TIGER

Journal Articles: 92 results
On Capillary Rise and Nucleation  R. Prasad
A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation shows that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. This comparison may help to introduce nucleation with capillary rise, a topic familiar to students.
Prasad, R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1389.
Liquids |
Materials Science |
Metallurgy |
Solids
An Inexpensive Semiautomatic Pressurized Microfiltration Device  E. Rodríguez-Fernandez, M. A. Vicente, J. J. Criado, and J. L. Manzano
Using the device shown, the filtration of small volumes (= 10 mL) of liquid can be facilitated by replacing the vacuum or manual pressure on the piston with pressure exerted by a rubber band on the piston. The filtration is thus conducted in a semiautomatic way.
Rodríguez-Fernandez, E.; Vicente, M. A.; Criado, J. J.; Manzano, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1051.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Microscale Lab
Easy-To-Make Cryophoruses  Rubin Battino and Trevor M. Letcher
This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels.
Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 561.
Lipids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids
ATR–FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Jennifer D. Schuttlefield and Vicki H. Grassian
Presents several examples of the use of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, including measuring the infrared spectra of solid and liquid organic compounds commonly used as unknowns and of inorganic solids synthesized by students.
Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Grassian, Vicki H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 279.
IR Spectroscopy |
Liquids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Undergraduate Research
Dancing Crystals: A Dramatic Illustration of Intermolecular Forces  Donald W. Mundell
Crystals of naphthalene form on the surface of an acetone solution and dance about in an animated fashion illustrating surface tension, crystallization, and intermolecular forces. Additional experiments reveal the properties of the solution and previous demonstrations of surface motion are explored.
Mundell, Donald W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1773.
Aromatic Compounds |
Liquids |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Surface Science |
Noncovalent Interactions
Coupling Molecular Modeling to the Traditional "IR-ID" Exercise in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Heather Stokes-Huby and Dale E. Vitale
In this exercise students are required to identify unknowns from their IR spectra, but must also match some of the absorptions with frequencies generate by computer molecular models. Animations of the corresponding bonds in the model are then used to obtain descriptions of the observed vibrations.
Stokes-Huby, Heather; Vitale, Dale E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1486.
Computational Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Liquids
Which Method Is Most Precise; Which Is Most Accurate?  A. D. Jordan
The main objective of this experiment, which involves determining the density of a liquid by several methods, is to familiarize students with the concepts of precision and accuracy using data that can be acquired easily with a variety of apparatus and analyzed by simple statistics and a linear regression.
Jordan, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1459.
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis
The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Vladimir Tsionsky
Describes a typical student experiment with the quartz-crystal microbalance used as a mass sensor during the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of copper.
Tsionsky, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1340.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Metals
The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Vladimir Tsionsky
Describes a typical student experiment on the determination of the viscosity of liquids using a quartz-crystal microbalance.
Tsionsky, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1337.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Vladimir Tsionsky
Presents the fundamentals of quartz-crystal microbalance techniques and instrumentation.
Tsionsky, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1334.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Axisymmetric Liquid Hanging Drops  Erich C. Meister and Tatiana Yu. Latychevskaia
Examinmes the buildup of axially symmetric hanging drops, starting from the YoungLaplace equation and the governing differential equation. The growing of drops is discussed in terms of changing geometrical quantities such as drop volume, height, surface area, and contact angle to the capillary.
Meister, Erich C.; Latychevskaia, Tatiana Yu. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 117.
Computational Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Liquids |
Materials Science |
Surface Science
Vapor Pressure Measurements in a Closed System  Mark Iannone
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for vapor pressure measurements in a closed system and the procedure for its use.
Iannone, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 97.
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Displacements of Brownian Particles in Terms of Marian von Smoluchowski's Heuristic Model  Hermann Klein and Dietrich Woermann
The introductory section of Marian von Smoluchowski's seminal publication on the kinetics of Brownian motion (Ann. Physik 1906, 21, 756) includes a simple model that provides lucid access to the topic.
Klein, Hermann; Woermann, Dietrich. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1642.
