograph with a resolving power greater than 6000 that can easily be built for a minimal cost.
Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 452.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The lighter lanthanides: A laboratory experiment in rare earth chemistry  Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C.
Presents a laboratory experiment designed to illustrate the separation and properties of the rare earths.
Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 433.
Transition Elements |
Separation Science
Simple evaporator for heat sensitive compounds  Begeman, Charles R.
Presents a simple evaporator for heat sensitive compounds that is similar to common flask rotating devices.
Begeman, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 427.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Apparatus for molecular distillation and vacuum sublimation  Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F.
A simple, inexpensive yet highly effective apparatus for laboratory scale purifications by molecular distillation or vacuum sublimation has been designed.
Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Qualitative detection of Ba, Sr, and Ca ions  Pariza, Richard
This short note presents a procedure for the separation of Ba++, Ca++, and Sr++ in pairs or combination of the three.
Pariza, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 417.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A simple separation of the group II-A sulfides  O'Donnell, T. A.
Presents a group separation scheme for the separation of lead from bismuth and copper from cadmium.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 415.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Dissolving difficultly soluble salts with chelating ion exchange resins  Rich, Ronald
Chelating resins such as Dowex A-1 and Chelex 100 provide a new way of separating the ions of some difficultly soluble salts.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 414.
Ion Exchange |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Separation Science
Separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium  Abrao, Alcidio
Suggests techniques for the separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium without relying on HCN.
Abrao, Alcidio J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 413.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
A quantitative experiment with paper chromatography  Frierson, W. Joe; Marable, Nina; Bruce, Becky
A procedure developed for the separation and determination of cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc has been combined with more recent methods for the spectrophotometric determination of cobalt and nickel and adapted to student use.
Frierson, W. Joe; Marable, Nina; Bruce, Becky J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 408.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Metals |
Spectroscopy
Electronics for scientists: Principles and experiments for those who use instruments (Malmstadt, H. V.; Enke, C. G.; Toren, E. C., Jr.)  Moorhead, E. D.

Moorhead, E. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 335.
Instrumental Methods
Demonstration of radioautography and paper chromatography using a Polaroid camera  Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M.
Presents a simple combined demonstration of paper chromatography and radioautography illustrating the separation of two C-14 labeled amino acids.
Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 243.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Letters to the editor (the author replies)  Racusen, David
Answers criticisms leveled at an earlier published paper.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Letters to the editor  Sherma, Joseph
Questions the conclusion regarding the utility of paper chromatography reached by an earlier published paper.
Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A glass electrode pH meter using a vacuum tube voltmeter  Brower, Harold E.
A simple pH meter can be constructed using a vacuum tube voltmeter.
Brower, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 85.
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
A modular approach to chemical instrumentation  Wise, Edward N.
Suggests a modular approach to assist students in acquiring familiarity with the application of instrumental principles.
Wise, Edward N. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 73.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Separatory funnel for successive extraction of the heavier phase  Hanrahan, Robert J.
Presents a double separatory funnel for re-extraction of the heavier phase.
Hanrahan, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 69.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Separation of plant pigments by thin layer chromatography  Anwar, M. H.
Describes a lab activity to separate chloroplast pigments over a thin layer of silicic acid.
Anwar, M. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 29.
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
Instrumentation based on operational amplifiers (Part II)  Reilley, C. N.
Examines standard voltage sources, differential operational amplifiers, consecutive circuits, and the solution of equations through op amp circuitry.
Reilley, C. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A933.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ion-exchange papers  Sherma, Joseph A., Jr.
Demonstrates the separation of cobalt(II) and iron(III) using ion-exchange paper.
Sherma, Joseph A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Introduction to chemical instrumentation: Electronic signals and operations (Bair, Edward J.)  Tabbutt, Frederick

Tabbutt, Frederick J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A684.
Instrumental Methods
Electroanalytical instrumentation  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines photographic and pen recording DC polarographs produced by various manufacturers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A445.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Electroanalytical instrumentation (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines polarographic instruments and their components and processes, including the slidewire, the galvanometer, damping, the shunt, and manual polarographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A355.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Electroanalytical Instrumentation  Lewin, S. Z.
Considers types of electrochemical techniques; principles of instrumentation; power supplies, their controllers and programmers; and detection circuitry.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A261.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Paper electrophoresis (Ribiero, L. P.; Mitidieri, E.; Affonso, O. R.)  Tarr, Donald A.