Colloids |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Liquids
Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance  Neil M. Glagovich and Timothy D. Shine
An undergraduate organic laboratory designed to teach the use of IR and NMR spectra interpretation in the identification of an unknown substance has been developed. This laboratory requires the student to obtain the IR spectrum of an unknown substance and, from the interpretation of that spectrum, determine which of several possible functional groups is present in the molecule. Using this information and either the melting point or boiling point of the unknown, the student is able to determine a list of likely candidates (usually between eight and twelve suspects collated from a supplied table of possible compounds). The student will then draw the structures for all candidate compounds and, from those structures, predict the 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra for each.
Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1382.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solids |
Liquids
A Multipurpose Apparatus To Measure Viscosity and Surface Tension of Solutions. The Measurement of the Molecular Cross-Sectional Area of n-Propanol.  Xin Zhang, Shouxin Liu, Baoxin Li, Na An, and Fan Zhang
A multipurpose apparatus is described that can be used to measure the viscosity of a solution by the Ostwald method and the surface tension by either the capillary-rise or the drop-weight method.
Zhang, Xin; Liou, Shouxin; Li, Baoxin; An, Na; Zhang, Fan. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 850.
Solutions / Solvents |
Surface Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Boiling Point versus Mass  Michael Laing
I am very pleased that Ronald Rich has written making these comments, because he is pre-eminent in this field, beginning with his early book, Periodic Correlations.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling Point versus Mass   Ronald L. Rich
Laing gave a useful examination of the boiling points of small molecules versus molecular mass. However, a molecule escaping from a liquid is not closely analogous to a satellite breaking free from the earths gravitational field with the requirement of a minimum escape velocity, such that the required kinetic energy is proportional to the mass of the satellite at that escape velocity.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Liquids |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules CHwFxClyBrz: How Are They Related to Molecular Mass?  Michael Laing
Investigating the role of molecular mass in determining boiling points of small molecules.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
A Useful System for Microscale and Semi-microscale Fractional Distillation of Air-Sensitive Substances with High Boiling Points  J. Alfredo Gutiérrez
A procedure to purify air-sensitive liquids with high boiling points using a horizontal distilling apparatus that avoids extreme refluxing and can efficiently separate the fractions of a mixture.
Gutiérrez, J. Alfredo. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 653.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
The Floating Needle  F. E. Condon and F. E. Condon Jr.
A mathematico-physical treatment of the floating (on water) needle system is presented. Gravitational potential energy, buoyancy, surface energy, and interfacial energy are taken into account. The floating is regarded as a metastable state resulting from a minimum in the curve relating the energy to the distance of descent.
Condon, F. E.; Condon, F. E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 334.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Surface Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Turbulent Motion in Ethyl Acetate-Water System  Jamil Ahmad
4 mL of ethyl acetate is added to 10 mL of water in a Petri dish. Within a minute or so, an image of turbulent motion appears on the screen, at first at a few centers that eventually organize themselves in a line. The image of the line of turbulence is quite striking and resembles a moving front of dancing flames.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1182.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Surface Science
Evaporation Kinetics in Short-Chain Alcohols by Optical Interference  Ian M. Rosbrugh, S. Y. Nishimura, and A. M. Nishimura
The evaporation rates of volatile organic liquids may be determined through the observation of optical interference of spatially coincident light that is reflected from the top (air-liquid) and bottom (liquid-surface) of a liquid drop on a glass surface. As an example of what is possible with this technique, the evaporation for a series of short-chain alcohols and acetone is investigated.
Rosbrugh, Ian M.; Nishimura, S. Y.; Nishimura, Allan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1047.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Melting Point and Molecular Symmetry  R. J. C. Brown and R. F. C. Brown
In 1882 Thomas Carnelley observed that high molecular symmetry is associated with high melting point. The application of the rule to a number of different molecular crystals is discussed. The rule applies to different categories of crystal for different reasons, which can be explained by thermodynamic analysis.
Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, R. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 724.
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography
Using TOPEX Satellite El Niño Altimetry Data to Introduce Thermal Expansion and Heat Capacity Concepts in Chemistry Courses  Harvey F. Blanck
Warm water is less dense than cool water and will float somewhat like ice, with a portion above the surface of the cooler surrounding water. The height of the bump can be used to estimate the excess thermal energy in the warmer water.
Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1635.
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
How To Learn and Have Fun with Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and White Glue  V. de Zea Bermudez, P. Passos de Almeida, and J. Féria Seita
The general behavior of Newtonian, shear-thinning, shear-thickening, thixotropic, negative thixotropic, and viscoelastic fluids is characterized and briefly discussed in terms of existing theoretical models. Whenever possible, examples of these types of fluids taken from everyday life are given for better understanding.
de Zea Bermudez, Verónica; de Almeida, P. Passos; Seita, J. Féria. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1410.
Alcohols |
Liquids
Determination of Density of Liquid by a Capillary with Two Pinhole Ends  Shui-Ping Yang
To improve the precision and accuracy in measuring the density of a liquid at the microscale level, a capillary with a volume of about 30 L and two pinhole ends has been designed. The density determined by this capillary method is precise to four significant figures.
Yang, Shui-Ping. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 368.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
Micropath Distillation Apparatus  N. K. Hazra and D. Mal
A shortpath distillation apparatus in its inverted position can be used for microscale distillation of a liquid sample. This article describes the process.
Hazra, N. K.; Mal, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A103.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
The Solubility of Gases in Liquids  L. H. Holmes, Jr.
This short article addresses the solubility of gases in liquids. It describes the confusion that appears in some general chemistry textbooks concerning the qualitative dependence of solubility on temperature for gases and offers an opinion on the subject.
Holmes, L. H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 143.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases |
Liquids
Correct Regression Formula Used in determination of Vaporization Enthalpy of Pure Liquids by UV-Visible Spectroscopy  Sheng Dai
A recent paper by G. Marin-Puga, M. Guzman L., and F. Hevia [J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 91] attracted my attention. A wrong regression formula was used in the paper to determine the vaporization enthalpy. The expression for the proportionality constant that relates the absorbance of the vapor with the vapor pressure was also wrongly derived.
Dai, Sheng. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 122.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Computational Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids
The Vapor Pressure of Liquid Binary Solutions: An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Luis H. Blanco, Carmen M. Romero, and Ricardo Munar
Procedure to demonstrate the ideal solution model and deviations from it; include data and analysis.
Blanco, Luis H.; Romero, Carmen M.; Munar, Ricardo. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1144.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Liquids |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Computation of Vapor Pressure  Abrol, Ravinder
180. Bits and pieces, 55. FORTRAN 77 program that computes the vapor pressures for any cubic equation of state using the exact Cardan's solution of a cubic polynomial.
Abrol, Ravinder J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1083.
Liquids |
Gases
Liquid-Liquid Extraction: Are n Extractions with V/n mL of Solvent Really More Effective Than One Extraction with V mL?  Palleros, Daniel R.
Demonstration that if the partition coefficient between two solvents is very large or very small, dividing up the total amount of solvent into small portions and carrying out several small extractions does not improve the efficiency over a single extraction.
Palleros, Daniel R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 319.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents
A Novel Method for Examination of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria  Knewstubb, P. F.
Method and apparatus for obtaining reasonably accurate vapor-liquid equilibrium data; sample data and analysis included.
Knewstubb, P. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 261.
Rate Law |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: The Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressure  Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H.
Gas chromatography experiment that allows the discovery of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of a pure liquid; includes sample data and analysis.
Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 258.
Gases |
Liquids |
Gas Chromatography
Solving Nonlinear Simultaneous Equations by the Method of Successive Substitution: Applications to Equations of State  Eberhart, J. G.
Several student programming exercises based on the use of various equations of state to predict a variety of fluid properties are described.
Eberhart, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1038.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A Simple "Back of the Envelope" Method for Estimating the Densities and Molecular Volumes of Liquids and Solids  Girolami, Gregory S.
The method described for the estimation of densities and molecular volumes are surprisingly accurate and very simple.