Tarr, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A228.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Gas chromatographs (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the read-out, zero suppression, read-out of peak areas, ball-and-disc integrator, electromagnetic integrators, all-electronic integrators, digital integrators, and various commercial, laboratory gas chromatographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A161.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Gas Chromatography (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the operating characteristics of the gas chromatography detector and various types of detectors, including thermal and flame conductivity detectors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A83.
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Gas Chromatography
Gas Chromatographs (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the nature of the packing in a gas chromatograph and its effects on the performance of the instrument.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A5.
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Letters  Dence, Joseph B.
The author provides some suggestions regarding the distillation of benzyl alcohol following the Cannizzaro reaction.
Dence, Joseph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 320.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Experiments and equipment for teaching chemical instrumentation  Tabbutt, Frederick D.
Examines a variety of instruments and their application in an instrumental course.
Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 611.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple method for determining number of theoretical plates  Williamson, A. G.
Describes a method for obtaining the number of theoretical plates in a distillation column from measurements of the equilibrium temperatures at the top and bottom of the column.
Williamson, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 579.
Separation Science
A large capacity laboratory extraction apparatus  Diaper, Dennis G. M.; Kuksis, Arnis
Presents a non-commercial design for a large capacity, Soxhlet extractor.
Diaper, Dennis G. M.; Kuksis, Arnis J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 532.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The investigation of unknowns by paper chromatography  Racusen, David
Presents a scheme for the systematic study of an unknown through paper chromatography.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 484.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Simplified atomic absorption spectrophotometer  Rechnitz, Garry A.
This paper presents a simple atomic absorption spectrophotometer that can be constructed from inexpensive and readily available components.
Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 475.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A new technique for centrifugal chromatography  Christensen, G. M.; Swor, R.
Describes a method modifying a standard laboratory centrifuge to be used for centrifugal chromatography.
Christensen, G. M.; Swor, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 347.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An X-Y recorder for reading a meter: A photoelectric scanning device  Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B.
Describes the design and operation of an automatic photoelectric scanning device that serves as an X-Y recorder.
Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 314.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Potentiometric determination of Kw with the glass electrode  Liberti, Arnaldo; Light, Truman S.
Presents a potentiometric method for determining the ionization product of water in a constant ionic medium.
Liberti, Arnaldo; Light, Truman S. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 236.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Countercurrent distribution: Apparatus for a simple experiment  Verzele, M.; Schamp, N.
Presents an apparatus and its application to perform a countercurrent distribution.
Verzele, M.; Schamp, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 97.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Liquids
Gas Chromatographs  Lewin, S. Z.
Topics examined include carrier gas, flow control, sample injection, and chromatographic columns.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A869.
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Chromatographic equipment (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines high voltage pherographs, column electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatographs, photometric effluent sensing systems, and refractometric effluent sensors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A789.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic equipment (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: design considerations for stabilized medium pherographs, specialized types of pherographs, continuous flow electrochromatographs, the continuous flow chromatograph, and fraction collectors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A713.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Qualitative Analysis and Analytical Chemical Separations (West, Philip W.; Vick, Maurice M.)  Frank, Richard E.

Frank, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A642.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Equipment (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines ascending, descending, and horizontal paper chromatographs; and centrifugally-, thermally-, and electrilytically-accelerated chromatographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A567.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Chomatographic Equipment  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: selectivity in the distribution of components between two phases, chromatographic development, types of chromatographic systems, the production of counter-current flow, the scale of chromatographic separations, the components of chromatographs, the two-phase system, and containers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A515.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Nuclear Radiation Detectors  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines electroscopes, ion chambers, Geiger-Mueller counters, scintillation detectors, and the voltage characteristics of detectors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A135.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Infrared spectrometers (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design and operation of various commercial models of infrared spectrometers and a flame photometer.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A71.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy
A titration controller for demonstrating the behavior of acid-base indicators  Stock, John T.
Presents a circuit diagram for a device that permits the automatic back-and-forth titration with acid and alkali of a solution containing an appropriate indicator.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 633.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
An inexpensive versatile multi-column gas chromatograph for students  Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A.
Presents the design of a multi-column, gas chromatography unit constructed from common laboratory materials.
Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 506.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experiments for Instrumental Methods (Reilley, Charles N.; Sawyer, Donald T.)  Tabbutt, Frederick D.

Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 481.
Instrumental Methods
Contemporary analysis and the chemistry curriculum  Rogers, L. B.
Examines a variety of curricular issues regarding analytical chemistry.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 455.
Qualitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Preparative separations replace typical qualitative analysis  Mahr, Carl
Discusses the use of preparative separations in qualitative analysis.
Mahr, Carl J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 407.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Ion exchange paper chromatography  Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P.
Describes an experiment/demonstration in ion exchange paper chromatography separating amino acids.
Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 406.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
An inexpensive coulometer for titrations with externally generated reagents  Head, William F., Jr.; Marsh, Max M.
Describes the design and use of an inexpensive coulometer for titrations with externally generated reagents.
Head, William F., Jr.; Marsh, Max M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 361.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The turbidimetric determination of lead  Perkins, Gerald, Jr.; Wimberley, J. W.; Lamb, J. F.; Maurer, L. E.
Describes the turbidimetric determination of lead precipitated with molybdate.
Perkins, Gerald, Jr.; Wimberley, J. W.; Lamb, J. F.; Maurer, L. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 358.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Infrared Spectrometers  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the components of infrared spectrometers and some commercial devices.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A781.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Spectrophotometers (cont'd)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the various components and operating characteristics of the Beckman Model DU.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A455.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Spectrophotometers  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the important components and operating characteristics of spectrophotometers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A401.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Photometers and colorimeters (cont'd)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines vacuum phototube photometers, photomultiplier tube photometers, instruments for color specification, and tristmulus colorimetry.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A271.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Photometers and Colorimeters  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines visual photometers, photovoltaic cell photometers, and photovoltaic cell circuitry.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A197.
Instrumental Methods
A convenient device for the evaporation of solvents  Sprinkzak, Yair
Presents the design of a device attached to a rotatory evaporator.
Sprinkzak, Yair J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 606.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Hydrocarbons in petroleum  Rossini, Frederick D.
Examines research and industrial processes involving the separation of petroleum into its constituent components.
Rossini, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 554.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Inexpensive polarimeter for demonstrations and student use  Garvin, James E.
This paper describes an easily assembled and inexpensive polarimeter and reports some results of its use in student experiments.
Garvin, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 515.
Instrumental Methods
A simple extraction experiment  Ellis, Lillian N.; Fox, Marjorie
In this experiment demonstrating the principles of extraction, the amount of solute remaining after single and multiple extractions is evaluated colorimetrically.
Ellis, Lillian N.; Fox, Marjorie J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 510.
Separation Science
A non-cyanide separation of copper from cadmium  Waggoner, William H.
A procedure has been developed for the separation of copper from cadmium that is based on the observation that thiocyanate ion will precipitate copper but not cadmium from an acidic solution.
Waggoner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 411.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A study of various methods for the analysis for Group III cations  Hahn, Richard B.; Sanders, Charlie H.
Results of a study comparing three methods for separating group III ions.
Hahn, Richard B.; Sanders, Charlie H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 408.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Separation Science
Research-oriented experiments in instrumental analysis  Sawyer, Donald T; Reilley, Charles N.
These experiments have been designed not only to illustrate analytical applications for instruments but also, whenever possible, to apply instrumental methods to the evaluation of physical chemical data.
Sawyer, Donald T; Reilley, Charles N. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 400.
Undergraduate Research |
Instrumental Methods
Demonstrating the relative polarity of non-conducting liquids  Siegel, S.
The apparatus described is based on the principle that an increase in the dielectric constant of the medium causes a decrease in the force of attraction between charged particles (in this case, two plastic beads).
Siegel, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 368.
Liquids
Building a high-frequency titrator for instructional use  Clinkscales, J. K., Jr.; Frye, Herschel
Describes the design and operating characteristics of a high-frequency titrator for instructional use.
Clinkscales, J. K., Jr.; Frye, Herschel J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 304.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
A semiautomatic polarograph: A low cost instrument for student use  Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B.
Presents the design of a semiautomatic polarograph suitable for introductory analytical chemistry.
Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 240.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A demonstration polarimeter  Spear, Carleton S.
Describes the construction of a simple polarimeter that can be constructed by students for use in laboratory experiments.
Spear, Carleton S. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 203.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Letters  Broadbank, R. W. C.; Dhabanandana, S.
The authors present a method for extracting protactinium-234 from uranyl nitrate solution.
Broadbank, R. W. C.; Dhabanandana, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 161.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Separation Science
An inexpensive apparatus for solubility measurements  Schmitt, Robert H.; Grove, E. L.
This brief note describes an inexpensive apparatus for solubility measurements.