Girolami, Gregory S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 962.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Solids
A Discussion of the Term "Polymorphism"  Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin
Authors propose an extended definition for the term "polymorphism", especially in low molecular weight compounds.
Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 101.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding
Viscosity of polymer solutions  Bertrand, Gary L.
This program contains three components: "Density of Liquids", "Viscosity of Liquids", and "Viscosity of Polymer Solutions".
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
A modern vapor pressure apparatus based on the isoteniscope.  Van Hecke, Gerald R.
Equipment used for vapor pressure measurements that eliminates use of a mercury manometer.
Van Hecke, Gerald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 681.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids
Simple soda bottle solubility and equilibria  Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C.
Using a bottle of selzter water and bromocresol green to demonstrate gas-liquid solubility (carbon dioxide in water).
Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Clausius equation of state and a two-parameter modification  Eberhart, J. G.
The simplified Clausius equation provides better liquid-state molar volumes without a great sacrifice of accuracy in the critical compressibility factor.
Eberhart, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 113.
Stoichiometry |
Liquids
Demonstrations of interfacial phenomena   Prall, Bruce R.
Overhead projector demonstrations that illustrate the interfacial interactions of the following systems: 1) water and carbon tetrachloride, 2) copper wire and water, 3) 1-Octanol and water.
Prall, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 592.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Distillation and the Macintosh: PT Nomograph, an "in-lab" utility  Simon, R.; Senecal, T.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. This program duplicates the generic pressure-temperature nomograph, found in a variety of sources, for the detection of the boiling point of a liquid under reduced pressure.
Simon, R.; Senecal, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 505.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Phase diagrams for ternary liquid systems  Stead, Rebecca J.; Stead, Keith
A very simple adaptation to the original Clarke procedure allows this experiment to stand alone without the calibration curve.
Stead, Rebecca J.; Stead, Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 385.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
High-efficiency condenser for low-boiling liquids and gases  Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.
Constructing a high-efficiency condenser for low-boiling liquids and gases using a 2 L plastic bottle.
Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 786.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
Using a Dumas bulb to determine the molecular weight of a volatile liquid   Kawa, Christopher J.
The use of an aspirator improves the filling and emptying process of a Dumas bulb.
Kawa, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 336.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Liquids
Buoyancy measurements for teaching and research  Miller, Bernard
The following examination of the venerable buoyancy principle can serve as a simple but rigorous illustration of a falsification test that not only clears up a possible misconception but also points the way to a number of practical uses of buoyancy measurements that have not generally been recognized.
Miller, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 267.
Liquids |
Physical Properties
A safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2  Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin
Design, construction, and use of a safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2.
Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 347.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
Construction of a temperature-composition diagram of a binary mixture: An organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Thorstenson, Patricia C.
The procedure described in this article offers a simple means of generating the liquid curve of a temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture of volatile liquids.
Thorstenson, Patricia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 170.
Separation Science |
Liquids
The representation of ternary liquid composition diagrams  Clare, B. W.; Hefter, G. T.; Kloeden, P. E.
Equilateral triangle coordinates are more convenient for the simple mathematical representation of ternary liquid composition diagrams than right isosceles triangle coordinates.
Clare, B. W.; Hefter, G. T.; Kloeden, P. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 680.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents
An improvement for chromatography  Chiong, Hung-Cheh; Wang, Pei-Lin
A simpler setup for conducting chromatography experiments with colorless liquids.
Chiong, Hung-Cheh; Wang, Pei-Lin J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 419.
Chromatography |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Activity coefficients of acetone-chloroform solutions: an undergraduate experiment  Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A.
The simple experiment described in this article gives unsurprisingly good results for the acetone-chloroform system.
Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 72.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Separation and IR analysis of a mixture of organic compounds  Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John
Introduces students to fractional distillation and analysis of each fraction by gas-liquid chromatography.
Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 617.
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids
The use of a filmstrip projector to present a critical point demonstration  Nyquist, H. LeRoy
A demonstration to illustrate the concepts of critical temperature and critical pressure.