Schmitt, Robert H.; Grove, E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 150.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Instrumental Methods
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
Recording devices  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the basic design, construction, and operation of instrumental recording devices.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A729.
Instrumental Methods
Centrifuges  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the operating characteristics and components of centrifuges.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A269.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Balances (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design and operation of single pan, constant-load balances and recording balances.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A67.
Instrumental Methods
Balances  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design, characteristics, and operation of various balances.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A7.
Instrumental Methods
The separation of arsenic in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
A separation of arsenic as As(III) has been developed based upon the observation that As(III) is extracted selectively from hydrochloric acid solution of the common cations encountered in the usual qualitative analysis scheme.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 384.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A simple rapid method for loading paper chromatograms  Chesbro, William
Presents a rapid method for applying small, uniform samples onto chromatography paper.
Chesbro, William J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 83.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Balance instruction by television  Hayes, John R.; Schempf, John M.; Murnin, Joseph A.
Describes the authors' experience in using closed circuit television to teach students in quantitative analysis the technique of weighing with the analytical balance.
Hayes, John R.; Schempf, John M.; Murnin, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 615.
Instrumental Methods
Separation of copper(II) from cadmium (II) in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
This procedure is based on the observation that copper(II) ion is extracted selectively from solutions containing copper(II) and cadmium(II) by a solution of 8-hydroxyquinoline in chloroform.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 406.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A new short method of separating lead from bismuth, copper, and cadmium  Lehrman, Leo
The scheme presented here depends upon the separation of lead ion as a sulfate using ammonium sulfate, rather than sulfuric acid.
Lehrman, Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 406.
Separation Science |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A chromatographic chamber for the student laboratory  Wiggans, Donald S.
The construction of an effective chromatographic tank can be accomplished by means of two beakers.
Wiggans, Donald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 536.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Qualitative analysis and analytical chemical separations without the use of sulfides  Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W.
The authors argue for the need of qualitative analysis, examine systems of qualitative analysis, and present a qualitative scheme that eliminates the need for sulfides.
Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 393.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Method for decolorizing chromatography solutions  Radell, Jack; Hunt, P. D.
The decolorizing of a solution of an organic compound prior to chromatography requires heating the prepared solution with carbon black or carbon black and filter aid.
Radell, Jack; Hunt, P. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 380.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A compact low-cost electrodeposition apparatus  Cook, Clarence L.
Briefly describes a compact low-cost electrodeposition apparatus.
Cook, Clarence L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 280.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
A portable mixture colorimeter of high absolute accuracy  Mowery, Dwight F., Jr.
The equipment described is designed to provide a more rapid and uniform mixing of solutions, allows the use of equal volumes, and requires only one Beckman thermometer.
Mowery, Dwight F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An experiment in flame photometry  Willard, H. H.; Van Lente, K. A.; Van Atta, R. E.
The main objective of this experiment is to introduce to the student the fundamental qualitative and quantitative aspects of flame photometry.
Willard, H. H.; Van Lente, K. A.; Van Atta, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 192.
Instrumental Methods
A combined oscillator, amplifier, and power supply for conductance bridges  Loytty, O. M.; McCarren, E. F., Jr.; Vernon, A. A.
Describes the investigation, development, and operation of a combined oscillator, amplifier, and power supply for conductance bridges.
Loytty, O. M.; McCarren, E. F., Jr.; Vernon, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 190.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Use of ion exchange resins with nonaqueous and mixed solvents  Bonner, O. D.
This review examines some of the recent developments in the use of synthetic ion exchangers for three types of separations: the separation of ionic substances in nonaqueous or mixed solvents, the separation of nonionic substances in nonaqueous or mixed solutions, and the separation of ionic from nonionic materials in solution.
Bonner, O. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 174.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
The use of nephelometric measurements to determine the presence of chelates: A laboratory experiment for an instrumental course  Land, James E.
The experiment presented here has been developed to teach the art and practice of nephelometry and to show the student an application of Job's method of continuous variations to the demonstration of the constitution of an inorganic compound.
Land, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 38.
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods
An automatic still-head timer  Binder, L. O.
Presents a schematic diagram for an automatic timer.
Binder, L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 591.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Gas-phase chromatography: A class experiment  Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles
Recommends an experimental procedure involving gas chromatography and presents the necessary apparatus.
Brennan, Desmond; Kemball, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 490.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Gas-phase chromatography  Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B.
Introduces gas chromatography and describes its associated apparatus and operation.
Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 485.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The nature of chromatography  Cassidy, Harold G.
Provides a definition of chromatography and a description of gas chromatography.
Cassidy, Harold G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 482.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Survey of methods for routine analysis of inorganic chemicals in industrial laboratories  Glasoe, Paul K.
The results of a survey to acquire information on the extent to which instrumentation is used in routine chemical analysis in industrial laboratories.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 441.
Instrumental Methods |
Industrial Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Electronics instruction in the instrumental analysis course  Safford, Hurd W.
Presents lecture demonstrations, group laboratory demonstrations, and the construction and testing of basic instruments.
Safford, Hurd W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 436.
Instrumental Methods
Experience in the teaching of spectrochemical analysis  Devries, Thomas
The purpose of this paper is to present some ideas and relate experiences that may encourage others to include emission spectroscopy in the curriculum.
Devries, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 430.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
The recording potentiometer: Its use in the analytical chemistry laboratory  Ewing, Galen W.
Reviews types of recording potentiometers and their applications in the analytical chemistry laboratory.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 424.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumental methods in analytical curricula  Kolthoff, I. M.
Every student in chemistry should be made acquainted with classical methods of instrumental analysis.
Kolthoff, I. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 423.
Instrumental Methods
Introductory remarks  Laitinen, H. A.
Introductory remarks to symposium on problems in the teaching of instrumental analysis.
Laitinen, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 422.
Instrumental Methods
A gas-density balance for student use  Werner, A. E.
Describes a gas-density balance robust enough for student use
Werner, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 393.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Principles of the systematic separation of cations  Weisz, Herbert
Lays out approaches to be used in the systematic separation of cations.
Weisz, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 334.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Partition chromatography: A demonstration  Tracy, Sister Mary Joanna; Sueltenfuss, Sister Elizabeth Anne
This paper describes a method for the preparation of a cellulose column to demonstrate the formation of zones from a cake-dye mixture by development with a butanol-acetic acid-distilled water mixture.
Tracy, Sister Mary Joanna; Sueltenfuss, Sister Elizabeth Anne J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 281.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Zone refining  Christian, John D.
A brief description of zone refining.
Christian, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 32.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
The qualitative separation and detection of zinc  Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K.
This paper investigates stages in the inorganic scheme of analysis where the zinc ion could be adsorbed on or coprecipitated with precipitates of other ions.
Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 613.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Precipitation / Solubility
Proportional divider for rapid determination of chromatographic Rf values  Houston, David F.
A simple device is described for the rapid determination of chromatography Rf values.
Houston, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 411.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation and detection of the aluminum ion in qualitative analysis  Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M.
Describes a study that seeks to eliminate the interference of iron and chromium in the detection of aluminum when using the "aluminon" test.
Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 380.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations  Hubbard, Edward M.
Describes an automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations that avoids a key difficulty in the earlier Nickels trap.
Hubbard, Edward M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 376.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A setup for two-dimensional paper chromatography  Mathew, E. C.; Das, B. M.
A cylinder of filter paper is developed in an enclosure consisting of a desiccator bottom covered by a bell jar.
Mathew, E. C.; Das, B. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 352.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A chromatographic demonstration  Forss, David A.
Describes a chromatographic demonstration that does not really on flammable and odorous organic solvents.
Forss, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 306.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Circular-paper chromatography in qualitative analysis  Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J.
Describes procedures for and examples of circular-paper chromatography.
Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 95.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance  Stacy, Irving F.
Provides a mathematical analysis for finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance.
Stacy, Irving F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Blake, G. G.
The author comments on the lack of credit received in the reference list of a previous article.
Blake, G. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 52.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Recent advances in petroleum refining  Shoemaker, B. H.; d'Ouville, E. L.; Marschner, Robert F.
Examines various means of separating, converting, and finishing the many compounds found in petroleum.
Shoemaker, B. H.; d'Ouville, E. L.; Marschner, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 30.
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science
A sublimation apparatus for rapid separations  Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III
Presents the design of a macrosublimation apparatus constructed to allow accurate temperature control and ease recovery of the residue.
Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Experiments in paper partition chromatography with tagged material  Lima, Fausto W.
Suggests several experiments in inorganic chromatography using radioactive isotopes that can be performed in any laboratory with ordinary counting equipment and X-ray film.
Lima, Fausto W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 153.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Paper chromatography for students  Blackwell, R. Quentin
Describes a simple method whereby various mixtures can be separated using paper chromatography under a variety of conditions.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 614.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The vitamin C content of wild rose hips  Markham, Sister Clare.; Markham, Sister M. Justin
Describes the extraction and determination of the vitamin C content of wild rose hips.