Nyquist, H. LeRoy J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 522.
Gases |
Liquids
Two safety improvements for a standard experiment on the boiling point-composition diagram of a binary system  Michiels, Bro. Leo P.; Barile, Raymond C.; de la Fuente, German F.
Replacing the benzene / ethanol system with the less toxic cyclohexane / 2-propanol system and using a hetaing mantle.
Michiels, Bro. Leo P.; Barile, Raymond C.; de la Fuente, German F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 157.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases |
Laboratory Management
Paramagnetism and color of liquid oxygen: A lecture demonstration  Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Williams, Lloyd G.
Demonstrates the blue color of liquid oxygen and its ability to be held between the poles of a magnet.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Williams, Lloyd G. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 373.
Magnetic Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Illustrating chemical concepts through food systems: Introductory chemistry experiments  Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S.
Illustrating the vaporization of liquids, reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration using foods.
Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 312.
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Colloids |
Acids / Bases
Lecture demonstration of vanishing meniscus in vapor liquid transition  Duus, H. C.
Shows how the interface between vapor and liquid propane vanishes.
Duus, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 614.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Organic laboratory  Lenox, Ronald S.
This question tests the student's ability to draw scientific conclusions from experimental observations and knowledge of ideal and non-ideal behavior of liquids.
Lenox, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 756.
Liquids
Qualitative Observations Concerning Packing Densities for Liquids, Solutions, and Random Assemblies of Spheres  Duer, W. C.; Greenstein, J. R.; Oglesby, G. B.; Millero, F. J.
Discusses comparisons of packing densities derived from known molar volume data of liquids and solutions with packing densities that have been observed for assemblies of randomly packed spheres, and suggests further studies that should prove useful in determining the utility of these assemblies of spheres as models for simple liquids and solutions.
Duer, W. C.; Greenstein, J. R.; Oglesby, G. B.; Millero, F. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 139.
Solutions / Solvents |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The mercury-water system. A deviation from Raoult's Law  Sanders, M. L.; Beckett, R. R.
Mercury covered with a layer of water will continue to vaporize and escape as if the water were not even there.
Sanders, M. L.; Beckett, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 117.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Computer simulation of countercurrent distribution experiments  Coleman, George H.
A routine for simulating liquid-liquid countercurrent distribution data.
Coleman, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 825.
Liquids
A simple and inexpensive constant rate driver for syringes  Lustig, Robert S.
Presents a simple and inexpensive constant rate driver to add small quantities of liquids at a constant rate.
Lustig, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 370.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Laboratory Management
A simple, versatile weighing tube for reactive liquids  Smith, Wayrie L.
Provides a design for a simple, versatile weighing tube for reactive liquids.
Smith, Wayrie L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
LTE. A TMS sampling technique  Montecalvo, Donald F.; Lawlor, Joseph F.
Calls attention to an alternative simple technique for the transfer of tetramethylsilane into NMR sample tubes.
Montecalvo, Donald F.; Lawlor, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 701.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management |
Liquids
Degassing samples of low volatility  Rondeau, Roger E.
Presents a device and procedure for degassing liquid samples with low volatility.
Rondeau, Roger E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 504.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Gases
Qualitative transfer device for volatile liquids  Giza, Chester A.
Design for a simple, easily made device for qualitative transfer of low-boiling or very volatile liquids.
Giza, Chester A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 289.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Safe use of flammable liquids in laboratories  Shaw, A. J.
Examines the properties of flammable liquids, as well as their safe handling and proper safety equipment.
Shaw, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A821.
Liquids |
Laboratory Management
Moisture measurement  Ewing, Galen W.
Reviews a wide variety of analytical methods and commercial devices for measuring moisture content in gases, liquids, and solids.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A377.
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry
Liquid nitrogen level control  Andrew, John T. S.; Current, Jerry H.
This short not presents a circuit diagram for a simple liquid nitrogen level control device.
Andrew, John T. S.; Current, Jerry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 803.
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple vacuum apparatus for lecture experiments  Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H.