Markham, Sister Clare.; Markham, Sister M. Justin J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 580.
Vitamins |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Investigation of complex metal ions by the polarographic method  Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J.
The purpose of this paper is to present in a simplified and readily understandable manner the outline of one of the instrumental methods that, in recent years, has become an increasingly prominent tool in the investigation of complex metal ions.
Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 557.
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An inexpensive portable electroanalyzer  Farrington, Paul S.; Pecsok, Robert L.
Describes the design and operating characteristics of an electrolytic analyzer.
Farrington, Paul S.; Pecsok, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 461.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
An interferometer  Malik, Jim G.; Speirs, John L.; Rogers, Max T.
Presents the general theory of interferometery, its uses, and a description of a constructed instrument and its operation.
Malik, Jim G.; Speirs, John L.; Rogers, Max T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A visual demonstration of fractional distillation  Osburn, James O.
Describes the design of a glass bubble-cap column, a glass-packed column, and an equilibrium diagram for an engineering department open-house.
Osburn, James O. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 412.
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis  Hahn, Richard B.
Suggests a method for the separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis that relies on 72% rather than 100% nitric acid.
Hahn, Richard B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 349.
Metals |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A convenient apparatus for the distillation of solids  Barkley, Lloyd B.; Sneed, James K.; McGrath, Thomas F.; Levine, Robert
This apparatus is designed to overcome common difficulties in the distillation of solids or mixtures of solids.
Barkley, Lloyd B.; Sneed, James K.; McGrath, Thomas F.; Levine, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 115.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Some uses of radio service kits in teaching quantitative analysis  Phillips, John P.
The problem of obtaining inexpensive and practical instruments to supplement conventional equipment specifically designed for chemical purposes has been partially solved by the purchase of radio service instrument kits.
Phillips, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 70.
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Inorganic paper chromatography. II. Separation of groups III, IV, and V  Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert
This paper concerns itself with the separation and identification of the cations of Groups IIIa, IIIb, IV, and V.
Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 20.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Micro bump-rockets: A demonstration of the power of superheated liquids.  Woodbridge, Richard G., III
This demonstration uses the energy stored in a small amount of superheated liquid to propel a small rocket made of a glass melting-point tube.
Woodbridge, Richard G., III J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 623.
Liquids
Instructional error in quantitative analysis  Blaedel, W. J.; Jefferson, J. H.; Knight, H. T.
Instructional error is that which is beyond the control of students in making quantitative analyses; illustrates this in the determination of chloride as silver chloride.
Blaedel, W. J.; Jefferson, J. H.; Knight, H. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 480.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
A lecture demonstration of ion exchange  Smith, James Boyd
This paper presents specific procedures for three experiments that may be employed for lecture demonstrations of ion exchange.
Smith, James Boyd J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 292.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
A continuous ether-extraction apparatus  Holliman, F. G.
The apparatus presented has been constructed to provide both speed of assembly and versatility in respect of volume of solution being extracted.
Holliman, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 96.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ethers |
Separation Science
Electrolysis with controlled cathode potentials  Foster, Duncan G.
This paper describes the construction of an instrument for the control of a cathode's potential during an electrolysis procedure (a potentiostat) and its use in a quantitative analysis laboratory.
Foster, Duncan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
A course in instrumental analysis  Bassett, Lewis G.; Harley, J. H.; Wiberley, S. E.
A course in instrumental analysis can be conveniently divided into three parts: absorption spectroscopy (including fluorometry), emission spectroscopy, and electrometric procedures. This paper considers each of these fields and discusses student experiments in some detail.
Bassett, Lewis G.; Harley, J. H.; Wiberley, S. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 466.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
The separation of anions by paper partition chromatography  DeLoach, Will S.; Drinkard, Charles
Describes a procedure for the separation of phosphate, arsenate, sulfide, ferricyanide, ferrocyanide, and iodide ions by paper partition chromatography.
DeLoach, Will S.; Drinkard, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 461.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
A simplified construction for vacuum distilling apparatus  Wendland, Ray
Describes a simplified construction for vacuum distilling apparatus and its use with a fractionating column.
Wendland, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 332.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A chromatographic separation of some dyestuffs  Shott, John, III; Heine, Harold W.
Separations considered include water-soluble fluorescein and methylene blue, methyl orange and methylene blue, and methyl orange and Victoria Blue B.
Shott, John, III; Heine, Harold W. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 39.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science