Describes a simple vacuum apparatus and examples of its use in lecture situations.
Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 742.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Transport Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A simple and accurate dilatometer for liquids  Wagner, Robert E.; Meyer, Edwin F.
The density of a liquid as a function of temperature may be readily measured using this dilatometer.
Wagner, Robert E.; Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 349.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
Structural chemistry in the nuclear age  Hamilton, Walter C.
Considers methods of neutron diffraction and scattering to examine light and heavy atoms and the structure of biological compounds and liquids.
Hamilton, Walter C. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 296.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Liquid-liquid extraction  Joseph-Nathan, P.
Describes how liquid-liquid extraction can be done using commercially available substances and an apparatus of small dimensions that still allows an experiment to be followed visually.
Joseph-Nathan, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 176.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
A versatile continuous percolator-extractor  Ciereszko, Leon S.
An apparatus that may be used either for the continuous percolation of solids or for the continuous extraction of liquids is presented.
Ciereszko, Leon S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 252.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Solids |
Liquids
Simple two-dimensional magnetic disc models of ionic liquids  Angell, C. A.; Gruen, D. M.
Modeling ionic liquids using magnetic, elastomer-bonded materials capable of floating on water.
Angell, C. A.; Gruen, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 194.
Molecular Modeling |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents
Letters  Robertson, R. E.
Describes a safe solution to problems with squeeze bottles containing high vapor pressure liquids.
Robertson, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 457.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Method for the determination of liquid-vapor binary equilibria  Colgate, S. O.; Hanrahan, R. J.
In the method described here, which is a modification of the refluxing procedure, provision is made for collecting samples of both condensed vapor and liquid without disturbing the equilibrium.
Colgate, S. O.; Hanrahan, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 433.
Equilibrium |
Liquids |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Countercurrent distribution: Apparatus for a simple experiment  Verzele, M.; Schamp, N.
Presents an apparatus and its application to perform a countercurrent distribution.
Verzele, M.; Schamp, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 97.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Liquids
Demonstrating the relative polarity of non-conducting liquids  Siegel, S.
The apparatus described is based on the principle that an increase in the dielectric constant of the medium causes a decrease in the force of attraction between charged particles (in this case, two plastic beads).
Siegel, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 368.
Liquids
Rapid dispensing of liquids for large laboratory classes  Radin, Norman S.
Describes an automatic syringe that is useful for rapidly dispensing liquids for large laboratory classes.
Radin, Norman S. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 579.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Liquids
Textbook errors: XX. Miscellanea No. 2  Mysels, Karol J.
Subjects considered include the meaning of "element," the solubility of phenol in carbonate solutions, and the change of vapor pressure with temperature.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 568.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Phenols |
Gases |
Liquids
A simplified isoteniscope for vapor pressure measurements  Sternberg, James C.
A modified isoteniscope method has been developed using an isoteniscope that is simple to operate and which the undergraduate can easily assemble himself.
Sternberg, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 442.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Gases
A convenient method of determining vapor pressures  Leonard, J. M; Bultman, J. D.
This apparatus can be used with equal facility for solids and liquids.
Leonard, J. M; Bultman, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 623.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids
Calorimeter for determining heat capacities of liquids  Greene, Stanley A.
This paper describes a method for utilizing a constant-power heating device that eliminates the need for a preponderance of equipment yet permits reasonable accuracy in determining the heat capacities of liquids.
Greene, Stanley A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 577.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Textbook errors: III. The solubility of gases in liquids  Mysels, Karol J.
Rising temperature is generally said to reduce the solubility of gases in liquids, yet the facts disagree with any such generalization.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 399.
Gases |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Micro bump-rockets: A demonstration of the power of superheated liquids.  Woodbridge, Richard G., III
This demonstration uses the energy stored in a small amount of superheated liquid to propel a small rocket made of a glass melting-point tube.
Woodbridge, Richard G., III J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 623.
Liquids
A method of estimating the boiling points of organic liquids  Pearson, D. E.
Discusses the relationship between the molecular structure of organic liquids and their boiling point.
Pearson, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 60.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure